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Handbook for Manufacturing

Welding

6.1
General
All welding for ODIM deliveries shall be in accordance with EN 729-2. Any deviation from this standard shall require prior
agreement with the purchaser.
Requirements in Section 5 Structural assembly must be fulfilled before welding starts.
Complex or difficult welding shall be planned in detail, and described in a welding plan.
All welding shall be performed by qualified welders in accordance to EN 287, EN1418 or equivalent standard. Holding valid
certification and in accordance with approved welding procedures. See section 6.3.
6.1.1
Welding of Extra High Strength (EHS) steel (EHS Re 500 Mpa)
Welding of Extra High Strengths steel , shall always be planned in detail. The ODIM representative shall have access to the
welding plan during inspection.
The welding plan shall contain;
!
!
!
!

Tack welding details


Welding sequence
Heat treatment
Welding procedure reference

6.2
Welding methods
In general the following welding methods are allowed on ODIM products:
! 135 MAG
(Metal Active Gas Welding)
! 131 MIG
(Metal Inert Gas Welding)
! 111 SMAW (Shield Metal Arc welding)
! 12 SAW
(Shield Arc Welding)
! 141 TIG
(Tungsten Inert Gas Welding)
! 136 FCAW
(Flux Cored Arc Welding, with gas)
! 114 FCAW
(Flux Cored Arc Welding, without gas)
! 115 PAW
(Plasma Arc Welding)
Other welding processes must be approved by ODIM prior to welding.
6.2.1
Welding methods on Extra High Strengths steel (EHS Re 500 Mpa)
ONLY the following welding methods are allowed on Odim Hitec products made of EHS:
! 111 SMAW (Shield Metal Arc welding)
! 12 SAW
(Shield Arc Welding)
! 141 TIG
(Tungsten Inert Gas Welding)
! 136 FCAW
(Flux Cored Arc Welding, with shield gas)
6.3 WPS Welding Procedure Specification
On request all WPS and WPARs (WPQ) shall be issued to ODIM for approval, and if required to the relevant classification
society (normally DnV).
The WPS must be qualified by a Welding Procedure Approval Record (WPAR) in accordance with EN288-3.
Waving width on the welding string is limited. Maximum string width, is 20mm measured after welding.
Except on welding method 12 (SAW), and where mechanised welding is used. Here the string width shall be equal to that
specified in the WPAR.

6.4 Pre heating


Pre heating of welding areas shall be in accordance to EN 1011, parts 1 to 4 (BS 5135), or other recognized standard.
Preheating for repair welding shall be increased by 50"C, for low alloy steel. The preheating temperature must be achieved at a
radius of twice the plate thickness and the temperature must be maintained until welding is finished.
For austenitic stainless steel, and other non hardening materials, preheating shall not be used unless recommended by the
manufacturer of the material.

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

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Handbook for Manufacturing

6.5 Weld specification on drawings


6.5.1.1 Requirement of yield strength for filler materials on extra high strength steel (Re>500MPa)
If not specified, the weld shall overmatch the parent materials.
6.5.1.2 Specification of weld classification on end of reference line
6.5.1.3 Weld number, for reference identification
6.5.1.4 Weld symbol in accordance with NS-ISO 2553.

(Old weld specification)

12

(New weld specification)

B12

Re700

Fig. A.

6.5.1.4 NOTE! Weld symbol (Partial penetration)


If no numeric character is in front, the groove is to be as in fig. A.

Fig. B.
X
6.5.1.5 Weld symbol
X
(Partial penetration)
If numeric character is in front, the groove is to be as in fig. B

6.5.1.6
All single sided welds, shall be seal welded from the root side if possible to access.

6.5.2

Weld classification.
Weld classification at
ODIM
A
B
C
D

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

In accordance with
"NORSOK" standard
3
2
1
-

In accordance with
"DnV. Rules & Regulation"
Special (Critical) structure
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Non structural

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Handbook for Manufacturing


6.5.3

Extent of NDT
NDT shall be carried out in areas where the possibility of error is largest
Weld classification
VI (Visual Inspection)
MPI/DPI *
A
100 %
100 %
B
100 %
20 %
C
100 %
2-5%
D
100 %
2-5%
* MPI / DPI = MP / DP = Magnetic Particle / Dye Penetrant Inspection
**RT / UT = Radiographic / Ultrasonic Testing

RT/UT **
100 %
20 %
2-5%
NA

Although fillet and partial penetration welds generally have no requirement for RT / UT (Ref. 5.4.1.4) it can be required for
documentation of penetration depth. All detected errors in weld will then require repair. (ref. 5.4.1.5).
6.5.3.1
NDT requirements
NDT requirements shall be in accordance with this Handbook and any additional requirements.
General requirements are stated in this Handbook section 10.2.
If class approval from classification society is to be executed, the actual rules and regulations from the classification society
must be fulfilled.
6.6
Visual inspection
Inspection shall be carried out prior to welding, in order to confirm that all requirements are fulfilled.
Inspection shall be carried out during welding to confirm execution is in accordance with WPS.
Inspection shall be carried out after welding to inspect the results and order repair where necessary.
6.7

Acceptance criteria

6.7.1

Pores in the welding surface are not accepted.

6.7.2
"Under filling" of welds (Root and Face)
Extra high strength steel (Re 500MPa) (EHS)
Weld class A and B permitted "under fill" max. 0,0mm
Weld class C and D permitted "under fill" max. 0,2 mm
On Normal strength steel ( Re! 500MPa)
Weld class A and B permitted "under fill" max. 0,2 mm
Weld class C, and D permitted under fill max. 0,5 mm

C = Under filling

6.7.3
The strengthening bow ("overfilling") of the weld
The strengthening bow of the weld must not exceed the values of the following table:

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

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Handbook for Manufacturing

Plate thickness
T
(mm)
4 10
10 25
25 50
50 - and above

Max. Height
C
(mm)
2
3
4
5

6.7.4
Roughness of the surface
Extra high strength steel (Re 500MPa) (EHS)
The roughness of the surface of the weld must not exceed 1,0 mm.
On normal strength steel (Re! 500MPa)
The roughness of the surface of the weld must not exceed 2,0 mm

X=Roughness

6.8

Fillet welds

Throat thickness
of the weld
ae (mm)

48
8 15
15 25
25 - and above

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

Max. Face
Reinforcement
C (mm)
High Strength
Steel (EHS)
1
2
3
4

Max. Face
Reinforcement
C (mm)
Normal
Strength Steel
2
3
4
5

Maximum reduction of fillet welds


Throat thickness ae
Allowed only on minor weld length
Weld class
Weld class
A and B
C and D
0,1x ae

0,1x ae + 0,3mm

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Handbook for Manufacturing

NOTE! No reduction of welds throat


thickness ae is allowed on EHS

6.9

The symmetry of the weld


The asymmetry of the weld must not exceed
Throat thickness
Of the weld
ae (mm)

2-6
6-13
13 and above

6.10

Accepted
deviation
b-h
in mm
EHS-Steel
1,7
3
5

Accepted
Deviation
bh
in mm
Normal steel
3
5
8

Repair

6.10.1 Definition
Weld discontinuities: Irregularities in the body of the weld or on the weld surface classified as either weld imperfection or as
weld defect.
Weld imperfection: Discontinuities that are within the acceptance criteria defined in this Handbook and are considered to have
no practical limitation on the intended use of the product. Weld imperfections may be left without remedial work. Cosmetic
grinding may be performed at the discretion of the fabricator.
Weld defect: Discontinuity with a size and / or density that exceeds the acceptance criteria defined in this Handbook or other
referenced specification.

6.10.2 Correction of welds containing defects


All repair shall be carried out in accordance with established procedures.
Welds containing cracks shall not be repaired, until the reason for the cracking has been determined.
Crater cracks may be repaired by grinding followed by NDT methods and subsequent repair welding according to an accepted
repair welding procedure.
Other defects shall be corrected by grinding and repair welding or by re-welding.
Removal of defects shall be verified by local visual inspection, aided by an applicable NDT method. If applicable, the
remaining thickness in the ground area shall be measured. Repair welding is required if the remaining thickness is less than
specified. Ref. Section 6.7.2.

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

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Handbook for Manufacturing


6.10.3 Repair, and repair of the repaired weld
Before repair welding, the defect shall be completely removed.
The excavated area shall have a smooth transition to the metal surface, and allow good access for NDT. The removal of defects
shall be confirmed by MPI or DPI.
Defects less than 100mm apart shall be repaired as one continuous defect. The excavated grove shall be minimum 50mm long,
even if the defect is smaller.
Repair must not be carried out more than twice in the same area, unless approved by ODIM .
6.10.3.1 Re-welding
Re-welding shall be performed in accordance with the procedures utilised for the original weld. This includes complete
removal of the original weld and HAZ.

6.10.4 Repair welding procedure


Repair and repair of the repaired welding may be performed using the same procedure as for the original weld, or a separate
qualified procedure (ref. Sec.6.3). An evaluation of the defects shall be carried out by the fabricators welding co-ordinator
before repair of the repaired welding is started. Preheating see section.6.4
6.10.5 Correction of distortion
Improperly fitted parts should be cut apart and re-welded in accordance with the applicable WPS.
Parts distorted by welding, beyond the tolerances, should be straightened in accordance with the requirements in Section 5.

6.10.6 Post weld heat treatment (PWHT)


PWHT shall be performed after repair if specified for the original weld, this must be in accordance with specification. The
specification must be in accordance with steel manufacturers recommendation.
Evidence of rate of temperature increase, holding time and cooling rate must be obtained, and documented.
6.11
6.11.1
6.11.2

Documentation
The documentation of welding shall be completed on the relevant forms enclosed in Section 20 Attachments. See also
section 15, Documentation.
The following shall be included in the documentation:
Project /Element no.
Article no.
Drawing no.
Weld identification no.
Weld Class
Date
Welder identification
WPS
WPAR /WPQ
Welding consumables material certificate.
Visual inspection report
NDT report

The level of documentation is stated in section 15.3.

Section 6 Welding Rev 1 A

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