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Waste Water treatment by

Multi Soil Layering Method

Background
The use of soil for water treatment has a long history in the world.

Conventional method
Land treatment
Sand filter
Septic systems (EPA)
Some limitations
Low permeability
> need large area
> Risk of clogging
Increase the permeability

Soil has high purification function,


but is highly depends on
properties of each soil type.

Regulation and enhancement of the


purification functions

Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Method


2

Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Method


The MSL method consists of soil units arranged in a brick-like pattern surrounded by
layers of zeolite or alternating particles of homogeneous sizes that allow a high hydraulic
loading rate.
Wastewater

Soil mixture layer (10-3 cm sec-1)


andisol : high soil aggregate formation, high phosphorus
adsorption ability.
sandy soil : large particle size and high permeability
on-site soil: low cost
iron : phosphorus adsorption, reducing agent
charcoal : high porosity, hydrophobic adsorbent, habitat of
microorganisms
organic matter : food for microorganisms, electron donor for
denitrification

Permeable layer (10-1 cm sec-1)

Treated water

sandy soil: large particle size and high permeability


zeolite : high NH4+ adsorption ability, high CEC, high porosity
Pumice : high porosity, low cost than zeolite
charcoal : high porosity, hydrophobic adsorbent, habitat of
microorganisms
gravel
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Conceptual diagram of Multi-Soil-Layering (MSL) Method

Waste Water

The soil mixture layers

The permeable layers

Treated Water
4

Treatment processes of MSL Method

N2

Organic
matters
BOD
COD

Denitrification

CO 2

Wastewater
PO 4 3-

NH 4 +

N 2 , N 2 O CO 2 , CH 4
(Aerobic)

(Anaerobic)

Aerobic
decomposition
Metal
iron

Organic
Charcoal
material
OH - Hydrophobicity

Fe

Anaerobic
decomposition

O2
Fe 2+

Soil mixture layer

H+

CH 2 O
++
NO 3 -

NO 3-

Fe(OH) 3
PO 4 3-

Zeolite
NH 4 + adsorption

adsorption

Nitrification

Permeable layer

Fe(OH) 3
PO 4 3- adsorption

O2
Aeration

Characteristics of the MSL method

1. High purification ability

2. High removal efficiency of N and P


3. Stable high treatment performance against fluctuation of raw water
4. Low maintenance
5. Reuse of treated water and soil
6. Harmony with the landscape

Application of the MSL Method

Sewage system, community plant

Treated water from wastewater treatment plant


Domestic wastewater

Toilet

MSL
method

Restaurant
remove
N, P, BOD, COD, etc

Polluted
environmental
water

COD

Treated Water
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Application case
Park

Small scale community

Performance of the MSL Method


Loading rate
The standard is 100L m-2 day-1.
It can be increased up to 4000 L m -2 day-1

BODT-NT-P removal
BOD removal only

Experimental results (in Shimane University)


type of water (loading rate)
river, lake,
treated water from wastewater

treatment plant
-3

(200-5000 L M

-1

-3

day

-1

-3

day

T-N

raw water (mg/l)


treated water (mg/l)

25
5

2.7
1.7

12
4

removal rate(%)

77

44

52

190
16

6.5
1.7

58
30

91

75

48

1400
47

40
5.4

240
92

96

88

61

removal rate(%)
raw water (mg/l)
treated water (mg/l)

livestock wastewater
high polluted water

(30-300 L M

T-P

raw water (mg/l)


treated water (mg/l)

domestic and toilet


wastewater

(200-2000 L M

day

BOD

-1

removal rate(%)

Results of practical use


type of water (loading rate)
[park]
a public latrine
(100 L M -3 day -1 )

BOD

T-P

raw water (mg/l)


treated water (mg/l)
removal rate(%)

5.4
0.7
81.7

4.46
0.04
99.1

39.4
15.5
60.7

[estate,office]
a cooperative society office in
Osaka
(30 L M -3 day -1 )

raw water (mg/l)

44.1

4.72

45.8

8.5

1.35

13.2

removal rate(%)

80.7

71.4

71.2

[house]
advanced treatment of
domestic wastewater
(100 L M -3 day -1 )

raw water (mg/l)

53.2

7.82

64.8

4.8

0.81

5.1

removal rate(%)

90.9

89.6

92.1

[river]
direct river treatment system
in Kumazoe River
(4000 L M -3 day -1 )

raw water (mg/l)

15.7

treated water (mg/l)

1.6

removal rate(%)

90

treated water (mg/l)

treated water (mg/l)

T-N

10

Domestic wastewater treatment

Toilet

Waste
water
inflow

Gray
Water

450

1000
B1

1000

septic tank

Treated
water
outflow

B2

Air

400 0

25 00
Air

85 0

Masa soil
Plastic net
Gravel 40mm
Porous pipe VU75mm

1000
100

600

2 000mm

mm
100

50

150
100

100

Drainage pipe
Aeration pipe

Cross Section

1750

350 0mm

50

50
50
50

Plan of treatment
quantity:1m3/day

50

100

Ceramic cups
for collection
of soil solution

1200

Aeration

50

100

1000

1200
mm

100
100

90 0

Soil, Jutepellet , Iron Mixture


Jute net
Zeolite 1 - 3mm
Plastic net
Gravel 40mm
Vinyl sheet

Actual loading rate:


100250L/m2/day

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system performance during the 10years operation


100
80
60
40
20
0

40

30

BOD
removal percentage

20
10
0

( mgl )

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

3
2

T-P
removal percentage

1
0
50
40
30
20
10
0

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

T-N
removal percentage
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

100
80
60
40
20
0

()

Evaluation of

100
80
60
40
20
0

2000

Change of BOD,T-P,T-N concentration and removal percentage of treated water

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Application case:
Treatment of Polluted River Water by the MSL Method

13

Kumazoe River purification project


Enlarged view
Onga River
Purification
facilities

Onga River

Kumazoe River
purification facilities

location of Kumazoe River and situation of the watershed

14

Kumazoe River basin

Iizuka Station

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The general situation of Kumazoe River

The catchment area

2.5km2 ( the urban area: about 80%)

Length of river channel

1.2km

River flow

average of winter: 7000m3 day-1


average of summer: 28000 m3 day-1

Quality of the river water

average BOD concentration of winter 55mg L- 1

average BOD concentration of summer 9 mg L-1


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The contents of the project


The design parameters of the MSL method
Targeted quantity of the river water: 7000m 3 day-1 (the target is mean river flow of winter)
Targeted quality of the river water: BOD 15.7 mg L-1 (on the average)
BOD 50 mg L-1 (on the maximum)
Targeted quality of the treated water: less than BOD 1.6mg L -1
(BOD removal rate: 90%)

The scale of the MSL method


Site area: the MSL method 1750m 2
total 6 series: 5 series of 6 series are always alternate operations.
: pre-treatment system for SS removal (a contact oxidation system)

The construction details of the MSL method


The construction period: September,2002 ~ March,2005 (start: April,2005~)
The cost of construction: 7.7 hundred million yen
110 thousand yen per 1m 3 day-1 of the water quantity

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A plan for Kumazoe River purification project


15m

15m

15m

Onga River
15m
15m 9m

20m
MSL Method

MSL Method
Kumazoe River

Pre-treatment System

Sluice

Administration building

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Kumazoe River purification facilities (the MSL method)

19

The demonstration experiment of pilot scale on the site for


Kumazoe River purification project

Soil mixture layer


Permeable layer
Pre-treatment system

MSL method

Water-intake

The scale of the system

discharge

Kumazoe River

Water quantity for treatment

144m3day-1(4m3m-2day-1)

(Loading rate)

Pre-treatment system

72m3day-1 2

The MSL method

48m3day-1 3

Onga River

MSL method

discharge

Water-intake

Pre-treatment
system

MSL method

20

A performance of demonstration experiment

120
river water
treated water(MSL1)
treated water(MSL2)
treated water(MSL3)

-1

( mgL )

100
80
60
40
20

12

2,000

MONTH

10

11
2,001

source: survey by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

Seasonal change of BOD concentration in the demonstration experiment

21

May 18,2001

120

river water

BOD(mgL-1

100

treated water(MSL1)
treated water(MSL2)
treated water(MSL3)

80
60
40
20
0
4:00

6:00

8:00

10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00

0:00

2:00

4:00

TIME
source: survey by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

Dairy change of BOD concentration in the demonstration experiment


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The comparison of performance and cost

MSL system

contact oxidation

contact oxidation system

advanced contact

system by gravel

by gravel and various

oxidation system by

with aeration

types of plastic modules

gravel with aeration

with aeration
-1

55

55

55

55

-1

14

10

10

2,300

2,400

1,200

1,000

440

512

1,031

440

6,000

6,600

18,000

6,000

BOD of influent water ( mgL )

BOD of effluent water ( mgL )


2

site area (m )
construction cost ( million yen)
maintenance cost ( thousand yen)

Source: The above construction cost are used as an example, and so are difficult to the real cost.

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The construction processes of the MSL method


In making of the soil mixture layers, a nonwoven fabric
was laid in the plastic cage and the mixed soil was filled
up in it.

These blocks were laid like left picture.

The void spaces (permeable layers) between each block and


block sides were filled with pumice.

The inlet pipe was installed at the top of the system.

Soil is covered on the surface of the system.


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reference data

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Structure of Multi Soil Layering Method


Wastewater
inflow

1000

Treated
water
outflow

B2
B1

1000

A
Air

4000
2500
Air
850
1000
2000
mm

900
1000

1200

1750

3500
mm

Aeration

Perspective figure

26

Masa soil
Plastic net
Gravel 40mm
Porous pipe VU75mm

100

600
mm
100

50

150

1200
mm

50
100
50

100
100

50
50

100
50
100

50

100

Ceramic cups
for collection
of soil solution

Drainage pipe
Aeration pipe

Cross Section

Soil, Jutepellet, Iron Mixture


Jute net
Zeolite 1-3mm
Plastic net
Gravel 40mm
Vinyl sheet
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Evaluation of
200

system performance during the 10years operation


(mgL-1)

(mgL-1)

inflow (L)

left axis

180

4.5

WW BOD

WW T-N

160

TW BOD
TW T-N

140

WW PO4-P

right axis

120

3.5
3

TW PO4-P

100

2.5

80

60

1.5

40

20

0.5

0
10:00

14:00

18:00

19:00

20:00

21:00

22:00

23:00

0:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

Daily fluctuation of waste and treated water1991/2/13-14

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Evaluation of

system performance during the 10years operation

(mg/L-1)

(mg/L-1)

200

left axis

180

right axis

160

WW BOD

WW T-N

TW BOD

TW T-N

WW PO4-P

TW PO4-P

14

12

10

140
120

100
6

80
60

40
2
20
0

0
7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

13:00

16:00

19:00

20:00

21:00

Daily fluctuation of waste and treated water1999/12/22

22:00
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MSL structure and type of water treatment


Heavily polluted water
Low loading rate

Moderately polluted water


High loading rate

Toilet, Restaurant ww treatment

Advanced treatment of

High
treatment
efficiency

sewage or domestic ww

Thick
ness
Less polluted water
High loading rate

Soil unit
Width
Unit size is decided depending on
the degree of treatment needed.

High loading rate


(less clogging)

Direct treatment of
polluted river water
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Prevention mechanisms of clogging and shortcut in the MSL method

Lack of uniformity

(a) Shortcut

(b) Clogging

Clogging
(c) Prevention effect by MSL method

Improvement of contact efficiency and filtration function

Improvement of PO4-PCODSS removal

(1)Water flow in soil

(2)Water flow in the MSL method

(3)Difference of water flows


by various materials
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