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# PHRD 559 Therapeutics II

Pharmacokinetics Homework I
Direct all questions to 2ltdab@gmail.com

## 1. First-order reactions work by exponential math

Exponential change uses the formula
A = P * er * t with P = initial amount, r = rate, t = time, and A =
amount at time (t), and e being the universal constant. r is positive
for appreciation and negative for decay.
I: You put \$1.00 in a bank account that yields 12% interest per year (that is, r =
0.12), compounded continuously. How much money do you have after 10 years?

II: Cesium-134 has a half-life of 2.07 years. A 19.2 gram sample is purified.
A: Find r (hint: 1 gram = 2 grams * er * 2.07 years )

B: 1 year

C: 2 years

D: 5 years

## III: According to Forbes magazine Donald Trump is worth \$4 billion dollars. He

hires you as an employee. You negotiate an unusual contract with him. He has to
double the amount of money in a bank account every week, compounding
continuously. The bank account starts at week zero with 1 cent, that is, \$0.01.
After one week of work it should contain \$0.02, after two weeks \$0.04, and after
three weeks \$0.08.
A: Using the A = P * er * t , what is r?
(hint: \$0.02 = \$0.01 * er * 1 week )

B: How many weeks will it take before you bankrupt him? (That is, the amount of
money in your account exceeds \$4 billion dollars).

## 2. To determine the stability of Drug A, a pharmacist dissolves an

unknown amount of the drug in 1 liter of a saline solution. Samples
are then taken at various times and sent to lab for analysis. The
following data are reported by the lab:
Time (hr)

2.2

5.1

7.8

10.3

14.1

Concentration
(mg/L)

125

109

94

80.5

59.5

I. Please plot the above data on both linear and semi-log graph papers.

## 1. First Order; because of straight line on a linear graph paper.

2. First Order; because of straight line on a semi-log graph paper.
3. Zero-order; because of straight line on a linear graph paper.
4. Zero-order; because of straight line on a semi-log graph paper.
III. From the appropriate graph, please estimate the following parameters.
1. The initial concentration of Drug A at time zero (C0)

(t1/2-I)

## 3. The time needed for the concentration to decline from C0 to half of C0

4. The time needed for the amount to decline from half of C0 to one
fourth of C0 (t1/2-II)

IV. From the data obtained above or using the graph, please estimate the
following:

## 3. To determine the stability of Drug B, a pharmacist dissolves an

unknown amount of the drug in 500 mL of a saline solution. Samples
are then taken at various times and sent to a lab for analysis. The
following data are reported by the lab:
Time (hr)
Concentration
(mg/L)

16

24

296.9

213.5

110.3

29.5

7.9

I. Please plot the above data on both linear and semi-log graph papers.

## II. What is the order of degradation process of Drug B? Why?

1. Zero-order; because of straight line on a semi-log graph paper.
2. First Order; because of straight line on a linear graph paper.
3. Zero-order; because of straight line on a linear graph paper.
4. First Order; because of straight line on a semi-log graph paper.

III. From the appropriate graph, please estimate the following parameters.
1. The concentration of Drug B at time zero (Co)

## 4. The half life of the degradation process (t1/2)

IV. From the data obtained above or using the graph, please estimate the
following:
1. The concentration at 6 hr (C6h)

## 4: Decide whether to integrate or take a differential:

Example:
A rocket is fired in space. The acceleration of the rocket decreases over time as
function f(t).
To find out how fast the rocket is going after 5 minutes of burning, would you
(Integrate)

(Differentiate)

A: You drive a car with a broken odometer, but you have a continuous record of
the cars speed over your entire journey, given by S(t). You want to know how far
the car has gone, that is, displacement.
(Integrate) (Differentiate)

B: A tank filled with water is drained. V(t) represents the volume of water present
at any instant in time. To find out what the flow out of the tank, one should:
(Integrate) (Differentiate)
C:
A chemical reaction is being monitored by UV-VIS, which allows the researcher
to measure the concentration of the product. With C(t) representing the
concentration of product present, the researcher wants to calculate the rate at
which the chemical reaction proceeds.
(Integrate) (Differentiate)
D:
A photochemical reaction is being monitored by the amount of light it releases.
Every time a reaction event occurs a distinct amount of light is emitted which is
measured. Thus, the researcher can measure how quickly the chemical reaction is
proceeding by the amount of light emitted, given by R(t). The researcher wants to
calculate the amount of product present in the reaction mixture.
(Integrate) (Differentiate)
E:
Two tanks of water are connected by a pipe that is closed off. A large
concentration of chemical is dissolved in one but not the other. The concentration
of chemical can be measured in each tank. The pipe is then opened and the
chemical diffuses passively from one tank to the other. The owners of these tanks

want to calculate how much of the chemical is flowing through the connecting
pipe at any time.
(Integrate) (Differentiate)