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Contents

(Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid)

Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv

4 The transmission electron microscope

4.1 The instrument ……………………………………

66

4.2 Contrast mechanisms .…………………

……………

76

4.3 High voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) .…………108

110

4.4 Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

4.5 Preparation of specimens for TEM ……………

…….110

4.6 Questions ……………………………………………

121

Further reading ……………………………………………………………

…….

236

Answers ……………………………………………………………………………. 238

……. 243

Index …………………………………………………………………………

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).