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Lymphatic nodules are discrete

concentrations of lymphocytes
contained in a meshwork of
reticular cells.
localized concentration of lymphocytes
found: -in walls of alimentary
canal
-respiratory passages
-genitourinary tract.
These concentrations are called
lymphatic nodules or lymphatic
follicles, which are defined and
encapsulated.
Primary nodule - lymphatic nodule
consisting chiefly of
small lymphocytes
Secondary nodule most common
-have distinctive
features that follows:
Germinal center - in the
central region of nodule. Appears
lightly stained (in histologic)
-morphologic indication
of lymphatic tissue
response to antigen.
-Represents a cascade
of events:
Activation and proliferation of
lymphocytes -> differentiation of
plasma cells -> antibody
production
Follicular dendritic cells
(FDCs) present in germinal
centers interdispersed between
populations of B- Lymphocyetes.
***Number of FDCs and macrophages
in germinal center increases after a
period of intense response to Ag.

Mantle zone or corona- outer


ring of small lymphocytes that
encircles the germinal center.
Lymphatic nodules are usually
found in structures associated
with alimentary canals such as
tonsils, ileum, and veniform
appendix.
Nodules are dispersed in random
manner. In alimentary canal, some
aggregation of nodules are found in
specific locations including:
Tonsils - form a ring of lymphatic
tissue at the entrance of
oropharynx.
Pharyngeal tonsils
(adenoids) in the roof of
pharynx
Palatine in either side of
pharynx and between the
palatopharyngeal and
palatoglossal arches
Lingual - at the base of the
tongue.
***All contains aggregates of
lymphatic nodules.

Palatine tonsils consists of


dense accumulations of lymphatic
tissue located in the mucous
membrane
Squamous epithelium- forms
the surface of tonsil dips into
underlying tissue in numerous
places forming tonsillar crypts.
***the walls of these crypts
possess numerous lymphatic
nodules.
***Tonsils DO NOT possess
afferent lymphatic vessels

Lymph drains from the lymphatic


tissue of the tonsils via efferent
lymphatic vessels.
Peryers patches in the ileum
(distal portion of small intestine).
Consists numerous aggregates of
lymphatic nodules containing T and
B lymphocytes.
Single (solitary) lymph
nodules located along both
large and small intestine.
Veniform appendix - arises from
the cecum. The lamina propia is
heavily infiltrated with lymphocytes
and contains numerous lymphatic
nodules.
-often described as vestigial
organ, the abundant lymphatic
tissue that is contains during
early life suggests that it is
associated with
bursaequivalent organs.

*** Withages, amount of lymphatic


tissue within organ decreases, thus
difficult to recognize.
**Named according to the region or
organ they appeared.
Gut-associated lymphatic
tissue (GALT)-in the
alimentary canal
Bronchus-associated
lymphatic tissue (BALT) in
the bronchial tree
Mucosa-associated
lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes the GALT and BALT.
-present in many organs
of the body, where
mucosa is exposed to the
external environment.
***All lymphatic nodules enlarged as it
encounters with Ag.