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PERCEIVED EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AT AIRTEL KENYA

BY
CHRISTINE MAKENA
DIANA CHEROTICH
STEPHEN NGUGI
GARRET ADHIAMBO
REBECCA KIBET

A MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROPOSAL PRESENTED IN PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF COMMERCE, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, UNIVERSITY
OF NAIROBI

AUGUST 2015

DECLARATION
This research project is our original work and has not been presented for a degree at any other
university for examination.
Signature Date

CHRISTINE MAKENA
DIANA CHEROTICH
STEPHEN NGUGI
GARRET ADHIAMBO
REBECCA KIBET

This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the University
Supervisor
Signature Date.
Name

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION...........................................................................................................................ii
CHAPTER ONE............................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background to the Study........................................................................................................1
1.1.1 Employee Training and Development.............................................................................2
1.1.2 Employee Performance...................................................................................................3
1.1.3 Airtel Kenya....................................................................................................................4
1.2 Research Problem..................................................................................................................5
1.3 Research Objective................................................................................................................7
1.4 Value of the Study..................................................................................................................8
CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................................................9
LITERATURE REVIEW..............................................................................................................9
2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................9
2.2 Theoretical Foundation..........................................................................................................9
2.2.1 Human Capital Theory....................................................................................................9
2.3 Employee Training and Development..................................................................................10
2.4 Employee Performance........................................................................................................13
2.5 Effect of Employee Training and Development on Performance........................................14
CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................18
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................18
3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................18
3.2 Research Design...................................................................................................................18
3.3 Population of the Study........................................................................................................18
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3.4 Sample..................................................................................................................................19
3.5 Data Collection....................................................................................................................19
3.6 Validity and Reliability.........................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.7 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................................20
REFERENCES............................................................................................................................21
APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE............................................................................................26

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Human resources are crucial element of the resources that an organization deploys in the pursuit
of its objectives. According to Noe (2002), all other resources that an organization uses are nonliving with the exception of human resources, which are live and generating resources. Without
human resources, the other resources that an organization possesses may not be of significant
use. The integral role played by human resources in ensuring that all other organizational
resources are deployed effectively underscores the importance of prudent human resource
management within the organization. A highly performing workforce translates into superior
performance for the organization on the one hand, whereas poorly motivated employees are
unlikely to work at their optimum productivity. The latter can be detrimental to organizational
performance in general. A key aspect of the human resource management function is the
facilitation of employee training and development (Griffin and Moorhead, 2011).
Employees require skills that enable them to be effective in carrying out the tasks that their jobs
require in the workplace. These skills are dependent on a number of factors, including, but not
limited to; the specific nature of the job that an employee handles, configuration of various
activities within the organization and developments in the organizations external environment
that may create new demands regarding the outcome expected of an employees job (Kotey and
Folker, 2007). If an organization has to achieve its goals, it is then inevitable that the employees
must be skilled as appropriate. Training activities help in imparting the requisite skills that are
needed in employees. In addition, the tendency of the organizations environment to change from
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time to time makes it necessary for the employees skills set to be dynamic, hence the need for
employee development.

1.1.1 Employee Training and Development


Training is the process of increasing the knowledge, and skills for doing a particular job. It is an
organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The
purpose of training is to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competence of an
employee. As such, training is a very important feature now days in making the organization
gainful. Most of the organization has now days an appropriate training section program on
regular basis. The main purpose of the training is to increase the employees skills, which
eventually makes the organization gainful (Rajeswari and Palanichamy, 2014). Gruman and Saks
(2005) see training as an integral element of an organizations strategy. They posit that training
involves the systematic alteration of the behavior of an organizations employees, towards a
direction that will facilitate the achievement of its goals. Training and development is also
carried out to enhance employees adaptability to factors that are internal to the organization. For
example, new employees require training for them to be able to carry out the job related tasks
competently and to be able to fit into their work groups and the entire organization.
Training denotes learning experiences that aim at imparting permanent change in an individual, a
change which may result into an improvement in their ability to carry out the tasks that their job
involves (Kotey and Folker, 2007). Thus, the design of training initiatives is such that they will
involve a change in, or enhancement of; an employees social behavior, knowledge, attitudes,
and skills. In particular, changing or enhancing an employees skills, knowledge and social
behavior may imply changing what they know, the way they work and they way they relate and
interact with their co-workers in the workplace (Noe, 2002). Constant changes in an
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organizations environment make it necessary to reorient the skills and competencies of the
employees so that the organization remains on track towards realizing its goals. The adaptation to
changes taking place in the organizations environment is facilitated through employee training
and development (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009).
While training involves learning activities that are focused on the acquisition of specific skills
that are related to a particular job, development is long term in its orientation (Noe, 2002).
Development encompasses the continuous expansion of a workers abilities, skills and
knowledge with a view of attaining long-term growth and advancement in ones career. (Hameed
and Waheed, 2011) notes that development is an educational process whereby an organizations
personnel find a chance to explore the depth and breadth of the theoretical knowledge on which
their career is founded, and the applicability of such knowledge to the concerns of their jobs.
Mastery of the theoretical knowledge and its applications enables them to attain personal career
growth over the long term. Some of the methods used in personnel development include; rotating
employees across different jobs within the organization, mentoring and counseling of junior
personnel by workers who are senior and are in possession of more experience, involving
employees in special projects and participation in regular seminars and conferences (Noe, 2002).

1.1.2 Employee Performance


Performance is a construct made up of several dimensions (Peterson et.al, 2011). Also,
performance reflects behavior as well as outcomes, and both have to be taken into account
whenever performance is being evaluated (Peterson et.al, 2011). High levels of employee
performance are characterized by; increased levels of productivity of employees on their job,
delivering tasks on time with a minimum level of resources, high levels of satisfaction with their
jobs, employees face less psychological problems that may impact on the effectiveness with
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which they can deliver on the tasks relevant to their jobs, an increasing sense of loyalty to their
organization, commitment to the realization of the broader goals of the organization and
increased incentives in terms of rewards for desirable output (Griffin and Moorhead, 2011).
Employee performance is measured in terms of input-output relationship. It is the measure of the
efficiency with which inputs or resources are utilized to create outputs. Performance is employee
productivity (Kotey and Folker, 2007). Performance depends on the skills and competencies
possessed by the employees. The skills demanded of workers may change as circumstances
surrounding the organization change, creating the need for a performance management system.
Performance management systems are aimed at a strategic and integrated improvement in the
effectiveness of an organization through enhancing the performance of the workers and
developing their capabilities as appropriate. Training and development of the employees is aimed
at improving their performance, through helping them to develop core competencies and skills.

1.1.3 Airtel Kenya


Bharti Airtel Limited is a leading global telecommunications company with operations in
19 countries across Asia and Africa. The company offers mobile voice and data services, fixed
line, and high speed broadband services. Airtel has been ranked among the six best
performing technology companies in the world by business weekly. Airtel Kenya Limited
provides mobile communications services to civil servants, business executives, artisans and
students in Kenya. Airtel offers personal and business services, including voice, mobile data,
fixed data, other services, roaming, and devices. In addition, the company also sells phones, SIM
cards, airtime top-up cards, and accessories, as well as postpaid plan bill payment services
through its shops. Airtel Kenya Limited was formerly known as Zain Kenya Limited and
changed its name to Airtel Kenya Limited in 2010. The company was founded in 2000 and is
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based in Nairobi, Kenya with store locations in Sarit, Mombasa, Kisumu, Eldoret, Nyeri, and
Nakuru, Kenya. As of May 26, 2004, Airtel Kenya Limited operates as a subsidiary of Bharti
Airtel International (Bloomberg Business, 2015).
Airtel Kenya because is the second major operator in Kenya and major competitor to the market
leader Safaricom ltd. Thus, being one of the major telecommunication firms in Kenya it should
delevop an effective human resource team to ensure its remains competitive. This is because
well-trained and developed employees when fully utilized by the employing organization
benefits it as well the employees themselves. Therefore, telecommunication firms to grow and
survive in todays globally competitive and fast changing environment especially in the
technology. There would be the need for the firms to come up with systems and programmes that
would bring out of their need efforts, attention, and creativity and general innovations as
individual employees and as groups or teams of network (Bediako, 2008).

1.2 Research Problem


According to Hameed & Waheed (2011), human resources are a critical element of the assets at
an organizations disposal. Like other assets, it is important to ensure that their output is
maximized at the lowest cost possible. Thus, training and development facilitates the adaptability
of employees to the dynamic demands of the workplace (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009). However,
employers do not regularly consider the feelings of their employees regarding skills development
especially in the modern business organizations, which are confronted with the rapidly changing
environment, which requires radical changes for the organizations to adapt those changes for
having a survival (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009). Moreover, most organizations do not recognize
the importance of training to increase their employees productivity and when the economy slows
or when profits decline, they cut in their training budgets leading to high job turnover then
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increased of hiring new employees which pushes down the organizational profitability
(Rajeswari and Palanichamy, 2014).
In Kenya, the telecommunication industry has witnessed remarkable growth in the last few years.
Mobile phone penetration increased from 60 per cent in 2010 to over 77 per cent in 2013, with
subscribers now standing at over 30 million. However, this growth has brought with it many
challenges to the human resources. The telecommunication industry is technology based and to
compete effectively the firms in this sector must continuously innovate and develop new
products and services. These innovations require continuous employee training and development
to ensure that the employees are up to date and informed. Thus, it would be essential to
investigate the perceived effect of employee trainee and development on employee training at
Airtel Kenya.
Numerous studies have been carried out internationally and locally on the employee training and
development and its perceived effect of employee performance. Internationally, Gamage and
Imbulana (2013) examined the effect of the training and development on the employees
performance at the Call Center staff of the Sri Lanka Telecom and established that that there is a
significant positive relationship between training and development and the employee
performance. In addition, Boadu et al. (2014) studied training and development as a tool for
employee performance in the district assemblies in Ghana and established that their direct
relationship between training and development and employee performance and there exist a
significant relationship between training and development and job satisfaction. However, the
study was carried out in different localities and different organizations hence the study findings
may not be generalized to the Kenyan context.

Locally, Amadi (2014) examined the effect of training and development on employee
performance at the Safaricom Call Center, Nairobi and revealed that that training and
development has a positive impact on both motivations of employees as well as performance.
However, the study focused on the call center employees as opposed to all employees working at
the firm. Onyango and Wanyoike (2014) assessed the effect of the training on the performance of
staff in the public health institutions in Kenya and found that there exist a strong positive
relationship between training of employees and performance however, the study focused on
public health institutions hence the findings could not be generalized to the telecommunication
industry. Achieng, Ochieng, and Owuor (2014) also surveyed job redesign practices in
commercial banks and their influence on the performance of employees. It was established that
the identity, variety and significance of job tasks had an impact on the performance of
employees, whereas task autonomy did not affect their performance.
While these studies may provide insight on how human resource management strategies are
likely to affect employee performance in various organizations they do not specifically address
the issue of how employee training and motivation impacts employee performance. Further, the
studies conducted examining employee training and development in other organizations have
limited generalizability, considering the fact that they were conducted in particular geographical
regions. This leads to the question; how does employee training and development affect
employee performance of Airtel Kenya?

1.3 Research Objective


In seeking to answer the research question posed in the preceding section, the study will be
guided by the broad objective of determining the effect of employee training and development at
Airtel Kenya.
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1.4 Value of the Study


This study will be of value to the management of telecommunication companies since they will
use it research findings to determine whether they training programs and policies are effective. In
addition, the study will give recommendation on areas which telecommunication firms needs to
improve regarding employee training and development. The study will also be of benefit to
employee of telecommunication companies since it will highlight the how employee training and
development enhance employee performance.
Additionally, this study will be of significant to human resource consultancy firms since it will
provide more insights on training and development and it perceived impact on the performance
of employees not only in the telecommunication industry but also in other organizations. Further,
the study will add on to the existing knowledge on employee training and development and it can
serve as a basis for further studies.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the theoretical foundation, a review of training and development, a review
of employee performance and a review of past studies on employee training and development
and performance as advanced by various authors.

2.2 Theoretical Foundation


This study will expound on the Garrick (1999) Human Capital Theory

2.2.1 Human Capital Theory


The human capital theory was developed by Garrick (1999) and states that people are worth
investing in as a form of capital. The theory postulates that peoples performance and the results
achieved can then be considered as a return on investment and assessed in terms of costs and
benefits. It is a theory that can explain workplace learning. The human capital theory
concentrates on the agency of human beings through skill knowledge, effort in augmenting
production, possibilities. According, the theory is based on the view that training attempts to
close the gap by bringing employees up to, but not beyond, the desired standard or competence
(Mwesigwa, 2010).
Today, human capital has being paid more attention in the workplace as well since studies
have established that shows that education investment for workers significantly affects
their productivity in the workplace. Along with the belief of education about improving workers
productivity, many researchers stress the importance of education and training in the human
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capital field (Bratton and Gold, 2007). In addition, not only an employees productivity but
also other employee characteristics are also affected by the investment of human capital. for
instance, through participating in leaning activity, the learning participators are likely to
easily implement job - seeking activities with increasing the human capital. Further, the
theory of human capital points out that the investment of human capital affects national
economic growth since high employee productivity means high production for the nation as well
(Mwesigwa, 2010). Thus, training of employees at all levels within an organization is a vital
component in maintaining the competitiveness in an international arena.

2.3 Employee Training and Development


Training connotes a conscious effort by an organization that is aimed at facilitating the learning
of job-related competencies by employees. These competencies are crucial in the successful
performance of the jobs by employees. They include the skills, knowledge and behaviors that are
relevant in as far as the performance of work tasks by the employees is concerned. Noe (2002)
contends that training can be used as a basis for obtaining competitive advantage. For training to
enable an organization to acquire sustainable competitiveness over rivals, it has to be viewed
broadly as a means towards creating intellectual capital (Klein et.al, 2006).
External environmental factors exert a profound influence on the training activities that occur
within an organization (Clarke, 2002). Economic cycles cause firms to reconsider training
activities to obtain a clear grasp of the activities that are critical for the success of business
strategy. Increased globalization means that organizations will have to intensify their training
activities in order for them to integrate employees from diverse cultural backgrounds. Intangible
and human capital is also gaining increased prominence, considering that they are relatively
inimitable, and can therefore offer sustainable competitive advantage to business organizations.
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The changes in the demand for particular occupations have also made talent management a
strategic imperative for firms if they wish to remain sustainably competitive.
Training is usually accomplished using presentational, hands-on and group building training
methods (Noe, 2002). In training using presentation methods, the trainees receive information
passively. The information relates to methods applicable in problem solving, facts and processes
that are related to the tasks that the trainees carry out when performing their jobs. Several
approaches can be used in delivering the content that the trainers wish to impart on the trainees.
They include, but not limited to; the use of games, delivery through lectures, workbooks and
manuals. Lectures are a one-way communication by means of spoken words (Gainey and Klaas,
2003). The trainees communicate to the trainers what they intend to have them to learn. There
are several variations of the lecture; a single trainer may talk to trainees; more than one trainer
may make presentations of different views of a particular topic in which training is being done.
In addition, guest speakers, panels and student presentations are other approaches that may be
used when training takes the form of lectures. Apart from lectures, another approach while using
presentational methods may involve the use of audiovisual techniques (Kotey and Folker, 2007).
A common instruction approach using audiovisual techniques is the video. Trainees learn by
watching videos of lectures. In some cases, the trainees engage in a discussion about their
perceptions of various aspects of the information that has been delivered in the video.
Hands-on training methods are a sharp contrast to presentational methods. While employees take
a passive role in learning when presentational methods are being used, the role that they play is
increasingly an active one when it comes to hands-on training methods (Chew and Chan, 2008).
Hands-on training can take the form of on-the-job training, behavior modeling, role plays, case
studies and simulations (Caligiuri, 2006). On the-job, training is common when employees are
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faced with a new work environment or context. As such, they familiarize themselves with the
tasks that their jobs entail by observing their peers who are more experienced and skilled
performing the job for which they are being trained. They then attempt to mimic the behavior of
their seniors. A variant of the on-the-job training method is training through self-directed
learning (Noe, 2002). Trainees learning through the self-directed approach take responsibility for
all aspects of their learning. They pursue knowledge of content that has been predetermined at
their own pace. Behavior modeling is more common when employees need to be trained in
certain behavioral skills rather than information. A model is presented to the trainees. The model
demonstrates the behaviors that the trainees are to learn. The trainees observe the behavior and
are allowed to put their observation into practice. In role-plays, the trainees are assigned
characters, which they act out whereas in simulations, trainees are presented with situations that
happen in real-life contexts, and that require their decisions.
The other category of training methods is the group building methods. These methods differ from
the preceding ones already discussed, given that they are aimed at enabling the trainees to
develop team-working skills. Methods involved in building of groups include adventure learning,
team training and action learning (Noe, 2002).In adventure learning, structured activities form
the basis for the development of an individuals leadership skills and the ability to work
effectively in a team setting. The members of a team participate in the structured activities.
Through their participation in the structured activities, group members are able to practice how
to coordinate the activities within a group so as to maximize effectiveness in the achievement of
group goals. In team training, individuals work together in a team towards attaining a common
goal. The individuals performance is coordinated so that synergies are created, with the result
that optimal results are obtained. The aspects of the teams performance that are coordinated
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include the team members knowledge, attitudes and their behavior. These aspects provide the
team members with the capabilities that they need to competently work toward the realization of
the teams goals. Action learning entails having the team members work on actual problems or
issues that are typical of the workplace. Team members develop the plans that will guide them in
solving particular problems. They are then required to follow through their plans.

2.4 Employee Performance


Employee's performance means how well employees perform on the job and assignments
assigned them measured against the generally accepted measure of performance standards set by
their companies. This means there are general expectations expected of employees in relation to
their performance in every company. Employees can be said to have performed when they have
met the expectations and performed up to standard (Appiah, 2010). Employee performance can
also be defined as the functioning and presentation of employees. This means, how employees
are able to effectively administer their task and assignments and how they present their
assignment to reflect the quality and good service desired by their companies (Appiah, 2010).
Employee performance is key to an effective performance management system. Thus, setting
goals, making sure expectations are clear and providing frequent feedback help people perform
most effectively. Accordingly, employees must know what they need to do to perform their job
successfully. Setting performance expectations and goals for individuals and groups to channel
their efforts towards achieving organizational objectives. Getting employees involved in the
planning process helps them understand the goals of the organization, what needs to be done,
why it needs to be done and how well it should be done (Amadi, 2014). According to Griffin and
Moorhead (2011) clear performance expectations are critical factors in teamwork success,
whether your goal is to develop a project team, your departmental team, or a sense of teamwork
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company-wide, clear performance expectations support teamwork success. Use clear


performance expectations to help employees develop accountable, productive, meaningful,
participatory teamwork.
Employee performance is measured in terms of the improvement in productivity, absenteeism
and the employee job satisfaction (Gamage and Imbulana, 2013). Productivity is achieving cost
effective high performance and good performance brings quality, higher quality of employee
services implies lower costs and increased their productivity, which in turn provides the firm
with a greater market share and enhanced competitiveness levels. Absenteeism means either
habitual evasion of work, or willful absence as in a strike action. It does not include involuntary
or occasional absence due to valid causes, or reasons beyond one's control, such as accidents or
sickness. Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are
happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Many measures purport that
employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and
positive employee morale in the workplace (Gamage and Imbulana, 2013).

2.5 Effect of Employee Training and Development on Performance


According to Woodruffe (1999), employee training and development enables an organization to
forge a stronger bond with its employees. Training and development programs within the
company provide employees with an opportunity to advance their prospects, with regard to
employability, both within the company and externally. With a stronger bond with the
employees, an organization will enjoy high levels of loyalty among the employees (Cummings
and Worley, 2014). As such, their satisfaction levels remain high. A high level of employee
satisfaction has the effect of increasing their productivity. A highly motivated worker becomes
passionate about their job, and they will go out of their way to ensure that the tasks and
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responsibilities assigned to them are executed timely and diligently. Also, with strong bonds with
their organization and employer, the employees are more assured of the security of tenure. In
turn, they will focus less attention on the possible lucrative opportunities outside their
organization, and exert much of their effort towards the success of their organization (Auer and
Antoncic, 2011).
The absence of growth opportunities within the company contributes to a career plateau
(Chiaburu et.al, 2013). When an employee is faced with a situation in which their careers are not
making progress, their intentions to quit become enhanced. A majority of employees get into jobs
hoping to attain upward mobility in the job positions that they hold. As time progresses, they
obtain additional skills and knowledge that are related to the performance of their job. Training
and development programmes help in accelerating the upward mobility of an employee in their
career. Through mentorship and coaching relationships, employees do not have to hold a given
job for a long period in order to master the competencies that are required for effective delivery.
Thus, it is important that training and development is offered to employees if their turnover has
to be kept to minimum levels possible. Low employee turnover can assist the employees to
enhance their performance levels. With low turnover, experienced employees are likely to be
always available to provide guidance and direction to those new on the jobs.
Companies that place a lot of emphasis on employee training and development have been found
to perform better, overall. Learner (1986) established organizational cultures that were more
oriented towards continuous learning and high ethical standards had an association with high
levels of performance. Continuous learning and ethical practices are most beneficial when they
get entrenched in most facets of the organization. Cultures in which continuous learning is
emphasized provide an ideal context for training and development programs to thrive. With
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continuous training and development of the employees, an organization finds itself in a better
position to address the needs of all the stakeholders; from customers to the shareholders. In the
long run, the organization will manage to retain the support it needs for its well being. Also, the
financial performance will improve significantly. With high levels of financial performance, an
organization can manage to attract and retail highly talented workers by offering them attractive
perks and career growth prospects.
Most workers in todays organizations are confronted with the feeling that they need to sell their
credentials, which brings with it devastating effects (Laud and Johnson, 2012). In their quest to
build their images by means of career advancement, workers are left with little time to pursue
activities that will bring them self fulfillment. When employees are trained and developed on a
continuous basis, the feeling that opportunities for personal fulfillment have not been provided
for them tends to be eliminated. Organizational programs that lay emphasis on the continuous
development of the employees enhance the self-esteem of the employees. As such, employees
feel more appreciated by their organization, and will tend to be more satisfied in their jobs.
Satisfied employees will take a leading role in helping an organization to achieve its goals. They
strive to do more with less, and carry out the roles assigned to them dutifully. Eventually, they
are able to achieve high levels of performance, all for the benefit of the organization.
Kiweewa and Asiimwe (2014) examined the implications of training on employee performance
in regulatory organizations in Uganda. The study established that training and development had
significant influence on employee performance thus; organizations should constantly search for
ways to remain competitive. Appiah (2010) also the impact of training on employee performance
in Ghana and established that the objective of training programs is to improve both individual

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and organizational performance thus every employee no matter their educational background or
level within the company had benefited from the in house training program.
Ngugi (2014) investigated the relationship between managers training and development and
employee performance in Geothermal Development Company. The objective of the study was to
find out the relationship between training and development and employee performance in
Geothermal Development Company. The study found out that training and development is
important in influencing employee performance. Organizations should pay attention to this and
include staff training and development as one of the strategies in ensuring achievement of
employee performance. Otuko et al (2013) assessed the effect of training dimensions on
employee performance, a case of Mumias Sugar Company, Kenya. The study findings
established that there was a positive and significant effect between training needs assessment and
employee performance in Mumias Sugar Company Limited. Training contents were found to
have a positive and significant effect on the employee performance in Mumias Sugar Company
Limited and training evaluation and employee performance were positively and significantly.

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CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the research design, the population of the study, the sample size, data
collection procedure, validity and reliability and finally data analysis technique.

3.2 Research Design


A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in the procedure
(Orodho, 2006). According to Kothari (2004), a research design is the conceptual structure
within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement
and analysis of data. A descriptive research design will be used to carry out this study.
Descriptive research involves the collection of information from all the sampled individuals
through their responses to questions (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2006). Descriptive research also
involves a field survey where the study examines the population of interest to inquire certain
issues concerning the planned study. The descriptive design will be since it is appropriate for
data collection from a large population and to obtain representative views.

3.3 Population of the Study


A population is also a well defined or a set of people, services, elements, and events, group of
things or households that are being investigated (Chandran, 2004). Population refers to the entire
group of individuals or objects of which the researcher is interested in generalizing the

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conclusions. The population of interest will comprise all the 318 employees of Airtel Kenya head
office in Nairobi.

3.4 Sample
A sample is the segment of the population that is selected for investigation (Chandran, 2004). A
sample of 95 employees will be used for the study. The sample is 30% of the total population as
recommended by Mugenda and Mugenda (2006) that a sample of 10-30% is adequate if properly
selected. The size chosen is also a factor of available time and resources to carry out the research.
Simple random sampling technique will be used to select the sample size. Simple random sample
gives each respondent a random chance of being included in the study.
Table 3.1 Sample size
Category

Population

Ratio or 30%

Sample size

Top management staff

15

30%

Middle level management staff

30

30%

Lower management staff

45

30%

14

Other employees

99

30%

30

Total

318

30%

95

Source: Airtel Kenya (2015)

3.5 Data Collection


Data for the study will be collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire will have both
structured and non-structured questions. According to Saunders et al (2009), a questionnaire is a
convenient tool in research especially where there are large numbers of subjects to be handled
because they facilitate easy and quick derivation of information or responses within a short time.
The questionnaires will be dropped and picked to the sampled respondents after one day. The
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drop and pick method is considered suitable since it will give the respondents adequate time to
discuss, understand and respond to the questions therein.

3.6 Data Analysis


Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel. Descriptive statistics
will involve the use of measures of central tendency, which include frequencies, percentages and
the mean. Finally, the data obtained will be presented using tables and pie charts.

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Performance in Commercial Banks in Kisumu, Kenya. Greener Journal of Business &
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Aguinis, H., & Kraiger, K. (2009). Benefits of training and development for individuals and
teams, organizations, and society. Annual review of psychology, 60, 451-474.
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APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondent,
We are students from the University of Nairobi carrying out a study on the perceived effects of
employee training and development on employee performance at Airtel Kenya. The information
given here will be purely used for academic purposes and will be treated with strict
confidentiality. Kindly provide the data requested.
Your cooperation will be highly appreciated. Thank you.
Section A: Demographic Information
1. Gender
Male

Female

2. How long have you worked with this organization?


Less than 5 years

11-15 years

[ ]

6-10 years
More than 15 years

3. Which department do you work in?


ICT

Finance

Marketing

Others, specify .

26

Section B: Employee Training and Development


4. Does your organization have employee training and development programs in your
organization?
Yes

No

No idea

5. How regularly does your organization conduct employee training


Very often

Often

[ ]

Rarely

Never

6. Which strategies do your organization during employee training and development?


Coaching

Participation and involvement

[ ]

On the job training

Delegation

Empowerment

Others
7. How effective are training and development strategies used by your organization
Very effective

Effective

Less effective

] Not effective [

8. How would rate your organizations training policies and programs


Very effective

Effective

Less effective

] Not effective [

9. How often does your organization review it training policies and programs?
Very often

Often

[ ]

Rarely

27

Never

10. How would you rate your managers commitment towards employee training and
development?
Excellent

Good

Average

[ ]

Poor

Section C: Employee Performance


11. Does employee training and development affect the performance of your duties?
Yes

No

No idea

If yes above, please explain how

.
12. Does employee training and development enhance the productivity of employees?
Yes

No

No idea

13. Does employee training and development reduce employee absenteeism?


Yes

No

No idea

14. Does employee training and development enhance job satisfaction?


Yes

No

No idea

15. Does employee training and development reduce employee absenteeism?


Yes

No

No idea

16. How would you rate your firm performance due to employee training and development?
Excellent

Good

Average

28

[ ]

Poor

17. Apart from improved employee performance, indicate other benefits associated with
employee training and development?

Thank you for your time

29