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`EETP/BSNL

SILVER
CERTIFICATION COURSE
TELECOM SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND
FIRE SAFETY
Version 2 June 2014

Telecom Support Infrastructure (TSI)

Air Conditioning System & Fire Safety

AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND FIRE SAFETY

INDEX

3.1

Introduction ..................................................................... 2

3.2

Objective........................................................................... 3

3.3

Types Of air conditioning system................................... 3

3.4

Fire safety. ...................................................................... 13

3.5

Fire protection ............................................................... 13

3.6

Summary ........................................................................ 20

3.7

Self assessment questions .............................................. 21

3.8

References and suggested further readings ................ 21

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3 AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND FIRE SAFETY


STRUCTURE
3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.2

OBJECTIVE

3.3

TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

3.4

FIRE SAFETY.

3.5

FIRE PROTECTION

3.6

SUMMARY

3.7

SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

3.8

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Air conditioning means the maintenance of air conditions inside a building


irrespective of outside atmospheric conditions. This can be accomplished in one or more
of the following ways
Maintain the air at the desired temperature
Control moisture content of the air
Hold contamination to an acceptable level.
Circulate the air properly in order to have correct proportion of oxygen.
Human comfort is not the only purpose of air conditioning. It may also be
provided to prevent deterioration of equipment and to maintain a specified temp &
humidity for electrical & electronic equipment. Air conditioning is an essential
requirement for proper functioning of a telephone exchange. The various A/C systems
used for air conditioning of telephone exchanges are discussed in this lesson.
A telecom installation with high concentration of cables and electronics switching
equipment within relatively small area constitutes a HIGH RISK installation.
High rise buildings are susceptible to fire because of presence of combustible
materials, oxygen and heat. More the combustible material more is the fire load of the
building. Stack effect caused due to high rise building supplies enough oxygen to sustain
fire and thus it may lead to disaster. We have to prevent fire before everything is afire.
Thus, means are required to be devised for effectively controlling such situations.

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3.2

Air Conditioning System & Fire Safety

OBJECTIVE
At the end of the lesson the participants shall be able to:
Know the various A/C systems in use.
Select a suitable A/C system for a particular requirement.
Know innovative strategies for Air Conditioning.
Active and passive fire measures.
Implement the active and passive fire protection system in Telecom buildings.
Inspect the building with respect to active and passive fire protection measures.
List the Classes of Fire and Fire Extinguishers
Explain Wet riser system definitions
Know the Components of wet riser system

3.3

TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Air-conditioning system in use may be categorized in to the following Types:
Unitary System:
1]

Window Type Units.

2]

Split Type Units.

3]

Package Type with

a)

Air Cooled Condenser.

b)

Water Cooled Condenser.

Central Air Conditioning System:


1]

Direct Expansion Type.

2]

Chilled Water Type.

3.3.1 WINDOW TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS:


Window type air conditioners are completely self contained units with the
compressor, condenser, evaporators, refrigerant piping and air filters, all assembled in a
very compact single unit.
The window units are usually of 1, 1.5, 2TR capacity. Modern tendency is to
employ sealed type motor compressor unit. The condenser is air cooled. The motor
usually has shaft extension on both sides for air to draw the return air from the room, pass
through evaporator and send the cooled air back into the room.
The units are easy and convenient to handle. One limitation however is that a
window type can only be installed in a wall whose outer face is exposed, so that the hot
air from the condenser may be discharged in to the atmosphere.
Advantages:

These units don't occupy floor space.


Can be mounted on the window side or on a hole cut in the wall.

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Absence of ducting and plumbing.


Easy and quick installation.

Disadvantages:

No Humidity control.
No fresh air control.
Not suitable for continuous operation.
No effective uniform air distribution and week air throw.
No effective dust control.

3.3.2 SPLIT TYPE AIR CONDITIONERS:


These units are functionally very similar to the window models. Here the
condenser/ Compressor Unit [outdoor unit] and cooling coil unit [indoor unit] are housed
in two separate enclosures and both the indoor and outdoor units are connected through
refrigerant pipe line.
Advantages:
a]

Opening in wall/window is not required.

b]

Indoor units can be placed any where inside the room.

c]

Effective Dust Control.

d]

No Noise problem.

Limitations:
The distance between Indoor and outdoor units should not be more than 30 feet.
3.3.3 PACKAGE TYPE A/C UNITS:
These units are also functionally very similar to the window models but are very
much bigger in size and therefore installed on the floors. The self contained single
package units possess several advantages. It can be installed in A/C space with or without
duct system. The nominal capacity ranges from 5 Ton to 15 TR.The Compressor units
may be of hermetically sealed semi sealed or open type. The control panel is conveniently
located on the unit itself
Advantages:
1]

Structural alterations required are negligible.

2]

Prompt delivery & immediate A.C. benefits.

3]

Ease of installation and removal.

4]

Simplified field engineering.

5]

Factory assembly of balanced and tested equipment.

6]

More flexibility in operation.

3.3.4 Central Air Conditioning Plant:


Central air-conditioning plant becomes a necessity when areas to be airconditioned are large and in multiple zones as the unitary air-conditioners will be highly
costly proposition. Another aspect is that the nearly infinite combination of coil
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configuration & evaporator temperature, air handling arrangements and other variations
that are available in the control system are rarely possible with unitary systems.
a)

DIRECT EXPANSION TYPES AC PLANT:

In this type of system evaporation of refrigerant takes place in the cooling media.
Refrigerant cools the air which is in direct contact with it. The heat which is given out by
air is picked by the refrigerant and the condenser water picks that heat from the
refrigerant and reject into atmosphere by means of cooling tower.
b)

CHILLED WATER TYPE A.C. PLANTS:

In chilled water type A/C plants water as second intermediate heat transfer
medium is used. Water absorbs heat from the air returned from the conditioned space and
then transfers the same to the refrigerant in the chiller. Here water circulates in chillers,
water pumps and air handling unit coils. In some of the big installations there are more
than one chilled water circuits like primary and secondary circuits. Other items remain
similar to that of direct Expansion Type Plants.
3.3.5 COMPONENTS OF A.C. SYSTEM:
A.C. system can be broadly sub-divided into three areas :

Refrigerant Circuit.
Water Circuit.
Air Circuit.
Refrigerant Circuit :

In a vapour compression type refrigerant cycle, a refrigerant is used in conjunction


with compressor, evaporator and condenser.

Figure 1. Principle of Air Conditioning


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COMPRESSOR:
Compressor only helps to maintain pressure difference in evaporator and
condenser so that the refrigerant cycle can work continuously. It expands Freon Gas from
the evaporator as fast as it is formed and maintains low pressure 69 p.s.i.g at low Temp.
[400F].
It compressors and discharges the gas to the condenser at a pressure of about 229
p.s.i.g at a Temp. 1100F.
Because of rapid compression, the refrigerant becomes hot.
CONDENSER:
It is intended for cooling the hot gas and liquefying it under pressure. It may be air
cooled or water cooled. At the condenser, the refrigerant vapour which is maintained at
high pressure releases heat to the condenser water through heat transfer surface of
condenser water tubes and becomes liquid by principle of Latent heat of condensation.
EXPANSION VALVE:
Its function is to control and regulate the rate flow of liquid Freon under pressure
and allow it in to the evaporator under low pressure.
EVAPORATOR:
This constitutes the cooling unit in which the liquid Freon under a low pressure
evaporates and in doing so picks up heat from the air [By principle of Latent Heat of
Evaporation] thereby cooling the medium surrounding the cooling coil. An important
point to note is that the compressor and Expansion valve constitute the two dividing
points between high and low pressure that the condenser and evaporator contains the
refrigerant both in liquid and gas form and that they both act as heat exchanger i.e.,
Evaporator absorbs heat and condenser gives out heat. In other words the refrigerant cycle
can be used either for cooling or for heating.
WATER CIRCUIT :
The condenser water picks up heat from the refrigerant system and in turn reject
heat into the atmosphere with the help of cooling tower, where the water is sprayed and
subject to cooling by atmospheric air and re-circulated to the condenser by pumps.
Reasonably soft water is to be supplied for makeup of condenser water. Hard water
causes fouling of condenser tubes thereby reducing the heat transfer efficiency.
AIR CIRCUIT:
Cooling and dehumidification of air is done at cooling coil to offset sensible and
latent heat of the space. Distribution of conditioned air to the areas in proportion to the
load is achieved through supply air ducting with the help of the fan. Collection of return
air back to the Air Handling system takes place through return air space and fan provides
the necessary suction force. Dust filtration by filters is provided in return air stream.
3.3.6 INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
Promoting efficient use of electrical energy and its conservation has been under
active consideration in Telecom and other buildings for a quite some time. The Telecom
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Buildings are highly energy intensive buildings and requires round the clock reliable airconditioning system for optimum performance of Telecom equipment. Heating,
ventilation and air-conditioning [HVAC] systems consume nearly 50 to 60% of the total
power consumption in any telecom / commercial buildings and thus offer huge potential
and challenge to reduce the energy consumption by employing innovative strategies.
Some of the innovative strategies, which are now employed in the air-conditioning
systems to reduce the energy bills, are as under:

Building Orientation/ Architectural Features.


Establishing Baseline Performance Indices.
High Sensible Air-Conditioning System.
Automation and Building Management System.
Variable Voltage and Variable Frequency Drives [VVVFD].
Heat Recovery Wheel / Desiccant Cooling System for Fresh air.
Panel Cooling.
Vapour Absorption Machines [VAM]
Roof Top Chillers.
Free Cooling or Cooling by Total Air Displacement.

CALCULATION OF TONNAGE OF A.C REQUIRED FOR A ROOM:


To find the ton AC required the length, breadth and the height of the room must
be known.
Total = Length (feet) x Breadth (feet) x Height (feet)
Now the requirement may be accessed by referring to this chart
Total

Ton AC Required

Till 1200

1200-1700

1.5

1700-2300

There are several other factors that you also need to consider for effective AC
cooling.
The number of Windows in the room.
Application that produce heat such as TV, Desktop etc.
If the room gets too much sunlight.
GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS:
Wall thickness - 9 inch.
Cooling thickness - 6 inch.
Room height - 10 ft or less
Indoor Temperature - 24-25C
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Building Orientation/ Architectural Features


An awareness campaign has been launched for carefully considering the following
features by the Architects and Engineers while designing the buildings.
(i)

Orientation

(ii)

Double Glass Panels

(iii)

Insulation on Roof

(iv)

No Leakage (From Windows/ Doors/ Ceiling and Return Air Path)

(v)

Long side should be having minimum heat gain. The heat gain is minimum
from North followed by East and South and maximum from west side.

(vi)

Plant room and AHU locations should be such that ducting/ piping are
minimum.

(vii)

Fresh air intake should be sufficient to avoid Sick Building Syndrome

(viii)

Sun shades over the glass area with proper inclination to avoid direct
sunrays.

(ix)

Partitions and closure of air grills of unutilized conditioned space.

In the existing buildings also, steps are being taken to review the above features
for necessary correction.
Establishing Baseline Performance Indices:
Baseline performance indices for temperature and humidity have been devised
keeping in view the need for energy conservation and to avoid extra air-conditioning load.
Space temperatures (23-26 C) - Task & Non-task, Equipment Room etc. against the
earlier setting of [ 20 26 C].Space humidity 30 to 70% against earlier requirement of 40
to 60%. Thus, most of the time, additional equipment is not required for humidification.
Depending on the type, location and size of the Building, Baseline indices are being
formulated for:

Usage Time Schedule Working hours, day/night and holidays etc.


Total Tons at Worst Conditions: At Machine end and at User end.
Tons / Sq. Meter
KW / Ton
KWH / Day
KWH / Year

High sensible air-conditioning system


The AC package units, which are generally provided in Telephone Exchanges,
have been now specially designed to handle a high sensible heat factor of 0.95 as most of
telecom exchanges are unmanned and have sensible cooling applications. Further, the aircooled condensers are now provided with two /variable speed motors so as to select
appropriate speed through a controller depending upon refrigerant discharge pressure.
The condenser fan motor stops completely when the compressor is stopped and the
pressure is less than 190 PSI. Time delay of minimum 3 minutes between the condenser
fan and the compressor is provided for restart of compressor so as to ensure stabilization
of pressures. This feature can be provided even in split AC units.
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The package AC units have been also provided with dehumidification mechanism
by reducing effective coil area to 2/3rd whenever dehumidification is required. The
control system enables a solenoid valve to cut off 1/3rd of the cooling coil, thus,
providing a lower evaporating temperature and dehumidification without any heating and
thus, saving of precious electrical energy. Constant airflow is maintained even during
dehumidification.
Precise air conditioning
Compared to yesterday's monolithic telephone system, today's worldwide
communications network is a much more complex and constantly evolving cluster of
interconnected systems. And with continually more mission-critical processes reliant on
transmission accuracy and 100 percent uptime, the requirements for reliability and
performance have never been greater. Precise air conditioning is one cornerstone of a
well-designed support system for this telecom & IT network. Unlike common commercial
air conditioning systems, these precise air conditioning units are designed to run
continually, require little maintenance, and provide precise control of temperature and
humidity. Standard air conditioners quickly lose efficiency and break under continual
operation. Since electronic equipment does not release or absorb moisture, the air
conditioner selected for a communications site should primarily cool the air, not remove
moisture. The air conditioner should normally be selected with a "sensible heat ratio" of
no lower than 78 percent. A system more typical of a commercial application, with a
sensible heat ratio of only 65 percent, could consume as much as 20 percent more
electricity to cool the same site, and could reduce humidity levels in the space to
unacceptable levels.
Precise air conditioning is designed from the ground up to protect equipment, not
people. "Comfort" air conditioning systems are designed for the comfort of people, and
simply cannot provide the kind of environment required by high-performance telecom
equipment.
Comparison between Precision and Comfort Air conditioning is as below:
Precision Vs Comfort Air-conditioning
Precision

Comfort

Sensible Heat Ratio

0.90 - 0.95

0.70 - 0.75

Temperature Control

+ 1oC

+ 3oC

Humidity Control

+ 5% RH

No control

Operating Hours

8760/annum

2000/annum

Air Movement

500-650 CFM/Tr

Filtration Efficiency

95%

300-400 CFM/Tr
65%

Features and Benefits of Precision Air conditioning are :

High Energy Efficiency


High Sensible Heat Ratio
Specific Dehumidification Cycle
High Air Flow

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Constant Air Flow


Low Noise & Vibration
Servicing from the Front
Modular Construction
High Reliability
Electrode Humidifiers
Fan & Drive

Roof top chillers


Roof top chillers are now increasingly used as they can be mounted on the roof
and the costly built up space inside the building can be saved. These chillers are factory
made and designed with best of components and are highly compact. Besides saving of
space, there is a considerable saving of energy as the refrigerant pipes become very small.
All the components like Compressor, Compressor Motor, Evaporator, Chiller and aircooled Condenser, along with the microprocessor based control panel forms part of the
roof top chiller. All the protecting device and safeties is factory fitted and thus, ensure
high level of reliability. The microprocessor-based panels monitors the set points
precisely and thereby, save energy. The chillers are available in various ratings and
generally recommended for rating above 30 ton. Instead of reciprocating compressors,
depending upon the application, the roof top chillers now are being designed with energy
efficient scroll or screw compressors. One can easily achieve substantial energy saving by
selection of appropriate energy efficient compressors.

Figure 2.

Roof top chillers

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Free cooling or cooling by total aid displacement:


Free cooling is an economic method of using low outside air temperature to cool
the inside air of an equipment room. This helps in saving energy by reducing running
time of Air conditioner fitted in the equipment room. The solution can be deployed for the
telecom shelters with or without having provision for air conditioners.
The system senses shelter temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Based
on the logical conditions, it provides suitable outputs in the form of 48V DC supply to
ventilator fans and PFC for air conditioner operation.
Whenever ambient dry bulb temperature is in between 16 to 20 cent, cooling of
inside space can be achieved by total displacement of inside air with the fresh air. This
low ambient dry bulb temperature condition is available in majority of stations in India
during night and moderate conditions. When the temperature is in between 11 to 16 cent,
then a mixture of return air and ambient air can give the required inside conditions. In
both cases, the ambient air needs to be 100% filtered and dampers for either total
displacement of the return air or for mixing the return air and the ambient air are to be
operated with suitable sensors to provide necessary cooling without any mechanical
refrigeration[Fig. below].
AMBIENT

DAMPER

COOLING
COIL

>20C

D2 open, D1 partially Open


for required Fresh air

ON

11-16C

D1 AND D2 partially Open

OFF

16-20C

D1 OPEN D2 CLOSE

OFF

DAMPERS
FRESH
PLENUM

AIR

Filter Cooling Coil

Fan

Space

Return Air
Plenum

TO

CONDITIONED
RETURN AIR

ATMOSHERE
EXHAUST FAN

Figure 3.

Free Cooling system

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Free cooling assumes importance in view of the need for energy conservation and
also for achieving global competitiveness. Free cooling assures power saving to the extent
of 80% as in free cooling operation, we require power only for operation of fans for
circulation of the outside air and exhaust of the inside air. This system needs to be
encouraged and the manufacturers / vendors have to come forward to fine tune the filters,
sensors, control of dampers and for optimum operation of free cooling mechanism.
3.3.7 OTHER IMPORTANT TRENDS IN AIR CONDITIONING
Star Rating of Air Conditioners
The purpose of star rating is to help consumers to make informed choice while
taking a decision to purchase Air-Conditioners. More the number of stars, more energy
saving will result from the air-Conditioners. Details of star rated models of various
manufacturers are available on BEE web site.

Alternative refrigerants for Vapour compression system


The use of CFCs is now beginning to be phased out due to their damaging impact
on the protective tropospheric ozone layer around the earth. The Montreal Protocol of
1987 and the subsequent Copenhagen agreement of 1992 mandate a reduction in the
production of ozone depleting Chlorinated Fluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in a phased
manner, with an eventual stop to all production by the year 1996. In response, the
refrigeration industry has developed two alternative refrigerants; one based on
Hydrochloro Fluorocarbon (HCFC), and another based on Hydro Fluorocarbon (HFC).
The HCFCs have a 2 to 10% ozone depleting potential as compared to CFCs and also,
they have an atmospheric lifetime between 2 to 25 years as compared to 100 or more
years for CFCs.

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3.4 FIRE SAFETY.


DEFINITIONS
(i)Fire Resistance
Fire resistance is a property of an element of building construction and is the
measure of its ability to satisfy for a stated period some or all of the following:

Resistance to collapse
Resistance to flame penetration
Resistance to excessive temperature rise on the unexposed face.

(ii) Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm System


An arrangement of

Fire detectors.
Sounders
Control panel(s)
And accessories.

For detecting the outbreak of fire without manual interventions and alerting the
occupants of the building through audio visual alarms.
(iii) Floor area ratio
FAR = Total covered area of all floors (plinth area) /Plot area

3.5 FIRE PROTECTION


Fire protection measures in a building can be classified in two parts:
A) Passive Fire Protection
Passive fire protection measures are those which are adopted at the planning
stage of the building or facility such as:
Provision of adequate fire resistance of the structure.
Provision of proper FAR, open spaces.
Provision of adequate access to sufficient and readily available water supply
etc. for fire brigade.
B) Active fire protection
Active fire protection measures are those which operate (manual/Automatic)
in the event of outbreak of fire such as: Provision of suitable and adequate Fire detection system with audio visual
alarm.
Wet riser & fire Extinguisher.
3.5.1 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES
Telephone exchange buildings have been classified as E4 business buildings in the
National Building-Code of India. As such building Material(s) of suitable fire retardant
ability as mentioned therein shall only be provided. Important features of passive fire
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A) Building and electrical installation


The panels of partitions shall be of fire retarding Material having metallic
frame. The thickness of glass in glazed partitions shall be of min 5.5 mm.
All furniture in technical rooms shall be of steel. Plastic or wooden furniture
should not be used.
Jute matting shall not be permitted for floor covering in telephone exchange
Compulsory open spaces around the building (i.e 4.5 mtr) shall be provided
and shall not be used for parking. The minimum radius at the turnings shall
not be less than 9 mtr. The width of entry shall not be less than 5 mtr (clear).
Openings in wall and floors shall be sealed by compressed asbestos fiber
mixed with cement or verniculite concrete or any other filler material having a
fire resistance of 2 hrs.
The Electronic switch room, OMC rooms shall be separated from other areas
by walls having a minimum fire resistance of 2 hrs.
Entry doors of lifts, lobby, corridors, staircase lobby, should have at least 1 hr
fire resistance.
Escape routes shall be marked clearly with red arrows and should be free from
all obstructions.
Provision of Emergency lights in corridors, staircase lobbies, etc as well as in
technical rooms.
Provision of inter communication or any other suitable communication system
in lift car connected with reception/control room.
No articles cotton wastes etc should be stored at the back of switch boards.
Temporary wiring or extension circuits shall not ordinarily be permitted.
Extension circuits/Temporary wiring shall be installed under the supervision
of officer in charge of Electrical maintenance.
Cable trenches inside substation shall be filled with pebbles or sand, and
covered with RCC slabs or steel plates.
It is absolutely essential to ensure that fuse wire of correct rating only, are
used in distribution system.
Wherever fire lifts are installed, the words FIRE LIFT should be
conspicuously displayed.
B) Telecom equipment and power wiring
Power distribution in switch room shall be done according the Engineering
instructions issued by T&D circle from time to time.
No bare wire shall be used in fuses. Only cartridge fuses shall be used.
The distribution fuses shall be rated for maximum load condition.
A fuse of proper rating shall be provided at the negative terminal of battery
sets.
All power leads, especially those having heavy currents must have conductor
of sufficient gauge, sufficient to carry safety the maximum current that is
likely to pass through them. Even for temporary repairs, unnecessary long
length of wire, or the wire of gauge smaller than what is needed, should not be
used.
The negative bus bar shall be insulated by tapes and positive bus bars by
insulation paint.
In a multi exchange building when a common power plant feeds more than
one exchange, independent bus bars shall be provided for each exchange.
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Clear cut instructions regarding operations to be carried in case of fire shall be


displaced prominently in all equipment rooms.
C) Air conditioning installation
The material used for insulating the ducts shall be non combustible.
Normally air handling units and ducting shall be separate for each floor.
The false ceiling and its fixtures shall be non-combustible material.
Escape routes like staircase, lift lobbies etc shall not be used for return air
passage.
All ducts emerging from weather maker units shall be provided with automatic
control fire dampers.
In all plants these shall be a provision of automatic switch off of the respective
air handling units/package plant with the operation of fire alarm.
Air filter shall be of non - combustible material.
3.5.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES
Fire detection and alarm
If outbreak of fire is detected promptly in its incipient stage and simultaneously, a
correct fire fighting media is applied, losses from fire can be minimized. Thus philosophy
of fire detection and alarm system is to provide an audio visual signal for alerting the
building occupants.
Manual fire alarm
All buildings except manual local exchange and MAX III shall have a manual fire
alarm system. In multistoried buildings, each floor shall constitute one or more zone
depending on the area of floor. Fire alarm switches shall be mounted at conventional
locations in the zones. The call boxes shall be accessible to all occupants without having
to travel more than 22.5 mtr and shall be mounted at a height of 1.2 mtr from floor level.
It shall be colored red.
Automatic fire detection system
All buildings above 15 m height and all Digital Electronic exchanges and all the
exchanges of 1K or above shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system, in
addition to manual fire alarm system. In case of E-10 B exchanges, false floor plenum
and false ceiling shall constitute separate zones.
The detectors shall be of rate of rise type and smoke type. Wherever smoke
detectors are provided, a mixture of photoelectric and ionization type will be used.
A control indication panel to which detection circuits in all the zones are
connected, shall be installed in the fire control room or in the main entrance lobby on the
ground floor of the building. Light indications on the panels shall enable the fire to
identify the fire site.
The alarm system shall provide both alert system and evacuation alarm with
different distinctive tones.
The alarm system shall have a battery backup so that in case of mains failure, the
backup batteries take over and feed the power to the system.

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A non exchange direct fire emergency magneto telephone shall be provided in the
equipment room to all Telecom buildings for direct communication with the fire brigade.
One of the extensions of the non exchanges line shall also be available at the ground floor
hi the sentry cabin or at the reception. The fire telephone shall be tested daily.
Fire fighting appliances
Sufficient number of fire Extinguishers (portable type) shall be brought or kept in
shelves or mounted on wheels at conspicuous places (but not too close to the equipment).
The operating instructions shall be clearly printed on the body of extinguishers.
Sufficient quality of refills for the extinguishers shall be stored.
For buildings above 15 mt. in height, one wet riser for every 1000 sq. mtr or part
therefore of floor area shall be provided. The hydrant shall be so located that it is not
farther than 30 mt. from any point in the area covered.
In data centers, automatic flooding system is provided keeping in view the
importance and fire risk involved.
Two water buckets and two sand buckets shall be provided at each floor.
All fire fighting appliances shall be maintained in working condition.
3.5.3 Classes of Fire and Fire Extinguishers:
The Nation Fire Protection Association (NFPA) extinguisher standard classifies
fire into four types.
CLASS A
Fire in ordinary combustible materials ( like wood, cloth, paper, rubber, etc.)
CLASS B
Fire in inflammable liquids, gases etc.
CLASS C
Fire in live electrical equipment
CLASS D
Fire in reactive metals (Like Mg, Ti, Na, K, etc.).
CLASS OF FIRE

SUITABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER.

CLASS A

WATER, FOAM.

CLASS B

FOAM, CO2, , DRY POWDER.

CLASS C

CO2, HALON.

CLASS D

SPECIAL DRY CHEMICAL POWDER.

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3.5.4 WET RISER SYSTEM DEFINITIONS


WET RISER
A charged vertical water main inside a building connected to a water main or an
automatic stationary pump and fitted with internal hydrants, landing valves and hose reels
for tapping water at various floors.
DOWN COMER
A wet riser fed from an overhead tank installed on the terrace of the building.
DRY RISER
A vertical water main inside a building, not normally connected to a water main
or an automatic stationary pump, with an inlet at street level, through which water can be
pumped by fire service pumps to hydrants outlets or hose reels at various floors.
JOCKEY PUMP
A pump of small capacity which is set to come into operation, automatically with
drop in static pressure in the system and to automatically stop when the preset value of
pressure is obtained again.
FIRE PUMP
An electric /diesel pump at static water tank to charge the wet riser system.
STANDBY PUMP
A pump of same capacity as fire pump, driven by a diesel engine or connected to
any other alternate source of electric supply.
LANDING VALVE
An assembly comprising valve(s) and outlet(s) connection from a riser system.
HOSE REEL
Firefighting equipment, consisting of length or tubing fitted with a shut-off nozzle
and connected to a reel, with a permanent connection to a pressurized water supply.
AIR RELEASE VALVE
A device by which the trapped air inside a riser main is expelled by water as the
system is being charged.
PRESSURE SWITCH
A switch connected on delivery line of fire pump at preset pressure so designed to
automatically start the fire pump or jockey pump, as the case may be, as the pressure in
the system falls below the pre-set value.
All high rise buildings shall be provided with a wet riser system as per local fire
bye- laws. In case there are no fire bye-laws, all buildings above 15 mt. in height shall be
protected by a wet riser system. A wet riser is an arrangement for firefighting within the
building by means of vertical rising mains not less than 100 mm internal dia. With
hydrant outlets and hose reels on each floor/landing connected to a water tank with a
water pump and an over head tank. The size and no. of internal vertical & rising mains
depends upon the height of building and floor area. A fire brigade inlet at ground level
fitted with a non return valve is also provided for charging the rising main with a Fire
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Brigade Pump in case of failure of fire Pump. Fire brigade inlet connection is also
provided for the underground static water storage tank.
COVERAGE OF WET RISER
For buildings above 15 mt. in height, one wet riser for every 1000 sq. mtr or part
therefore of floor area shall be provided. The riser shall be fully charged with a minimum
Pressure of 3kg/sq cm. at the top most landing at all times and shall be automatic in
operation. The hydrant shall be so located that it is not farther than 30 mt. from any point
in the area covered.
3.5.5 WET RISER SYSTEM COMPONENTS
A. ELECTRICAL FIRE PUMP
The electric fire pump shall be suitable for automatic operation complete with
necessary electric motor and automatic starting gear, suitable for operation on 415 volts 3
phase, 50 Hz. A.C. system. Both the motor and the pump shall be an assembled on a
common bed plate, fabricated M.S. channel type or cast iron type. The pump shall be only
direct driven by means of a flexible coupling. Coupling guard shall also be provided.
The fire pump shall be horizontal split casing centrifugal type. It shall have a
capacity to deliver 1800/2400 litre/minute as specified, developing adequate head so as to
ensure a minimum pressure of 3kg/ cm2 at the highest and farthest outlet. The delivery
pressure at pump outlet shall be 7Kg/cm2 in any case.
The pump casing shall be of cast iron and parts like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing
ring etc. shall be of non-corrosive metal like bronze/brass/gun metal. The shaft shall be of
stainless steel.
Bearings of the pump shall be effectively sealed to prevent loss of lubricant or
entry of dust or water.
The pump casing shall be designed to withstand 1.5 times the working pressure.
B. MOTOR
The motor shall be squirrel cage A.C. induction type suitable for operation on 415
volts 3 phase 50 Hz system. The motor shall be totally enclosed fan cooled type
conforming to protection class IP 21 vide I.S.4691. The class of insulation shall be type
B. The synchronous speed shall be 1500/3000 RPM as specified. The motor shall be rated
for continuous duty and shall have a horse Power rating necessary to drive the pump at
150 percent of its rated discharge with at least 65% rated head.
C. MOTOR STARTER
The motor starter shall be automatic start delta type conforming to IS: 1822-1967
as amended up-to-date. The unit shall include suitable current transformer and ammeter
of suitable range on one line to indicate the current. The starter shall not incorporate
under voltage, no voltage trip, overload or SPP.
D. DIESEL FIRE PUMP
This is a standby fire pump operated by a diesel engine. The diesel pump set shall
be suitable for automatic operation complete with necessary automatic starting gear for
starting on wet battery system and shall be completed with all accessories. Both engine
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and pump shall be assembled on a common bed plate fabricated from mild steel channel
type. The pump shall be only direct driven by means of a flexible coupling. Coupling
guard shall also be provided. The speed shall be 1500/1800 RPM as specified.
Specifications
FIRE PUMP: same as electric fire pump.
E. DIESEL ENGINE
The Engine shall be cold starting type without the necessity of preliminary heating
of the engine cylinder or combustion chamber. The engine shall be multi cylinder/vertical
4 stroke cycle, water cooled diesel engine, devolving suitable H.P. at operating speed
specified to drive the fire pump. The capacity shall be at least 20% greater than the
maximum H.P. required to drive the pump at its duty point. It shall also be capable of
driving the pump at 150% of the rated discharge at 65% of rated head. The engine shall
be capable of continuous non-stop operation for 8 hours and at least 3000 hours of
operation before major overhaul. The engine shall have 10% over load capacity for one
hour in any period of 12 hours.
F. PIPING FOR WET RISER SYSTEM
The wet riser system piping shall comprise cast iron or galvanized iron pipe work
as specified with necessary C.I. or G.I. fittings and accessories C.I. pipe shall be used in
location where the pipes are buried under ground. G.I. pipes shall be used in other
locations. The wet riser piping system shall remain pressurized at all times during
operation and as such the piping work shall be carried out to withstand the same.
G.I. pipes and accessories and fittings shall be of heavy class conforming to
IS1239 part I/1974 and part II/1979 as amended up-to-date, hot dip galvanized to grade-I.
The pipe joints shall be flanged with smooth faced flanged.
C.I. pipes shall be of class B to IS 1537-1976 and fittings shall be of heavy to IS
1538-1976. The flanged shall be smooth faced.
G. QAIR VESSEL AND RELEASE VALVE
Air vessel on top of each wet riser piping shall be fabricated of at least 10 mm
thick steel to with stand the pressure, with dished ends and supporting legs. This shall be
of 450 mm dia and 2m high. This shall be complete with necessary flame connection to
the wet riser piping and air release valve with necessary piping to meet the functional
requirement of the system. The air vessel shall be of continuous welded constructions and
galvanised. This shall be tested for twice the working Pressure.
H. RING MAIN AND YARD HYDRANT
In the open compounds a ring main or tree main with suitable no. of yard hydrants
shall also be provided so that one hydrant is available at every 60 mtr length of the
building. Each hydrant point shall be provided with a hose Box with 2 Nos 15 metre
length hose pipes. The hydrant main shall be buried at a minimum depth of 1 mtr. below
ground level. Yard hydrant shall be of stand post type conforming to IS: 908-1975 and
stand post for single outlet flame riser and single headed brass/gunmetal valve.
I. HOSE REELS AND HOSE BOXES
First aid hose reels and hose boxes shall be installed on all floors of the buildings.
The hose reels shall be connected to one of the female couplings of twin couplings of
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landing values of the wet riser installation by means of an adapter. The hose boxes shall
be provided with 2 Nos. 15 mtr. Length 63 mm hose pipes with couplings and one branch
pipe nozzle.
Hose pipes shall be rubber lined woven jacketed and 63 mm in diameter. They
shall conform to Type 2 of IS 636-1979 as amended up-to-date. The hose shall be
sufficiently flexible and capable of being rolled.
J. STATIC WATER STORAGE
A satisfactory supply of water for the purpose of fire fighting shall always be
available in form of an underground static storage
The capacity of underground tank shall be as under:
For buildings up to 15 mt. in height

-----

50,000 litres

For buildings beyond 15 mt. & upto 24 mt in height -----

1, 00,000 litres

For buildings beyond 24 mt. in height

2, 00,000 litres

-----

Arrangement for replenishing of the static tank with main or alternative source of
water supply at the rate of 1000 litre/minute should be available. When this is not possible
the capacity of the static storage tank shall be suitably increased in with the local fire
brigade. To prevent stagnation of water in the static tank the suction tank of domestic
water supply shall be fed only through an over flow arrangement to maintain level therein
at the minimum specified capacity.
The static water tank shall be provided with a fire brigade inlet connection with 4
Nos. 63 mm dia instantaneous male inlet arranged in a valve box at a suitable point at
street level and connected to the static tank with a suitable fixed pipe of not less than 15
cm. diameter to discharge the water into the tank at the rate of 2250 litres/minute. All the
buildings above 15 mt. in height shall in addition to the static water tank be provided with
terrace tank of 20,000 litre capacity along with dry riser both duly connected as per
specifications. This need not be provided if automatic pumps are provided at ground
level.
K. POWER AND CONTROL PANEL
The power and control panel shall be totally enclosed, free standing floor mounted
cubical type fabricated out of sheet steel not less than 2mm thick. General construction
shall be of compartmentalization and sectorisation such as main incomer, electric fire
pump, diesel fire pump, pressurization pump, and control, so that there is no mixing of
power and control wiring and connections in the same section as far as possible. The
panel shall be front operated type with all connections accessible from the front. Front
doors shall be hinged type. Back doors shall be hinged type or removable type for
inspection. A direct feeder, without any tappings shall be laid from the sub-station to the
control panel. The control panel shall be located in the pump house.

3.6 SUMMARY
Air Conditioning System in Telecom Infrastructure not only maintains the desired
temperature level but fulfills the overall comfort requirements of the Telecom
Equipments. Now a days emerging updated technology for AC system not only conserve
energy and environment but control the different Air-Conditioning parameters to a
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required level. The Fire Safety is very important for any organization as fire may result in
damage to property and loss to human lives. Suitable measures should be adopted to
prevent the occurrence of fire. Fire can be extinguished by detection in early stage and
application of suitable fire extinguishing media.

3.7 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS


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Type of Central AC system in which Refrigerant cools the air which is in direct
contact with it ( split/package/direct expansion)
______________is intended for cooling the hot gas and liquefying it under
pressure
_______________AC type not suitable for continuous operation.(Window/Split)
In split type of AC system the distance between Indoor and outdoor units should
not be more than (10 feet/20feet/30 feet/)
Sensible Heat Ratio in Precise AC is (.9 to .95/.7 to.8/.5 to .55)
Cooling by total air displacement is also known as_________
Which class of extinguisher is to be used for electrical fire?
The walls of electronic switch room and OMC room shall have a minimum fire
resistance of ------Should the escape routes like staircase, lift lobbies be used for return air passage?
(Yes/No)
The vent at the top of the lift shaft shall have a minimum area of --------------The fuse in the battery sets should be provided at the -----------------For how much floor area one wet riser is provided for buildings above 15 mt. in
height?
What should be the thickness of sheet steel of Air Vessel?

3.8 REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS


Fire protection manual of the Department of Telecommunications, Local Fire
Bye Laws. Participants for further reading can refer to BEE guide books for Energy
Manager and Energy Auditors and can visit Air-Conditioning Installations in Telephone
Exchange.

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Answers
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Direct Expansion
Condenser
Window
30feet
0.9 to 0.95
Free-Cooling
Class C
2 hour
No
0.2 sq. mtr.
Negative terminal
one wet riser for every 1000 sq. mtr or part therefore of floor area
10 mm atleast

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