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A bit about me

Environmental Science:
Introduction and Overview
EV20001 Autumn 2015
Brajesh K Dubey
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Kharagpur

Why EVS 20001?

Brajesh Kumar Dubey

B.Tech (Hons) in Civil Engg; IIT, Kharagpur, India
Worked as a consulting engineer at Engineers India Limited
for 4 years, based in New Delhi
Graduate work leading to PhD from University of
Florida, USA in Environmental Engineering Sciences
Worked as Research Scientist in Florida for 2.5 years
Taught and did research in New Zealand (at UOA), at East
TN State University, USA and at University of
Guelph, Canada prior to joining IIT Kharagpur in March
2015 as Associate Professor in Environmental Engineering
and Management division of Dept of Civil Engineering.

Course Textbook

Supreme Court directive

Sustainable Development
India/Developing country
Demand of resources for development activity
Need to have a balanced approach with minimum
impact on environment

As a future engineer/professional in the

country, you will have to make critical decisions
related to development activities
This course will provide you basic tools which will
be helpful in making those decisions

Environmental Continuum

Everything on earth is



Living and non-living

Depend on each other
Affect each other


Water, air, atmospheric

conditions, plants, anim
als, soil are interlinked


Water, Energy, Environment and Food Nexus

Water and Health

80% of diseases in developing
countries are due to the lack of
access to clean potable water

H 2O

Pathogens transmitted through water

Kill 25 million people every year by amoeba linked

diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid
~3,900 children die EVERY DAY (WHO, 2004)



90% of 2.2 million deaths of children under 5

The most effective management intervention

Providing safe drinking water and proper disposal of

human waste


Picture is from

Water and Health (contd.)

Each year more than five million people die from
water-related diseases.
A child dies from a water related disease every 15

30 % of water-related deaths are due to diarrhea.

84 % of water-related deaths
are in children age 0 14 years.
98 % of water-related deaths
occur in the developing world., Picture is from

Copyright BAN

Copyright BAN

Copyright BAN


Scope & Dimensions

Why Study Environment ?


populations and higher standards of living put

increasing pressure on our environment.
Fresh / Clean Resources

Resource Pollution

(Water, Air, Land, Minerals)

(Leads to severe impacts)

For our survival, the maintenance of the

environment is essential. For Healthy Economy, we
need Healthy Workforce

Course Content

The natural world is complex and human activity can

have unexpected consequences that are hard to reverse.
The study of how physical and biological processes
maintain life, and how humans affect nature, requires a
broad interdisciplinary perspective.
Environmental problems and their associated solutions
typically involve social, political and economic aspects
which the engineers and scientist must be aware of.

Course Textbook

Environmental Ecology

Pollution: Water Pollution

Water and Wastewater Treatment
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
Air Pollution
Soil Pollution
Noise Pollution
Waste Minimization and Cleaner Production
Environmental Impact Assessment

The Hydrologic Cycle

Describes the movement of water in nature
evaporation, precipitation, and transpiration

Basically, water is recycled over time

Water is a precious resource and concerns are
growing that we will run out


Reclamation of Water
Recovery of wastewater for reuse
industrial processing, irrigation, groundwater
recharge (State College, PA) are some indirect
reuse examples

Direct reuse for potable water is currently

deterred, but may become reality

How do we treat water?

Combine chemistry, biology, hydrology, math
and physics to:
purify ground and surface water for potable use
modify wastewater for safe discharge

concerns about viruses and polar compounds

Water is a Precious Resource!

Why do we need water?
1. Water Supply - potable, agricultural
2. Recreation - swimming, fishing
3. Aquatic Life - harvesting

Figure 5-2

Potable water
treatment could be
easier if discharge
into water bodies
could be controlled!

Three Sources of Water Contamination

1. Point Sources - industry discharge
Examples 2. Non-Point (diffuse) - land runoff
Examples 3. Background - natural origins, varies
with geology of site
Examples -

How to Maintain Quality Surface

Water quality parameters (discharge)

Dissolved oxygen, 4 - 7 mg/L for fish; BOD < 30 mg/L

Solids concentration, lower is better, < 30 mg/L
Coliform bacteria, lower ensures safe consumption
Toxic substances, heavy metals, pesticides, etc.
Nutrients NO3-, PO4=
pH, 6.5 - 8.5


What if we Fail?
Defined as the accelerated fertilization of
lakes, reservoirs, streams, and estuaries arising from
pollution associated with population growth, industrial
development, and intensified agriculture

Why is this of concern?

Algal blooms
2-methylisoborneol, cyanotoxins
Death of water body

Effects of Eutrophication
Unbalance the system
(i.e., aquatic food chain)

Abundance of nutrients heavily increases

blue-green algae
increases turbidity decreases photosynthesis
increases malodors MIB, geosmin
Decaying algae reduces DO

Remedial Actions (Eutrophication)

Reduce nutrient input into water body
Focus is on P ?

Copper sulfate - used to control algal

blooms, but poisons fish
Southern California owns a helicopter to spread

Water Quality Standards Reduce Negative

Impacts on Water Bodies
Effluent Standards - maintain surface water
NPDES - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (WWTP)
BOD: < 30 mg/L for the 24-hr composite
mean collected over 30 days
< 45 mg/L for arithmetic 7-day mean
% removal > 85%
Suspended Solids - same as BOD

Water Quality Standards (continued)

Oil and Grease:

< 10 mg/L (30-day mean)

< 20 mg/L (7-day mean)
pH, between 6 and 9
Toxic pollutants varies
Non-conventional pollutants
Nitrogen varies based on ammonia vs. nitrate
Phosphorus - ~1 mg/L


Water Quality in the News

Phosphorus < 1.0 mg/L to prevent
eutrophication (e.g., Everglades)
Endocrine disrupters / Pharmaceuticals
Atrazine and bisphenol (EDCs)

Tastes and Odors

EPA Based Technologic StandardsWastewater

Best Conventional Pollutant Control
Technology (BCT)
secondary treatment to control conventional

Best Available Technology Economically

Available (BATEA)
control toxic substances and nonconventional
pollutants if the owner can afford it (ex. granular
activated carbon)

Groundwater Quality

More than 50% of world population relies on

groundwater as a source of drinking water
Groundwater contamination
1. Natural - dissolved
salts, iron, manganese, fluoride, arsenic, radionuclides,
trace metals
2. Subsurface - septic tank adsorption fields
3. Industrial - deep well injection

NPDES Pretreatment Program

Prevent industries from discharging pollutants that
adversely affects treatment operations
Becoming more of an issue because of polar
compounds and beneficial reuse programs
Is NPDES applicable to potable water treatment?

Microbiological Quality of Drinking

Treatment with physical (filtration and
coagulation) and chemical (chlorine) techniques
to remove pathogens
Effective coagulation & filtration defined by a
turbidity <0.5 NTU in 95% of measurements
Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) for
coliforms, giardia, and crypto is zero
What is the difference b/w MCLG and MCL?

Chemical Quality of Drinking Water

Treatment to meet Standards

New chemicals can and will be added

Standards based on adverse health effects

Environmentally acceptable?

4. Agriculture - soil filtration


Inorganic Chemicals
Arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, seleni
um, thallium - internal organs
Lead toxicity effects red blood cells, nervous system &
Copper - nausea & vomiting
Fluoride - excess can cause fluorosis (teeth)
Nitrate - excessive ingestion can cause
methemoglobinemia in infants
Asbestos - pulmonary fibrosis / bronchogenic

Disinfection By-Products
Produced from chemical interactions between
chlorine and natural organic substances
(carcinogenic) WHAT?
Trihalomethanes (THMs) - organohalogens where 3
of the 4 H atoms of methane are replaced with
chlorine, bromine, or iodine (e.g., chloroform)
Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Organic Chemicals
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) carcinogenic
Synthetic organic chemicals (SOC) - pesticides
greatest concern
neuralgic effects and carcinogenic

What is a difference b/w VOCs

and SOCs?

Radioactive elements decay by emitting
alpha, beta, or gamma radiations caused by
transformation of the nuclei to lower energy
states (e.g., radon)
Potential health issues are
teratogenic, genetic, and somatic

Secondary Standards
Secondary maximum contaminant levels
(SMCLs) - no adverse health effects
for aesthetics
nonenforceable by federal regulator

2-methylisoborneol - not a SMCL, but imparts

objectionable tastes and odors
MTBE - imparts tastes and odors


Demand for and Use of Water

Water Consumption by Sector

Industrial, 3%
Livetock, 3%

Commercial, 1%

Others, 16% Domestic, 7%

Irrigation , 81%
Mining, 1%

Worldwide Water Withdrawals

Increasing Withdrawals and Consumption

Agriculture consumes
the largest share of

Industry is a major consumer

in North America and


More efficient irrigation


Industrial economy

Africa, Asia and Latin


Agricultural economy
Irrigation systems not always


Booming economy

(China, India, Brazil) will

influence the ratio.

Individual Use
A person needs 4 to 5 gallons of water per day to survive.
The average American individual uses 100 to 176 gallons of water
at home each day.
The average African family uses about 5 gallons of water each day.
Middle Eastern and Northern African (MENA) countries are in
absolute water scarcity situation (< 500 m3/person/day).
Kuwait has the least per capita water availability.
27 m3 in 1970, 9 m3 in 2001 and projected to decrease to 5 m3 in 2025

Yet Kuwait has the highest per capita water consumption.

200 liters per person per day in the 1980s
Currently 500 liters per person per day


Water Consumption in Major Cities

Water Consumption in Major Cities

The world is urbanizing.

Mexico City, Mexico

By 2050, 70% of the worlds population will live in

urban areas.
In developing countries, cities grow by 5 million
residents every month.
Expansion of slums
Infrastructure does not keep up with the pace of
Lack of access to water and adequate sanitation
WWF (2011) Big Cities, Big Water, Big Challenges

Over 21 million people in the metropolitan area

Domestic water use: up to 364 l/person/day

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Over 12 million people in the metropolitan area

Domestic water use: 378 400 l/person/day

Shanghai, China

23 million inhabitants
Domestic water use: 411 l/person/day

New Delhi, India

Over 20 million inhabitants

Domestic water use: 78 l/person/day (Shaban and Sharma, 2007)

WWF (2011) Big Cities, Big Water, Big Challenges

Water Requirement/Use

Virtual water
Water embedded in food products
1,000 liters for one kg of grain
15,500 liters for one kg of beef

Meaty American and European diets

Vegetarian African and Asian diets

Meat consumption in China

5,000 liters of water/day

2,000 liters of water
20 kg per year in 1985
50 kg per year in 2009
Equivalent to 390 km3 = Total water
use in Europe

Shift in dietary habits is

almost impossible to

Food Waste is Water Waste

Godfray et al. (2010) in SEI (2011)

Food Loss and Waste

FAO (2011)


Water and Energy

Food, military, energy


Opportunities, costs, ri

Sanitation, health, pov

erty, gender

Agriculture, forest, clim

Pricing, ownership, equ

Energy and Water

Energy consumers
Supply and conveyance
Wastewater collection and
Wastewater discharge

Some factoids
Electricity = 75% of
municipal water processing
and distribution cost
4% of US power used for
water supply and

Water Use for Energy Production

Electricity production is one of the largest users of water. [Example: For a

60-watt incandescent light bulb burning for 12 hours a day for a year in
111 million houses, a power plant would consume about 655 billion gallons
of water.]
Water use efficiency (Virginia Tech Study, 2008)

Water and Energy

Energy production needs a lot of water
~ 25 gallons per kWh
~ 39% of freshwater withdrawals in USA (excluding
hydropower demand) are for thermoelectric
plants (136 billion gallons per day).

Electricity consumes 20% of water

excluding agriculture

Natural gas 3 gallons/million BTU

Hydroelectric 20 gallons/million BTU
41 to 464 gallons/million BTU
Liquid natural gas
145 gallons/million BTU
2,400 to 5,600 gallons/million BTU
Fossil fuel thermoelectric 230 to 270 gallon/million BTU
2,500 to 29,100 gallons/million BTU
14,000 to 75,000 gallons/million BTU

Biofuels an irony when it comes to water

Currently 2% irrigated water used for energy crops

If all plans were implemented, 180 km3 of water will be needed.



Hydraulic Fracturing
Natural gas is projected to increase by 30% over the
next 25 years.
Over one million wells have already been hydraulically
fractured since the 1940s.
An estimated 35,000 wells are fractured every year.
Hydraulic fracturing uses a mix of water, sand and
chemical additives.
Used on 90% of wells in the US

Water intensive process

2.3 4.8 million gallons per well

Once used, the water is extremely polluted and has to be
treated prior to disposal.

Concerns with Fracking
Water withdrawals
Water used in fracking may be
competing with other uses.

Groundwater contamination
Drilling and production

Proper treatment of wastewater

Truck traffic and impact on water
Surface spills
Stormwater management

Water Security: Definition

Access at all times to sufficient and quality water
to satisfy varied needs
Water security is built on three pillars:


Space-Time Dimension

Individual family unit

Village, town, district, state, province
Country, continent, globe


Season (winter, spring, summer, fall)

Year to year variation in climate and impact on supply
Long-term, medium-term, short-term

Social/cultural influence

Demand for and Use of water: Appropriate use based

on the knowledge of quality water and treatment
Availability/supply of water: Sufficient quantities of
water available on a consistent basis
Access to water: Having sufficient resources to obtain
appropriate quantities of water for satisfying needs

Factors Impacting Water Security

Burgeoning population
Massive migration of people from rural areas to
urban centers
Rising standard of living
Growing energy demand
Intensifying agriculture
Increasing industrialization
Increasing water consumption
Global Warming and Climate change



Water, Energy and Food Security


Sustainability of Water Security

The integral product of three factors

SEI (2011)

Implications of Climate Change

Food Security
Water Resources
Energy Production
Extreme Hazards
Human Society

Implications of Climate Change (Contd.)

Rising temperature: 2 degree C during the next
100 years
Water use: changes in the way plants grow
Reaction of trees to downpours
Drying up of biomass during droughts
Rapid growth of crops and then wilting
Intensification of hydrologic cycle

Climate Change and Hydrology

Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change

Increase in frequency of droughts

Drought in Texas in 2011 or ongoing drought in the Midwest

Extreme events may become more frequent.

Decrease in snowpack and change in the timing of runoff in
mountains in North America
Replacement of tropical forests with savannah in eastern Amazonia

Changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and

energy generation

Increased risk of inland flash floods in Europe, glacial retreat in

mountainous areas, coastal communities at risk from sea level rise
Increase in the number of people exposed to water stress in
Africa, reduction in yields from rain-fed agriculture
Decrease in freshwater availability in Asia, coastal areas at risk due
to increased flooding, rise in droughts in some regions

IPCC [2013], AR5 WG I Fig. 11.11



What is the Global Water Situation?

Local water shortages are multiplying.
Current patterns of use and abuse-the amount being
withdrawn dangerously close to the limit and even
An alarming number of rivers no longer reach the sea:
The Indus, the Rio Grande, the Colorado, the MurrayDarling, the Yellow River-the arteries of main grain
growing areas
Severe and long droughts in Australia, India, Brazil and
South America


Two years ago hydroelectric power plants did not have

enough water to drive turbines and there were repeated

Global Water Situation: What is

happening (contd.)?

Per-Capita Freshwater Availability


Freshwater fish populations are in precipitous decline

Fish stocks have fallen by 30% (WWF for Nature), larger
than fall in populations of animals in any ecosystem.

50% of worlds wetlands have been drained, damaged

or destroyed in the 20th century.
Fall in volume of freshwater in rivers: Invasion of
saltwater in delta, changing in balance between
freshwater and salt water
Excess pumping of water from rivers feeding Aral Sea in
Central Asia led to its collapse in 1980.
Global water crisis: Impact on supplies of
food, generation of energy, and other goods.

Global Water Stress

Water Stressed River Basins




# of Countries
# of Countries

1995 2025
270 mn 2.3 bn
166 mn 1.7 bn



Absolute Scarcity for 1 billion People by 2025

(Many countries will import > 10% of cereals)

Intensifying water scarcity

Declining water tables-focus on consumption

Water Scarcity: Causes

World Population Evolution

80% is attributable (Vrsmarty et al. 2000) to:

Population rise;
Higher food and energy requirements leading to
higher water requirements; and
Economic development (changing habits/diets).

In the last 50 years

Population: from 3 billion to 6.5 billion

Water use: Tripled

Projections: 2025 & 2050

Population: Increase by another 2 billion and 3 billion

> 50% people will be water stressed or scarce.

Global Urban Population Trend

Engineering Water Security





Sustainable Water Supply

and Use

Sustainable Water Supply

Integrated management of demand, supply, and
Integrated management with simultaneous
consideration of:


Reduction in water consumption

Recycling of water
Reuse of water
Conservation of water
Efficient use of water
Proper management of water

Emerging Technologies: Water

Water is limited and should not be wasted
Water conservation

Every drop conserved is a drop that can be used for other


Efficient irrigation

Improve irrigation methods so that every drop counts and does

not go wasted

What is required:

Determine crop water needs

Crop area, crop type, soil type, climate, irrigation methods and
Develop tools that can be used to optimize water use

Water treatment







Where are we headed as a society?

Development to management
Paradigm shift

Scientific and technological progress

Social progress: Value system
Changes in global demographic landscape
Human nature

Conflicts and wars

Convergence or divergence

Integration of engineering, technology, socioeconomic-political science