Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Bronchitis

Chemicals in
smoke
damages
cilica and
goblet cells

Inflammation of airways,
cilia damage

Mucus overproduction
which collects in lungs.
Irritation and coughing
up mucus with bacteria
and WBCs. Increased risk
of infection

Emphysema

Damages
lung tissue,
inflames
airways

Loss of elasticity in
alveoli which burst

Lungs have reduced SA,


person short of breath
especially when
exercising. Hard to
exhale, rapid breathing,
fatigue

Chronic
obstructive
pulmonary
disease
(general)

Chemicals
inflame and
irritate lungs
causing
scarring

Inflammation causing
smaller lumen, more
mucus

Hard to breathe

Lung cancer

Carcinogens
cause
abnormal
cells to
develop

Uncontrolled tumour
growth

Obstructs airways

Atheroscler
osis

Damages
artery cell
walls, platlets
clump to
repair it but
stickier

Fatty deposits on artery


walls

Restricts blood flow to


heart causing myocardial
infarction or angina

Thrombosis

Platlets are
stickier by
nicotine

Blood clot

Limited blood flow, could


travel to heart, brain,
lungs

Coronary
heart
disease

Nicotine
makes heart
beat faster,
chemicals
damage
coronary
arteries

Problems in arteries
supplying heart

Angina, myocardial
infarction, stroke

Strokes

Nicotine
makes sticky
platelets,
hypertension,
thrombosis,

Blood vessel supplying


brain is blocked

Stroke duh

atherosclerosi
s

Nicotine
What?
Chemical that causes addiction. Body can become used to
effects.
Mimics action of transmitter substances at synapses so
nervous system is more sensitive, feel more alert

Tar

Causes hormone adrenaline release, raises heart and


What?
breathing rate, constricts arterioles so higher BP
Combination of chemicals, settles on airways lining and alveoli.
constriction
to body extremities,
reduces
blood
ThisArteriole
increases
diffusion distance
for CO2 leaving
the blood.
flow so sometimes need amputation
Short term:
Makes platelets sticky so high risk of clot or thrombus
Can cause allergic reaction
formation
- smooth muscles contract so airway is smaller and flow of
air is restricted
Destroys cilia so unable to remove mucus
Stimulates goblet cells so mucus collects in airways
Bacteria/viruses can accumulate in mucus and multiply until
this combination blocks bronchioles
Bacteria means lungs more susceptible to infection
Long term effects
Smokers cough from clogged airways to get air to alveolis
and irritation
Delicate airways and alveolis can get become damaged,
replaced by scar tissue (thicker, less flexible) smooth muscle
thickens reducing lumen
Frequent infections due to bacteria and viruses, damages
lining
-Attracts WBCs, release digestive enzymes to digest parts of
lungs to get to air spaces (Elastase)
-damages elastic tissue, alveolus can burst as lung pressure
increases

Carbon Monoxide
Enters RBCs combines with haemoglobin more readily than oxygen
Forms carboxyhaemoglobin which reduces oxygen-carrying capacity of
blood
Short term:
When exercising body detects lower oxygen level so increases
heart rate
Long term:
Damages the arteries linings

Smoking experimental research:


In 1950s, 40,000 doctors in the UK were surveyed for 25 years. Doll and Hills
study showed that lung cancer was 10-15 times more likely in moderate smokers
and 30-40 times more likely in heavy smokers than in lifelong non-smokers. Also
cancer incidence in previous smokers who had quit before the study were 3-4
times more likely.

UK facts and statistics:

1/6 of the UKs population smoke and every year 100,000 UK smokers die
from smoking-related diseases

UK hospitals see around 9,500 admissions of children with illnesses caused


by second-hand smoke.

Ethics behind the experimental research:


Smoking irreversibly damages bodies and can lead to premature death and many
diseases. There are religious arguments against experimental research upon life
since life was created by God and we cannot take it away or harm it. Also it
would be difficult to find volunteers

Reducing deaths from smoking-related diseases:

Better education about the health problems associated with smoking


especially for the younger generation who can be tempted and addicted
early on in life

Make cigarettes more expensive so people dont want to have to keep


buying them

Ban advertising for smoking