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SERV1855

April 2008

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING


TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

345D HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR


INTRODUCTION

Service Training Meeting Guide


(STMG)

345D HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR INTRODUCTION


AUDIENCE
Service personnel who understand the principles of machine systems operation, diagnostic
equipment, and testing and adjusting procedures.

CONTENT
This presentation discusses the component locations and systems operation of the 345D
Hydraulic Excavator. Basic engine and machine component locations will be discussed. Also,
the implement hydraulics will be covered.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1. locate and identify the major components in the engine and implement systems;
2. explain the operation of each component in the engine and implement systems; and
3. trace the flow of oil through the implement systems.

REFERENCES
345C Hydraulic Excavator Specalog
345C Hydraulic Excavator Parts Book
345C Hydraulic Excavator Operation and Maintenance Manual
345C Hydraulic Excavator System Operation (Hydraulic)
345C Hydraulic Excavator Testing and Adjusting
345C Hydraulic Excavator Specifications Manual
345C Hydraulic Excavator System Operation (C11 and C13)
345D Hydraulic Excavator Specalog
345D L Excavator - Parts Manual
345D Excavator - Operation and Maintenance Manual

AEHQ5687
SEBP4205
SEBU7861
RENR7324
RENR7325
RENR7283
RENR9888
AEHQ5940
SEBP5184
SEBU8300

PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics"
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Machine Electronics"
Estimated Time: 10 Hours
Visuals: 122 Illustrations
Handouts: 54 Pages
Form: SERV1855
Date: 04/08
2008 Caterpillar Inc.

TEMV9001
TEMV9002

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................5
MACHINE WALKAROUND ......................................................................................................7
OPERATOR'S STATION............................................................................................................17
ENGINE......................................................................................................................................34
Left Side of Engine...............................................................................................................38
Right Side of Engine.............................................................................................................39
Front of Engine .....................................................................................................................41
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS..........................................................................................................43
Power Shift Pressure System................................................................................................45
Main Hydraulic Pumps ........................................................................................................46
Pump Controls ......................................................................................................................52
Pump Flow Decrease - due to increased pump load ............................................................58
Pilot Hydraulic System .........................................................................................................61
Hydraulic Activation Control Lever .....................................................................................66
Two-Speed Travel Solenoid..................................................................................................70
Pilot Logic Network .............................................................................................................72
Straight Travel Mode ............................................................................................................73
Pilot Control Valve ...............................................................................................................74
HYDRAULIC FAN SYSTEM ...................................................................................................76
Hydraulic Fan Pump .............................................................................................................77
Hydraulic Fan Pump Controls ..............................................................................................78
Hydraulic Fan Motor ............................................................................................................84
Main Control Valve...............................................................................................................85
Bucket Hydraulic Circuit......................................................................................................93
Boom Hydraulic Circuit .......................................................................................................95
Boom Down with Regeneration ...........................................................................................97
Boom Drift Reduction Valve ................................................................................................98
Boom Lowering Control Valve...........................................................................................100
Boom Priority .....................................................................................................................102
Stick Hydraulic Circuit .......................................................................................................105
Stick Regeneration ..............................................................................................................109
Stick Drift Reduction Valve ................................................................................................111
Swing Hydraulic System ....................................................................................................113
Swing Right Without Priority .............................................................................................115
Swing Right With Priority ..................................................................................................118
Swing Motor .......................................................................................................................119
Swing Parking Brake ..........................................................................................................120
Swing Motor Crossover Relief Valve.................................................................................121
Swing Anti-reaction Valves ................................................................................................123

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TRAVEL CIRCUIT ..................................................................................................................127


Travel Motor .......................................................................................................................128
Travel Motor Brake Release Valve.....................................................................................131
Counterbalance Valve (Level Travel) .................................................................................133
Counterbalance Valve Operation (Slope Travel) ................................................................134
Travel Crossover Relief Valves (Machine Stop) ................................................................136
Low Speed Travel ...............................................................................................................138
High Speed Travel ..............................................................................................................139
Final Drive ..........................................................................................................................140
RETURN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT.........................................................................................141
WORK TOOLS ........................................................................................................................142
CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................144
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODES ......................................................................145
VISUAL LIST ..........................................................................................................................147
LAB WORKSHEETS...............................................................................................................149
LAB WORKSHEET ANSWERS.............................................................................................176
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OPERATIONS POSTTEST ANSWERS ......................................199

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345D HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR


INTRODUCTION

2008 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION
The 345D is a direct replacement for the 345C Hydraulic Excavator. The 345D
operating weight is approximately 45,375 Kg (100,040 lbs) for a Standard Machine. This
weight classifies the 345D in the 45 metric ton class of excavators. The 345D is a versatile
machine capable of performing a wide range of tasks by using various work tools that are
available.
The 345D is equipped with a C13 ACERT engine. The C13 ACERT engine utilizes the
following technologies: Advanced Diesel Engine Management - Electronic Control Module
(ADEM A4), Air-to-Air-Aftercooling (ATAAC), direct injection turbocharged (DI-T), and a
Mechanically Actuated Unit Fuel Injector (MEUI) system, which complies with Tier 3
Emissions regulations and European Union Sound IIIA requirements. The engine is rated at
283 kW (380 hp) at 1800 rpm.
The 345D Hydraulic Excavator utilizes a Negative Flow Control (NFC) system for the main
implement, hydraulic system. The NFC hydraulic system is a pressure control system that
provides proportional control of the main implement pumps in order to provide maximum
hydraulic horsepower, controllability, and fuel economy under a wide range of operating
conditions.

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The 345D Hydraulic Excavator incorporates a new monitor panel similar to the 365C Hydraulic
Excavator which provides additional operating information to the operator. The machine is
designed for improved operator comfort, serviceability, and ease of use.
This presentation discusses the component locations and systems operation of the 345D
Hydraulic Excavator.
The 345D Hydraulic Excavator integrates styling and an operator's station similar to the other
medium size 300 "D" Series Hydraulic Excavators.

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MACHINE WALKAROUND
From the left side of the machine the following machine components are visible.
- Boom (1)
- Access door behind cab (2)
- Engine access cover (3)
- Stick (4)
- Bucket (5)
- Operator station (6)
- Access door to radiator compartment (7)
- Counterweight (8)
The 345D has an entirely new stick profile. The geometry has been optimized to provide a
more cost efficient stick. In other words, the new stick has been designed to have the same
reliability and durability of the 345C but is capable of lifting a larger capacity with faster cycle
times.

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The compartment behind the operator station includes the following components:
- Machine ECM (1)
- Window washer reservoir (2)
- Master disconnect switch and circuit breakers (3)
- Batteries (4)
- Vandalism guards (5)
- Engine coolant expansion tank (6)
- Secondary fuel filter (7)
- Primary fuel filter and water separator (8)
- Dual element, radial seal air filter (9)
NOTE: Additional attachment ECMs may also be mounted in this compartment.

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The 345D is available with a two-way control pattern change valve (1). The pattern change
valve permits changing the operator controls between SAE Excavator and SAE Backhoe
Loader patterns. When changed, this valve redirects pilot oil to the corresponding control spool
in the main control valve group.
The pattern change valve is located in the compartment behind the operator's station.
In order to change the pattern, the technician removes the thumbscrew (3) and turns the shift
lever (2) to the right 90 degrees to select the alternate position. After the lever is turned, the
thumbscrew (3) can be installed into a threaded hole in the new position. The screw prevents
unwanted movement of the lever.

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A decal film (arrow) is included to identify the lever position in relation to the operator control
pattern.
The decal is located in the same compartment as the pattern change valve.
NOTE: To eliminate operator confusion, if the pattern change valve position is
changed, a plastic card in the operator's compartment must be turned to match the
chosen pattern.

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The radiator access compartment is located in front of the counterweight on the left side of the
machine. Although the door is hinged, bolts must be removed on the left side to access the
components.
This door provides access to assist in cleaning the following components.
- Air to air aftercooler (1)
- Hydraulic oil cooler (2)
- Engine radiator (3)
- Fuel cooler (4)
If the machine is equipped with the optional ether start system (5), it is also located in this
compartment.

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The 345D is available with the optional counterweight removal system.


NOTE: The counterweight removal control valve is located in the pump compartment.

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This illustration shows access to the top of the machine from the right side.
The pump compartment access door (1) permits easy access to the hydraulic pumps.
The engine access cover (2) allows access to the engine from the top of the machine.
The machine hydraulic oil reservoir (3) is located between the pump compartment and the
diesel fuel tank on the right side of the machine and is accessed from the top of the machine.
The diesel fuel filler cap (4) is accessed from the top of the machine.
The storage compartment (5) is located in the right front of the machine.
The ladder (6) on the front of the machine can be used for access to the top of the machine.

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The illustration shows the pump compartment on the right side of the machine. Some of the
visible components are:
- Engine oil filter (1)
- Engine oil SOS port (2)
- Fan pump (3)
- Main pumps (4)
- Counterweight removal valve (5)
- Auxiliary tool solenoids (6)
- Pilot filter (7)
- Two case drain filters (8). One case drain filter is for the pumps and the other filter is for
the motors.

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The illustration shows the following main pump components:


- Right pump (1)
- Power shift solenoid and proportional reducing valve (PSPRV) (2)
- Left pump (3)
- Suction line (4)
- Pilot pump (5)

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The undercarriage of the 345D has undergone improvements and is now offering a couple of
attachments. The main change includes the optimization of the track link geometry. By
optimizing the geometry, the stress on the track link has been reduced resulting in longer link
life and reduced track cracking. There are two undercarriage attachments available on the
345D. A cast idler eliminates the welding design the fabricated one had and reduces tread
deformation and early wear. The Positive Pin Retention 2 (PPR2), prevents loosening of the
track pin from the track link. Both attachments are ideal for extreme applications or those
requiring large amounts of travel.
The 345D has three undercarriage (1) options to meet regional transportation requirements and
application needs: the long fixed gauge (L), the long variable gauge (LVG), and the long wide
variable gauge (LWVG) undercarriages. The final drives (2) and travel motors are mounted
directly to the roller frames in order to drive the tracks. The drive sprockets are bolted to the
final drive case. This design keeps the drive sprocket in alignment with the track roller frames
and tracks
NOTE: Throughout this training manual, machine travel forward and reverse
directions are determined with the final drives and sprockets behind the operator's
compartment.

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OPERATOR'S STATION
The 345D operator's station maintains the improved visibility and operator comfort that the
345C introduced. For operator comfort the cab offers a fully adjustable air suspended seat, with
side-to-side shock absorption. Conveniently placed switches, gauges, information display, and
controls improve operator comfort, awareness, and efficiency.
The operator's compartment can also be equipped with Falling Object Guard Structure (FOGS)
bolted to the top of the compartment.
The monitor continuously monitors all important engine, implement hydraulic, and travel
hydraulic functions. The system permits fast troubleshooting, resulting in increased excavator
availability and reduced downtime for repairs. The monitor is flashable using Caterpillar
Electronic Technician (Cat ET).
The cab improvements include:
- new monitoring system
- redesigned cab sealing
- redesigned air ventilation system

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The operator's station provides a fully adjustable air suspended seat (1) with new arm rests,
which provides maximum operator comfort.
The pattern change card (2) must be switched to display the correct hydraulic control pattern to
match the pattern change valve in the compartment behind the cab.

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The left travel control (1) consists of a foot pedal and a hand lever that controls the left
travel circuit. When pushed forward, the left track will rotate in the forward direction.
When pulled to the rear, the left track will rotate in the reverse direction.
The right travel control (2) consists of a foot pedal and a hand lever that controls the right
travel circuit. When pushed forward, the right track will rotate in the forward direction.
When pulled to the rear, the right track will rotate in the reverse direction.
When the straight travel pedal (3) is pressed, a common pilot signal is sent to both the left
and the right travel spools to shift them equally. This allows the right pump to supply
oil to the right travel circuit and the left pump to supply oil to the left travel circuit.
Pushing the straight travel pedal does not put the machine into the straight travel mode.
The straight travel mode is controlled hydraulically in the main control valve. Operation of the
straight travel mode is explained later in this presentation.

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The 345D Hydraulic Excavator features pilot operated joysticks. The joysticks direct pilot oil
to the main control valve in order to actuate various implement functions on the machine.
The left joystick (1) controls the swing and stick functions of the machine.
The right joystick (2) controls the boom and bucket functions of the machine.
NOTE: The 345D is equipped with controls based upon the SAE excavator pattern
from the factory. The pattern change valve (if equipped) can be used to change this
pattern to BHL controls if desired.

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Additional components and functions controlled by the switches on each joystick are:
- Blank (1)
- Horn (2)
- Medium pressure work tools 2 and 4 (3)
- Two-way pump flow work tools 2, 4, and 5 (4)
- One-way pump flow work tools 1 and 3 (5)
- One touch low idle (6)

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The 345D Hydraulic Excavator incorporates a monitor panel (1), like the small and medium
300D and large 300C excavators, which provides additional operating information to the
operator.

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The monitor is a full color Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) graphic display that displays the
various parameters of the machine.
- Alert Indicator (1) - illuminates continuously for level 2 warnings.
If one of the following level III critical conditions is logged, the alert indicator blinks
ON and OFF.
- Engine oil pressure low
- Coolant temperature high
- Hydraulic oil temperature high
- Clock (2)
- Engine speed dial position indicator (3)
- Fuel gauge (4)
- Hydraulic oil temperature gauge (5)
- Engine coolant temperature gauge (6)
- Machine operating hours (7)
- Work tools (8)

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Under the normal default condition, the monitor screen is divided into the following four areas:
- The clock, engine speed dial position display, and gas station icon are displayed with a
green color.
- Three analog type gauges display the fuel level, the hydraulic oil temperature, and the
coolant temperature.
- Machine event information is displayed along with the appropriate icon and language.
- Multi-information area displays information for operator convenience. The "CAT" logo
mark is displayed when no information is available to display.
The operator or service technician can navigate through the different screens and information
about the machine by pushing various buttons on the monitor panel. The buttons are located
below the display area of the monitor.
The monitoring system display will display various warnings and information about the
condition of the machine. The monitoring system display has three gauges and a number of
alert indicators. Each gauge is dedicated to a parameter within a machine system. The
monitoring system will allow the user to do the following:
- View system status information
- View parameters
- View service intervals
- Perform calibrations
- Troubleshoot machine systems
Some of the possible parameters of the machine systems include: the fuel level, the engine
coolant temperature, and the hydraulic oil temperature. The gauges receive information from
sensors or senders that are connected to the controller. The controller uses the information
from each sensor input to calculate the value that is shown on the gauges.
The alert indicators notify the operator of an abnormal condition in a machine system. The
controller uses information from pressure switches, sensors, and other inputs in order to
determine when an abnormal condition is present. The controller sends a message to the
monitoring system display. Then, the monitoring system will display a pop-up alert indicator
for the machine system with the abnormal condition.

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The monitor has eight buttons that are used to navigate through the different parameters on the
screen. The four directional buttons are: up (1), right (2), down (3), and left (4). The four
navigational buttons are: home (8), menu (7), back (5), and OK (6).
The directional buttons navigate the cursor through the various screens.
Pushing the home button changes the monitor screen to the default display. Pushing the menu
button changes the default display to the main menu display. Pushing the back button changes
the display to show the previous screen that was displayed. Pushing the OK button enters the
displayed setting into memory.
NOTE: For more information on the 345D monitor, see monitor package "300D Series
Hydraulic Excavator, 345D Hydraulic Excavator, and 365C and 385C Large Hydraulic
Excavator Monitoring System", Form Number SERV7032.

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The hydraulic activation lever (1) has been redesigned for the 345D, however, its purpose is
still the same. With the lever in the DOWN position (shown), the hydraulic activation solenoid
is in the de-activated position. The lever must be in this position in order to start the machine.
With the hydraulic activation lever in the UP position, the hydraulic activation solenoid is in the
activated position. The lever must be in this position before any of the implement controls are
able to function.
The ground level, emergency engine shutoff switch (2) is located on the bottom of the seat
base.

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Below the operator's seat in the cab is the ground level, emergency engine shutoff switch
(arrow).
This switch will shut off the machine without having to climb into the cab. The key start
switch must be cycled for the machine to operate again after the emergency shutoff switch is
returned to the RUN position.

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The operator functions incorporated into the right side of the operator station are:
- Engine speed dial switch (1)
- Key start switch (2)
- Cigar lighter (3)
- Soft switch panel (4)
- Rocker switches (5)
- HVAC controls (6)
- Radio (7)
NOTE: See the 345D Operation and Maintenance Manual for complete details on all
switches and buttons.

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The soft switch panel is a panel of switches located on the right hand side of the operator's
compartment that either turns a function ON/OFF or allows the operator to toggle through
different modes of the selected function.
The soft switches provide the operator with the following functions:
Two-speed travel (1): When the button is pushed the travel speed is toggled between the
tortoise and rabbit speeds.
- The rabbit indicator indicates automatic speed change. In this setting the travel motors
will upstroke and destroke as travel pressure changes in order to allow high speed travel
of the machine.
- The tortoise indicator indicates low speed. In this setting, the travel speed will be limited
by keeping the travel motors upstroked in order to maximize travel torque.

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Automatic Engine Speed Control (AESC) Switch (2): The AESC function automatically
reduces engine speed while there is no hydraulic demand, which reduces noise and fuel
consumption.
- The AESC switch disables and enables the AESC function.
- When disabled, the AESC reduces the engine speed by 100 rpm after there has been no
hydraulic demand for approximately three seconds. This function occurs at all times,
regardless of the switch setting.
- When enabled, the AESC reduces the engine rpm to approximately 1300 rpm after there
has been no hydraulic demand for three seconds. When enabled, the LED above the
AESC switch is illuminated. In order to deactivate this function, press the switch until
the LED is no longer illuminated.
- The second stage AESC delay times and rpms can be changed by using the monitor or
Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET).
Travel alarm cancel (3): The travel alarm cancel switch is a momentary switch.
- The travel alarm sounds when travel is detected.
- The travel alarm stops immediately if the travel alarm cancel switch is depressed.
- The travel alarm switch is reset every time the travel pressure switch opens.
Work tool switch (4): The work tool switch displays the selected work tool on the monitor
display. Press the switch repeatedly in order to change the selected work tool.
Work lights (5): The work lights switch toggles between the different work light combinations.
- Pattern 1 - Chassis work lights and cab work lights.
- Pattern 2 - Chassis work lights, cab work lights, and boom work lights.
Upper window wipers (6): The wiper switch toggles between the different modes of the
wipers.
- Six second delay.
- Three second delay.
- Continuous operation.
- Off.

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Upper window washer (7): The windshield washer fluid switch is a momentary switch.
- When the switch is pressed, washer fluid will spray from the nozzle. The window wiper
will also operate while the switch is depressed. Approximately three seconds after the
switch is released, the window wiper will stop.
Heavy lift (8): The heavy lift mode can be selected to boost lifting capability and provide
improved controllability of heavy loads.
- When heavy lift is turned ON, the main relief valve increases from 35,000 kPa (5070 psi)
to 38,000 kPa (5500 psi), making it possible to operate at the high pressure.
- In heavy lift mode, the maximum engine speed is limited to engine speed dial position 6
(1600 rpm).
- Maximum hydraulic flow is restricted to 60%.

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The rocker switches are two-position switches used to turn the functions ON or OFF. The
rocker switches provides the operator with the following functions:
Fine swing control (1)
- The top position activates fine swing control. Fine swing control improves the swing
control during swing deceleration.
- The bottom position deactivates fine swing control.
Lower window wipers (2)
- The top position activates the wipers.
- The bottom position deactivates the wipers.
Lower window washer (3)
- The top position activates the windshield washer fluid.
- The bottom position deactivates the windshield washer fluid.
Quick Coupler switch (4)
Seat heater switch (5)

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The back-up switches are located behind the right armrest. The back-up switch (3) toggles
between back-up and auto. The back-up switch (2) controls the engine rpm.
In the BACK-UP position, the back-up switch (3) sends a fixed power shift pressure to the
pumps. The fixed power shift pressure limits maximum pump output and allows the machine
to continue operating in a Derate Mode. Machine productivity will be limited while the
machine is in Back-up Mode.
The back-up switch (2) is used to control the engine speed while the Back-up Mode is active.
The back-up switch (2) toggles to increase and decrease engine speed. Holding the speed
switch in the DOWN position will cause the engine to go to 0 rpm.
The diagnostic connector (1) is located inside of the operators station. It is located behind the
right armrest, beside the back-up switches.
The diagnostic connector is used to connect Cat ET to the machine.

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ENGINE
The 345D is equipped with a C13 ACERT Engine with a rating of 283 kW (380 hp) at
1800 rpm. This represents approximately a 10% increase over the 345C. The C13 ACERT
incorporates the following state-of-the-art technologies to meet US EPA Tier III regulated
emission levels:
- Advanced Diesel Engine Management (ADEM A4)
- Air to Air Aftercooler (ATAAC)
- Electronically Actuated Unit Fuel Injection (EUI) System

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The fuel system priming switch is located in the compartment behind the cab and above the
primary fuel filter. The switch controls the fuel priming pump on the primary fuel filter base.

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The fuel priming pump (1) is located in the primary fuel filter base (3). The secondary fuel
filter base (2) contains the fuel system sensors.

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Located on the top of the secondary fuel filter base are the fuel pressure differential switch (1),
and the fuel temperature sensor (2).
The fuel filter pressure differential switch (1) monitors the difference between the outlet fuel
pressure and the inlet fuel pressure. A fuel pressure difference exceeding 750 kPa (110 psi)
will initiate a Level 1 Warning. If repairs are not made after 4 hours, the engine ECM initiates
a Level 2 Warning and engine performance is decreased.
The status of the sensors and the filter pressure differential switch may be viewed while using
Cat ET.
The Engine ECM uses readings from the fuel temperature sensor (2) to make corrections to the
fuel rate and maintain power regardless of fuel temperature (within certain parameters). This
feature is called "Fuel Temperature Compensation."

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This illustration shows components on the left side of engine with the counterweight removed.
- The Fuel Transfer Pump (1) is a gear-type pump that pulls fuel from the fuel tank through
the primary fuel filter. The fuel then flows through the secondary fuel filter to the
cylinder head.
- The Engine Electronic Control Module (ECM) (2). The engine ECM utilizes the
Advanced Diesel Engine Management (ADEM A4) to control the fuel injector solenoid
and to monitor fuel injection. The engine ECM is fuel cooled.

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Right Side of Engine


- The Camshaft Speed Timing Sensor (1) determines the No. 1 compression timing prior to
the engine starting.
- The Atmospheric Pressure Sensor (2) is an input to the Engine ECM and is used as a
reference for air filter restriction. Also, the sensor is used to supply information to the
Engine ECM during operation at high altitudes.
- The Intake Manifold Air Pressure Sensor (3) is an input to the Engine ECM to supply
information about the air pressure into the intake manifold.
- The Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (4) supplies air temperature data at the air
intake manifold to the Engine ECM.
- The Engine Oil pressure Sensor (5) is an input to the Engine ECM to supply an
information warning for low oil pressure. The engine derates for low oil pressure and a
logged event code is recorded. The event code can be read by using Cat ET or the
monitor.

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Left Side of Engine


- The Engine Oil Level Sensor (1) is an input to the Engine ECM to supply an information
warning for low oil level at start-up.
- The Crankshaft speed timing sensor (2) sends a voltage signal to the Machine ECM in
order to determine the engine speed, direction, and timing.

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Front of Engine
- The Engine Coolant Flow Switch (arrow) is mounted in the coolant passage near the
engine coolant pump. When the coolant is flowing past the switch the paddle moves and
closes the switch contacts. The Engine ECM alerts the operator when there is no coolant
flow while the engine is running. An event code is logged when this occurs.

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- The Crankshaft speed timing sensor (arrow) sends a voltage level, signal to the Engine
ECM in order to determine the engine speed, direction, and timing.

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MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Stick
Cylinder

Boom
Cylinders

Bucket
Cylinder
Swing Motor

Travel Motors

Main Control Valve Group

Pilot
Control
Valves

Priority
Valves

Pilot Manifold

Fan
Motor

Fan
Pump
Pilot
Pump

Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

Tank

36

HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
The hydraulic system on the 345D Hydraulic Excavator is operated and controlled by the
following five primary systems:
- The main hydraulic system controls the implements, the attachments, the travel circuits,
and the swing circuit.
- The pilot hydraulic system supplies oil to the pilot manifold, pilot control valves, swing
park brake solenoid valve, two-speed travel solenoid valve, and the power shift pressure
reducing valve (PSPRV). The pilot system serves primarily as a hydraulic control system.
- The separate hydraulically driven cooling system supplies oil to the fan motor in order to
cool the hydraulic oil, the engine radiator, the air to air after cooler, and a fuel cooler.
- The return system directs the return oil from the hydraulic system through the slow
return check valve and the hydraulic oil cooler before it returns to the tank. The case
drain oil from the pumps and motors goes through the case drain filters without going
through the slow return check valve and the oil cooler before returning to the tank.

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Text Reference

345D HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


STANDBY

Travel Motor (Left)

Travel Motor (Right)

Swing Motor

Swing Motor

Stick Cylinder
Bucket
Cylinder

BR3

Boom
Cylinders

AR3

BL3

AL3

BL4

AL4

Swivel
Group
AR2

BR2

BL1

Travel (L)

Travel (R)
BR3

aR3

AR3

BR2

AR2

Stick
(1)
aR1

aL1

bL3

bR1
BR1

BL1

AL1

bL1
bR2

aR4

bR1

AL1

BL3

BL1

AR1

AL3

AL4

BL4

AL1

Swing

bL1

Travel
(L)

Boom
(2)

Attch

Bucket

Boom
(1)

Stick
(2)

Travel
(R)
Swing Bucket

Stick

OUT

IN

Boom

OPEN CLOSE DOWN UP

PR
bR3

aR4

bL3

bL4

aL3

aR2

aR1

PL

aL1

aL3

bL4

aR3 bR2 bR3 aR2

PL
P

PR
P

37

This illustration shows the complete hydraulic schematic for the 345D. Both joysticks and
travel levers are in the STANDBY position with the engine running and the hydraulic actuation
lever in the energized position.
The hydraulic system for the 345D has the following major sub-systems:
- fan system
- main hydraulic system
Each system will be discussed in detail later in this presentation.
NOTE: The system will be broken down into sub-systems in the following illustrations
for easier understanding.

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Text Reference

POWER SHIFT PRESSURE SYSTEM


Pilot
Pump

Engine Speed
Sensor

Right
Pump

Left
Pump

Proportional
Reducing Valve

Engine
ECM

1 2 :0 0

10

Engine
Speed Dial
OK

Monitor

Engine and
Pump Control

38

Power Shift Pressure System


During machine operation, the machine electronic control module (ECM) receives input signals
from the following components:
- Engine speed dial
- Engine speed sensor located on the flywheel housing
- Right and left pumps pressure sensors
- Engine ECM
The engine and pump controller (ECM) continually monitors all of the input signals. The input
signals are processed by the ECM and an output signal is sent to the Power Shift Proportional
Reducing Valve (PSPRV). The PSPRV uses the electrical signal from the ECM and pilot
pressure to generate the power shift pressure. Equal power shift pressure is directed to each
pump control to assist in controlling the output flows from the pumps. Power shift pressure
helps regulate pump flow to the maximum allowable hydraulic pump output in relation to
engine speed.

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Text Reference

2
1

39
Main Hydraulic Pumps
The 345D main hydraulic pump group has two variable displacement piston pumps inside a
common housing, in a side-by-side configuration. The pumps are rated at 360 L/min
(95 gpm) each. The pumps will be referred to as the right (drive) pump and the left (idler)
pump throughout this presentation. The right pump is driven by the engine via an improved
flexible coupling. The left pump is driven by the right pump through a gear train. The number
of teeth on the gear of the right pump is one tooth less than the gear of the left pump in order to
reduce harmonics in the hydraulic system. The difference in rotational speed due to the gearing
has no significant impact on the machine performance or flow output. There is an internally
mounted centrifugal charge pump.
The pilot pump (1) is mounted on the main hydraulic pump case. The pilot pump draws oil
from the pump case and sends it to the pilot filter, then to the pilot system.
The power shift proportional reducing solenoid valve (PSPRV) (2) is mounted on the top and
front of the pump case. The PSPRV uses pilot oil as a control signal to the pumps. Power shift
pressure can be checked at tap (3).
The pump regulators are mounted on top of the pump case. Each rotating group has its own
regulator. The regulators are used to regulate the output flow of the pumps based upon flow
demands.
The left pumps each have their own output pressure taps. Pressure sensors for each pump are
located directly behind the output pressure taps.
Two case drain filters are located behind the pilot filter.

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Text Reference

The output signal from the machine electronic control module to the PSPRV will change when
the machine electronic control module detects a change in engine speed. The power shift
pressure will change in order to regulate the maximum allowable hydraulic pump output.
When the hydraulic pump output is controlled, the desired engine speed is maintained.
When the engine speed increases above the full load setting, due to decreased hydraulic
horsepower demand, the power shift pressure will decrease in order to allow more pump flow.
A decrease in power shift pressure causes the swashplate to increase its angle, or as it is more
commonly known, to upstroke. If both pumps are in operation at the same time, this condition
occurs simultaneously in both pumps, and the maximum allowable hydraulic flow output is
increased.
If the engine speed decreases below the full load setting due to hydraulic horsepower exceeding
engine horsepower, the power shift pressure will increase in order to regulate output to a level
that maximizes flow output. As the power shift pressure decreases, the angle of the swashplate
in the front pump and rear pump will decrease, or as it is commonly known, will destroke the
pump. The maximum allowable hydraulic flow output is optimized to the engine speed.
If flow from only one pump is demanded, the power shift pressure is greatly reduced so the one
pump can use full engine horsepower. If flow from both pumps is demanded, the power shift
pressure increases so both pumps can be loaded equally.

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Text Reference

345D PUMP INPUTS


From Right NFC Cont rol Orifice
Right Pump Cross
Sensing Signal

Left Pump Cross


Sensing Signal

Right Pump Out put


Pressure Sensor

Regulat or
Act uat or

Destroke
To Main Cont rol Valve
( Right Side)

Right
Pump

Power
Shift
PRV

Left
Pump

From Pilot Pump

40

Each pump receives four different signals to control the output flow of the pumps:
- Power shift pressure
- System pressure from that pump
- Cross-sensing pressure (from the other pump)
- Negative flow control pressure
Power Shift Pressure
The PSPRV receives a control signal from the ECM. The ECM sends an electrical signal to the
PSPRV to regulate power shift pressure in relation to the engine speed.
The power shift signal to the pump regulators enable the machine to maintain the target engine
speed for maximum productivity.

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Text Reference

If the engine and pump control senses that the engine is below the target speed due to a high
hydraulic load from the main pumps, the controller will increase the power shift pressure. (The
target speed is the speed the ECM reads through the engine speed sensor. The reading is taken
2.5 seconds after the implement/swing and the travel pressure switches open when the joysticks
and the travel control pilot controls are returned to NEUTRAL). As power shift pressure
increases, the regulators destroke the main pumps accordingly. This reduces the load on the
engine, and consequently enables the engine to maintain the target engine speed.
If the engine speed is above the target speed, the ECM will decrease power shift pressure,
causing the pumps to upstroke and produce more flow.
Cross-sensing Control
Each pump regulator gets a cross-sensing control from the other pump system pressure.
Negative Flow Control (NFC)
NFC is the primary controlling signal for the main pump output. The NFC signal to the main
pump regulator is generated in the main control valve group. The NFC signal is delivered to
the left and right pump regulators from the left and right halves of the main control valve
group, respectively.
When the joysticks or travel levers are in the NEUTRAL position, the oil flows from the main
pumps through the open center bypass passages of the control valves. The oil flows to the
valves and returns to the tank by way of the NFC control orifices. The restriction of the NFC
orifices causes a pressure signal to be sent to the right and left pump regulators, respectively, as
an NFC signal.
When the main pump regulators receive a high NFC signal from the main control valves, the
pumps remain at a standby output flow at or near minimum pump displacement.
When a joystick or travel lever is moved from a NEUTRAL position, the open-center passage
of the corresponding implement/travel function is closed in proportion to spool movement.
This reduces the NFC signal to the main pump regulator and the pump output flow is increased
proportionally. When the control valve is fully shifted, then NFC pressure is reduced to slow
return check valve pressure.
The use of an NFC hydraulic system maximizes efficiency of the machine by only producing
flow from the pumps when the flow is needed.
NOTE: A high NFC signal will always overcomes the horsepower control and decrease
pump flow to minimum.

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Text Reference

From Right NFC Control Orifice

345D HYDRAULIC PUMPS


STANDBY

Right Pump Output


Pressure Sensor

Regulator
Actuator

To Main Control Valve


(Right Side)

Right
Pump

Pilot
Pump

To Pilot System

Power
Shift
PRV

Left
Pump

Actuator
Regulator

From Tank

Destroke

From Pilot Pump

To Main Control Valve


(Left Side)
Left Pump Output
Pressure Sensor

From Left NFC Control Orifice

41

This illustration shows the pumps in STANDBY condition. Each pump regulator senses the
Negative Flow Control (NFC) signal, the power shift pressure, the cross sensing pressure, and
the system pressure for that pump. The regulator will upstroke or destroke the pumps to
maintain the pump flow depending on the conditions the regulator senses.
The regulator controls oil pressure to the right side of the actuator. This controls the angle of
the pump swashplate.
The left pump supplies oil to the following valves:
- straight travel valve
- left travel control valve
- swing control valve
- stick I control valve
- boom II control valve
- right pump negative flow control valve

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The right pump supplies oil to the following valves:


- straight travel valve
- right travel control valve
- standard attachment control valve
- bucket control valve
- boom I control valve
- stick II control valve
- left pump negative flow control valve.

Text Reference

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Text Reference

Torque
Control Lever

PUMP CONTROL GROUPS

Negative
Flow Control
Lever

Horsepower
Control Sleeve
Horsepower
Control Spool
Horsepower
Control Section
Torque
Control Section

Negative Flow
Control Spool
Maximum

Torque
Control
Piston

Feedback Lever
Servo Pistons
Torque Control Rod
Minimum

42

Pump Controls
This illustration shows the three separate control sections of the pump control group.
Individual parts are also shown. The three control sections are connected with a series of pins
and linkages. The separate control sections work together to regulate pump flow according to
demand and hydraulic horsepower requirements. The separate control sections direct system
pressure to and from the minimum angle end (large actuator piston) of the servo piston. The
servo piston moves the swashplate for increased or decreased pump flow. The lower end of the
feedback lever is connected to the servo piston. The feedback lever works as a follow-up
linkage to move the horsepower control spool when the servo piston moves.
The negative flow control (NFC) section works in conjunction with the horsepower control
section to destroke the swashplate when all hydraulic controls are in NEUTRAL or during
implement or travel MODULATION. The torque control section works in conjunction with the
horsepower control section to regulate pump flow while the hydraulic circuits are actuated.
Full pump system pressure is directed to the maximum angle (small) servo piston to upstroke
the pump. A regulated pressure signal is directed to the minimum angle (large) servo piston to
destroke the pump.

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Text Reference

PUMP CONTROLS
END VIEW

Torque Control
Lever
Torque Control
Rod

Horsepower
Control Spool

Feedback
Lever Pin
NFC Lever
NFC Spool

Servo Piston

Feedback Lever

Swashplate

43

This illustration shows an end sectional view of the pump controls. The NFC spool is
connected to the lower end of the NFC lever with a pin. The upper end of the NFC lever pivots
on a fixed pin in the housing. The torque control rod is connected to the lower end of the
torque control lever with a pin. The upper end of the torque control lever pivots on a fixed pin
in the housing. The upper end of the feedback lever is connected to the horsepower control
spool with a pin. The lower end of the feedback lever is connected to the servo piston.
The feedback lever pin fits tightly into the feedback lever. The feedback lever pin extends into
large holes in the torque control lever and the NFC lever. The large holes permit individual
control from the torque control lever and the NFC lever. Movement of the servo piston causes
the feedback lever to pivot on the feedback lever pin and move the horsepower control spool.

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Text Reference

8
4

44

This illustration shows the components of a pump control group. The NFC spool (1) is
connected to the horsepower control spool (2) by the NFC lever (3), the feedback lever pin and
the feedback lever (4). The lower end of the feedback lever is connected to the servo
piston (5). Movement of the servo piston moves the lower end of the feedback lever. The
servo piston is also connected to the pump swashplate.
The torque control piston (6) is connected to the feedback lever with the torque control rod (7),
the torque control lever (8), and a pin. The NFC lever and the torque control lever operate
independently.

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Text Reference

PUMP CONTROLS
STANDBY

Horsepower
Control Spool
NFC Spool
NFC
Pressure
From
NFC
Orifice

NFC
Adjustment
Screw

Servo Piston
Minimum
Angle
Stop

45

This illustration shows the NFC portion of the pump controls. When all hydraulic control
valves are in NEUTRAL, a high NFC pressure is directed to the left end of the NFC spool. The
NFC pressure pushes the NFC spool to the right against the spring force. The NFC adjusting
screw changes the effect of the NFC pressure on the NFC spool. Turning the screw in
(clockwise) causes the NFC pressure to increase higher before the NFC spool moves. This
condition causes the pump to upstroke sooner (less modulation) when the hydraulic control
valve is ACTIVATED.
Turning the screw out (counterclockwise) causes the NFC spool to move at a lower NFC
pressure. This condition causes the pump to upstroke later (more modulation) when the
hydraulic control valve is ACTIVATED.
In the STANDBY condition, the horsepower control spool directs a signal pressure, which is
part of system pressure, to the minimum angle end of the servo piston. The increase in pressure
moves the servo piston to the right against the minimum angle stop screw. The pump flow will
remain constant until the NFC pressure from the control valve decreases.

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Text Reference

PUMP CONTROLS
FLOW INCREASE

Horsepower
Control Spool

Horsepower
Control Sleeve

Feedback Lever Pin


NFC Lever

NFC
Pressure

NFC Piston

From NFC
Orifice

Feedback
Lever

Maximum
Angle Stop

Maximum Angle End


of Servo Piston

Minimum Angle End


of Servo Piston

46

This illustration shows the pump controls at the beginning of an upstroke that was caused by a
decrease in NFC pressure. When a hydraulic control valve in the main control valve is shifted,
the NFC pressure is decreased. Due to reduced NFC pressure, spring force moves the NFC
piston to the left. The NFC piston moves the lower end of the NFC lever to the left with the
pin on the upper end of the NFC lever as the pivot point.
As the lower end of the NFC lever moves to the left, the large hole through the lever also
moves to the left. As the large hole moves to the left, spring force pulls the horsepower control
spool and the upper end of the feedback lever to the left because the feedback lever pin is
allowed to move to the left.
The minimum angle servo piston is opened to case drain through the right orifice in the
horsepower control sleeve and the right end of the horsepower control spool. System pressure
pushes the maximum angle servo piston to the left to upstroke the pump.

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Text Reference

As the servo piston moves, the lower end of the feedback lever moves to the left. The feedback
lever rotates clockwise with the feedback lever pin as the pivot point. The upper end of the
feedback lever pulls the horsepower control spool to the right until the right land on the
horsepower control spool reaches a balance point between the orifices through the horsepower
control sleeve. Flow to and from the minimum angle piston is metered by the horsepower
control spool and the horsepower control sleeve. The swashplate angle remains constant until
the NFC pressure is again changed.
The amount of reduction in NFC signal pressure determines the amount of pump upstroke. If
NFC pressure is reduced to minimum, the pump will upstroke until the servo piston contacts
the maximum angle stop screw.
A decrease in power shift pressure will cause an increase in flow from the pump in the same
manner as described for a decrease in system pressure, since both power shift pressure and
system pressures act on the torque control piston.

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Text Reference

PUMP CONTROLS

FLOW DECREASE - BEGINNING OF DESTROKE


Horsepower
Control Spool
Torque Control
Piston

Feedback Lever Pin


Torque Control Lever
Horsepower
Control Spring

Power Shift
Pressure

Horsepower
Adjustment
Screws

From Power Shift


Solenoid
Cross-sensing Signal
From Other Pump

Torque
Control Rod

Maximum Angle End


of Servo Piston

Minimum Angle End


of Servo Piston

47

Pump Flow Decrease - Due To Increased Pump Load


This illustration shows the torque control piston and horsepower control spool with the pump in
the upstroked position at the beginning of DESTROKE. For the purpose of this presentation, it
is assumed that power shift pressure remains constant.
- Power shift pressure from the PRV enters the pump controls and pushes on the plug at the
left end of the torque control piston.
- System pressure from this pump enters the pump controls and goes to the right shoulder
area on the torque control piston.
- The cross-sensing signal pressure from the other pump goes to the left shoulder area on
the torque control piston.
- The combination of power shift pressure and the two system pressures push the torque
control piston to the right against the force of the horsepower control adjustment spring.
- The horsepower control spool directs the signal pressure to the minimum angle end of the
servo piston to destroke the hydraulic pump.

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Text Reference

The large horsepower adjustment screw regulates the pressure or point that the pump starts to
destroke (large spring adjustment). The small adjustment screw regulates the rate that the
pump destrokes (small spring adjustment).
The following occurs when the system pressures and power shift pressure push the torque
control piston to the right:
- The torque control rod moves to the right to compress the horsepower control springs.
- The torque control rod moves the lower end of the torque control lever to the right with
the fixed pin on the upper end of the torque control lever as the pivot point.
- The torque control lever pulls the feedback lever pin and the upper end of the feed back
lever to the right.
- The feedback lever pulls the horsepower control spool to the right against the spring
force.
- System pressure is directed around the horsepower control spool through the center
orifice of the horsepower control sleeve and to the minimum angle end of the servo
piston.
- The increase in pressure in the minimum angle piston moves the servo piston to destroke
the pump.

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Text Reference

PUMP CONTROLS

FLOW DECREASE END OF DESTROKE


Orifices

Feedback
Lever Pin
Feedback
Lever

Horsepower
Control Spool

Minimum Angle End


of Servo Piston

Maximum Angle End


of Servo Piston

48

This illustration shows the pump controls at the end of DESTROKE. When the servo piston
moves toward minimum angle, the lower end of the feedback lever moves to the right turning
the lever counterclockwise with the feedback lever pin as the pivot point. The lever movement
shifts the horsepower control spool to the left so system pressure is metered through the two
orifices to and from the minimum angle end of the servo piston. Pump flow is held constant
until one of the signal pressures changes.
An increase in power shift pressure will cause a decrease in flow from the pump in the same
manner as described for an increase in system pressure since both the power shift pressure and
system pressure act on the torque control piston.

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Text Reference

PILOT SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Stick
Cylinder
Swing Motor

Travel Motors

Main Control Valve Group

Pilot
Control
Valves

Priority
Valves

Pilot Manifold

Fan
Motor

Boom
Cylinders

Bucket
Cylinder

Fan
Pump
Pilot
Pump

Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

Tank

49

Pilot Hydraulic System


The pilot hydraulic system receives oil from the pilot pump. Oil from the pilot pump is sent to
the pilot manifold and then to the pilot control valves, which are actuated by the joysticks in the
operator's compartment, for machine operation (implement operation, swing operation, and
travel operation). The pilot control valves control the pilot oil pressure to the individual spools
in the main control valve. When the main control valve spools shift, supply oil from the main
pump is sent to the corresponding cylinders and motors.

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Text Reference

50

The pilot pump (1) is a gear-type pump that supplies oil flow to the pilot system. The pilot
pump is mechanically connected to the left main pump.

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Text Reference

51

The pilot hydraulic oil filter (4) is located in the pump compartment on the right rear side of the
machine. The oil filter is a spin-on type filter.
Oil flows from the pilot pump, through the filter, to the pilot manifold, the power shift pressure
reducing valve, and the pilot accumulator. The filter element removes the contaminants from
the pilot oil.
Contaminated oil or cold oil may cause the oil flow through the filter element to become
restricted. If the oil flow through the filter element does become restricted, the oil bypasses the
filter element through the bypass valve.
Pilot system pressure can be checked at pressure tap (3). Pilot system pressure can be adjusted
at pilot relief valve (1).
The blue dust cap (2) is where the hydraulic system SOS can be sampled.

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Text Reference

PILOT RELIEF VALVE


To Tank

From
Pilot Pump

52

The pilot relief valve limits the pilot pressure in the pilot system. When the pressure in the
pilot system reaches the pressure setting of the pilot relief valve, part of the pilot oil flow is
returned to the hydraulic tank. The pilot relief valve is adjustable.

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Text Reference

2
1
3

53

The hydraulic pilot oil manifold is accessible by removing the cover plate located under the
machine, behind the swing bearing. The hydraulic pilot oil manifold consists of the following
components:
- Hydraulic oil pilot manifold (1)
- Hydraulic activation solenoid valve (2)
- Swing parking brake solenoid (3)
- Two-speed travel solenoid (4)
The hydraulic activation valve is not visible but is located between the hydraulic activation
solenoid valve and the swing brake solenoid. The hydraulic pilot oil accumulator is located on
the top of the mounting bracket for the pilot oil manifold.

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Text Reference

HYDRAULIC
ACTIVATION LEVER

Lever

Plunger

Limit Switch

54

Hydraulic Activation Control Lever


The hydraulic activation control lever is located on the left side of the operator's seat. Mounted
to a bracket with the hydraulic activation control lever is the limit switch and plunger. The
limit switch is activated by the hydraulic activation control lever. The limit switch activates the
neutral start relay and allows the machine to be started when in the locked position. Without
the hydraulic activation control lever in the locked position the machine cannot be started.
After the machine has been started the hydraulic activation control lever must be put into the
unlock position in order to supply pilot oil to the pilot control valves.

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Text Reference

HYDRAULIC ACTIVATION SOLENOID VALVE


LOCKED

From Pilot
Pump
To Travel
Motors

To Pilot
Control Valves
From Main
Cont rol Valve

To Heavy
Lift Circuit

Hydraulic
Act ivat ion
Solenoid Valve

To
Tank

From
Hydraulic
Act ivat ion
Valve
Hydraulic
Activation
Valve

From
Pilot
Pump

Pilot Manifold

To Pressure
Reducing Valve

55

When the hydraulic activation control lever is shifted to the LOCKED position, the hydraulic
activation solenoid valve located in the pilot manifold is DE-ENERGIZED. Spring force
pushes the hydraulic solenoid up, blocking pilot oil and causing the top side of the hydraulic
activation valve to be open to drain. Spring force pushes the hydraulic activation valve up,
causing the pilot joystick to be open to drain. Because there is no pilot pressure available at the
pilot control valves, the spools cannot be shifted in the main control valve.

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Text Reference

HYDRAULIC ACTIVATION SOLENOID VALVE


UNLOCKED
From Pilot
Pump

To Pilot
Cont rol Valves
From Main
Cont rol Valve

To Heavy
Lift Circuit

To Travel
Mot ors

Hydraulic
Act ivat ion
Solenoid Valve

To
Tank

To
Hydraulic
Act ivat ion
Valve

Hydraulic
Act ivat ion
Valve

From
Pilot
Pump

Pilot Manifold

To Pressure
Reducing Valve

56

When the hydraulic activation control lever is shifted to the UNLOCKED position, the
hydraulic activation solenoid valve located in the pilot manifold is ENERGIZED. Because the
solenoid valve is now open, pilot oil flows to the hydraulic activation valve. The hydraulic
valve pushes downward against the spring opening a passage which enables pilot oil to flow
through the hydraulic valve and to the pilot control valves.

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Text Reference

SWING BRAKE ACTIVATION SOLENOID


UNLOCKED
To Travel
Mot ors

From Pilot
Pump

To
To Heavy Pilot Cont rol
Lift Circuit
Valves

From Main
Cont rol Valve

Pilot
Manifold

Swing
Brake
Activation
Solenoid

To
Pressure
Reducing
Valve

To Swing
Parking Brake

57

Pilot oil flows from the pilot manifold to the swing parking brake solenoid valve. When the
implement controls and/or swing control levers are operated, the increase in pilot oil pressure
causes the swing/implement pressure switch to close. The swing/implement pressure switch is
an input to the ECM. The ECM then signals the swing brake solenoid to actuate. Pilot oil then
flows through the solenoid valve to the swing parking brake located in each swing motor. This
oil releases the swing parking brakes.

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Text Reference

TWO-SPEED TRAVEL SOLENOID


UNLOCKED
To Travel
Motors

From Pilot
Pump

To
To Heavy Pilot Control
Lift Circuit
Valves

From Main
Control Valve

Pilot
Manifold

Two-Speed
Travel
Solenoid

To
Pressure
Reducing
Valve

58

Two-Speed Travel Solenoid


When the switch for two-speed travel speed is set in the AUTO position, the ECM
energizes the two-speed travel speed solenoid valve. With the travel speed solenoid valve
energized, a path opens for pilot oil to flow to the displacement change valve in the right travel
motor and left travel motor. As the displacement change valve operates, the travel speed is
maintained at the HIGH SPEED position. In this position, the pressure sensor for main pump
delivery pressure controls the travel speed in accordance with the travel load. For example, low
speed during a high load, high pump output pressure condition, and high speed during a low
load and low pump output pressure condition.

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Text Reference

59

The hydraulic pilot oil accumulator (arrow) stores pilot pressure for use at the main control
valve. During multiple implement, swing, and travel operations, the pilot system needs more
oil to operate smoothly. The pilot oil accumulator provides additional pilot oil to the pilot
system when the pilot pump flow is inadequate.
In the accumulator, an internal bladder is filled with nitrogen gas. When pilot oil enters the
accumulator, it acts against the nitrogen gas filled bladder compressing it. There is a check
valve located inside the hydraulic pilot oil manifold that prevents a backflow of the stored oil in
the accumulator.
The stored hydraulic pressure in the accumulator can also be used to lower the boom and/or
stick if the engine is stopped. See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the correct
procedures to lower the boom with a stopped engine.

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Text Reference

345D PILOT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


PILOT LOGIC NETWORK
Travel
Pressure
Switch

Implement Swing
Pressure Switch

Main Control valve


Stick
(1)

Pilot
Logic
Network

Swing

Travel
(L)

Attch

To
Boom
(2)

Travel
(R)

From Left
Pump
From Right
Pump

Bucket

Boom
(1)
To
Stick
(2)

From Pilot
Manifold

60

Pilot Logic Network


The pilot logic network consists of two individual flow paths. An orifice in each flow path
allows a small amount of pilot oil flow to enter the paths. Down stream of one orifice, the flow
goes through both travel control valves, only, before returning to the tank. Down stream of the
other orifice, the flow goes through each implement and swing control valve before returning to
the tank. The orifices maintain pilot pressure upstream and limit the amount of flow through
them.
When one or more travel controls are activated, the open-center oil path to tank is blocked.
With no open flow path to tank, pressure increases in that part of the pilot logic network. The
increase in pressure closes the travel pressure switch to signal the ECM to activate the AESC to
increase engine speed.
When one or more implement or swing control valves are activated, the open-center oil path
through the other orifice to tanks is blocked. With no open flow path to tank, pressure increases
in that part of the pilot logic network. The increase in pressure closes the swing/implement
pressure switch to signal the ECM to activate the AESC to increase engine speed. The ECM
also activates the swing park brake solenoid to release the swing park brake. The swing park
brake is not released when only the travel circuits are activated.

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Text Reference

345D PILOT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


STRAIGHT TRAVEL MODE
Travel
Pressure
Switch

Implement Swing
Pressure Switch

Stick
(1)

Pilot
Logic
Network

Swing

Main Control valve

Attch

Bucket

Boom
(1)

To
Stick
(2)

To
Boom
(2)
Travel
(L)

Travel
(R)

From Left
Pump
From Right
Pump

From Pilot
Manifold

61

Straight Travel Mode


When both travel circuits and at least one implement or swing control valve are activated at the
same time, the machine goes into the straight travel mode. Pilot pressure in the pilot logic
network, downstream of the implement/swing orifice, goes through the left travel control valve
and the right travel control valve and is directed to the top of the straight travel valve. The pilot
pressure pushes the straight travel valve down. The machine goes into the straight travel mode.
In the straight travel mode, the right pump flow is directed to the right travel control valve. The
right pump flow also goes through the upper portion of the straight travel valve to the left travel
control valve. The left pump flow goes through the left side parallel feeder path to the swing
and stick control valve. The left pump flow also goes through the straight travel control valve
and into the right side parallel feeder path to the attachment, bucket, and boom control valves.
A check valve and orifice inside the straight travel valve will let some of the left pump flow
into the travel circuits if the right pump system pressure is higher than the travel pressure. The
check valve prevents any right pump flow from going to the implement/swing circuits.

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Text Reference

PILOT CONTROL VALVE


Supply Pilot Oil
From Pilot Manifold

Return to
Pilot Manifold

Joystick
Plate
Rod
Return
Spring
Port B

Port A

Seat

Return
Chamber

Metering
Spring

Supply
Pilot Oil

Spool

A
Port A

Section A-A

Port B

62

Pilot Control Valve


The individual pilot control valves in the main pilot control valves are pressure reducing valves.
When the joystick is moved, the metering spring pushes the spool down. Pilot oil from the
pilot supply port flows around the spool to port (B). The same pressure flows through the
center of the spool to the lower end of the spool. As pressure increases, the spool moves up to
compress the metering spring. The pilot pressure and flow are metered by the spool until the
joystick is moved farther.
When either joystick is operated, the pilot control valve sends pilot pump oil through the pilot
lines to the pilot ports at the main control valve in order to shift the spools of the main control
valve. This enables the implement operations or swing operation. Return pilot oil from the
main control valve returns through the return port of the pilot control valve and is allowed to
flow back to the hydraulic tank.

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Text Reference

The amount of pilot oil pressure that flows from the pilot control valve to the main control
valve directly corresponds with the position of the joystick. When the joystick is moved
slightly from the NEUTRAL position, low pilot oil pressure is sent to the spool of the main
control valve. The main control valve shifts a slight amount. The volume of oil delivery to the
cylinders and/or motors is small. The speed of the cylinders and/or motors is slow. As the
joystick is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position, the pilot oil pressure that is sent to the
main control valve increases. The spool in the main control valve shifts farther and the speed
of the cylinders and/or motors increases. Thus, cylinder speed and motor speed is controlled by
the amount of movement and the position of the joystick.

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Text Reference

FAN SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Stick
Cylinder
Swing Motor

Travel Motors

Main Control Valve Group

Pilot
Control
Valves

Priority
Valves

Pilot Manifold

Fan
Motor

Boom
Cylinders

Bucket
Cylinder

Fan
Pump
Pilot
Pump

Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

Tank

63

HYDRAULIC FAN SYSTEM


The fan system is made up of a fan motor and fan pump to cool the hydraulic oil, the engine
radiator, the fuel cooler, and the ATAAC.
The fan pump is an electronically controlled, variable displacement, piston pump mounted on
the front of the engine and driven from the timing gears on the engine. The pump output is
controlled by the angle of the swashplate. The swashplate is then controlled by the engine
ECM. The hydraulic oil temperature sensor and the engine coolant temperature sensor sends a
signal to the Engine ECM. A higher hydraulic oil temperature or coolant temperature will
cause a stronger signal to be sent to the fan solenoid in order to increase the speed of the fan for
more cooling capacity.

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Text Reference

64

Hydraulic Fan Pump


The 345D features an electronically controlled, variable displacement, piston pump (1) for the
fan circuit. The fan pump is mounted on the left front (counterweight side) of the engine, and
is driven though the front gear train. The pump regulator (3) has a proportional solenoid (2)
directly mounted on the pump.
The pump output is controlled by the angle of the swashplate. The solenoid controls the angle
of the swashplate. The solenoid is then controlled by the Engine ECM. The hydraulic oil
temperature sensor and the engine coolant temperature sensor send a signal to the Engine ECM.
A higher hydraulic oil temperature or coolant temperature will cause a lower signal to be sent to
the fan solenoid in order to increase the speed of the fan for more cooling capacity.
The solenoid is calibrated through the monitor or through Cat ET in the fan speed calibration
function. Under normal operating conditions, the fan rpm will vary between 600 and 1050 rpm.
If the solenoid signal goes to zero, the fan speed will go to a maximum mechanical fan speed
that is governed by a relief valve internal to the pump. Fan rpm will exceed 1050 and pump
delivery pressure will be approximately 31,000 kPa (4500 psi). Under this default condition,
maximum speed will be constant, regardless of coolant and oil temperatures. If there is an open
circuit, an error code will appear on the monitor as well.

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Text Reference

345D STANDARD HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


MAXIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED

Engine Coolant
Temperature Sensor

Engine
ECM
Fan Pump
Pressure Control
Solenoid

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor
Fan
Pump

Pump
Control
Valve
Fan Motor with
Makeup Valve

Hydraulic Oil Cooler


Bypass Valve

To Tank

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

65

Hydraulic Fan Pump Controls


This illustration is a schematic of the fan system with the fan at maximum controlled pressure,
resulting in maximum controlled fan speed.
The hydraulic fan is standard on the 345D Hydraulic Excavator. The fan is part of the
hydraulic system, but it is controlled by the engine ECM. The engine ECM considers two
inputs for controlling the fan. The fan is a demand fan. When engine coolant and/or hydraulic
oil temperatures are high, the fan runs at a faster speed. If the temperatures are low, the fan
speed is decreased.
The engine coolant temperature sensor provides temperature information to the Engine ECM.
The Engine ECM constantly monitors this temperature input. The hydraulic oil temperature
sensor is the second input to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM constantly monitors this
temperature input. Increased fan speed occurs when the hydraulic oil is at higher temperature.

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Text Reference

The Engine ECM monitors the temperature inputs to provide a signal to the (proportional) fan
pump pressure control solenoid. Maximum flow is sent to the fan motor, causing the fan to
turn at the maximum controlled rpm, when the solenoid receives minimum current from the
Engine ECM. Maximum mechanical pump pressure and maximum fan speed (high pressure
cut-off) can be achieved by disconnecting the electrical connection to the solenoid or by using
Cat ET to turn OFF the fan control (Engine ECM/Configuration screen).
When maximum fan speed is required, the fan pump pressure control solenoid is de-energized
according to the temperature input, causing the fan to turn at a faster speed. Maximum
controlled fan speed is attained when the fan pump pressure control solenoid receives the least
amount of current from the Engine ECM.
If communication is lost between the Engine ECM and the fan pump pressure control solenoid,
the fan will default to the maximum mechanical pressure setting (high pressure cutoff). This
results in a higher system pressure of approximately 31,000 kPa (4500 psi) and fan speed than
the maximum controlled pressure and speed.
Cat ET or the monitor can be used to check or calibrate the fan speed. Refer to the 345D Test
and Adjust manual for the corrections.

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Text Reference

345D STANDARD HYDRAULIC FAN DRIVE SYSTEM


MINIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED

Engine Coolant
Temperature Sensor

Engine
ECM
Fan Pump
Pressure Control
Solenoid

Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor
Fan
Pump

Pump
Control
Valve
Fan Motor with
Makeup Valve

Hydraulic Oil Cooler


Bypass Valve

To Tank

Hydraulic
Oil Cooler

66

This illustration is a schematic of the hydraulic fan system with the fan at minimum speed.
The fan pump pressure control solenoid is energized, causing the fan to turn at a slower speed
if maximum fan speed is not required. Minimum fan speed is attained when the fan pump
pressure control solenoid is completely energized.
When the fan pump pressure control solenoid is completely energized, the pressure control
spool is unseated by the solenoid, allowing pump system pressure to drain to tank. This action
lowers the pressure in the spring chamber of the pump control spool and the pump control
spool shifts up. Pump flow is then allowed to fill and pressurize the large actuator in the fan
pump and the pump destrokes. With the pump destroked, oil flow to the fan motor is reduced
and the fan speed is reduced.
The fan will default to the maximum mechanical pressure setting if communication is lost
between the Engine ECM and the fan pump pressure control solenoid. This results in a fan
speed that is higher than the maximum controlled fan speed.

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Pressure
Control
Solenoid

Pump Output
to Fan Motor

345D FAN PUMP AND CONTROL VALVE


MAXIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED

Case
Drain
Passage

Pressure
Control
Spool

Text Reference

Large
Actuator

Swashplate

Spring

Spring

Orifice

Drive
Shaft

Pump
Control
Spool

Small Actuator
and Bias Spring
Adjustment
Screw

Signal Passage
to Actuator Piston

Piston and
Barrel Assembly

67

The engine ECM de-energizes the fan pump pressure control solenoid, sending the least amount
of current when conditions require maximum controlled fan speed. (With no current, to the
pressure control solenoid, the pump control spool [high pressure cut-off] will limit the
maximum pressure and the fan speed to its maximum rpm. This state can be achieved by
disconnecting the fan pump control solenoid or by using Cat ET to turn the fan control OFF.
This procedure is required when making adjustments to the fan system pressure settings.)
The pressure control spool spring forces the top half of the pressure control spool up, against
the solenoid pin and holds the lower land of the upper pressure control spool against the seat
when the solenoid receives minimum signal. This blocks most of the pump output oil in the
pump control spool spring chamber from draining to tank through the case drain passage,
which causes the pump control spool spring chamber to become pressurized. The force of the
spring at the top of the pump control spool, plus the pressure of the oil, is greater than the oil
pressure at the bottom of the pump control spool. The pump control spool is held down,
blocking pump output oil from entering the signal passage to the large actuator piston in the
pump. The large actuator piston is open to drain and is at tank pressure.

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Text Reference

The bias spring and pump system pressure moves the pump swashplate to an increased angle,
which causes the pump to UPSTROKE. This condition provides a controlled maximum flow
of oil to the fan motor and creates maximum controlled fan pump system pressure, which
results in maximum controlled fan speed. If the solenoid fails (no current to the solenoid), the
pump goes to maximum displacement.
The mechanical high pressure cutoff is adjusted using the adjustment screw. When the
adjustment screw is turned in (clockwise), it increases the force of the pressure control spool
spring, which increases the the pump pressure required to unseat the land of the upper pump
control spool, thereby increasing maximum cut-off pressure.
Maximum cut-off pressure will be lowered when the screw is turned out (counter-clockwise).

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Text Reference

345D FAN PUMP AND CONTROL VALVE

Pressure
Control
Solenoid

MINIMUM CONTROLLED FAN SPEED

Pump Output
to Fan Motor

Case
Drain
Passage

Pressure
Control
Spool

Large
Actuator

Swashplate

Spring

Spring
Orifice
Drive
Shaft
Pump
Control
Spool

Small Actuator
and Bias Spring
Adjustment
Screw

Signal Passage
to Actuator Piston

Piston and
Barrel Assembly

68
This illustration shows the fan control valve with the fan pump at minimum displacement.
If the engine coolant or hydraulic oil temperatures are below a certain amount, the engine ECM
sends an increased signal to the pressure control solenoid. The solenoid plunger and pin push
the pressure control spool down. With the pressure control spool pushed down, the spring
chamber on top of the pump control spool is open to case drain around the seat on the lower
end of the upper pressure control spool. The orifice in the top of the pump control spool
creates a pressure increase on the lower end of the pump control spool. The pressure pushes
the pump control spool up until the lower land of the two center lands on the pump control
spool raises above the bottom of the pump control spool.
Pump system pressure flows around the pump control spool and around the lower pressure
control to the large actuator piston. The increased pressure in the large actuator piston pushes
the swashplate toward minimum angle. Pump flow decreases and therefore fan speed
decreases.
With cold oil or at cold start-ups, the ECM signal to the pressure control solenoid is maximum.
Maximum pressure is sent to the large actuator piston. The swashplate moves toward
minimum angle until the vent hole through the large actuator piston is open to case drain. The
pump flow is decreased to minimum and the fan speed is also at minimum.

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Text Reference

69

Hydraulic Fan Motor


The fan motor (arrow) is a fixed-displacement piston motor. Case drain oil from the fan motor
is combined with the case drain oil from the swing motors and the travel motors. Case drain oil
from the motors is sent through the case drain filters and to the hydraulic tank. An internal
makeup valve in the pump is used to supply makeup oil to the motor when flow from the pump
is shut off. The makeup oil allows the motor to get oil when no flow is present in order to
prevent the motor from cavitating. The makeup oil prevents cavitation and damage to the
motor.

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Text Reference

MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM


Stick
Cylinder
Swing Motor

Travel Motors

Main Control Valve Group

Pilot
Control
Valves

Priority
Valves

Pilot Manifold

Fan
Motor

Boom
Cylinders

Bucket
Cylinder

Fan
Pump
Pilot
Pump

Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

Tank

70

Main Control Valve


The main hydraulic system is a Negative Flow Control (NFC) system that supplies hydraulic
power at high pressures and high flow rates to perform work. Two main hydraulic pumps
supply oil to the main control valve group. The individual hydraulic circuits are controlled by
valves in the the main control valve group.
The main hydraulic system supplies the following circuits:
- Swing
- Stick
- Travel
- Boom
- Bucket

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Text Reference

9
7
11
4
10

12

13

71

The main control valve group is located in the center of the upper structure of the machine.
The main control valve group receives pilot oil signals from the operator controls in the cab.
Each pilot signal shifts the appropriate control valve in the correct direction. When the valve
shifts, oil flows from the main hydraulic pumps to the appropriate hydraulic cylinder or
hydraulic motor to perform work. The 345D main control valve is similar to the 345C valve.
Major components of the main control valve are:
- Stick 2 Control Valve (1)
- Boom 1 Control Valve (2)
- Bucket Control Valve (3)
- Attachment Control Valve (4)
- Right Travel Control Valve (5)
- Left Travel Control Valve (6)
- Swing Control Valve (7)
- Stick 1 Control Valve (8)
- Boom 2 Control Valve (9)
- Main Relief Valve (10)
- Boom Drift Reduction Valve(11)
- Stick Drift Reduction Valves (12)

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Text Reference

- Straight Travel Valve (Not visible, located directly behind the main relief valve)
- Right side Negative Flow Control Valve (13)
- Left Side Negative Flow Control Valve (not shown)

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Text Reference

MAIN CONTROL VALVE


Swing Implement
Pressure Switch
Attachment
Stick
2

Boom
1

Bucket

Travel Alarm
Pressure Switch

Right
Travel

Left
Straight Travel
Travel

Swing

Stick
1

Boom
2

Pilot
Logic
Network



Return
Port

Return
Port
NFC
Orifice

NFC
Orifice

Return
Passage

Parallel
Passages

Right
Pump
Inlet

Left
Pump
Inlet

Parallel
Passages

Return
Passage

72

This illustration of the main control valve is from the rear of the machine toward the boom.
The main control valve is mounted vertically between the frame rails behind the base of the
boom. Flow from the two hydraulic pumps enters the control valve from the rear. Flow from
the left hydraulic pump flows through the left side of the control valve and flow from the right
pump flows through the right side of the control valve.
The control spools are all open-center control valves. When all control spools are in
NEUTRAL, the flow from both pumps goes through the control valve to the negative flow
control valves (NFC) (in each end of the control valve). The NFC valves maintain a pressure in
each signal line that goes to each pump regulator when all spools are in NEUTRAL or when
one or more of the spools are partially moved. When a control spool is activated, the
open-center passage upstream of the NFC valve is blocked causing a decrease in NFC pressure.
The NFC pressure, when high, is used to fully destroke the hydraulic pumps. When the
negative flow pressure decreases, the pump flow increases.

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Text Reference

73

The travel pressure switch (1) and the implement/swing pressure switch (2) are on the front side
of the main control valve. The pressure switches are activated by the pilot logic network. The
switches close at approximately 500 kPa (70 psi) and open at approximately 280 kPa (40 psi).
The pressure switches are inputs to the machine ECM. The machine ECM uses these inputs to
identify when a hydraulic function has been activated. When either of the switches are closed
the machine ECM will turn the Automatic Engine Speed Control (AESC) and increase the one
touch low idle back to the current speed dial setting.
When the travel pressure switch is activated the machine ECM will activate the travel alarm.
When the swing/implement pressure switch is activated the machine ECM will send a signal to
release the swing brake.
When both pressure switches are activated, pilot oil will be directed through the pilot logic
network to shift the straight travel spool.
NOTE: This picture shows a material handler main control valve. Material handlers
are NOT equipped with the heavy lift option. Material handlers will be equipped with a
standard main relief valve and plug in the HL pilot port.

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Text Reference

74

The 345D has a two stage main relief valve (arrow). During normal operation the relief valve
pressure setting is approximately 35,000 kPa (5050 psi). If the heavy lift function is activated,
a pilot pressure signal is directed to the main relief valve. The pilot pressure signal pushes the
load piston down to increase the pressure setting of the main relief valve to 38,000 kPa
(5500 psi).
During the heavy lift mode the following parameters are:
- Engine rpm range is 1420 - 1600 rpm's.
- Pump hydraulic horsepower is limited to approximately 60% of maximum.
- Main relief pressure is increased to 38,000 kPa (5500 psi).
NOTE: The heavy lift pressure must be set first.

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Text Reference

TWO STAGE MAIN RELIEF VALVE


Main Relief
Adjustment Screw

Heavy Lift
Adjustment

HEAVY LIFT
OPERATION

IMPLEMENT
OPERATION

Poppet
Dump Valve
Orifice

75

When the main relief valve is closed, spring force acts on the top end of the poppet to keep it
seated. Hydraulic oil flows through the orifice in the dump valve and pressure builds in the
spring chamber on the top of the dump valve. The pressure and spring force keeps the dump
valve seated.
When hydraulic pressure builds to the main relief setting, the poppet moves up against the force
of the upper spring. The hydraulic oil in the dump valve spring chamber will flow past the
poppet and return to tank. This will cause a large pressure difference to form across the orifice.
Because the system pressure is higher on the bottom side of the orifice, it will cause the dump
valve to shift up, allowing high pressure oil to be returned to the tank.
When the heavy lift solenoid is activated a pilot signal is directed to the top of the inner spool
to shift the spool down to the stop. Shifting the inner spool down increases the spring force on
the poppet.

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Text Reference

LINE RELIEF VALVE


MAKEUP

Poppet

Spring
Spring
Chamber

From
Tank
Outer
Spool

Inner
Spool
To Cylinder

Piston

76

The line relief valves work the same as the main relief valve but are only a single stage relief.
The line relief valves receive no pilot signal from the heavy lift solenoid as does the main relief
valve.
When needed, the line relief valves act as makeup valves. In this situation tank pressure is
higher than circuit pressure. Tank pressure will act on the shoulders of the outer spool, which
will be greater than circuit pressure plus spring force in the spring chamber. This will cause the
outer spool to shift up, allowing oil to flow from the tank into the circuit as makeup oil.

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345D
BUCKET CIRCUIT

Text Reference

NFC Pressure
To Left Pump
bL3

Main Control Valve

BUCKET CLOSE

Implement
Swing
Orifice

Straight
Travel

Bucket

Bucket
Cylinder

To Tank

To Center
Bypass Passage
(Left Side)
To Tank
To Parallel
Feeder Path
aL3
Joystick

Boom

Bucket

OPEN CLOSE

aL3

bL3

Pilot
Manifold

DOWN UP

bL4

aR4

77

Bucket Hydraulic Circuit


When the right joystick is moved for the BUCKET CLOSE operation, pilot oil flows through
the pilot control valve and pilot lines to the top of the bucket control valve. The pilot oil
pressure shifts the bucket control spool down. The decrease in NFC pressure, resulting from
the shifted bucket control spool, causes the right pump to UPSTROKE.
Oil from the right pump flows through the parallel feeder passage to the bucket control valve
and to the head end of the bucket cylinder to close the bucket. Return oil from the rod end of
the bucket cylinder returns through the bucket control spool back to tank.
When the bucket control spool is shifted down, the pilot oil flowing to the drain through the
pilot logic network passage is blocked. Pilot oil pressure will now build on the downstream
side of the implement/swing orifice, causing the implement/swing pressure switch to close. The
closed pressure switch will cause the machine ECM to actuate the automatic engine speed
control (AEC) to increase engine speed and release the swing brake.
NOTE: To prevent the bucket from closing too fast, an orifice in the bucket control
valve slows the cylinder rod end oil return to tank.

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345D
BUCKET CIRCUIT

Text Reference

NFC Pressure
To Left Pump
bL3

Main Control Valve

BUCKET OPEN

Implement
Swing
Orifice

Straight
Travel

Bucket

Bucket
Cylinder

To Tank

To Center
Bypass Passage
(Left Side)
To Tank
To Parallel
Feeder Path
aL3
Joystick

Boom

Bucket

Pilot
Manifold

OPEN CLOSE DOWN UP

aL3

bL3

bL4

aR4

78

The BUCKET OPEN operation is similar to the BUCKET CLOSE operation.


When the right joystick is moved for the BUCKET OPEN operation, pilot oil flows through the
pilot control valve and pilot lines to the bucket control valve. The pilot oil pressure shifts the
bucket control spool up and allows right pump oil to flow through the bucket control valve to
the rod end of the bucket cylinder to open the bucket. Return oil from the head end of the
bucket cylinder returns through the bucket control valve back to tank.

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Text Reference

345D BOOM CIRCUIT

BOOM UP / TWO PUMP FLOWS

BL4

aR4

Boom
Cylinders

Main Control Valve


Boom
(2)

BL4

Straight
Travel

Boom
(1)

NFC
Orifice
NFC
Orifice

bL4
To Stick (2)
From Swing Pilot
Swing Bucket

Stick

Boom

To Swing
Priority Valve

To
Parallel
Feeder
Path

Heavy Lift
Solenoid Valve
OUT

IN

OPEN CLOSE DOWN UP


M

aR4

bL3

bL4 aL3

aR3 bR2 bR3 aR2

79

Boom Hydraulic Circuit


When the right joystick is moved for the BOOM UP operation, pilot oil flows through the pilot
control valve and pilot lines to the boom I control valve and the boom II control valve. The
pilot oil pressure at approximately 700 kPa (100 psi) shifts the boom I spool down. Oil from
the right pump flows through the parallel feeder passage to the head end of the boom cylinders
to raise the boom.
When boom pilot activation pressure increases to more than approximately 1100 kPa (160 psi)
the boom II spool starts shifting down. Oil flow from the left pump flows through the parallel
feeder path. Left pump flow through the boom II spool flows through an external line to
combine with right pump flow outside of the main control valve. This combined oil flows go
the head end of the boom cylinder.

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Text Reference

345D BOOM CIRCUIT

BOOM DOWN / DOWN PRESSURE


aR4

Boom
Cylinders

Main Control Valve

Boom
(2)

Straight
Travel

Boom
(1)
NFC
Orifice

NFC
Orifice

bL4
To Stick (2)
From Swing Pilot
Swing Bucket

Stick

Boom

To Swing
Priority Valve

From
Parallel
Feeder
Path

Heavy Lift
Solenoid Valve
OUT

IN

OPEN CLOSE DOWN UP


M

aR4

bL3

bL4 aL3

aR3 bR2 bR3 aR2

80

The BOOM LOWER operation is similar to the BOOM UP operation.


When the right joystick is actuated for the BOOM LOWER operation, pilot oil flows through
the pilot control valve and pilot lines to the boom I control valve. The pilot oil pressure shifts
the boom I control spool up and allows right pump oil to flow through the boom I control valve
to the rod end of the boom cylinders to lower the boom. Pilot oil also shifts the boom lowering
control valve to allow return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders to return to tank. For
the boom lower operation only one pump flow is needed. Left pump flow is used to lower the
boom.
Return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders returns through the boom lowering control
valve, the boom I control valve, and back to tank.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

345D BOOM CIRCUIT

BOOM DOWN / REGENERATION

BL4

aR4

Boom
Cylinders

Main Control Valve


BL4

Boom
(2)

Boom
(1)

Straight
Travel

NFC
Orifice

bL4

Pilot
Manifold

Swing Bucket

Stick

To Stick (2)
From Swing Pilot

Boom

To Parallel
Feeder
Path

To Swing
Priority Valve

Heavy Lift
Solenoid Valve
OUT

IN

OPEN CLOSE DOWN UP


M

aR4

bL3

bL4 aL3

aR3 bR2 bR3 aR2

81

Boom Down with Regeneration


Boom LOWER is a one pump flow operation. During fast boom lower, a portion of the boom
cylinder head end oil combined with the left pump flow. The combined flows are directed to
the rod end of the boom cylinders.
Boom lower pilot pressure shifts the boom I control valve up. The open center section of the
control valve is not completely blocked. A portion of the pump flow goes to the right side NFC
valve. A higher NFC pressure keeps the pump only slightly upstroked. The lower section of
the boom I control valve directs pump flow to the rod end of the cylinders.
Return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders goes through an orifice before returning to
the tank. The orifice creates a back pressure in the control valve. The head end oil flows
through the regeneration check valve to combine with pump flow to the rod end of the
cylinders.
The combined flows permit fast boom lower operation with reduced horsepower requirements.

SERV1855
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BOOM DRIFT
REDUCTION VALVE

Text Reference

From Rod End


From Head End
of Boom Cylinder of Boom Cylinder
Boom Drift
Reduction Valve

BOOM RAISED / IN HOLD

Boom
(1)

From Right Pump


Blocker
Valve

Check
Valve

To Pilot Control Valve

82

Boom Drift Reduction Valve


The boom drift reduction valve prevents the boom from drifting down due to normal leakage
when the hydraulic control valve is in NEUTRAL or HOLD.
Pressure in the head end of the boom cylinders is higher than the pressure in the boom control
valves. The boom cylinder head end is connected to the spring side of the check valve through
the blocker valve. The boom cylinder head end pressure combines with the spring force to
keep the boom drift reduction valve closed. The closed boom drift reduction valve prevents the
boom cylinder from drifting down.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

BOOM DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE


BOOM DOWN

To Rod End of
Boom Cylinder

From Head End


of Boom Cylinder

Boom Drift
Reduction Valve

Boom
(1)

From Right Pump


Blocker
Valve

Check
Valve

From Pilot
Control Valve

83

A pilot signal is sent to the bottom of the Boom I control valve and to the top of the blocker
valve of the boom drift reduction valve. A pilot signal is also sent to the top of the blocker
valve of the boom drift reduction valve. The blocker valve shifts down allowing trapped oil in
the spring side of the check valve to be released to tank. The check valve will be forced off the
seat of the drift reduction valve by the return oil from the head end of the boom cylinder. The
oil returns to tank through the boom drift reduction valve and the Boom I control valve.

SERV1855
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BOOM LOWERING
CONTROL VALVE

Boom
Cylinders

Blocking Valve

Text Reference

BOOM UP

Boom Locking
Control Valves

Blocking
Valve

To Pilot
Control Valve

From Main Control Valve


To Main Control Valve

84

Boom Lowering Control Valve


Some machines are equipped with boom lowering control valves (BLCVs) instead of a boom
drift reduction valve. The BLCVs ensure that if the boom is raised above the ground and a
hydraulic hose breaks, the boom will not fall. Return oil from the head end of the boom
cylinders is restricted or blocked from flowing back to tank.
During a boom raise operation, system oil flows through the BOOM I and BOOM II control
valves and the BLCVs to the head end of the boom cylinders. Oil that flows through the
BLCVs flows over a check valve in the BLCVs unrestricted and raises the boom cylinders.
The rod end oil flows through the BOOM I valve back to tank.
The oil flows though the boom lowering control valves during BOOM UP unrestricted.

SERV1855
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BOOM LOWERING
CONTROL VALVE

Boom
Cylinders

Blocking Valve

Text Reference

BOOM DOWN

Boom Locking
Control Valves

Blocking
Valve

To Main Control Valve


From Pilot
Control Valve

From Main Control Valve

85

During a boom down operation the head end oil must pass through the BLCVs and back to
tank.
The pilot signal that shifts the BOOM I spool for boom lower operation is also directed to the
blocking valve inside the BLCVs. The pilot pressure shifts the blocking valves to the left
allowing the head end oil to return through an orifice and to tank. Without the blocking valves
shifted to the left, the return oil path is blocked and the oil cannot flow through the valve back
to tank. Spring force shifts the valve back to the blocked position without the pilot signal.

SERV1855
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Stick
Cylinder

Text Reference

BOOM PRIORITY

Boom
Cylinders

BOOM UP / STICK IN

From Boom Joystick


Main Control Valve
Stick
(1)

Boom
(2)

Boom
(1)

Stick
(2)

To
Boom
Cylinder

From Left Pump


From Right Pump

From Pilot Manifold

Boom
Priority
Valve

From Stick Joystick

86

Boom Priority
During Boom Priority, a pilot signal from the boom pilot control valve is sent to the boom
priority valve, which restricts the pilot signal from the stick pilot control valve to the bottom of
the Stick II control valve. The STICK II spool will not shift. No oil flow from the right pump
will be directed to the stick.
The Boom II control valve is getting a signal on the top side from the boom pilot valve and the
bottom side from the stick pilot control valve. This leaves the Boom II control valve centered
and allows no flow from the left pump to go to the Boom Circuit.
The right pump upstrokes sending all right pump flow through the BOOM I control valve to the
boom cylinders. The left pump upstrokes and sends all the left pump flow through the Stick I
control valve to the stick cylinders.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

87

The boom priority pressure reducing valve is located behind the swing bearing on the left side
of the machine. The boom priority PRV provides boom up priority over the stick in function.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

BOOM AND SWING PRIORITY PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES


STICK IN ONLY
Stick In
Pilot
Pressure

Boom Up
Pilot
Pressure

Swing
Pilot
Pressure

BOOM PRIORITY
Pilot
System
Pressure

Stick In
Pilot
Pressure

Boom Up
Pilot
Pressure

Swing
Pilot
Pressure

Pilot
System
Pressure

To Stick 2
Spool
To Variable
Swing
Priorit y
Valve

To Variable
Swing
Priority Valve

To Stick 2
Spool

Drain
Boom Pressure
Reducing Valve

Drain

Swing Pressure
Reducing Valve

Boom Pressure
Reducing Valve

Swing Pressure
Reducing Valve

88

During STICK IN, the pilot oil from the joystick flows to the stick 1 valve. The pilot oil also
flows around the shoulders of the boom pressure reducing valve to the stick 2 spool in the main
control valve group. When there is no BOOM UP pilot oil present, the stick 2 valve receives
full pilot oil.
During BOOM UP functions, a portion of the BOOM UP pilot oil is diverted to the boom and
swing priority pressure reducing valve. BOOM UP pilot oil acts on the shoulders of the boom
pressure reducing valve, causing it to shift downward against spring force.
When BOOM UP and STICK IN are operating at the same time, the amount of STICK IN pilot
oil available to the stick 2 valve will vary according to the amount of BOOM UP pilot oil at the
boom priority pressure reducing valve. As BOOM UP pilot pressure increases, stick 2 pilot
pressure decreases.
As pilot pressure to stick 2 decreases, the stick 2 spool moves toward NEUTRAL, limiting flow
to stick 2 and giving priority to the boom circuit.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

345D STICK CIRCUIT


STICK OUT

bR3

aR3

Stick
(1)

Main Control Valve

Straight
Travel

Stick
(2)

NFC
Orifice

To Boom (2)

From Pilot
Manifold

Swing

Stick

OUT

IN

From Pilot Manifold

bR3

To Pilot Manifold

Heavy
Lift Valve
From Pilot
Manifold

aR3

bR2

bR3

aR2

89

Stick Hydraulic Circuit


When the left joystick is actuated for the STICK OUT operation, pilot oil flows through the
pilot control valve and pilot lines to the stick I control valve and the stick II control valve. The
pilot oil pressure at approximately 700 kPa (100 psi) begins to shift the stick I spool down. Oil
from the left pump flows through the left parallel feeder passage to the rod end of the stick
cylinders to extend the stick.
When stick pilot activation pressure increases to more than approximately 1100 kPa (160 psi),
the stick II spool begins shifting down. Oil flow from the right pump flows through the parallel
feeder path, in the right side of the main control valve, and the top of the stick II spool. Right
pump flow through the stick II spool goes through an external line to combine with left pump
flow upstream of the stick I spool. This combined oil then flows to the rod end of the stick
cylinders.
Return oil from the head end of the stick cylinder returns through the stick I control valve and
back to tank.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

345D STICK CIRCUIT


STICK IN

AL4

aR3

aR4

Main Control Valve

Boom
(2)

Stick
(1)

Stick
Drift
Reduction
Valve

Stick
(2)

NFC
Orifice

bR3

From Pilot
Manifold

Joystick

Heavy
Lift Valve

From Pilot Manifold


Swing

Stick

To Pilot Manifold
OUT

aR3

IN

bR2 bR3

aR2

90

The STICK IN operation is similar to the STICK OUT operation.


When the left joystick is actuated for the STICK IN operation, pilot oil flows through the pilot
control valve and pilot lines to the stick I control valve and the stick II control valve. The pilot
pressure also goes to the blocker valve in the stick drift reduction valve. The pilot oil pressure
at approximately 700 kPa (100 psi) begins to shift the stick I spool up and shifts the blocker
valve down. Oil from the left pump flows through the left parallel feeder passage, through the
stick I spool, and to the head end of the stick cylinder to retract the stick.
Return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder returns through the stick drift reduction valve.
The blocker valve receives a pilot signal from the stick joystick and shifts the blocker valve
down allowing the oil behind the check valve to return to tank. The return oil from the rod end
of the stick cylinder unseats the check valve and flows past the check valve, to the Stick I
control valve and back to tank.
When stick pilot activation pressure increases to more than approximately 1100 kPa (160 psi)
the stick II spool starts shifting up. Oil flow from the right pump flows through the right
parallel feeder path, and to the stick II spool. Right pump flow through the stick II spool flows
through an external line to combine with left pump flow upstream of the stick I spool. The
combined flow then flows to the head end of the stick cylinders.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

STICK 1
CONTROL VALVE
HOLD

Parallel
Load
Feeder Path Check Valve
To Head
End

Center Bypass
Passage

To Rod End

Line
Relief Valve

Return to Tank

Return to Tank

91

This illustration shows the stick 1 control valve in the HOLD position. The left hydraulic pump
supplies flow to the stick 1 control valve.
Left pump pressure flows through the center bypass passage and back to tank while in the hold
position. The parallel feeder path and the return lines are both blocked in the center position.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

STICK 1
CONTROL VALVE
OUT

Parallel
Feeder Path
To Head
End

Load
Check Valve

Center Bypass
Passage

To Rod End

Line
Relief Valve

Return to Tank

Return to Tank

92

When the stick pilot control valve is moved to the STICK OUT position, pilot pressure is
directed to the top of the stick I control valve. Pilot pressure shifts the stick I control valve
down, blocking the pilot logic network. With the pilot logic network blocked, the
implement/swing pressure switch is activated.
The stick I control spool shifts down, partially blocking oil flow through the center bypass
passage. When flow through the center bypass passage is decreased, the NFC signal pressure to
the left pump regulator group is decreased. The decrease in NFC pressure causes the left pump
to upstroke, increasing pump flow.
With the center bypass passage blocked, oil from the parallel feeder passage is allowed to flow
through the stick I control valve, out to the rod end of the stick cylinder, in order to extend the
stick.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

345D STICK CIRCUIT


STICK IN / REGENERATION

AL4

aR3

aR4

Main Control Valve


Stick
(1)

Boom
(2)

Stick
(2)

Regeneration
Valve

NFC
Orifice

Unload
Valve

bR3
From Pilot
Manifold

Joystick

From Pilot Manifold

Swing

Stick

To Pilot
Manifold
OUT

IN

Heavy
Lift Valve

93
Stick Regeneration
The stick regeneration valve transfers stick cylinder rod end oil to the head end of the stick
cylinder. The rod end oil combines with pump flow to prevent cavitation of the stick cylinder
during fast stick in. The extra oil prevents the stick "Tail Wag" while the pump flow fills the
stick cylinders.
When the left joystick is moved to the STICK IN position, pilot pressure goes to the bottom
end of the stick I and stick II valves. The pilot pressure also goes to the top end of the stick
drift reduction valve and to the stick regeneration valve. The pilot pressure shifts the stick I
and the stick II valves up to allow pump oil to flow to the head end of the stick cylinder. The
stick drift reduction blocker valve and the regeneration valve are both shifted down.
When the stick drift reduction blocker valve moves down, the spring chamber at the left of the
drift reduction check valve is open to drain. Pressure in the rod end of the stick cylinder pushes
on the shoulder area of the check valve and lifts the valve off its seat. The stick rod end oil
flows around the drift reduction check valve to the stick 1 control valve. The throttling slots in
the stick 1 valve direct part of the stick cylinder rod end oil to the tank.
If the system pressure in the head end of the stick cylinder is less than 15700 kPa (2300 psi),
the stick regeneration valve directs the majority of the rod end oil to combine with pump flow
going to the head end.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

345D STICK CIRCUIT


STICK IN / UNLOADING

AL4

aR3

aR4

Main
Control
Valve

Stick
(1)

Boom
(2)

Stick
(2)

Regeneration
Valve

NFC
Orifice

Unload
Valve

bR3
From Pilot
Manifold

Joystick

Heavy
Lift Valve

From Pilot Manifold


Swing

Stick

To Pilot
Manifold
OUT

aR3

IN

bR2 bR3

aR2

94

When the STICK IN system pressure is more than 15700 kPa (2300 psi) the stick regeneration
unloading valve opens to permit part of the stick rod end oil to return to the tank without going
through the throttling slots in the stick I valve. The unloading valve reduces the back pressure
in the rod end of the stick cylinder while digging.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

STICK DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE


HOLD

To Rod End of
Stick Cylinder

From Head End


of Stick Cylinder

Stick
(1)

From Pilot
Control Valve

Blocker
Valve

Check
Valve

From
Right Pump

Stick Drift Reduction Valve

95

Stick Drift Reduction Valve


This visual shows the stick drift reduction valve with the stick hydraulic control valve in
HOLD, the stick extended, and the bucket off the ground. The stick drift reduction valve
works similarly to the boom drift reduction valve. The stick drift reduction valve holds the oil
in the rod end of the stick cylinder. The boom drift reduction valve holds the oil in the head
end of the boom cylinders.
The stick cylinder has a residual pressure in the rod end. The pressure in the stick cylinder
enters the stick drift reduction valve at the top. Spring force pushes the stick drift reduction
check valve against the seat. The check valve prevents the stick cylinder rod end pressure from
going to the stick hydraulic control valve. The stick residual pressure is directed through the
blocker valve to the spring chamber of the stick drift reduction valve. Therefore, the stick
residual pressure helps the spring force keep the stick drift reduction valve closed and prevents
the stick from drifting.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

STICK DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE


STICK IN

From Rod End of


Stick Cylinder

To Head End
of Stick Cylinder

Stick
(1)
Blocker
Valve
From
Right Pump

Check
Valve
Stick Drift Reduction Valve

From Pilot
Control Valve

96

During STICK IN operation, pilot pressure is directed to the bottom of the stick I valve and to
the top of the blocker valve. Pilot pressure shifts the blocker valve down against the spring
force. The spring chamber of the stick drift reduction check valve is vented to drain through
the blocker valve. Pressure in the rod end of the stick cylinder pushes on the shoulder area of
the stick check valve and shifts the valve to the left allowing the stick cylinder rod end oil to
flow to the control valve.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

97

Swing Hydraulic System


The 345D has two swing motors (1) and two separate double reduction planetary swing drives
that are directly in front of the main control valve.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

345D SWING CIRCUIT


Swing Motor

Swing Motor

SWING LEFT

bR2

Main Control Valve


Swing

To Stick 1

To Right
Center Bypass

To NFC Orifice

To Right Parallel
Feeder Passage

To Stick 1
Variable Swing
Priority Valve

aR2

From
Pilot Pump
Joystick

OUT

Swing
Priority
PRV

Swing

Stick

IN

From Left
Pump

From Right
Pump

Pilot Manifold
aR3

bR2

bR3

aR2

98

When the left joystick is actuated for the SWING LEFT operation, pilot oil flows from the
swing pilot control valve and pilot lines to the bottom of the swing control valve. Pilot pressure
in the pilot logic network increases. The ECM turns the swing park brake solenoid on to
release the swing park brakes. The pilot oil pressure shifts the swing control spool up blocking
the center bypass passage. The decrease in NFC pressure, resulting from the shifted swing
control spool, causes the left pump to UPSTROKE.
Oil flow from the left pump flows through the parallel feeder passage of the swing control
valve to the left side of the swing motors to rotate the upper structure of the machine to the left.
Return oil from the right side of the swing motors returns through the swing control spool back
to tank.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

Swing Motor

Swing Motor

3 4 5 D SWING CIRCUIT

SWING RIGHT WITHOUT PRIORITY


Stick Cylinder

Swing / Implement
Pressure Switches

From Joystick
Stick
(1)

Swing
Travel
(L)
Stick
(2)

To Boom (2)

From Joystick

From Pilot Pump

From Left Pump


From Right Pump

To Joystick

Swing
Priority
Valve

Swing Parking
Brake Solenoid

Pilot Manifold

99

Swing Right Without Priority


The swing priority valve provides a swing priority function over the STICK IN and STICK
OUT function when the SWING function is activated at the same time as a STICK function.
During light swing conditions, pilot oil from the pilot manifold goes through the swing priority
valve. The pilot oil flows through the swing priority valve unrestricted. The pilot oil shifts the
unload valve to the right and allows the trapped oil behind the parallel tandem logic (PTL)
valve to drain to tank. Left pump flow is allowed to flow over the check valve to the stick I
spool for use in the STICK OUT or STICK IN functions.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

SWING PRIORITY PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE


AND VARIABLE SWING PRIORITY VALVE
SWING PRIORITY NOT ACTIVATED

From
Boom Up
Pilot

From
Stick Out
Pilot
B1

From
Swing
Pilot
B2

From Pilot
Manifold

To Stick 1
Parallel Feeder
Passage

Variable Swing
Priority Valve
Drain

P1
To Stick 2
Spool

Check Valve

P2

Swing
Spool
A1

A2

Drain

Center Bypass
Passage

Parallel Feeder
Passage

100

The swing priority valve provides swing priority over the STICK IN and STICK OUT functions
when swing is activated at the same time as the stick.
When the swing priority is not active, full pilot signal flows through the swing priority pressure
reducing valve and to the parallel tandem logic valve. The pilot signal pushes the parallel
tandem logic valve over against the force of the spring. This will allow the stick 1 valve to
have full flow from the main pumps.
During slow swing conditions, oil flows from the left pump parallel passage to the parallel
tandem logic valve. The oil passes through the parallel tandem logic valve unrestricted and
flows to the stick 1 spool for STICK IN or STICK OUT.
When swing is activated, the swing priority valve receives a swing pilot signal and shifts down
proportionally to the amount of swing pilot oil that is supplied. When the swing priority valve
is shifted, the oil from the left pump parallel feeder passage is restricted at the parallel tandem
logic valve. The stick 1 valve receives pump supply through an orifice in the parallel tandem
logic valve, reducing the flow sent to the stick control valve. More flow is now available for
swing operations to generate higher swing force needed during swing operations, such as
cleaning a trench wall.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

101

The swing priority pressure reducing valve is located behind the swing bearing on the left side
of the machine. The swing priority PRV provides swing priority over the stick functions.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

Swing Motor

Swing Motor

345D SWING CIRCUIT


SWING RIGHT / PRIORITY

Stick Cylinder

Swing / Implement
Pressure Switches
From Swing Joystick
Stick
(1)

Swing
Travel
(L)
Stick
(2)

To Boom (2)

From Stick Joystick

From Pilot Pump

From Left Pump


From Right Pump

To Joystick
Swing
Priority Valve

Swing Parking
Brake Solenoid

Pilot Manifold

102

Swing Right with Priority


During heavy swing conditions with the SWING and the STICK circuits activated, a pilot
signal is sent from the swing joystick to the swing priority valve which restricts the pilot flow
to the unloading valve. The unload valve is shifted back to the left by spring force. Left pump
system pressure flows through the unloader valve to the spring chamber on the PTL valve. The
PTL valve shifts up to block flow in the left side parallel feeder path from going to the stick I
valve. Left pump flow is isolated for the swing circuit. Left pump oil flows through the swing
control valve out to the swing motors.
The parallel tandem logic valve blocks right pump flow from the stick during swing priority. If
more stick force is needed, the operator must move the stick joystick farther. The increased
pilot pressure shifts the stick II spool and right pump flow goes through an external hose to the
stick I valve. During swing priority, right pump flow goes to the swing circuit and left pump
flow goes to the stick circuit.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

SWING MOTOR
NEUTRAL

Crossover Relief
Valves

From Pilot
Manifold

Swing Park Brake


Release Solenoid

Makeup Check
Valves

Swing Park Brake

Anti-reaction Valves

103

Swing Motor
The illustration shows the swing motor and swing motor components in NEUTRAL.
When no implements or swing are activated, the implement/swing pressure switch is open. The
ECM turns the swing park brake solenoid valve OFF. The springs in the swing park brake
apply the swing park brake. After the implement/swing operations are stopped, the ECM waits
3 to 5 seconds to turn the swing park brake solenoid OFF. The swing stops hydraulically and
then the swing park brake applies.

SERV1855
04/08

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Text Reference

SWING PARKING BRAKE


BRAKE RELEASED

Swing
Parking Brake

From Pilot
Manifold

Swing Brake
Solenoid Valve

Swing
Mot or

To Swing
Cont rol Valve

From Swing
Cont rol Valve

104

Swing Parking Brake


The swing park brake is a multiple disc oil-type brake that operates automatically. The swing
park brake is spring applied and hydraulically released. The swing brake consists of five lined
discs and six steel plates. The discs have internal gear teeth that mesh with gear teeth on the
outside of the swing motor barrel assembly. The steel plates mesh with the swing motor
housing.
The swing park brake is released automatically. When pressure increases in the pilot logic
system, the swing/implement pressure switch is activated sending a signal to the ECM. The
ECM activates the swing brake solenoid valve. The swing brake solenoid valve directs pilot
pressure from the pilot manifold to the brake piston. Pilot pressure then moves the brake piston
against the spring force to release the brake. The swing brake is released when any hydraulic
control other than travel is activated.
The swing park brake is released almost instantly when the hydraulic controls are activated.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

SWING CROSSOVER RELIEF VALVE


Seat

Valve

Spring

Liner

Piston

105

Swing Motor Crossover Relief Valve


Each swing motor has two swing crossover relief valves and makeup valves that are similar to
those used in the 320C Hydraulic Excavator. One relief valve is for right swing and the other
relief valve is for left swing. The swing crossover relief valves also have a "soft swing" control
feature similar to the 345B. When pump system pressure is directed to the swing motor, the
pressure pushes on the end of the swing relief valve. The pressure will open the swing relief
valve at a relatively low pressure [approximately 7600 to 13000 kPa (1100 to 1900 psi)].
The system pressure also goes through the orifice in the end of the swing crossover relief valve
to the cavity between the piston and liner on the right end of the relief valve. As pressure
increases inside the cavity, the pressure pushes the piston to the left increasing the spring force.
Approximately one tenth of a second is required for enough oil to flow through the orifice to
fill the cavity and move the piston to the limit of its travel.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

The increase in spring force closes the swing relief valve. With the increase in spring force, a
higher system pressure is required to hold the relief valve open.
In other words, the swing crossover relief valve opens at a lower pressure than is needed to
hold the valve open. This gradual increase in swing pressure causes a dampening effect on
pressure surges.
If an external force causes the upper structure to rotate when the swing control valve is not
activated, the swing motor acts like a hydraulic pump and causes an increase in the swing
pressure in the swing motor. As pressure increases inside the swing motor, it pushes on the left
end of the relief valve. The relief valve functions the same as described for the increase in
system pressure. Oil is circulated inside the swing motor through the swing crossover relief
valve causing a hydraulic lock inside the motor to slow the upper structure.
As the upper structure continues to rotate, tank pressure pushes the low pressure makeup valve
off its seat and tank oil flows into the motor to prevent cavitation. The makeup valve opens
and oil from the makeup port enters the low pressure side of the swing motor.

SERV1855
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Text Reference

345D SWING CIRCUIT


ANTI-REACTION VALVES

Swing Motor
Swing Motor

Anti-Reaction
Valves

Swing Parking
Brake Solenoid

To Swing Control Valve


From Swing Control Valve
From Pilot Manifold

106

Swing Anti-Reaction Valves


The anti-reaction valves are used to eliminate the reverse swing effect when the swing
operation is stopped. When the swing hydraulic control valve is returned to the NEUTRAL
position, the upper structure continues to rotate due to inertia. Without the anti-reaction valves,
the swing motor acts like a pump and a hydraulic lock is formed in the swing lines between the
motor and the swing control valve. This pressure causes the swing motor to turn the upper
structure in reverse after the upper structure is stopped.
When the swing control valve is returned to NEUTRAL, pressure increases and is directed to
the anti-reaction valves. The anti-reaction valves shift to connect the outlet passage to the inlet
passage through the valve allowing pressure oil to move to the low pressure side. As the upper
structure slows to a smooth stop, pressure in the high pressure side decreases, allowing spring
force to return the anti-reaction valve to the neutral position.

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Text Reference

ANTI-REACTION VALVE
SWING

Swing Control
Valve

Spring
Spring

Spool

Plunger

Ball

Left Pump

Piston
Left Swing
Anti-reaction Valve

Right Swing
Anti-reaction Valve

107

The anti-reaction valves are designed to minimize movement of the upper structure at the end
of swing movement in order to reduce "swing wag." The anti-reaction valves work together
and act as shock absorbers.
When swing is activated, the anti-reaction valves are in the blocked position.
When the swing operation is activated, system pressure enters the center cavity of the right
anti-reaction valve. The pressure pushes the piston down against the plug and pushes the
plunger and spool up to compress the springs. System pressure also goes through an internal
passage to the large spring chamber on the left anti-reaction valve. The pressure pushes the left
plunger and spool up to compress the springs.
As the spools and plungers are pushed up, makeup oil from the tank flows through the small
orifices into the chambers below the two spools.

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Text Reference

ANTI-REACTION VALVE
SWING STOP

Swing Control
Valve

Spring
Spring

Spool

Plunger

Ball

Left Pump

Piston
Left Swing
Anti-reaction Valve

Right Swing
Anti-reaction Valve

108

When the swing control valve is returned to the NEUTRAL position, pressure and flow from
the right pump decreases. When the swing system pressure decreases, the large springs push
the two plungers down. The oil trapped in the two chambers below the two spools cannot
escape fast through the two small orifices. The plungers separate from the spools. The swing
pressure in the right side flows through the center of the right spool through an internal passage
to the low pressure side of the swing motor. The pressure also flows through an internal
passage to the center of the left anti-reaction valve. The pressure flows up through the center of
the left spool to the low pressure side of the swing motor. The small springs on top of the
spools push the spools down.
As the upper structure continues to swing, due to inertia, the swing motor starts acting like a
pump. With the return passage through the swing control valve closed, pressure increases in
the left side of the motor. The pressure goes through the center of the left spool and plunger to
push the left piston down and the left plunger and spool up. The pressure goes through the
internal passage to the spring chamber at the bottom of the right anti-reaction valve. The
pressure pushes the right plunger and spool up. Again, makeup oil is pulled into the chambers
below the two spools.

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Text Reference

When the upper structure stops, the pressure decreases and the large springs push the plungers
down separating the plungers from the two spools. The pressure flows through the center of
the left spool and the internal passage to the low pressure side of the swing motor. The
pressure also flows through an internal passage to the cavity between the spool and plunger on
the right anti-reaction valve. The pressure goes up through the center of the right spool to the
low pressure side of the swing motor.
The pressure oscillations occur several times while the upper structure stops. The swing
anti-reaction opens at the end of each pressure surge to transfer the pressure to the low pressure
side of the motors.
By transferring the pressure surges to the low pressure side of the motor the swing operation
decreases to a smooth stop.

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Text Reference

Travel Motor (Left)

Travel Motor (Right)

345D TRAVEL SYSTEM


REVERSE TRAVEL / LOW SPEED

Crossover
Relief Valves

Counterbalance
Valve

Swivel
Group

Travel (L)

Travel (R)

Travel
(L)

From Pilot Pump


Two-Speed
Travel
Solenoid

Travel
(R)

NFC
Orifice

Pilot Manifold
From Left Pump
From Right Pump

NFC Orifice

To Right
Parallel Feeder
Passage

109

TRAVEL CIRCUIT
When the travel pedals are actuated for the traveling operation, pilot oil flows through the pilot
control valve and pilot lines to the bottom of the travel control valves. The pilot oil pressure
shifts the travel control spools up depending upon which direction of travel is desired. The
decrease in NFC pressure, resulting from the shifted travel control spools, causes the pumps to
UPSTROKE. When the travel control spools are shifted up, the pilot logic network passages to
drain are blocked. Pilot oil flowing through the left pilot logic network orifice closes the
implement/swing pressure switch. The electronic control module (ECM) actuates the automatic
engine speed control (AEC) to increase engine speed and start upstroking the pump to meet
flow demand.
Oil from the left pump flows through the parallel feeder passage of the left travel control valve
and right pump flow is sent through the right parallel feeder passage of the right travel control
valve. The oil then flows from the travel control valves to the swivel in the center of the
machine. From the swivel the oil flows through the counterbalance valves to actuate the travel
motors.
Return oil from the travel motors returns through the swivel and the travel control valve back to
tank.

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Text Reference

3
4

110

Travel Motor
The two-speed, axial piston travel motors on the 345D are similar in operation to the travel
motors on the 345C. The speed change occurs by changing the angle of the swashplate in the
travel motors. When the swashplate is at maximum angle, the travel motor rotates at slow
speed because the increased displacement of the motor requires more pump flow per revolution
of the travel motor. When the swashplate is at minimum angle, the travel motors rotate at high
speed because the decreased displacement of the motor requires less flow per revolution of the
travel motor.
In addition to the two-speed feature of the travel motors, the system contains the speed change
valve, the travel motor park brake, and the travel motor brake valve.
For high speed travel, the speed change valve receives a pilot signal pressure from the twospeed solenoid on the pilot manifold. The signal shifts the speed change valve which then
directs a system pressure signal to the travel motor swashplate servo piston. The servo piston
shifts the swashplate to minimum angle.
The travel motor park brake is a multiple disc, oil cooled brake that is spring applied and
hydraulically released. Travel system pressure is used to release the park brake.
Major components of the travel motor are:
- Supply lines (1)
- Case drain line (2)
- Travel motor brake valve (3)
- Travel motor (4)

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Text Reference

111

This visual shows the travel motor and the travel motor brake valve for the 345D with the
components listed as follows:
The travel motor counterbalance valve (1) is located in the travel brake valve housing.
When the travel circuits are shifted to HIGH SPEED, the two-speed solenoid on the pilot
manifold sends a pilot pressure signal through the signal hose (2). This pressure signal is used
to shift the speed change valve to the HIGH SPEED position.
The case drain hose (3) is the larger of the two located on the top of the travel motor.
The travel crossover line relief valves (4) are located in the travel brake valve housing.
High pressure hoses (5) connect the hydraulic control valves and the travel motor through the
swivel. When the machine is traveling, one of the hoses is the high pressure line and the other
hose is the return to the tank.

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TRAVEL MOTOR
Swashplate Piston

Text Reference

To Case Drain

Park Brake

Shaft

Servo
Piston

Barrel

112

This illustration shows the following components of the 345D travel motor:
- Swashplate
- Barrel
- Park brake
- Minimum angle servo piston

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Text Reference

345D TRAVEL MOTOR


BRAKE RELEASED

Relief Valve
Travel Motor

From Two-Speed
Travel Solenoid

Displacement
Change Valve

To Tank

Crossover
Relief Valves

Counterbalance
Valve

From Main Control Valve

Brake Release
Valve

To Main Control Valve

113

Travel Motor Brake Release Valve


The travel motor brake release valve is located in the travel brake valve next to the travel motor
brake valve spool. The brake release valve directs travel pressure to and from the travel park
brake to release the brake. Spring force applies the travel park brake. The brake release valve
slows the application of the travel park brake. By delaying the application of the park brake,
the travel motor is stopped hydraulically before the brake is engaged.
System pressure from the reverse travel circuit enters the brake release valve at the center of the
valve. The pressure is also directed to the left end of the brake release valve spool.
As travel system pressure increases, the brake release valve spool shifts to the right. System
pressure flows through the brake release valve to the brake release piston. System pressure
moves the brake release piston up releasing the brake. The relief valve in the brake release port
limits maximum pressure to the brake release piston.

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Text Reference

The two-speed, axial piston travel motors operation is similar to the former machines. The
travel motors have minimum angle pistons and no maximum angle pistons. The pivot point on
the swashplate is off center. The system pressure on the motor pistons shifts the swashplate to
minimum angle.
The travel motor park brake is a multiple disc, oil cooled brake that is spring applied and
hydraulically released. Travel system pressure is used to release the park brake.
During travel on level ground, pump oil shifts the counterbalance valve in one direction
(depending on which direction the machine is moving). The counterbalance valve then sends
some of the oil to release the park brake. When travel is stopped, the orifice on the end of the
counterbalance valve slows the movement of the counterbalance valve as the valve returns to
the NEUTRAL position to provide a smoother stop.

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Text Reference

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
LEVEL TRAVEL

Damper
Pist on

Forward
Crossover
Relief Valve

Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Spring

Damper
Pist on

Count erbalance
Valve

Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Forward Crossover
Relief Valve
Damper
Chamber
Count erbalance
Valve

Spool

Supply / Ret urn


Port

A-A

Travel
Park Brake
Port

Supply / Ret urn


Port

114

Counterbalance Valve Operation (Level Travel)


When pump supply oil flows into the travel counterbalance valve, part of the oil flows to the
damper chamber which shifts the counterbalance valve spool to the left. At the same time,
pump supply oil opens the check valve on the right side of the counterbalance valve spool
which allows pump supply oil to flow through the supply port to the rotary group of the travel
motor. A portion of the oil flows through an orifice in the spring chamber of the reverse
crossover relief valve. The oil then flows from the spring chamber of the crossover relief valve
to the left end of the damper piston and shifts the damper piston to the right against the force of
the spring. The damper piston absorbs the initial shock of pressurized oil being delivered to the
travel motor system.
As the travel counterbalance valve spool shifts to the left, the throttling slots on the left end of
the spool open a passage which allows return oil from the rotary group of the travel motor to
return to the hydraulic tank.
When the oil flow to the travel counterbalance valve is blocked, the pressure oil in the damper
chamber on the right end decreases. The force of the centering springs shift the counterbalance
valve spool to the right, and as the spool shifts, the throttling slots on the left side close. Return
oil from the travel motor is blocked and the rotation of the travel motor is stopped.

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Text Reference

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE

Forward
Crossover
Relief Valve

SLOPE TRAVEL
Damper
Pist on

Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Ball

Spring

Damper
Pist on

Count erbalance
Valve

Orifice

Passage

A
Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Forward Crossover
Relief Valve

Travel
Park Brake
Port

Damper Chamber
Count erbalance
Valve
Ball

Orifice
Spool

Supply / Return
Port

Supply / Return
Port

Passage

A-A

115

Counterbalance Valve Operation (Slope Travel)


When the machine travels down a slope, the travel motor rotates at a higher speed. The higher
speed is due to mass (weight and size) of the machine. When this condition occurs, the pumps
cannot maintain the oil supply to the travel motors. The lack of oil will cause cavitation in the
travel motors. A pressure decrease occurs at the supply port of the travel counterbalance valve
and also occurs in the damper chamber on the right end of the spool as well. The force of the
centering springs moves the spool to the right, and the throttling slots begin to close. As the
throttling slots close, the return oil from the rotary group of the travel motor is restricted. The
restriction of oil from the travel motor causes the rotation of the travel motors to slow down.
As the pressure of the pump oil increases at the supply port to the travel counterbalance valve,
the pressurized oil forces the spool to shift to the left which opens the throttling slots on the left
end the spool allowing return oil to flow to the hydraulic tank. The modulation of the spool
maintains the proper opening of the throttling slots when the machine travels down a slope.
The travel motor rotates in accordance to the amount of pump oil supply, which helps to
prevent cavitation in the travel motors.

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Text Reference

When the machine is traveling down a slope, or the machine is suddenly stopped, the
counterbalance valve spool is centered by the centering springs and closes the throttling slots.
This causes a hydraulic pressure spike to occur in the travel system. A damper chamber is
provided on both ends of the spool to prevent hydraulic pressure spikes. As the spool shifts to
the right, the oil in the damper chamber is pressurized and the ball is moved to the left. The
pressurized oil in the damper chamber is forced through the orifice into the spring chamber. By
slowing releasing the oil in the damper chamber, the counterbalance valve spool slowly moves
to the right, and the throttling slots slowly close. The size of the orifice and the position of the
orifice maintains the proper shock damper.

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Text Reference

COUNTERBALANCE VALVE
STOPPING

Damper
Piston

Forward
Crossover
Relief Valve

Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Spring

Damper
Piston

Plunger

Counterbalance
Valve
A

Poppet

Reverse Crossover
Relief Valve

Forward Crossover
Relief Valve

Travel
Park Brake
Port

Damper
Chamber
Counterbalance
Valve

Spool

Supply / Return
Port

A-A

Supply / Return
Port

116

Travel Crossover Relief Valves (Machine Stop)


If the travel control levers are returned to the NEUTRAL position during the movement of the
machine, the pump supply oil is immediately blocked to the travel motors. Without pump
supply oil, the counterbalance valve spool moves to the centered position blocking the flow of
return oil from the travel motors to the hydraulic tank. The mass of the machine causes the
travel motors to continue to rotate, causing a sudden pressure increase in the return oil passage.
The return oil also flows into the spring chamber of the plunger and acts on the poppet in the
forward crossover relief valve. The pressurized oil in the spring chamber also flows through a
passage up to the right end of the damper piston starting to move the damper piston to the left
against the force of the damper piston springs. When the damper piston has moved to the stop
on the left, the pressurized oil in the spring chamber of the forward crossover relief valve opens
the poppet seat. The oil flow through the open poppet seat causes a pressure decrease in the
spring chamber. The pressure decrease in the spring chamber allows the high oil pressure to
move the plunger to the right allowing the oil to flow past the plunger and back into the supply
passage of the travel motor.

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Text Reference

The crossover relief valve protects the travel motor by releasing the high pressure oil. The
crossover relief valves also provide makeup oil from the outlet side of the travel motor to the
inlet side of the travel motor. This makeup oil prevents a vacuum condition in the travel motor.
During forward travel of the left travel motor, oil flow opens the reverse crossover relief valve
when the machine is suddenly stopped. During reverse travel of the left travel motor, oil flow
opens the forward crossover relief valve when the machine is suddenly stopped.

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Text Reference

LEFT TRAVEL MOTOR


LOW SPEED FORWARD

Speed Selector
Switch In Cab

Travel Motor

Two Speed
Travel Solenoid
Displacement
Change Valve

Engine and
Pump Controller

Crossover
Relief Valves

Pilot Pump

Counterbalance
Valve
From Pilot
Control Valve

Left
Pump

Parking Brake
Valve

117

Low Speed Travel


This illustration shows the travel motor in the LOW SPEED (tortoise) position, maximum angle
displacement. The Engine and Pump Controller de-energizes the two-speed travel solenoid.
With the solenoid off, no pilot pressure is directed to the right end of the displacement change
valve in the travel motor. When de-energized, the two-speed travel solenoid opens the
displacement change valve to drain allowing the servo piston to drain into case drain. The
design of the travel motors allows the travel system pressure pushing on the pistons in the
motor group to move the swashplate to maximum angle when the servo piston is open to drain.
System pressure from the travel control valves goes through the counterbalance valve to the
travel motor. Flow from the circuit with higher pressure (forward or reverse) goes through the
ball resolver to the end of the displacement change valve where the pressure is blocked.

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Text Reference

LEFT TRAVEL MOTOR


HIGH SPEED FORWARD
Travel Motor

Speed Selector
Switch In Cab

Two Speed
Travel Solenoid
Displacement
Change Valve

Engine and
Pump Controller

Crossover
Relief Valves

Pilot Pump

Counterbalance
Valve
From Pilot
Control Valve

Left
Pump

Parking Brake
Valve

118

High Speed Travel


The above schematic shows the travel motor in the HIGH SPEED (rabbit) position. The Engine
and Pump Controller energizes the two-speed travel solenoid when the high speed button is
pushed in the cab. A pilot signal from the two-speed solenoid shifts the displacement change
valve to the left for HIGH SPEED travel. The travel control valve directs system pressure to
the travel motor. The travel system pressure signal is also directed around the right end of the
displacement change valve to the servo piston in the travel motor. Travel pressure shifts the
servo piston, and the swashplate moves to minimum angle for minimum displacement and
HIGH SPEED operation.
When the swashplate is at minimum angle, the travel motor rotates at high speed because the
decreased displacement of the motor requires less flow per revolution of the travel motor.
If the travel system pressure is below approximately 33,000 kPa (4800 psi), the motor will shift
into high speed. If travel system pressure is above 33,000 kPa (4800 psi), the ECM will not
activate the two-speed travel solenoid. When travelling in high speed and system pressure
increases above the threshold pressure, the ECM automatically shifts the motor to low speed.

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Ring Gear
Second and
Third Stage

Planetary Gear
Third Stage

Planetary Gear
Second Stage

Text Reference

Drive Sprocket
Housing

TRAVEL
FINAL DRIVE
Travel Motor

Planetary Gear
First Stage
Cover
Sun Gear

Output Shaft
Planetary Carrier
First Stage

Planetary Carrier
Second Stage

Coupling

Planetary Carrier
Third Stage

119

Final Drive
The final drive reduces the rotational speed of the travel motor. The output shaft of the travel
motor is splined to the sun gear by a coupling.
The final drive consists of two groups. The first group consists of three stages of the planetary
gear reduction. The planetary gear reduction is a series of the planetary gears, the planetary
carriers, the ring gears, and the sun gear. The planetary gear set reduces the travel speed
significantly through the triple reduction planetary gear sets.
The output group consists of the drive sprocket housing, the ring gear for second and third
stage, and the cover. With the ring gear and the drive sprocket housing bolted together, the
drive sprocket housing rotates. This causes the track to move in the selected direction.
.

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Swing Motor

Text Reference

MAIN HYDRAULIC
RETURN SYSTEM

Travel Motors

Pilot
Control
Valves

Main Control Valve Group

Fan
Motor

Slow Return
Check Valve

Priority
Valves

Pilot Manifold

Fan
Pump
Pilot
Pump

Motor Case
Drain Filter

Main
Hydraulic
Pumps

Tank
Pump Case
Drain Filter

120

RETURN HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT


Case drain for the swing and the travel motors return through the motor case drain filter and
back to tank.
Case drain for the fan and hydraulic pumps return through the pump case drain filter and back
to tank.
Return oil from the main control valve returns back through the slow return check valve, the
return oil cooler and the return oil cooler bypass back to tank. The slow return check valve
maintains a 400 kPa (60 psi) back pressure in the hydraulic system at all times. This is to
prevent the oil in the main control valve from leaking back to tank and leaving an empty void
in the control valve that the pumps have to fill. If the pumps had to fill this void before it sent
system pressure out to the implements it would cause a jerking motion. The slow return check
valve helps to prevent this jerking motion.

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Text Reference

121
WORK TOOLS
The 345D has an extensive selection of work tools to optimize machine production. Choice
include hammers, shears, pulverizers, compactors, multi processors, sorting grapples and
couplers as well as several bucket options.
- General Purpose Bucket (GP) - Generally used for digging in low-impact, moderately
abrasive materials, for example dirt, loam, gravel, or clay.
- Heavy Duty Bucket (HD) - Designed for a wide range of moderately abrasive
applications such as mixed dirt, clay, and rock. HD buckets have optimized loading and
dumping characteristics and more robust construction than the GP buckets.
- Heavy Duty Power Bucket (HDP) - Designed for use in moderately abrasive applications
where breakout force and cycle times are critical. Decreased tip radius maximizes tip
force and improves cycle times in most materials. Not ideal for use in sticky material
conditions. Cutting edge and GET are up-sized.
- Heavy Duty Rock Bucket (HDR) - Designed for aggressive bucket loading in highly
abrasive applications such as shot rock and granite. Thick wear plates are utilized to
extend the life of the bucket in severe applications.
- Rock Ripping Bucket (RR) - Ruggedly constructed, narrow buckets for ripping in
applications where material penetration and an inability to blast is an issue. The
aggressive lip type ripping design uses five sharp or twin sharp teeth in a staggered
position. The staggered design allows one or two tips to penetrate first, providing higher
breakout forces.

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Text Reference

All buckets feature Caterpillar K Series ground engaging tools. The K Series is easier to
remove and install due to the vertical retainer utilized by the system. There are a variety of
teeth, side cutters and sidebar protectors available to accommodate operating conditions. Teeth
are designed to be extremely aggressive and offer excellent penetration. The side cutter design
improved efficiency and bucket payload in trenching applications.

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Text Reference

122

CONCLUSION
This presentation has discussed the component locations and machine systems operation for the
345D Hydraulic Excavator.
When used in conjunction with the service manual, the information in this package should
permit the technician to do a thorough job of analyzing a problem in these systems.
Always refer to the service manual for the latest service information and specifications when
servicing, testing and adjusting, or making repairs.

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Text Reference

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE


Black - Mechanical Connection. Seal

Red - High Pressure Oil

Dark Gray - Cutaway Section

Red / White Stripes - 1st Pressure Reduction

Light Gray - Surface Color

Red Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pressure

White - Atmosphere or Air (No Pressure)

Pink - 3rd Reduction in Pressure

Purple - Pneumatic Pressure

Red / Pink Stripes - Secondary Source Oil Pressure

Yellow - Moving or Activated Components

Orange - Pilot, Charge or Torque Converter Oil

Cat Yellow - (Restricted Usage)


Identification of Components
within a Moving Group

Orange / White Stripes - Reduced Pilot, Charge, or


TC Oil Pressure

Brown - Lubricating Oil

Orange / Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pilot,


Charge, or TC Oil Pressure

Green - Tank, Sump, or Return Oil

Blue - Trapped Oil

Green / White Stripes Scavenge / Suction Oil or Hydraulic Void

123

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODES


The colors on the hydraulic schematics and cross-sectional views shown throughout this
presentation denote specific meanings. This illustration identifies the meaning of each color.

Green / White Stripes Scavenge / Suction Oil or Hydraulic Void

Blue - Trapped Oil

- 146 -

Green - Tank, Sump, or Return Oil

Orange / Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pilot,


Charge, or TC Oil Pressure

Orange / White Stripes - Reduced Pilot, Charge, or


TC Oil Pressure

Cat Yellow - (Restricted Usage)


Identification of Components
within a Moving Group

Brown - Lubricating Oil

Orange - Pilot, Charge or Torque Converter Oil

Red / Pink Stripes - Secondary Source Oil Pressure

Pink - 3rd Reduction in Pressure

Yellow - Moving or Activated Components

Purple - Pneumatic Pressure

White - Atmosphere or Air (No Pressure)

Red Crosshatch - 2nd Reduction in Pressure

Red / White Stripes - 1st Pressure Reduction

Dark Gray - Cutaway Section

Light Gray - Surface Color

Red - High Pressure Oil

Black - Mechanical Connection. Seal

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

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Laboratory Exercises

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Visual List

VISUAL LIST
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.

Model View
Model View
Compartment Behind Cab
Pattern Change Valve
Pattern Change Valve Decal
Radiator Compartment
Counterweight Removal System
Right Side of Machine
Pump Compartment
Hydraulic Pumps
Left Side of Machine
Operator Cab
Seat
Travel Control Pedals
Joystick Controls
Left Joystick
Right Joystick
Monitor Panel
Monitor Panel Close-up
Monitor Control Buttons
Hydraulic Activation Lever
Ground Level Shut-off
Operator Controls
Soft Switches
Rocker Switches
Backup Switches
Engine
Fuel Priming Switch
Fuel Filters
Fuel Sensors
Left Side of Engine
Right Side of Engine
Engine Oil Level Sender
Coolant Flow Switch
Front Crankshaft Speed Sensor
Hydraulic System Block Diagram
Hydraulic System Standby
Power Shift Pressure System
Hydraulic Pumps
Pump Schematic Inputs
Pump Control Schematic - Standby
Pump Controls
Pump Controls - End View
Pump Controls - Components

45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.

Pump Controls - Standby


Pump Controls - Flow Increase
Pump Controls - Begin Destroke
Pump Controls - End of Destroke
Pilot Hydraulic System
Pilot Pump
Pilot Filter
Pilot Relief Valve
Pilot Manifold
Hydraulic Activation Lever
Hyd. Activation Solenoid - Locked
Hyd. Activation Solenoid - Unlocked
Swing Park Brake Solenoid
Two Speed Travel Solenoid
Pilot Accumulator
Pilot Logic Network
Straight Travel Mode
Pilot Control Valve
Fan System Block Diagram
Fan Pump
Fan Drive System - Maximum Speed
Fan Drive System - Minimum Speed
Fan Pump Controls - Maximum Speed
Fan Pump Controls - Minimum Speed
Hydraulic Fan Motor
Main Control Valve - Block Diagram
Main Control Valve - Components
Main Control Valve - Neutral
Pressure Switches
Main Relief Valve
Main Relief Valve - Two Stage
Line Relief Valve
Bucket Circuit - Bucket Close
Bucket Circuit - Bucket Open
Boom Circuit - Boom Up
Boom Circuit - Boom Lower
Boom Circuit - Regeneration
Boom Drift Reduction Valve - Hold
Boom Drift Reduction Valve - Lower
Lowering Control Valve - Boom Up
Lowering Control Valve - Boom Lower
Boom Priority Schematic
Boom Priority PRV
Boom and Swing Priority PRV

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Visual List

VISUAL LIST (continued)


89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.

Stick Circuit - Stick Out


Stick Circuit - Stick In
Stick Control Valve - Hold
Stick Control Valve - Stick Out
Stick Regeneration
Stick Circuit - Unloading
Stick Drift Reduction Valve - Hold
Stick Drift Reduction Valve - Stick In
Swing Motors
Swing Circuit - Swing Left
Swing Circuit PRV without Priority
Swing Priority PRV - Not
Swing PRV
Swing Circuit - Swing Right Priority
Swing Motor
Swing Park Brake - Released
Swing Crossover Relief Valve
Swing Circuit Anti-Reaction Valves
Anti-Reaction Valves - Swing

108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.

Anti-Reaction Valves - Stop


Travel Circuit
Travel Motor
Travel Motor Brake Valve
Travel Motor Components
Travel Motor Circuit - Brake Released
Counterbalance Valve Operation (Level
Travel)
Counterbalance Valve Operation (Slope
Travel)
Travel Crossover Relief Valves (Machine
Stop)
Travel Motor - Low Speed
Travel Motor - High Speed
Travel Final Drive
Return Hydraulic System
Model View
Model View
Hydraulic Schematic Color Codes

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 1

Lab A Worksheets
Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left main implement pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Pilot Filter
Location:
Function:
_____ Pilot System Pressure Test Port
Location:
Function:
_____ Pilot Manifold
Location:
Function:
_____ Pilot System Pressure Relief Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Pilot System Accumulator
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 2

Lab A Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
_____ Swing Parking Brake Solenoid Valve
Location:
Function:

_____ Hydraulic Actuation Control Valve


Location:
Function:

_____ Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve


Location:
Function:

_____ Hydraulic Actuation Lever


Location:
Function:

_____ Power Shift Solenoid Valve


Location:
Function:

_____ Pilot Pressure Release Line for Swing Parking Brakes


Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 3

Lab A Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
_____ Two Speed Travel Solenoid Valve
Location:
Function:

_____ Swing/Boom Priority Valve


Location:
Function:

_____ Implement/Swing Pressure Switches


Location:
Function:

_____ Travel Pressure Switch


Location:
Function:
_____ Pilot System SOS Port
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 4

Lab B Worksheet
Test and Adjust Pilot System Relief Valve
Machine Model____________________________ Date__________________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours_____________________
Tooling for Pilot Relief Valve Test
____ 1-8T0856

Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the pilot system relief valve, refer to
the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Pilot relief valve

____________________

____________________

NOTE: Test the pilot relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at Position 10.
Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 56

Lab C Worksheet
Locate and Identify Implement/Travel Pumps and Pump Components
Directions: Refer to the Handout illustration. Place the correct letter next to the component.
During the visual presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each
component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Implement/Travel Pump Group
Location:
Function:
_____ Right Pump
Location:
Function:
_____ Left Pump
Location:
Function:
_____ Suction Line
Location:
Function:
_____ Discharge Lines
Location:
Function:
_____ Implement/Travel Pumps Case Drain Line
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 6

Lab C Worksheet (continued)


Locate and Identify Implement/Travel Pumps and Pump Components
NOTE: Use the rear pump regulator to identify the following components.
_____ Maximum Angle Adjustment
Location:
Function:
_____ Minimum Angle Adjustment
Location:
Function:
_____ Engine and Pump Control Module
Location:
Function:
_____ Implement/Travel Pump Regulator
Location:
Function:
_____ Power Shift Signal Pressure Port
Location:
Function:
_____ Horsepower Control Pressure Adjustment
Location:
Function:

SERV1855
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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 7

Lab D Worksheets
Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Implement Control Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Boom I Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Boom II Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Bucket Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Attachment Spool (std.)
Location:
Function:
_____ Straight Travel Spool
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 8

Lab D Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
_____ Stick I Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Stick II Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Left Travel Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Right Travel Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Line Relief Valves for Boom, Stick, and Bucket Curl
Location:
Function:
_____ Load Check Valves
Location:
Function:
_____ Boom Regeneration Valve
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 9

Lab D Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
_____ Boom Drift Reduction Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Stick Drift Reduction Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Stick Regeneration Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Swing Control valve
Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 10

Lab E-1 Worksheet


Test and Adjust Implement Line Relief Valves
Machine Model____________________________ Date__________________________________
Serial Number____________________________

Service Meter Hours_____________________

Line Relief Valve Pressure Tooling:


____ 1-8T0861
____ 1-8T0856

Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]


Gauge [60000 kPa (8700 psi)]

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the line relief valves, refer to the
Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting" (Form
RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Boom raise

____________________

____________________

Boom lower

____________________

____________________

Stick in

____________________

____________________

Stick out

____________________

____________________

Bucket open

____________________

____________________

Bucket close

____________________

____________________

Attachment, front line relief

____________________

____________________

Attachment, rear line relief

____________________

____________________

NOTE: Test the line relief valve pressures with the engine speed dial in Position 2.
Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 11

Lab E-2 Worksheet


Test and Adjust Main Relief Valve
Machine Model____________________________ Date__________________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours_____________________
Line Relief Valve Pressure Tooling:
____ 1-8T0861

Gauge [60000 kPa (8700 psi)]

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the signal relief valves, refer to the
Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Main relief valve

____________________

____________________

NOTE: Test the signal relief valve pressures with the engine speed dial at Position 10.
Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 12

Lab F Worksheets
Locate and Identify Cylinders, Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel
Components
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Left Travel Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Right Travel Spool
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Counterbalance Valves
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Motors
Location:
Function:
_____ Forward Travel Crossover Relief Valves
Location:
Function:
_____ Reverse Travel Crossover Relief Valves
Location:
Function:

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 13

Lab F Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel Components
_____ Bucket Cylinder
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Parking Brake
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Motor Case Drain Line
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Alarm Cancel Switch
Location:
Function:
_____ Forward Supply Lines
Location:
Function:
_____ Forward Return Line
Location:
Function:
_____ Engine and Pump Control Module
Location:
Function:
_____ Travel Alarm (if equipped)
Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 14

Lab F Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Travel System, Final Drive and Swivel Components
_____ Two Speed Travel Solenoid Valve
Location:
Function:

_____ Two Speed Travel Switch


Location:
Function:

_____ Travel Pedals/Levers


Location:
Function:

_____ Straight Travel Pedal


Location:
Function:
_____ Boom Cylinders
Location:
Function:

_____ Straight Travel Control Valve Spool


Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 15

Lab F Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel Components
_____ Swivel
Location:
Function:

_____ Final Drives


Location:
Function:

_____ Stick Cylinder


Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 16

Lab G-1 Worksheet


Test and Adjust Travel Crossover Relief Valves
Machine Model____________________________ Date_______________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours__________________
Travel Crossover Relief Valve Test Tooling:
____ 1-8T0861
____ 1-8T0856
____ 1-FT2542

Gauge [60000 kPa (8700 psi)]


Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]
Track Block Assembly

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the travel crossover relief valves,
refer to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Right Forward Travel

____________________

_________________

Right Reverse Travel

____________________

_________________

Left Forward Travel

____________________

_________________

Left Reverse Travel

____________________

_________________

NOTE: Test each travel crossover relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at
Position 10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 17

Lab G-2 Worksheet


Measure Travel Motor Case Drain Flow
Machine Model____________________________ Date______________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours_________________
Travel Motor Case Drain Flow Tooling:
____
____
____
____
____
____

1-FT2542
1-6V9511
1-6V9746
111-

Track Block Assembly


Face Seal Plug
O-ring seal
Hose assembly to fit travel motor case drain fitting
Stop watch
Container for Measuring

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and the travel motor case drain flow, refer
to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Right Travel Motor

____________________

________________

Left Travel Motor

____________________

________________

SERV1855
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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 18

Lab H Worksheets
Locate and Identify Swing System Components
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold and pilot systems.
_____ Swing Control Valve
Location:
Function:
_____ Fine Swing Solenoid (Cushion Swing Solenoid)
Location:
Function:
_____ Swing Parking Brake Release Line
Location:
Function:

_____ Swing Parking Brake Solenoid Valve


Location:
Function:

SERV1855
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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 19

Lab H Worksheets (continued)


Locate and Identify Swing System Components
_____ Swing Joystick
Location:
Function:

_____ Engine and Pump Control Module


Location:
Function:
_____ Anti-reaction Valves
Location:
Function:
_____ Swing System Pressure Crossover Relief Valves
Location:
Function:
_____ Variable Swing Priority Valve
Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 20

Lab I-1 Worksheet


Test and Adjust Swing System Relief Valves
Machine Model____________________________ Date______________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours_________________

Swing System Relief Valve Test Tooling:


____ 1-8T0861

Gauge [60000 kPa (8700 psi)]

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the swing system relief valves,
refer to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Right Swing Motor


Right Swing Relief Valve

____________________

________________

Right Swing Motor


Left Swing Relief Valve

____________________

________________

Left Swing Motor


Right Swing Relief Valve

____________________

________________

Left Swing Motor


Left Swing Relief Valve

____________________

________________

NOTE: Test each travel crossover relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at
Position 10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 21

Lab I-2 Worksheet


Test Swing Motor Case Drain Flow
Machine Model____________________________ Date______________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours_________________
Swing Motor Case Drain Flow Tooling:
____
____
____
____

1-6V9832
Cap
1-6V9746
O-ring seal
1Container for Measuring
1Stop watch

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and the swing motor case drain flow, refer
to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Right Swing Motor

____________________

________________

Left Swing Motor

____________________

________________

NOTE: Test the swing motor case drain flow at three different motor positions and then
average the three flows. Machine controls are: Engine Speed Dial at Position 10. The
Swing Relief Pressures set at 31400 1000 kPa (4555 145 psi). Hydraulic oil
temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 22

Lab J Worksheet
Locate and Identify Cooling and Return Systems Components
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold and pilot systems.
_____ Hydraulic Oil Cooler
Location:
Function:
_____ Radiator
Location:
Function:
_____ Fuel Cooler
Location:
Function:
_____ Air to Air Aftercooler
Location:
Function:
____ Case Drain Filter
Location:
Function:
_____ Return Oil Filter
Location:
Function:

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 23

Lab K Worksheet
Test and Adjust Power Shift Pressure
Machine Model____________________________ Date_______________________________
Serial Number_____________________________ Service Meter Hours__________________
Test and adjust power shift pressure test tooling:
____
____
____
____

2-6V3079
4-6V4143
1-8T0856
1-6V3989

Hose (14 ft. long w/1/8 in. NPTF ext. thd.)


Coupler, Valved (w/1/8 in. NPTF int. thd.)
Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]
Nipple, Open (w/1/4 in. NPTF int. thd.)

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the power shift pressure, refer to
the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Low PS Pressure

____________________

________________

High PS Pressure

____________________

________________

NOTE: Test and adjust the power shift pressure with the engine speed dial at Position
10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

SERV1855
04/08

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Posttest
Handout No. 24

345D Hydraulic EXCAVATOR


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OPERATION POSTTEST
Directions: Modified True/False. If a question is false, underline or circle the word or words
that make the statement incorrect and replace with word(s) to make the statement correct.

Example:

1.

a hydraulic system
This is an engine class.

_____ 1. When investigating a power complaint, first determine if the complaint is hydraulic
or engine related.
_____ 2. When the implement or travel controls are in use, the implement or travel pressure
is regulated by the NFC relief valve.
_____ 3 The engine and pump control module receives an electrical signal from the left
pump pressure sensor during the swing function.
_____ 4. The travel system pressure can be checked while stalling an implement function.
_____ 5. When power shift pressure to the implement pump regulators increases, the pumps
destroke.
_____ 6. The variable swing priority valve is controlled by the swing priority pressure
reducing valve.
_____ 7. Boom pilot pressure controls the swing priority pressure reducing valve.
_____ 8. The Stick 2 stick in pilot signal is controlled by the boom down pilot signal going to
the boom priority pressure reducing valve.
_____ 9. The NFC relief valve system ensures the implement pumps upstroke or destroke
depending on pilot control valve movement.
_____10. The maximum pressure during level travel is regulated by the travel crossover relief
valve.
_____ 11. Power shift signal pressure is controlled by the monitor.
_____12. Implement pump G-port pressure oil comes from the pilot manifold.
_____13. The implement pumps upstroke when the power shift solenoid receives a decrease in
electrical signal from the engine and pump control module.

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Posttest
Handout No. 25

_____14. The Underspeed System regulates NFC pressure to the implement pumps to keep
the engine from stalling.
_____15. The horsepower adjustment on the implement pump regulator controls the pump
destroking pressure.
_____16. The Boom 1 and Boom 2 control valves move at the same time when Boom Up
function is activated.
_____17. It is possible to have the stick re-generation not function during a stick in operation.
_____18. When the implement pumps are at standby, the NFC signal pressure is lowest.
_____19. The stick unloading valve is shifted during stick in operation by the stick in pilot
pressure.
_____20. The implement pump flow is controlled by three different signal pressures sent to
the pump regulators.
_____21. On all 345Cs, one of the signal pressures that control pump flow is the negative
flow control pressure.
_____22. It is possible to have the boom re-generation not function during a boom down
operation.
_____23. When multiple controls are activated, the highest system pressure from the right or
left half of the implement control valve is regulated by the main relief valve.
_____24. Power shift pressure is calibrated using the Service Tool and ET software.
_____25. Diagnostic information is available from the monitor panel or by using ET.

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Posttest
Handout No. 26

Directions: Fill In The Blank and Multiple Choice. Any reference material and class notes
may be used to determine the correct answers.
1. The travel crossover relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
2. What constant power shift pressure is set during P-Q testing?
_____________________
3. The boom head end and stick rod end line relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
4. The remaining implement line relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
5. The engine and pump control does not receive a control signal from

A. the left and right travel pressure switches


B. the implement and swing pressure switch
C. the pilot system pressure sensor
D. the right pump pressure sensor
E. the left pump pressure sensor
F.the straight travel pressure switch
G. the attachment pressure switch
H. the hydraulic activation switch
6. The main relief valve is adjusted to what pressure for implement functions?
_____________________
7. The swing motor left and right relief valve pressure setting is adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
8. The travel motor crossover relief valve pressure setting is adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
9. The pilot system pressure is adjusted to what pressure?
_____________________
10. The power shift pressure is adjusted to what pressures during the calibration procedure?
_____________________
_____________________
11. The travel and swing parking brakes require what pressure to release?
_____________________
12. The stick unloading valve requires what rod end return pressure to shift?
_____________________

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 27

Directions: Match the component with the correct location or description by placing the letter
next to the component.
Pilot Pump
Power Shift Pressure Solenoid
Boom and Swing Priority
Pressure Reducing Valves
Implement/Swing Pressure
Switch
Boom Drift Reduction Valve
Swing Anti-reaction Valves

A. Below implement control valve opposite pilot


manifold
B. Control signals from the left and right sections
of the implement control valve
C. Receives signals from pressure switches and
sensors. Sends a PWM signal to the power
shift solenoid.
D. Inside spool in left half of implement control
valve. When activated, sends right pump flow
to both travel motors and left pump flow to the
implement and swing functions.
E. Mounted on the right implement pump

Hydraulic Actuation Valve

F. Destrokes pumps based on engine speed

Slow Return Check Valve

G. On the front of the swing motor

Swing Brake Solenoid Valve

H. If this switch is closed, the EPC energizes the


Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve.

Hydraulic Actuation Lever


Switch
Travel Pressure Switches
Negative Flow Control Signals

I. On top of the right implement pump


J. Prevents the boom cylinders from drifting
down under
K. On pilot manifold. Receives EPC signal and
sends pilot system oil to release swing brake.

Straight Travel Valve

L. Below the cab on the Travel Control Valve.


Signals the EPC when L or R travel is actuated.

Engine and Pump Control

M. Controlled by the Hydraulic Activation


Solenoid on the pilot manifold

Underspeed System

N. Below the cab on resolver block

Stick Unloading Valve

O. Provides 290 kPa (42 psi) back pressure in the


swing control valve return oil lines.
P. After Stick In return pressure exceeds 15700
kPa (2300 psi) this valve shifts opening
another return oil passage for Stick In return
oil.

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 1

Lab A Worksheets - Answers


Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach tags to
the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left main implement pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Pilot Filter
Location: On the rear of the hydraulic tank at the front of the pump compartment.
Function: Filters pilot oil before pilot oil goes to any of the pilot systems.
_____ Pilot System Pressure Test Port
Location: Quick disconnect nipple located on the base of the pilot oil filter.
Function: For measuring the pilot system pressure.
_____ Pilot Manifold
Location: Behind the swing bearing, under the main control valve.
Function: A manifold block containing the two-speed travel solenoid, hydraulic activation
solenoid, swing brake solenoid, and hydraulic activation control valve. Distributes
pilot system oil to various systems on the machine.
_____ Pilot System Pressure Relief Valve
Location: On the base of the pilot oil filter.
Function: Limits the pilot system pressure.
_____ Pilot System Accumulator
Location: On the top of the pilot manifold.
Function: Provides stored energy to the pilot system, when the engine is shut down, for
lowering the implements and dampens pressure spikes in the pilot system during
normal operation.

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 2

Lab A Worksheets - Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
_____ Swing Parking Brake Solenoid Valve
Location: In the middle of the pilot oil manifold.
Function: When energized by the Machine Electronic Control Module, the solenoid sends pilot
system oil to release the swing brakes.
_____ Hydraulic Actuation Control Valve
Location: In the pilot manifold.
Function: When actuated by the Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve, this control valve directs
pilot system oil to the pilot joystick.
_____ Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve
Location: On the top of the pilot manifold.
Function: When actuated by the Machine Electronic Control Module, this solenoid valve
directs pilot system oil to actuate the Hydraulic Actuation Control Valve.
_____ Hydraulic Actuation Lever
Location: On the left operator console.
Function: Opens and closes the hydraulic actuation micro switch. When the hydraulic
actuation micro switch is closed, an electronic signal is sent to the Machine
Electronic Control Module. The Machine Electronic Control Module then energizes
the Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve which in turn actuates the Hydraulic
Actuation Control Valve.
_____ Power Shift Solenoid Valve
Location: The front of the main implement pump.
Function: It receives an electrical signal from the Machine Electronic Control Module, based
upon engine speed and engine speed dial position, and sends modulated pilot system
pressure to the implement pump controls to assist in regulating implement pump
flow.
_____ Pilot Pressure Release Line for Swing Parking Brakes
Location: The pilot pressure line going to the swing brake on the swing motor.
Function: Provides pilot system oil from the swing brake solenoid for releasing the swing
brake. The swing brakes are spring applied and released by pilot pressure.

SERV1855
04/08

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 3

Lab A Worksheets - Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Pilot System Components
_____ Two Speed Travel Solenoid Valve
Location: The bottom solenoid valve mounted on the pilot manifold.
Function: When this solenoid valve is actuated by the Machine Electronic Control Module,
pilot system pressure is sent to the displacement change valves in the travel motors.
When the displacement change valves are actuated, the travel motor swashplates are
set at the minimum angle for fast travel speed.
_____ Swing/Boom Priority Valve
Location: Under the main control valve, behind the swing bearing.
Function: Allows the operator to adjust hydraulic flow priority to the swing or boom circuits,
depending on the movement of the joysticks.
_____ Implement/Swing Pressure Switch
Location: On the front of the main control valve.
Function: Signals the Engine and Pump control Module that a implement function is activated
_____ Travel Pressure Switch
Location: On the front of the main control valve..
Function: Signals the Engine and Pump control Module that a travel function is activated
_____ Pilot System S-O-S Fitting
Location: On the top left side of the pilot filter base, as viewed from outside the pump
compartment.
Function: Allows the technicians to obtain SOS samples from the hydraulic system.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 4

Lab B Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Pilot System Relief Valve
Machine Model___________________________

Date_____________________________

Serial Number________________________

Service Meter Hours__________________

Tooling for Pilot Relief Valve Test


____ 1-8T0856

Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]

NOTE: For the complete procedures to test and adjust the pilot system relief valve,
refer to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Pilot relief valve

______________

_________________

NOTE: Test the pilot relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at Position
10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 5

Lab C Worksheet Answers


Locate and Identify Implement/Travel Pumps and Pump Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach the
tags to the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter next to the component. During the visual presentation, use
these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left main implement pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Implement/Travel Pump Group
Location: In pump compartment on center of flywheel housing/pump drive.
Function: Supplies oil to the main control valve.
_____ Right Pump
Location: The pump closest to rear of the machine.
Function: Supplies oil to the right side of the main control valve.
_____ Left Pump
Location: The pump closest to the front of the machine.
Function: Supplies oil to the left side of the main control valve.
_____ Suction Line
Location: The single line connected to bottom center of the implement/travel pump.
Function: The supply line from the hydraulic tank to the implement/travel tandem pump.
_____ Discharge Lines
Location: Top of right, left, and pilot pumps.
Function: Pump discharge pressure line from each pump to the main control valve.
_____ Implement/Travel Pump Case Drain Line
Location: Connected to top of the right pump.
Function: A line sending internal leakage oil from the front pump back to the hydraulic tank.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 6

Lab C Worksheet Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Implement/Travel Pumps and Pump Components
NOTE: Use the rear pump regulator to identify the following components.

_____ Maximum Angle Adjustment


Location: On the rear of the main implement pump directly behind the minimum angle
adjustment.
Function: Changes the pump swashplate maximum angle stop to set maximum pump flow.
_____ Minimum Angle Adjustment
Location: On the front of the main implement pump to the right of the power shift solenoid.
Function: Changes the pump swashplate minimum angle stop to set minimum pump flow.
_____ Engine and Pump Control Module
Location: The ECM in the compartment behind the cab.
Function: Controls the travel proportional solenoids, the travel alarm, the two-speed travel
solenoid valve, and monitors the implement/travel system pressure sensor.
_____ Implement/Travel Pump Regulator
Location: Mounted on the top of each pump.
Function: Regulates pump output oil flow based on the signal pressures it receives.
Power Shift Signal Pressure Port
Location: On the back side of the power shift solenoid.
Function: Receives the power shift pressure signal from the power shift proportional reducing
solenoid valve.
_____ Horsepower Control Pressure Adjustment
Location: On front of each pump regulator.
Function: Regulates the pump discharge pressure point on the constant horsepower curve
where the pump regulator begins to destroke the pump.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 7

Lab D Worksheets Answers


Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach tags to
the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Implement Control Valve
Location: Between the swing frame rails in front of the engine.
Function: Controls the boom, stick, bucket, travel and attachment functions and contains the
differential relief valves, signal relief valves, and signal duplicating valves.
_____ Boom I Spool
Location: The second spool from the outside in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Controls the boom function.
_____ Boom II Spool
Location: The first spool from the outside in the left half of the implement control valve.
Function: Controls the boom function.
_____ Bucket Spool
Location: The center spool in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Controls the bucket curl function.
_____ Attachment Spool (Std.)
Location: The fourth spool from the outside in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Directs oil to an attachment circuit, if the machine is equipped.
_____ Straight Travel Spool
Location: The inside spool on the left main control valve.
Function: Directs oil to both travel motors simultaneously.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 8

Lab D Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
_____ Stick I Spool
Location: The second spool from the outside in the left half of the implement control valve.
Function: Controls the stick function.
_____ Stick II Spool
Location: The outside spool in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Controls the stick function.
_____ Left Travel Spool
Location: The second spool from the inside of the left half of the implement control valve.
Function: Directs oil to the left travel motor.
_____ Right Travel Spool
Location: The inside spool in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Directs oil to the right travel motor.
_____ Line Relief Valves for Boom, Stick, and Bucket Curl
Location: The six relief valves are located on the implement control valve. Two are in the
bucket curl lines; one is in the boom down line; one is in the boom drift reduction
valve (boom up line); one is in the stick out line; one is in the stick drift reduction
valve (stick in line).
Function: They limit the maximum pressure that can be developed in a circuit due to an out
side force on a cylinder.
_____ Load Check Valves
Location: Contained internally within each main control valve.
Function: The load check function prevents an implement from moving until pump discharge
pressure is higher than work port pressure.
_____ Boom Regeneration Valve
Location: Is internally plumbed into the valve of the Boom I spool.
Function: Directs oil from the head end of the boom cylinders to the rod end of the cylinders
during the Boom lower operation.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 9

Lab D Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify the Main Control Valve and Main Control Valve
Components
_____ Boom Drift Reduction Valve
Location: On top front of boom I spool on main control valve.
Function: Prevents boom cylinders from drifting down due to leakage through the boom spool.
_____ Stick Drift Reduction Valve
Location: On top front of stick I spool on main control valve.
Function: Prevents stick cylinder from drifting in due to leakage through the stick spool.
_____ Stick Regeneration Control Valve
Location: Mounted on the rear of the Stick I spool.
Function: Directs oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder to the head end during the STICK
IN operation.
_____ Swing Control Valve
Location: The third spool from the inside in the left half of the main control valve.
Function: Controls the swing function.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 10

Lab E-1 Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Implement Line Relief Valves
Machine Model______________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number_______________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Line Relief Valve Pressure Tooling:

____ 1-8T0861
____ 1-8T0856

Gauge
Gauge

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the line relief valves, refer to the
Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Boom raise

__________________

________________

Boom lower

__________________

________________

Stick in

__________________

________________

Stick out

__________________

________________

Bucket open

__________________

________________

Bucket close

__________________

________________

Attachment, front line relief

__________________

________________

Attachment, rear line relief

__________________

________________

NOTE: Test the line relief valve pressures with the engine speed dial in Position 2.
Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 11

Lab E-2 Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Main Relief Valve
Machine Model____________________________

Date___________________________

Serial Number_____________________________

Service Meter Hours______________

Line Relief Valve Pressure Tooling:


____ 1-8T0861

Gauge

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the line relief valves, refer to the
Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Main relief valve

_________________

________________

NOTE: Test the line relief valve pressures with the engine speed dial in Position 2.
Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 12

Lab F Worksheets Answers


Locate and Identify Cylinders, Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel
Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach tags to
the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is
explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold and pilot systems.
_____ Left Travel Spool
Location: The second spool from the inside of the left half of the implement control valve.
Function: Directs oil to the left travel motor.
_____ Right Travel Spool
Location: The inside spool in the right half of the implement control valve.
Function: Directs oil to the right travel motor.
_____ Travel Counterbalance Valves
Location: Mounted on the top of the left and right travel motors.
Function: Provide passages for pump flow to the left and right travel motors and return flow
from the travel motors to the tank. Also contains line relief valves (crossover relief
valves) to limit maximum circuit pressure. Internal control spools provide a
counterbalance function by applying a partial hydraulic lock on the travel motors
during stopping and overspeeding conditions.
_____ Travel Motor
Location: Mounted on the inside of the left and right final drive housings.
Function: Converts implement/travel pump flow to rotational motion to drive the final drive.
_____ Forward Travel Crossover Relief Valve
Location: Located on the rear top of travel counterbalance valve.
Function: Limit the maximum pressure in the travel motor circuits.
_____ Reverse Travel Crossover Relief Valve
Location: Located on the rear bottom of travel counterbalance valve.
Function: Limit the maximum pressure in the travel motor circuits to.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 13

Lab F Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Cylinders, Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel
Components
_____ Bucket Cylinder
Location: Mounted on top of the stick between stick and bucket.
Function: Opens or closes the bucket.
_____ Travel Parking Brake
Location: Inside the final drive housings.
Function: A stack of discs and plates that prevent the final drive from turning unless the
parking brake is released. The travel parking brake is spring applied and released
with travel system pressure.
_____ Travel Motor Case Drain Line
Location: On the top of each travel motor.
Function: Carries the motor case drain oil (internal leakage oil) back through the swivel to the
tank.
_____ Travel Alarm Cancel Switch
Location: On the right operator console, third button from the top left.
Function: When activated, turns the travel alarm off.
_____ Forward Supply Line
Location: Attached to the front of the counterbalance valves.
Function: Carry hydraulic oil from the travel control valves to the travel counterbalance
valves.
_____ Forward Return Line
Location: Attached to the front of the counterbalance valves.
Function: Carry hydraulic oil from the travel counterbalance valves to the hydraulic return
system.
_____ Engine and Pump Control Module
Location: The ECM in the compartment behind the cab.
Function: Controls the travel proportional solenoids, the travel alarm, the two-speed travel
solenoid valve and monitors the implement/travel system pressure sensor.
_____ Travel Alarm
Location: Located below the hydraulic tank.
Function: Alerts spectators the machine has begun to move, forward or in reverse.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 14

Lab F Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Cylinders, Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel
Components
_____ Two Speed Travel Solenoid Valve
Location: The bottom solenoid valve mounted on the pilot manifold.
Function: When this solenoid valve is actuated by the Engine and Pump Control Module, pilot
system pressure is sent to the displacement change valves in the travel motors.
When the displacement change valves are actuated, the travel motor swashplates are
set at the minimum angle for fast travel speed.
_____ Two Speed Travel Switch
Location: On the right operator console, top left button.
Function: When this key is actuated by the operator, an electrical signal is sent to the Engine
and Pump Control Module. The Engine and Pump Control Module then energizes
or de-energizes the two-speed solenoid located on the pilot manifold.
_____ Travel Pedals/Levers
Location: On the cab floor in front of the operators seat.
Function: Pushing forward on each pedal/lever sends pilot oil to the travel spool. This moves
the travel control spool which sends hydraulic oil to the travel motor to move the
machine in the forward direction. The left pedal/lever controls the left travel motor;
the right pedal/lever controls the right travel motor.
_____ Straight Travel Pedal
Location: On the cab floor mounted on the right side of the footrest.
Function: Tipping the pedal forward sends pilot oil to the travel spools. This moves the travel
control spools which send hydraulic oil to the travel motors to move the machine
forward; tipping the pedal back sends pilot oil to the travel spools. This moves the
travel control spools which send hydraulic oil to the travel motors to move the
machine in reverse.
_____ Boom Cylinders
Location: Mounted between the front of the swing frame and the boom arch.
Function: Moves the boom up and down.
_____ Straight Travel Control Valve Spool
Location: The inside spool on the left main control valve.
Function: Directs oil to both travel motors simultaneously.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 15

Lab F Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Cylinders, Travel System, Final Drive, and Swivel
Components
_____ Swivel
Location: In the center of the swing frame in front of the swing drives.
Function: Provides a rotating joint for implement/travel pump oil, pilot pump oil and travel
motor case drain oil to pass through between the upper and lower structure.
_____ Final Drives
Location: On the rear of the roller frames.
Function: Hold the travel motor and travel counterbalance valve assemblies. Reduces the
travel motor rotational speed in three stages.
_____ Stick Cylinder
Location: Mounted on top of the boom between the boom and top end of stick.
Function: Moves the stick in and out.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 16

Lab G-1 Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Travel Crossover Relief Valves
Machine Model__________________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number___________________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Travel Crossover Relief Valve Test Tooling:


____ 1-8T0861
____ 1-8T0856
____ 1-FT2542

Gauge [60000 kPa (8700 psi)]


Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]
Track Block Assembly

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the travel crossover relief valves,
refer to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Right Forward Travel

__________________

________________

Right Reverse Travel

__________________

________________

Left Forward Travel

__________________

________________

Left Reverse Travel

__________________

________________

NOTE: Test each travel crossover relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at
Position 10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 17

Lab G-2 Worksheet Answers


Measure Travel Motor Case Drain Flow
Machine Model____________________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number_____________________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Travel Motor Case Drain Flow Tooling:


____
____
____
____
____
____

1-FT2542
1-6V9509
1-6V8398
111-

Track Block Assembly


Face Seal Plug
O-ring Seal
Hose assembly to fit travel motor case drain fitting
Stop watch
Container for Measuring

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and the travel motor case drain flow, refer
to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Function

Specification

Actual

Right Travel Motor

____________________

_________________

Left Travel Motor

____________________

_________________

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 18

Lab H Worksheets Answers


Locate and Identify Swing System Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach tags to
the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on the left pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold, and pilot systems.
_____ Swing Control Valve
Location: Third spool from the outside of the left main control valve.
Function: Supplies oil to the right and left swing motors when swing function is requested.
_____ Fine Swing Solenoid (Cushion Swing Solenoid)
Location: Mounted on the front of the swing motor.
Function: When energized, provides fine control of swing movement by eliminating the abrupt
start and stop during the swing operation.
_____ Swing Parking Brake Release Line
Location: Small line from the swing brake solenoid valve connected to the swing parking brake
in the swing drive housing.
Function: Directs pilot system oil from the left swing parking brake to release the swing
parking brake in the right swing drive housing.
_____ Swing Parking Brake Solenoid Valve
Location: The second from the bottom solenoid on the pilot manifold.
Function: When energized by the Engine and Pump Control Module, the solenoid sends pilot
system oil to release the swing brakes.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 19

Lab H Worksheets Answers (continued)


Locate and Identify Swing System Components
_____ Swing Joystick
Location: The left joystick in the cab.
Function: Pushing left on the joystick sends pilot oil to the LEFT SWING control valve. This
moves the swing control spool which sends hydraulic oil to the swing motors to
swing the machine left; pulling right on the joystick sends pilot oil to the RIGHT
SWING control valve. This moves the swing control spool which sends hydraulic oil
to the swing motors to swing the machine right.
_____ Engine and Pump Control Module
Location: The ECM in the compartment behind the cab.
Function: Controls the swing brake solenoid valve and monitors the swing system pressure.

_____ Anti-reaction Valves


Location: On the bottom front of the swing motor.
Function: Help stop the swing smoothly and prevent shock loading at the end of swing
function.
_____ Swing System Pressure Crossover Relief Valves
Location: On the rear of the swing motor.
Function: Limit the pressure in the left and right swing circuits during the swing start and stop
operation.
_____ Variable Swing Priority Valve
Location: Mounted under the main control valve, behind the swing bearing.
Function: Varies the amount of supply oil that is given to the swing circuit depending on the
movement of the joysticks by the operator.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 20

Lab I-1 Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Swing System Relief Valves
Machine Model____________________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number_____________________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Swing System Relief Valve Test Tooling:


____ 1-8T0861

Gauge

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the swing system relief valves,
refer to the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and
Adjusting" (Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Right Swing Motor


Right Swing Relief Valve

____________________

_________________

Right Swing Motor


Left Swing Relief Valve

____________________

_________________

Left Swing Motor


Right Swing Relief Valve

____________________

_________________

Left Swing Motor


Left Swing Relief Valve

____________________

_________________

NOTE: Test each travel crossover relief valve pressure with the engine speed dial at
Position 10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 21

Lab I-2 Worksheet Answers


Test Swing Motor Case Drain Flow
Machine Model____________________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number_____________________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Swing Motor Case Drain Flow Tooling:


____
____
____
____

1-6V9832
1-6V9746
11-

Cap
O-ring Seal
Container for Measuring
Stop watch

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and the swing motor case drain flow, refer to
the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Right Swing Motor

____________________

_________________

Left Swing Motor

____________________

_________________

NOTE: Test the swing motor case drain flow at three different motor positions and
then average the three flows. Machine controls are: Engine Speed Dial at Position
10. The Swing Relief Pressures set at 31400 1000 kPa (4555 145 psi). Hydraulic
oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 22

Lab J Worksheet Answers


Locate and Identify Cooling and Return Systems Components
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Fill in the appropriate letters or numbers as you attach tags to
the components.
Directions: Place the correct letter or number next to the component. During the visual
presentation, use these worksheets to take notes as the function of each component is explained.
Example: _____Pilot Pump
Location: The single section gear pump mounted on left main implement pump.
Function: Supplies pilot system oil flow to the pilot filter, pilot manifold and pilot systems.
_____ Hydraulic Oil Cooler
Location: At the left rear corner of the machine in front of the engine.
Function: Provides cooling for the hydraulic oil.
_____ Radiator
Location: At the left rear corner of the machine in front of the engine.
Function: Provides cooling for the engine coolant.
_____ Fuel Cooler
Location: At the left rear corner of the machine in front of the engine.
Function: Provides cooling for the engine diesel fuel.
_____ Air to Air After-cooler
Location: At the left rear corner of the machine in front of the engine.
Function: Provides cooling for the air going into the intake manifold
_____ Case Drain Filter
Location: Inside the pump compartment, behind the pilot filter.
Function: Filters the case drain oil from the pumps and motors.
_____ Return Oil Filter
Location: Inside the hydraulic tank.
Function: Filter all the return oil from the implements, swing and travel circuits.

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Laboratory Exercises
Handout No. 23

Lab K Worksheet Answers


Test and Adjust Power Shift Pressure
Machine Model____________________________

Date____________________________

Serial Number_____________________________

Service Meter Hours_______________

Test and adjust power shift pressure test tooling:


____
____
____
____

1-6V3079
2-6V4143
2-8T0856
2-6V3989

Hose (14 ft. long w/1/8 in. NPTF ext. thd.)


Coupler, Valved (w/1/8 in. NPTF int. thd.)
Gauge [6000 kPa (870 psi)]
Nipple, Open (w/1/4 in. NPTF int. thd.)

NOTE: For the complete procedure to test and adjust the power shift pressure, refer to
the Service Manual module "345D Excavator Hydraulic System, Testing and Adjusting"
(Form RENR7325-03).

Item

Specification

Actual

Low PS Pressure

____________________

_______________

High PS Pressure

____________________

_______________

NOTE: Test and adjust the power shift pressure with the engine speed dial at Position
10. Hydraulic oil temperature should be 55 5 C (131 9 F).

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Posttest Answers
Handout No. 24

345D Hydraulic EXCAVATOR


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OPERATION POSTTEST
ANSWERS
Directions: Modified True/False. If a question is false, underline or circle the word or words
that make the statement incorrect and replace with word(s) to make the statement correct.

Example:
T

1.

a hydraulic system
This is an engine class.

1. When investigating a power complaint, first determine if the complaint is hydraulic


or engine related.
main
2. When the implement or travel controls are in use, the implement or travel pressure is
regulated by the NFC relief valve.

3 The engine and pump control module receives an electrical signal from the left
pump pressure sensor during the swing function.

4. The travel system pressure can be checked while stalling an implement function.

5. When power shift pressure to the implement pump regulators increases, the pumps
destroke.

6. The variable swing priority valve is controlled by the swing priority pressure
reducing valve.

F
F

swing
7. Boom pilot pressure controls the swing priority pressure reducing valve.
boom up
8. The Stick 2 stick in pilot signal is controlled by the boom down pilot signal going to
the boom priority pressure reducing valve.
9. The NFC relief valve system ensures the implement pumps upstroke or destroke
depending on pilot control valve movement.

main
F 10. The maximum pressure during level travel is regulated by the travel crossover relief
valve.
engine and pump control
F 11.Power shift signal pressure is controlled by the monitor.
pump
F 12.Implement pump G-port pressure oil comes from the pilot manifold.
T 13.The implement pumps upstroke when the power shift solenoid receives a decrease in
electrical signal from the engine and pump control module.

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Posttest Answers
Handout No. 25

power shift
F 14.The Underspeed System regulates NFC pressure to the implement pumps to keep the
engine from stalling.
T 15. The horsepower adjustments on the implement pump regulator controls the pump
destroking pressure.
different times
F 16. The Boom 1 and Boom 2 control valves move at the same time when Boom Up
function is activated.
T 17. It is possible to have the stick re-generation not function during a stick in operation.
highest
F 18.When the implement pumps are at standby, the NFC signal pressure is lowest.
rod end
F 19.The stick unloading valve is shifted during stick in operation by the stick in pilot
pressure.
T 20.The implement pump flow is controlled by three different signal pressures sent to
the pump regulators.
T 21.On all 345Cs, one of the signal pressures that control pump flow is the negative flow
control pressure.
not possible
F 22.It is possible to have the boom re-generation not function during a boom down
operation.
T 23.When multiple controls are activated, the highest system pressure from the right or
left half of the implement control valve is regulated by the main relief valve.
or monitor panel
F 24.Power shift pressure can only be calibrated using the Service Tool and ET software.
T 25.Diagnostic information is available from the monitor panel or by using ET.

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Posttest Answers
Handout No. 26

Directions: Fill In The Blank and Multiple Choice. Any reference material and class notes
may be used to determine the correct answers.
1. The travel crossover relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
37780 kPa 1480 (5480 215 psi)
2. What constant power shift pressure is set during P-Q testing?
2537 kPa (368 psi)
3. The boom head end and stick rod end line relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
40000 500 kPa (5800 73 psi)
4. The remaining implement line relief valves are adjusted to what pressure?
37000 500 kPa (5076 73 psi)
5. The engine and pump control does not receive a control signal from
A. the left and right travel pressure switches
B. the implement and swing pressure switch
C. the pilot system pressure sensor
D. the right pump pressure sensor
E. the left pump pressure sensor
F.the straight travel pressure switch
G. the attachment pressure switch
H. the hydraulic activation switch

C .

6. The main relief valve is adjusted to what pressure for travel/implement functions?
35000 500 kPa (4950 psi)
7. The swing motor left and right relief valve pressure setting is adjusted to what pressure?
31400 1000 kPa (4554 145 psi)
9. The pilot system pressure is adjusted to what pressure?
4100 200 kPa (595 30 psi)
10. The power shift pressure is adjusted to what pressures during the calibration procedure?
496 kPa (72 psi)
2537 kPa (368 psi)
11. The travel parking brakes require what pressure to release?
1034 kPa (150 psi)
12. The stick unloading valve requires what rod end return pressure to shift?
15700 kPa (2277 psi)

SERV1855
04/08

- 202 -

Posttest Answers
Handout No. 27

Directions: Match the component with the correct location or description by placing the letter
next to the component.
E Pilot Pump
I Power Shift Pressure Solenoid
A Boom and Swing Priority
Pressure Reducing Valves
N Implement/Swing Pressure
Switch
J Boom Drift Reduction Valve
G Swing Anti-reaction Valves

A. Below implement control valve opposite pilot


manifold
B. Control signals from the left and right sections
of the implement control valve
C. Receives signals from pressure switches and
sensors. Sends a PWM signal to the power
shift solenoid.
D. Inside spool in left half of implement control
valve. When activated, sends right pump flow
to both travel motors and left pump flow to
the implement and swing functions.
E. Mounted on the right implement pump

M Hydraulic Actuation Valve

F. Destrokes pumps based on engine speed

O Slow Return Check Valve

G. On the front of the swing motor

K Swing Brake Solenoid Valve

H. If this switch is closed, the EPC energizes the


Hydraulic Actuation Solenoid Valve.

H Hydraulic Actuation Lever


Switch
L Travel Pressure Switches
B Negative Flow Control Signals
D Straight Travel Valve
C Engine and Pump Control
F

Underspeed System

I. On top of the right implement pump


J. Prevents the boom cylinders from drifting
down under load
K. On pilot manifold. Receives EPC signal and
sends pilot system oil to release swing brake.
L. Below the cab on the Travel Control Valve.
Signals the EPC when L or R travel is
actuated.
M. Controlled by the Hydraulic Activation
Solenoid on the pilot manifold
N. Below the cab on resolver block

Stick Unloading Valve

O. Provides 290 kPa (42 psi) back pressure in the


return oil lines.
P. After Stick In return pressure exceeds 15700
kPa (2300 psi) this valve shifts opening
another return oil passage for Stick In return
oil.

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