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RAILWAY TRACK
RAILWAY TRACK
RAILWAY TRACK MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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CROSS SECTION OF TRACK CROSS SECTION OF TRACK
CROSS SECTION OF TRACK
CROSS SECTION OF TRACK
CROSS SECTION OF TRACK CROSS SECTION OF TRACK MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL
IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL
IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL MARCH 2015 IDEAL SOIL POOR SOIL Research, Planning & Coordination Department

MARCH 2015

IDEAL SOIL

POOR SOIL

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL IDEAL SOIL
IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL
IDEAL SOIL

The characteristics of the ideal soil;

Strong against static loading and crashes must be less,

Differences in grains, high structural strength and well

compacted; strong aganist dinamic loading,

Elastic,

Resistant to erosion,

Permeable for water,

Solid, and serve like filter to track bed and ground,

Delivery and construction should not be expensive.

Ideal soil can be seen very rare in nature.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL POOR SOIL
IDEAL SOIL AND POOR SOIL
POOR SOIL

The characteristics of the poor soil;

Flowing and loose,

Mixed ground with cohesive, soft or semi-soft

sand, mud, clay,

Has too much boulders.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TYPES
SOIL TYPES
SOIL TYPES MARCH 2015 COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FINE-GRAINED SOILS PROPORTIONS ORGANIC SOILS Research, Planning &

MARCH 2015

COARSE-GRAINED SOILS

SOIL TYPES MARCH 2015 COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FINE-GRAINED SOILS PROPORTIONS ORGANIC SOILS Research, Planning &

FINE-GRAINED SOILS PROPORTIONSSOIL TYPES MARCH 2015 COARSE-GRAINED SOILS ORGANIC SOILS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 7

ORGANIC SOILSTYPES MARCH 2015 COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FINE-GRAINED SOILS PROPORTIONS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 7

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TYPES COARSE-GRAINED SOILS
SOIL TYPES
COARSE-GRAINED SOILS

The

distinguished by the naked

eye :

be

particles

can

Boulders (have diameter

greater than 300 mm)

(have diameter

between 75

mm)

diameter

between 4.75 mm and 75

mm)

(has diameter

mm and 300

Cobbles

Gravel

(has

Sand

between 0.075 mm and 4.75

mm)

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 Gravel (has  Sand between 0.075 mm and 4.75 mm) MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &
 Gravel (has  Sand between 0.075 mm and 4.75 mm) MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &
 Gravel (has  Sand between 0.075 mm and 4.75 mm) MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &
 Gravel (has  Sand between 0.075 mm and 4.75 mm) MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TYPES FINE-GRAINED SOILS
SOIL TYPES
FINE-GRAINED SOILS

Corrupt mud, silt or clay are examples for fine-grained

soils. Fine-grained soils are identified with elasticy,

structure and color. Elasticy is determined by the clay

content in them.

MARCH 2015

color. Elasticy is determined by the clay content in them. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination
color. Elasticy is determined by the clay content in them. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TYPES PROPORTIONS
SOIL TYPES
PROPORTIONS

Fine material Proportion of fine material Proportion of fine material Proportion of fine material

Proportion of fine material Proportion of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Between

has diameter below 0.075 mm

Proportion of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Between %5 and %40 Over
Proportion of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Between %5 and %40 Over
Proportion of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Between %5 and %40 Over

Below %5Proportion of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Between %5 and %40 Over %40 Coarse-grained

Between %5 and %40of fine material has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Over %40 Coarse-grained soil Mixed-grained soil

Over %40has diameter below 0.075 mm Below %5 Between %5 and %40 Coarse-grained soil Mixed-grained soil Fine-grained

Coarse-grained soil Mixed-grained soil Fine-grained soil

%40 Coarse-grained soil Mixed-grained soil Fine-grained soil MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TYPES ORGANIC SOILS
SOIL TYPES
ORGANIC SOILS

These are the swamps and peat soil. Organic layers in the

ground can be animal or vegetable origin.

layers in the ground can be animal or vegetable origin. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

MARCH 2015

layers in the ground can be animal or vegetable origin. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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MARCH 2015 SOIL TESTS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 1 2

MARCH 2015

MARCH 2015 SOIL TESTS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 1 2

SOIL TESTS

MARCH 2015 SOIL TESTS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 1 2
MARCH 2015 SOIL TESTS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 1 2

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS
SOIL TESTS
SOIL TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U) PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST PLASTIC

SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U)

SOIL TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U) PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST PLASTIC

PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST

TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U) PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST PLASTIC PROPERTIES

PLATE LOAD TEST

BEARING CAPACİTY TESTDEGREE (U) PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST PLASTIC PROPERTIES CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) WATER

PLASTIC PROPERTIESCOMPACTION TEST PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) WATER CONTENT AND DRY

PLATE LOAD TEST BEARING CAPACİTY TEST PLASTIC PROPERTIES CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) WATER CONTENT AND DRY

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)

WATER CONTENT AND DRY DENSITY

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U)
SOIL TESTS
SHAPE INEQUALITY DEGREE (U)

U is ratio between weights of grains have size 0-60 mm and 0-10 mm. It shows slope of grain distiribution. If this

ratio is low (U is lower than 6 ) slope is vertical. This means

ground has almost same grain size. If this ratio is high (U is higher than 6) ground has different grain sizes.

high (U is higher than 6) ground has different grain sizes. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST
SOIL TESTS
PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST
SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST MARCH 2015 This test establish relation between water ratio and dry

MARCH 2015

This test establish relation between

water ratio and dry unit weight of

ground. Using this relation we have a proctor density that is a value using to estimate compress density of adhesive

grounds. When water ratio below optimal water ratio, proctor density can be 100% with an additional

compressing. If water ratio above

optimal water ratio, proctor density can

not be calculated with an additional

compressing.

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST
SOIL TESTS
PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST
SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST  The proctor test is a compression test. In this experiment,
SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST  The proctor test is a compression test. In this experiment,
SOIL TESTS PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST  The proctor test is a compression test. In this experiment,

The proctor test is a compression test. In this experiment, the material is put into a container and is compressed by using a mallet release.

This test is done in cases where the materials contain various amounts

of water. Dry volume weight ratios record on water ratio which they belong. A curve is formed from results and top of this curve shows dry volume

density.

Dry volume density is called simple proctor density and water ratio that is belong this density called optimal amount of water. Proctor curve gives information about acceptable water content to

reach the required compression values.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS PLATE LOAD TEST
SOIL TESTS
PLATE LOAD TEST

Beside dry density, this test gives us a value that specifes quality of loadbearing or protective material and bearing capasity. At plate load test a circle plate has 30 cm diameter makes loading and discharge with different weights. Circle makes a mark is measured to calculate depth.

weights. Circle makes a mark is measured to calculate depth. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS BEARING CAPACİTY TEST
SOIL TESTS
BEARING CAPACİTY TEST

Short time pulsed loadings are made to track bed. This way track bed has softened vibration. If sinking and vibration is bigger, track bed has low bearing capacity. This

test has shorter needed time. Results are nearer to real

load effects than plate load test and also results is ready to use directly.

plate load test and also results is ready to use directly. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning &

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS PLASTIC PROPERTIES
SOIL TESTS
PLASTIC PROPERTIES

If fine-grained soil is added water, ground loses stiffness slowly. First ground passes to half solid, then plastic form and final liquid form.

Increasing water ratio causes to grains adhesion force to decrease. Adhesion disappears step by step, and ground gets a liquid form.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)
SOIL TESTS
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)

CBR ıs resistant that ground shows to 20 cm 2 cylinder compress ground with a steady speed that 1.25 mm in a

minute. Resistant curve is compared to a standart curve. Result is percentage of force that do equal going into best loadbearing material.

of force that do equal going into best loadbearing material. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination
of force that do equal going into best loadbearing material. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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SOIL TESTS WATER CONTENT AND DRY DENSITY
SOIL TESTS
WATER CONTENT AND DRY DENSITY

Water content is determined with drying process in oven.

Water content ratio is current water content over dry

weight. Dry density is t/m 3 or kg/m 3 . Optimal dry density is

maximum dry density that ground can be concentrated.

is maximum dry density that ground can be concentrated. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department
is maximum dry density that ground can be concentrated. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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GROUND INSPECTION MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 2
GROUND INSPECTION MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 2

GROUND INSPECTION

GROUND INSPECTION MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 2

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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GROUND INSPECTION
GROUND INSPECTION
GROUND INSPECTION SEISMIC METHOD BORING CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

SEISMIC METHOD

BORING

GROUND INSPECTION SEISMIC METHOD BORING CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

CONE PENETRATION TEST

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED SEISMIC METHOD
TRACK BED
SEISMIC METHOD

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED SEISMIC METHOD
TRACK BED
SEISMIC METHOD

Seismic method is used in the examination of major

grounds. When appliying this examination speed of waves,

size of amplitude and decrease of amplitude is measured.

size of amplitude and decrease of amplitude is measured. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department
size of amplitude and decrease of amplitude is measured. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED BORING
TRACK BED
BORING

Boring machine will bring to the

surface, soils that will be tested.

get soil

With these

tests

we

proporties.

will be tested. get soil With these tests we proporties. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination
will be tested. get soil With these tests we proporties. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

MARCH 2015

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST
TRACK BED
CONE PENETRATION TEST
TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 7

MARCH 2015

TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 7

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED CONE PENETRATION TEST
TRACK BED
CONE PENETRATION TEST

With this method rigidity, strength and thickness can be

detected directly. There is a force required to pass different

layers. This force is a measure to bearing capacity.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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MARCH 2015 GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT Research, Planning & Coordination Department 2 9

MARCH 2015

GROUND STABILIZATION

AND

GROUND IMPROVEMENT

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT MARCH 2015 GROUND STABILIZATION GROUND IMPROVEMENT Research, Planning &

MARCH 2015

GROUND STABILIZATION

GROUND IMPROVEMENT

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND STABILIZATION
GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION

At the ground stabilization process, increasing the bearing capacity of the ground must be provided by the addition of binding materials.

Lime and cement can be used as a binding material.

If

lime is used as binder,

should be used.

at

least 40 cm thick layer

of lime

Above the lime layer, at least 20 cm protective layer must be placed.

If cement is used as binder, cement layer must have thickness

at least 20 cm.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION AND GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND IMPROVEMENT

At ground improvement process, suitability for

construction of ground and compressibility are improved.

Mechanical ground improvement is possible, when track

bed grain mix can be fixed with grains that have

appropriate size are added. This way ground should be

compressed better and should have better bearing

capacity.

Also ground improvement can be done with lime.

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MARCH 2015 CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 3

MARCH 2015

CHEMICAL GROUND

IMPROVEMENT

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CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT
CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT
CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT MARCH 2015 GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT Research, Planning

MARCH 2015

GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME

GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME
CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND IMPROVEMENT WİTH LİME

Bearing capacity of clay is highly dependent on the water

content. When lime mixed to clay, clay will be drained.

Drained clay is hard and have high bearing capacity.

Ground improvement with lime is short term improvement.

Improvement of ground should be economic to be

meaningful. Lime must apply only with sandy gravel

protection layer and must have at least 20 cm thickness.

Adding lime to coarse-grained ground do not provide

improvement.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT
CHEMICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT
GROUND STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT

Coarse-grained ground stabilization and increasing bearing capacity of coarse-grained ground can be done with adding cement. Cement must be added to sandy or muddy ground for at least 15 cm. Before stabilization with cement at clay, lime must be mixed to ground.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 7
TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 7

TRACK BED

TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 7
TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 7
TRACK BED MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 3 7

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED
TRACK BED
TRACK BED TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS TRACK BED DRAINAGE LAYER REQUIREMENTS USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS

TRACK BED

TRACK BED TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS TRACK BED DRAINAGE LAYER REQUIREMENTS USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS

TRACK BED LAYERS

TRACK BED TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS TRACK BED DRAINAGE LAYER REQUIREMENTS USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS

TRACK BED DRAINAGE

LAYER REQUIREMENTSTRACK BED TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS TRACK BED DRAINAGE USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS TRACK BED

USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS TRACK BED FAILURES TRACK BED FAILURES

USAGE OF GEOTEXTİLE PRODUCTS TRACK BED FAILURES CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES MARCH 2015

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED
TRACK BED
TRACK BED

Composed of ballast and ballast blanket and subbase.

Its purpose is to support the sleepers and dissipate the

forces applied by vehicles passing over the sleepers, and

to provide an elastic and uniform base.

Track bed and drainage infrastructure are required to

keep the ballast clean.

No build-up of water or mud in the ballast.

Layers have multiple layers with different materials and

properties.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED
TRACK BED
TRACK BED
TRACK BED TRACK BED  Under the sleepers are known collectively as ‘Track bed’ . 

Under the sleepers are known collectively as ‘Track bed’. This consists of the ballast, the ballast blanket and the

sub-grade.

The interfaces between the ballast and ballast blanket, and between the blanket and sub-grade must be

inclined at 1/20 to allow water to flow towards the

nearest drainage line.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS
TRACK BED
TRACK BED LAYERS
TRACK BED TRACK BED LAYERS MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 4 1

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED DRAINAGE
TRACK BED
TRACK BED DRAINAGE

In order to prevent accumulation of water on track bed;

Grass growth must be prevented,

Ballast should be cleaned and a cross slope should be created,

Side slopes and drainage channels should be cleaned,

At sides, drainages should be done and drainages should have control and ventilation funnels.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED LAYER REQUIREMENTS
TRACK BED
LAYER REQUIREMENTS

Subballast, geosynthetic materials, subbase prevent fine

materials in infrastructure move up to inside ballast and

accumulation water in infrastructure.

Balast layer have slope with 1/20 rate to nearest drainage

channel.

In case of ballast layer or filler contains sand, average

pressure should not exceed 0.05 MN/m 2 at layer contains

sand. Other granular materials can be rated for higher

pressures and geosynthetic layers (e.g. geotextile, geogrid,

geomembrane, geocomposite ) can be used.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED LAYER REQUIREMENTS
TRACK BED
LAYER REQUIREMENTS

In case ground movement is possible (seasonal changes or changes in ground from quakes), in a way that allow ground movements ( e.g. using terracing layer ) should be designed.

Appropriate drainage systems, during the design phase should be integrated into the track bed.

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MARCH 2015 USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT Research, Planning & Coordination Department 4 5

MARCH 2015

USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE

PRODUCT

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USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT
USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT

Drainage lines should be sufficient and clean.

Ballast

contaminated;

should

not

be

contaminated regions should be cleaned.

If subgrade stiffness is too low, a 3 m wide geogrid should be placed below the

ballast.

low, a 3 m wide geogrid should be placed below the ballast. • If the existing

If the existing ballast blanket is functional < 50 mm thick in places

The blanket should be re-applied with a thickness 100 mm

and a ‘Separating Geotextile’ laid over; this should extend 0.70 m beyond the sleeper ends, and a crossfall of 1:20.

If the existing ballast blanket is functional, < 100 mm thick in places

A ‘Separating Geotextile’ laid over; this should extend 0.70 m beyond the sleeper ends, and a crossfall of 1:20

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT
USAGE OF GEOTEXTILE PRODUCT

The function of geotextile material, help to reduce tension and deformation, increase bearing capacity extend life of added layers. Geosynthetic materials used between track bed and ground.

Geotextile materials are placed on compressed and

protective

improved

track

bed,

and

covered

with

a

material.

MARCH 2015

improved track bed, and covered with a material. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 4
improved track bed, and covered with a material. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 4

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED FAILURES
TRACK BED
TRACK BED FAILURES

Soils formed of same material, as sand, sand move to

surface of travers from inside ballast result of vibration.

At nonadhesive or less adhesive grounds result of

dinamic loading track bed and ground become loose and this causes cracks and crack regions.

Muddy grounds, when weather rainy track bed fluctuates and during muddy ground be subjected to load changes, move to surface of ballast, it causes water accumulation and under sleepers ballast subside. Line immediately decomposes at rainy weather and at dry weather line stabilizes again quickly.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED TRACK BED FAILURES
TRACK BED
TRACK BED FAILURES

At very adhessive grounds and grounds become tight due

to load changes, pitting occurs under sleepers, ground

swells under and between sleepers in direction of side road. On this grounds when weather is rainy mud is

pumped to surface of ballast from sides of sleepers. This

shape changes in ground occur both in rainy and dry weather, and it occurs very slowly.

At grounds with equal size of sand, losses can occur with wind erosion. At very adhesive grounds at drought times

cracks occur due to become dry and shrinking, specially

warm climates at rainy times, swells can occur due to wetting.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES
TRACK BED
CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES

Causes of track bed failures;

A bad ground, in other words a ground composed with unsuitable ground types,

In case ground is remained under static and dynamic over

load, Compressing track bed is not sufficient or track bed losses

volume, When it rains or line remaines under flow drainage is not sufficient, High water level,

Cracks are formed dry fill with rain,

Using rail that has not sufficient carrying capacity Using sleepers with over weight, and using sleepers with over distance between.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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TRACK BED CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES
TRACK BED
CAUSES AND CONSEQUENSES OF TRACK BED FAILURES

Consequenses of track bed failures;

Extra line works, regions should be passed slow

or repair works can be necessary

Nonrigid grounds are over loaded under traffic

load, rail steel fatigues early and rail’s working life

shortens.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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MARCH 2015 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Research, Planning & Coordination Department 5 2

MARCH 2015

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MARCH 2015 SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS

MARCH 2015

SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MARCH 2015 SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS

SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

Cess drainage systems

SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS • Cess drainage systems Cess drains are surface drainage systems located at

Cess drains are surface drainage systems located at formation level at the side of tracks, to remove water that has percolated through the

ballast and is flowing along the capping layer towards the outside of

the track formation. They are most frequently found in line sections where water running off the trackbed cannot freely drain away. Cess drainage systems are constructed with a slope of at least 1/200. This is

to facilitate cleaning of sediment that may deposit in drains.

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
SURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

Catch drainage systems

These drainage systems are also named top drainage systems or surface drainage systems. The purpose of such drainage systems is to intercept water flow by means of embankments or obstacles in order to stop it before it reaches the track.

obstacles in order to stop it before it reaches the track. These drainage systems can be

These drainage systems can be lined with geosynthetic materials or

instead of geosynthetic materials, pipes with semilunar holes or trapeze-section ducts can be used, depending on the condition of local soil. This type of drainage system may also be used on the uphill side of

embankments, and remove water and prevent ponding at the base of

embankments.

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Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

Functions of subsurface drainage systems

Collection of infiltration water that seeps into the platform

of infiltration water that seeps into the platform Lowering underground water level MARCH 2015 Research,

Lowering underground water level

seeps into the platform Lowering underground water level MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

Functions of subsurface drainage systems

Collection of water leakages at an impermeable boundary

Collection of water leakages at an impermeable boundary MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
SUBSURFACE DRAİNAGE SYSTEMS

Types of subsurface drainage systems

Transverse drainage systems

of subsurface drainage systems Transverse drainage systems MARCH 2015 Drainage blankets Research, Planning &

MARCH 2015

Drainage blankets

systems Transverse drainage systems MARCH 2015 Drainage blankets Research, Planning & Coordination Department 5 8

Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
MAİNTENANCE OF DRAİNAGE COMPONENTS

Channel Drains and Ditches: common problems and their remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy

Blockage

Stone fall

Clean out, line and reprofile.

Vegetation

Overgrowth

Improve the channel:

preserve cross-section

reduce maintenance

Protect against bank erosion on slopes by using 500 mm wide grass

strips.

Collapsing drainage channel

Collapse

Scour

On steep slopes, reduce the flow velocity using baffles.

Burrowing animals

Control vermin and fill burrows.

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Catchpits and Manholes: common problems and remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy

Silting

Normal operation

Clean out by

a. hand excavation

b. mechanical jetting or vacuuming

Blockage

Balast

girmesi

Chambers filled or buried

Damaged or missing covers

Poor ballasting

practices

Increase frequency of cleaning or

remove ballast in sump and replace

damaged or missing covers to keep ballast out

raise Catchpits before ballast drops

and/or clean chambers on completion of track work

Collapse

Damage by ground movement or on-track plant

Rebuild Catchpit/Manhole

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Maintenance and cleaning of drainage pipes

The cleaning of pipes should always start from the lower end or

outfall. This is because flooding can occur if pipes at a higher level

are cleaned first. Cleaning can be undertaken by pressure jetting,

rodding or by winching a drain cleaning device (commonly known

as a ‘badger’) through the pipe. The removal of silt through drains

can result in the pipe collars or holes of drainage pipes becoming

blocked. The roots of hedges and/or trees growing in close

proximity to a drain can penetrate pipes in search of moisture. It

might be necessary to use pressurized water or air equipment to

remove roots.

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Table 3: Piped Collector Drains: common problems and their remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy

Blockage of filter media

Wet Beds

Ballast attrition

Dig out and replace filter surround

Hydraulic

Uneven pipe gradient from disturbance of formation

Upgrade/relay drainage before renewing Track Support System

Replace filter surround to improve

drawdown from Track Support System and

prevent formation of Wet Beds

Inadequate capacity

for Catchment runoff

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Carrier Drains: common problems and their remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy (depending upon severity)

Blockage

Capacity reduced by ingress of ballast or silt, crushed pipes, poor pipe alignment

Rodding: by hand for clearing of small local blockages and locating larger obstructions

Open excavation: dig up pip, clean out/ repair/ replace

Water jetting: on-track plant ranging from road- railers to drain trains

Winching: relies on ability to pass cable through pipe

Vegetation management to restrict spread of trees and:

Root intrusion

Cutting and cleaning roots

Pipe replacement

Partial collapse

Major pipe cracking or deformation

Holes and collapses of less than one pipe length

Local open cut repair and/or replacement

Complete collapse

Structural failure of more than one pipe length

Renew by open cut

Hydraulic insufficiency

Poor fall or pipe alignment

Replace filter surround to improve drawdown from track and prevent formation of Wet Beds

Relay drains

Inadequate pipe capacity

Relay by open cut or increase diameter of pipe; size is a compromise between flow capacity and self- cleansing velocity

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Culverts: common problems and remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy (depending upon severity)

Debris

Check/ clear Trash Screen

Blockage

Silt

Clear non-man entry Culverts by rodding, drag scraping, or water jetting Clear non-man entry Culverts by water jetting, hand excavation, drag scraping or, if sufficient headroom, by mini digger

Remove obstructions from downstream body of water

Rubbish or trash

Fit Trash Screens

Structural

General deterioration

Local repairs; replace missing bricks/ repoint mortar joints

Fill voids/ repair lining

Scour voids

Reline conduct

Extend headwall or training walls, flumes and connection channels

Collapse

Reconstruct

Insufficient

capacity

flow

Change in upstream Catchment

Outlet smaller than inlet

Remediation to increase capacity

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Siphons: particular problem and its remedy

Problem

Cause

Remedy (depending upon severity)

Blockage

Dry weather flow velocity insufficient for self-cleansing

Seek advice from the appointed engineer before commencing any work on siphons

 

Common problems and remedies

Problem

Cause

Remedy (depending upon severity)

 

General deterioration

Local repairs: replace missing bricks/ repoint mortar joints

Structural

Wear, tear

Extend headwall or training walls, flumes and connection channel

Blockage

Seized flap valve

Repair or replace valve

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CONSTRUCTION GAUGE

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BRIDGES, CULVERTS,

VIADUCTS

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BRIDGES, CULVERTS, VIADUCTS BRIDGES CULVERTS VIADUCTS MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department 7 2

BRIDGES

CULVERTS

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VIADUCTS

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BRIDGES

It is called bridge that built to cross rivers, roads, railway or similar barriers, not under fill, and the total length of 8 m. or larger structures. Clear Span : The remaining horizontal distance between bridge

piers.

Total Length : The horizontal distance between starting point and endpoint of bridge.

distance between starting point and endpoint of bridge. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination Department

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BRIDGES, CULVERTS, VIADUCTS CULVERTS
BRIDGES, CULVERTS, VIADUCTS
CULVERTS

Bridges that have total length under 8 m and regardless of

total length structures under fill.

8 m and regardless of total length structures under fill. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

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BRIDGES, CULVERTS, VIADUCTS
VIADUCTS

Bridges are made to pass deep valleys or lands have very high filling cost, and avoid risks that are produces by high filling.

cost, and avoid risks that are produces by high filling. MARCH 2015 Research, Planning & Coordination

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VIADUCTS
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