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1. What is fiber?

Ans: Fiber or fibre is classes of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete
elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. They are very important in the biology of both
plants and animals, for holding tissues together.
2. What is textile fiber?
Ans: Textile fiber has some characteristics which differ between fiber to Textile fiber . Textile
fiber can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving,
knitting,braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into
yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters,flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient
strength.Other important properties include elasticity,fineness, uniformity, durability, and
luster.
3. What is yarn?
Ans: Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the
production of textiles, sewing, crocheting,knitting, weaving, embroidery, and rope making.
Yarn
4. Flow chart of carded yarn manufacturing process.
Ans:
Fiber/Bale Blow Room Lap/Chute

Lap/Chute Carding Sliver (Carded)

Carded Sliver Draw Frame Sliver (Drawn)

Drawn Sliver Simplex Rove

Rove Ring Frame Yarn

Winding

Reeling

Bundling

Bailing
5. Flow chart of combed yarn manufacturing process.
Ans:
Fiber/Bale Blow Room Lap/Chute

Lap/Chute Carding Sliver (Carded)

Carded Sliver Pre-Comb Drawing Frame


Sliver (Pre-Drawn)

Sliver Lap Frame Lap


Lap Comber Sliver

Sliver Post-Comb Drawing Frame Sliver


(Post-Drawn)

Drawn Sliver Simplex Rove

Rove Ring Frame Yarn

Winding

Reeling

Bundling

Bailing
6. What is the first process/ machine in yarn
production?
Ans. Blow room.
7. What is the second process/ machine in yarn
production?
Ans. Carding machine.
8. What process / machine is used after carding?
Ans. Draw frame.
9. What process is used after draw frame?
Ans. Simplex.
10. What process is used after simplex?
Ans. Ring frame.
11. What is the production of blow room?
Ans. Lap.
12. What is the production of carding machine?
Ans. Sliver.
13. What is the production of draw frame?
Ans . Sliver/Drawing sliver
14. What is the production of simplex?
Ans. Roving.
15. What is the production of ring frame?
Ans . Yarn.
16. 1 lb(pound) =?
Ans. 840 yds=1 Hank=0.4536 kg=453.6 gm=16
ounce(oz).
17. What is the input of blow room?
Ans. Bale.

18. What is the input of carding machine?


Ans. Lap/Now chute feed system is being used.
19. What is the input of combing?
Ans. Sliver lap and number of doubling is usually
20-24.
20. What is the input of simplex?
Ans. Drawn sliver, Sliver hank 0.12/0.14/0.16,etc.
21. What is the input of ring frame?
Ans . Roving/Roving hank may be 0.75/0.80,etc.
22. What is fiber fineness?
Ans. Fineness is one of the most important
parameter determining the yarn quality (Fine or
Coarse).
20. How fineness is specified for cotton?
Ans. Fineness is specified by micronaire value
for cotton.
21. The maturity of cotton is defined in terms of
the development of cell wall (Yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
22. A fully mature fibre has a well developed
thick cell-wall (Yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
23. An immature fibre has a very thin cell-wall
(Yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
24. In mature fibre, dye absorption is high (yes/
no)
Ans. Yes
25. In immature fibre, dye absorption is low
(yes/no).
Ans . Yes
26. What is staple length?
Ans. The average length of spinnable fibre is
called staple length.
27. If staple length is increase then yarn quality
is also increase (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
28. Toughness of fibre has a direct effect on
yarn and fibre strength (yes/no).
Ans . Yes
29. If fibre strength is higher, then yarn and
fabric strength is also higher (yes/ no).
Ans. Yes
30. Short fibres deteriorate the yarn strength and

uniformity (true/false).
Ans. True.
31. What is the minimum strength for a textile
fibre?
Ans . Approximately 6 CN/tex (about 6km
breaking length)
32. What do you know about Presley index =?
Ans. Breaking load in Ibs/Bundle weight in mg.
33. What is fibre elongation?
Ans . Elongation is specified as a percentage of
the starting length.
34. What is bale management?
Ans. Testing, sorting and mixing bales according
to the properties of fibre for producing specific
good quality yarn at minimum cost is called bale
management.
35. When bale mixing is done?
Ans. Before the blow room/Before the bales
going into blow room.
36. What are the basic operations in the blow
room?
Ans.
Opening
Cleaning
Mixing & blending
Even feed of material to the card.
37. What is carding?
Ans. Carding may be defined as the reduction of
an entangled mass of fibre to a filmy web by
working them between two closely spaced,
relatively moving surface clothed with sharp wire
points.
38. Objective of carding.
Ans.
To open up the cotton in to single fibre state.
To reduce the number of neps, short fibres.
To produce a thick untwisted rope of fibre called
sliver.
39. Carding is called the heart/mother of
spinning (true/ false).
Ans. True.
40. What are the main objectives of draw frame?
Ans.
Straightening & parallelization of fibres by

drafting & drawing.


Minimization of irregularity by doubling.
Blending & mixing of fibres.
To produce a more uniform sliver of definite wt/
yds.
41. What are the faults of blow room?
Ans.
Soft lap,
Conical lap,
Barrel shaped,
Split lap,
Ragged selvedge,
Lap licking.
42. Find out the hank of the lap when the weight
of the lap is 14 oz/yds.
Ans.
14 oz contains = 1 yds,
1 oz contains = 1/14 yds,
16 oz or 1 lb contains = 16/14 yds
=16/14840 hank=0.00136 hank
So hank of lap = 0.00136.
43. Find out the wt/yds of the lap when hank of
the lap is 0.0014? Ans .
Weight of 0.0014840 yds = 1 lbs or 16 oz
1.176 yds = 16 oz
1 yds = 16/ 1.176 oz = 13.6 oz
So weight of lap = 13. 6 oz/yds
44. For cotton, higher the count, finer the yarn
(yes/no). Ans. Yes
45. For jute, lower the count, finer the yarn
(yes/ no).
Ans . Yes.
46. What is the name of combing waste?
Ans. Noils.
47. What is the meaning of TPI?
Ans . Turns per Inch/Twist per inch
48. What is the ring frame wastage?
Ans. Pnewmafil, banda, sweep, hard waste.
49. What is roving?
Ans. A roving is a continuous slightly twisted
strand of fibres which has not received its final
drawing for yarn. Roving hank=0.70 to 0.85,
TPI=about 1.15
50. What are the faults of yarn?

Ans.
Irregular yarn
Thick & thin places
Slubs
Nepped yarn
Spinners double
Crackers
Bad piecing
Hairiness
Soft yarn
Hard & non elastic yarn
Rough yarn
51. Over twisted yarn become poor in strength
(yes/ no).
Ans. Yes
52. What is the meaning of MIC?
Ans. Microgram per inch.
53. In direct system which one is fixed (mass/
length)?
Ans. Mass
54. In indirect system which one is fixed (mass/
length)?
Ans. Length
55. English count is denoted by Ne (yas/no)?
Ans. Yes.
56. Metric count is denoted by Nm(yes/no)?
Ans . Yes
57. Sliver and roving count is expressed by hank
(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
58. In spinning mill, up to roving the count value
is expressed by hank then count (true/false)?
Ans. True
59. The shape of yarn become round due to twist
(yas/no)?
Ans . Yas
60. Name the types of fiber?
Ans . Normal fiber, thin walled fiber, Dead fibers .
61. How can you express fiber fineness?
Ans. Weight per unit length.
62. What is stress?
Ans. Stress is the ratio between the applied
force and cross sectional area of the specimen,
Stress = applied force/ cross sectional area = F/

A.
Unit of stress is N/m2, dyne/cm2, which is also
called Pascal (Pa).
63. What is tenacity?
Ans. The tenacity of a fibre is the mass stress at
break.
Unit gm/tex,
Tenacity = breaking load / mass stress or linear
density,
Linear density = mass/unit length.
64. What is tensile strength?
Ans. Tensile strength = force required to break
the specimen/ cross sectional area
65. What is yield point?
Ans. The point up to which, a material contains
its elasticity is called yield point.
66. What are the basic textile materials?
Ans.
Fiber

Yarn

Grey fabric

Finished fabric

End product
67. More fibre drawing produces more short fiber
& resulted weak yarn (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
68. What is twist? Ans. Twist is the spirality of
bundle of fibres/ filaments.
69. Write down the types of yarn twist.
Ans.
z or clock wise &
S or anti clock wise twist.
70. Twist increases the strength of yarn (true/
false).
Ans. True
71. Write down the moisture regain of cotton
fibre?
Ans. 8.5%
72. What is IPI?
Ans. It indicates yarns thick places, thin places

and slubs.
73. What is count?
Ans. Count is a numerical expression which
expresses /indicates coarseness or fineness of
yarn.
Or, count is a number indicating the mass per
unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn.
74. Different types of measurement.
Ans.
1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 m =1.0936 yards=7000 grain
1kg = 2.204 lbs,
1lbs(pound) = 453 .6gm = 7000 grains
1gm =15.43 grains
16 oz = 1 lb(pound)
36 inch = 1 yard
2.54 cm = 1 inch
1 Hank=840 yards=1 pound
75. What is yarn twist? Ans. The spiral
disposition of the components of thread which is
usually the result of relative rotation of the two
ends is called yarn twist.
76. Rotor yarn is s twisted (yes/no).
Ans . Yes
77. Ring process yarn is z twisted (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
78. What is strain?
Ans . Strain = elongation / initial length
79. What is the unit of Strain?
Ans. No unit.
80. What is the meaning of CSP?
Ans.
Count Strength Product
CSP= Count Strength
81. If yarn is regular then CSP is higher (yes/
no).
Ans. Yes
82. Different relations.
Ans.
Denier = 9 Tex
Ne Denier = 5315
Tex Ne = 590.6
Tex Metric = 1000
Denier Metric = 9000

83. What are the unusable waste in spinning


mill?
Ans: (a)dropping-II, (b)flat strips of coarse count,
(c)Floor sweeping-II, (d)dust etc.
84. HVI(high volume instrument) is a very
important m/c of Q.C lab in spinning mill.(yes/
no)
Ans . Yes
85. What tests are done by HVI m/c?
Ans. (a)fineness, (b)trash, (c)length, (d)strength,
(e)Color.
86. How can you determine yarn count in English
system?
Ans.
Count (Ne) =length(yds)/length weight unit/
weight in gm
= (120yds/840yds) (1lbs or 453.6gm/weight in
gm)
=64.8/Weight in gm
87. Write down the name of count of direct
system?
Ans. Txe,K tex,D tex,Mili tex,Denier,lb/spyndle,
Woolen.
88. What do you mean by one lea?
Ans . One lea=120 yds.
89. What do you mean by WIRA?
Ans . Wool International Research Association.
90. Write down the full meaning of some
institution?
Ans.
BSTI = Bangladesh standard and testing
institution.
ISO = International organization for
standardization.
BS = British standard
AQL = Acceptable quality level.
BCIRA = British cotton industries research
association.
ITET= Institute of textile engineers and
technologist.
AAMA=American apparel manufacturer
association.
AAQC=American association of quality control.
91. Beater are responsible for removing almost

all of the impurity extructed in the blow room


(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
92. Name the last m/c of blow room?
Ans . Scutcher
93. What is the meaning of CV%?
Ans. Coefficient of variation percentage.
94. Where sliver is collected and which form?
Ans. In can and coiler form.
95. In ring frame where yarn is collected?
Ans. Bobbin
96. Name the modern cone winding machine?
Ans . Auto-coner machine/Savio orion
97. Cotton fiber is dissolved with 70% H2SO4
(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
98.All yarn of ring processing is Z-twist and
rotor yarn is S-twist.(yes/no)?
Ans . Yes
99. Where flyer is used in a spinning mill?
Ans . Simplex m/c.
100. What is spinning?
Ans . The process by which yarn is made from
fiber.
101.What is the raw material in spinning?
Ans. Fiber
102. What is millionaire value?
Ans. Micro gram per inch.
103. Write down the classification of fiber?
Ans. (i) natural, (II) Man made fiber.
104. Different between cotton and viscose?
Ans.
Cotton = Natural fiber, strength increase in wet
condition.
Viscose = Man made fiber, strength decrease in
we condition.
105. What is the meaning of AFIS?
Ans. Advanced fiber information system.
106. What is the ratio between length and width
of fiber?
Ans . 1000:1
107. Twist and twist direction of yarn affects the
fabric structure(True/false)?
Ans. True

108. What is UR?


Ans. UR = uniformity ratio =(50% Spun
length/2.5% span length)100
109. Write down the system of yarn count
measurement?
Ans.
Direct system: Tex,Denier.
Indirect system: English, metric.
110. When fiber consider short?
Ans. Length shorter than 0.5 inch or 12.8mm.
111. Why yarn preparation is needed?
Ans. To increase weaving efficiency.
112. What is drafting?
Ans. The process of increasing the length per
unit weight of slivers.
113. What is drawing?
Ans. It is the regular and uniform elongation of
the sliver to make it light.
114. What is doubling?
Ans . The process of combining several sliver info
one.
115. Which one is best ,combed yarn or carded
yarn?
Ans. Combed yarn.
116. Roving is wind into the bobbin(yes/no) ?
Ans. Yes.
117. Write down the other name of simplex?
Ans. (I)Speed frame, (II)Fly frame, (III)Roving
frame.
118. Some meaningAns.
DCP=Draft change pinion
LCP= Lifter change pinion
PW = poker wheel
TCP = Twist change pinion
119. Write down the causes of roving breakage?
Ans. (I)Tension variation, (II) irregular roving.
120. Write down the three types of flyer?
Ans. (I) Spindle mounted flyer,(II) top mounted
flyer,(III) closed mounted flyer.
121. What is the backbone of the world textile
trade?
Ans. Cotton.
122. Silk fiber readily absorbs water (yes/no)?

Ans. Yes
123. Jute plant have high CO2 assimilation rate
(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
124. What is the output of comber machine?
Ans. Combed sliver.
125. What is the output of the ring frame?
Ans. Yarn in bobbin form.
126. What is the first operation in blow room?
Ans. Opening
127. What is yarn?
Ans. It is an assemblage of fibers twisted or laid
together to form continuous strand suitable for
use In weaving, knitting etc.
128. Manmade fiber are hydrophobic in nature
(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
129. Finer fiber produce stronger yarn(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
130. Write down the forms of manmade fiber?
Ans. (I) Filament, (II) Filament tow, (III)staple.
131. What is the manmade cellulose fiber?
Ans. Viscose.
132. Write some name of natural cellulose fiber?
Ans. Cotton, flax, jute, hemp.
133. What is bi-component fiber?
Ans. Bi-component fibers are synthetic fibers
which fibers filament contains two types of
polymer.
134. What is bi- component yarn?
Ans . A yarn having two different staple fiber.
135. If H-bond present in fiber then fiber gets
more strength(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
136. What is the length width ratio of cotton?
Ans . 1:350 to 1:6000
137. In staple/spun yarn twist is must(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
138. Cotton is dissolved into 70% H2SO4(yes/
no)?
Ans. Yes
139. Viscose is dissolved into 35% H2SO4(yes/
no)?
Ans. Yes

140. Nylon is dissolved into 20% HCL/phenol


(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
141. Polyester is dissolved into 100% nitro
benzene at 100 (yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
142. Burning smell of cotton is like as burning
paper(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
143. What is lint and linters?
Ans . Then cotton which are get after first time
ginning to seeds cotton is called lint and for
second time ginning of cotton is called linters.
144. What is blow room?
Ans. The section or line where the compressed
bale are converted into uniform lap of particular
length or made suitable for carding by opening,
blending or mixing.
145. What is MR% of jute?
Ans. 13.75
146. What is MR% of viscose and silk?
Ans. 11.0
147. What is MC % of cotton?
Ans. 7.834
148. What is MR% of wool?
Ans. 16.0
149. What is MR% of nylon?
Ans. 4.0
150. What is MR% of polyester?
Ans. 0.4
151. What are the long staple fiber?
Ans. Jute, wool, flax, hemp.
152. How fiber is form?
Ans.
Elements

Monomer/molecules/macromolecules

Polymer chain

Fibrils/micels

Fiber
153. What are the requirement of fabric

construction?
Ans. (I)EPI,(II)PPI, (III)Warp count, (IV)Weft
count.
154. What are the factors that determine the
yarn properties?
Ans. Fiber properties, fiber arrangement, twist
per inch.
155. What is core spun yarn?
Ans . It is a continuous filament polyester core
wrapped in cotton fiber.
156. Write down the main part of carding
machine?
Ans .(I)Doffer, (II)cylinder, (III)taker-in.
157. What is swelling?
Ans. The change in dimension due to absorbing
water or moisture of any textile material is
termed as swelling.
Swelling=(Swollen dimension-Dry dimension)/Dry
dimension
158. Which countries cotton is the best cotton in
the world?
Ans. Mishor.
159. What is the botanical name of cotton?
Ans. Goosypium Herbacum, Goosypium
Hirsutum.
160. What is ginning?
Ans. The procedure by which seeds and cottons
are separated from seeds cotton is called
Ginning.
161. How much trash% in cotton?
Ans. Generally 1% to 10%.
162. What is blow room waste?
Ans. Dropping-II,Dust,filter waste.
163. What is carding waste?
Ans. Dropping-I, Tacker in waste,Flat strip, motes
& flies, sliver waste
164. What is draw frame waste?
Ans. Sliver wastage.
165. What is the simplex wastage?
Ans . Sliver wastage, roving wastage.
166. What is the ring frame wastage?
Ans. Pneumafil, hard waste, bonda waste, etc.
167. What is the comber wastage and waste %?
Ans. Noils,(12-18)%.

168. What is cleaning efficiency in blow room?


Ans. CE% trash cotton - trash in lap/trash in
cotton ) 100
169. Step cleaner m/c is placed at 45 degree
angle (yes/no)/
Ans. Yes.
170. Production of carding m/c?
Ans. Production = (Doffer speed Doffer dia
)/36 (yds/min)
171. What is model length?
Ans. It is the length of group of fibers where the
most number of fibers have equal length.
172. What is spun length?
Ans. It is the term by which we can determined
the % of fiber length in case of cotton, wool etc.
173. What is staple length?
Ans. The average length of spinable fiber is
called staple length.
** staple length = 0.91 effective length(U.S.A
upland cotton)
174. What is effective length?
Ans. It is the term defined as the length of the
main bulk of the longer fiber.
175. How the amount of twist is expressed?
Ans.
Twist per inch(TPI) = yarn
Twist per meter (TPM) = roving
Twist per centimeter (TPCM)
176. What is mass stress?
Ans.
Mass stress = Applied forse/linear density
Unit = CN/tex , gm/tex
177. What is elastic recovery?
Ans. Elastic recovery = Elastic extension/total
extension.
178. What is the modern testing equipment for
spinning mill?
Ans.
HVI(High volume instrument)
AFIS(Advance fiber information system)
Shirley analyzer = trash%
Moisture meter = MC%
Moisture testing oven = MR%
179. If MIC value is increased what should be

the fineness?
Ans. Fineness should be decreased.
180. What is pitch?
Ans. The distance between adjustment spindles.
181. What is the maximum count to be produce
in rotor m/c and ring m/c in spinning?
Ans.
Rotor m/c = not possible to produce more than
40s count.
Ring m/c = it is possible to produce about 300s
count.
182. What is the feed material in ring and rotor
m/c?
Ans.
Ring m/c = roving
Rotor m/c = drawing sliver.
183.What is tex?
Ans. Count is the tex system in the weight in
grams of 1000m or 1km of yarn.
184. How many types of draw frame ?
Ans. (I)Breaker draw frame, (II)finisher draw
frame.
185. What is the output of winding?
Ans. Yarn in cone form.
186. Natural fibres are hydrophilic in nature?
(Yes/No)
Ans . Yes.
187.What is the types of waste in a spinning
mill?
Ans: (i) useable waste (ii) unusable waste.
188. The flyer is the essential part of speed
frame(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
189.What is neps?
Ans. Entanglement protruding fibres or entangled
mass of fibres.
190. Write down the some name of yarn testing
machine.
Ans.
Uster evenness tester
Uster classimat
Uster auto sorter.
191. What is the useable waste in spinning mill?
Ans: (a)lap waste,(b) sliver waste,(c)roving

waste,(d)bonda waste,(e) pneumafil waste .


192. What is fiber migration?
Ans. It means fiber distribution into the yarn.
193. Number of fibres in the yarn cross-section?
Ans . 60-70
194. What is the standard staple length of cotton
fibre?
Ans. Generally 0.5 inch to 2.5 inch.
195. Write some yarn faults which are generally
shown?
Ans. (I)Thick place, (II) Thin place, (III) Neps,
(IV) slub, (V) Hairiness.
196. How many class or division of yarn
preparation?
Ans. (I) Warp yarn preparation, (II) Weft yarn
preparation.
197. What are the classes of winding machine
for package of yarn?
Ans. (I) pirn winding m/c, (II) cop winding m/c,
(III) spol winding m/c, (IV) Cheese winding m/c,
(V) cone winding m/c.
198. What are the action of blow room?
Ans.
Action of opposing spikes
Action of air current
Action of beaters,
Regulating action
199. What is crimp?
Ans. The wavy shape of thread/yarn is called
crimp.
200. Total Draft =?
Ans. Total draft = BDMDFD
BD=Back draft
MD=Middle draft
FD=Front draft