Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 43

1

Afterknowingthepropertiesofconcrete,thislecturewilldevelopageneral
proceduretoevaluatethenominalflexuralstrength,Mn,foravarietyofbeam
sections(notetheemphasisonflexuralstrengthonly).Laterdiscussionwillcover
combinedbendingandaxialloadsorcolumns.

Fromdoingpreviouslectureexercise(i.e.requiredstrengthcalculation),theclass
wasabletorecognizethattheflowofforcesonatypicalreinforcedconcrete
structureisusuallyfromslabtobeams,tocolumnsandfinallytofoundations.
Notethat(a)and(b)arebothsubjectedtoflexure(bending),while(c)is
subjectedtoaxialcompressionandbending

Lookingatthefigureshownandconsideringtheshadedregion,theloadPis
transferredfromslabtobeaminonedirection(onewayslab)topointsBandC.
Fromthesepoints,theforcetravelstothecolumnviathebeams.

Requiredstrength=loadeffects
Designstrength=resistance,fromnominaldimensionandmaterialstrength

FromES13,weweretaughttorelateExternalEffectstotheInternalEffectsand
thentoprovideSpecifications(thatwilladdresstheinternaleffects)

InthestudyofRCstructures,problemsaretypicallyclassifiedas:
Designgiventheloadeffects,computeforresistance(required)andthen
providespecifications
Analysisgiventhespecifications,providetheresistance(allowed)and
comparewithloadeffects

Theoretically,analysisistheeasierproblem,butinreality,itismuchmore
complicatedthanbookproblems(structuralsurveyorbackwardengineering,
fromfoundationup).Soourdiscussionwillbedevelopedwithan"analysis"
problem(designproblemswillbediscussedduringthenextlecture)

StrengthCriteria:Reducednominalstrength factoredloadeffects(or
sometimesreferredasdesignmoment,thoughconfusing)

Mostpracticalbeamswillbetensioncontrolledsectionsand willbe
equalto0.90.TheconceptofTCsectionswillalsobediscussedinthis
lecture

JokeTimeQ:Anoangtawagkapagangcrushmoaymaycrushdinsaiyo?A:
Assumption

Beforeproceeding,itisimportanttoestablishthefollowingassumptionsinorder
tounderstandbettertheflexuralbehaviorortheMomentCurvature
relationship(ACIChapter10)

1.PlaneSectionremainsPlane(BernoullisPrinciple)linearityofstrains,
compatibilityofstrains,

*exception:DeepFlexuralMembers(ACI10.3)
Membersloadedononefaceandsupportedontheopposite
faceandhave
Clearspan,ln 4hor
regionswithconcentratedloadswithin2hfromtheface
ofthesupport
Mustconsidernonlinearityofstressandstrainduetoshear
deformations
implication:reducedleverarm
Maybedesignedusingstrutandtiemodel

10

11

12

StrainsbelowfyshallbetakenasEstimessteelstrain.Forstrainsgreaterthanfy,
stressinreinforcementshallbeconsideredindependentofstrainandequaltofy
strainhardeningisneglected

13

Tensionstrengthofconcreteisequaltoonetenthofitscompressivestrengthandis
negligiblecomparedtotensilestrengthofreinforcingsteel

14

Note:Analyticexpressionforstressdistributionforconcreteisnotexplicitlyknown
(experimentalonly)

15

16

17

18

Largechangeinfc'donotcausesignificantchangeinmomentcapacityeitherfc'
maybeused(k3istypicallytakenequalto0.85)

19

20

Note:Thedashedlinewhichshowstheformulafor givesaverygood
agreementwithtestdataforcalculationofthenominalflexurestrengthof
beams

Fromtheassumedrectangularstressblock,Cccannowbecomputed

21

22

Assumesteelyieldsfirstorunderreinforced.

Underreinforced,whenthesectionisloadedinbendingbeyonditselasticrange,
thetensionzonesteelwillyieldbeforetheconcreteinthecompressionzone
reachesitsmaximumusablestrain

23


0;

0.85
0.85
and

T 0.85

Therefore, C
Solvingfor and ,toevaluatethecompressiveforceofconcrete

0.85
Now,checkfortheassumptionofunderreinforcement:Fromsimilartriangles

Tocheckforunderreinforcedsection,showthat

Onceconfirmed,thenominalsectionmomentcapacityisequaltothecouple
momentof &

2
2
(foranalysisproblem,expressthisequationintermsofthegivensteel
reinforcement)
2

24

Seepp107108Macgregor6Eforothervariabledefinitions

25

a=90mm
c=76.5mm
0.0138
ANS:247.4kNm

26

ANS:325kNm

27

ANS:325kNm

28

ANS:325kNm

29

Sincewearedealingwithflexuralmembers,wewouldlikethesectiontobeductilethan
brittle.Therefore,thereisanupperlimitofreinforcement(limitinthenumberof
reinforcement)tomaintainductility

30

Todifferentiatetheanalysisearlier,parameterswillbelabelledas"bal"toindicate
balancedcondition

Fromtheforceequilibrium

0.85
Thus,

0.85

Trueonlyforsinglyreinforcedbeam.Themoreusefulparameterthoughisthe
reinforcementratio,definedas:
0.85

Substitute

0.003andmultiplythefunctionby
600
0.85

600

200,000

31

NoteonACI2002code:Maximumusablestrainintheconcreteisnotreachedacase
ofunderreinforcedsection.

NoteonACI2011code:Thestrainvaluewasselectedtoapproximatelycorrespond

totheformerACICode

Note:donotbeconfusedwithreinforcementratioandtensilestrainsincethey
areofbothmagnitudes

32

NoteonACI2002code:Maximumusablestrainintheconcreteisnotreachedacase
ofunderreinforcedsection.

NoteonACI2011code:Thestrainvaluewasselectedtoapproximatelycorrespond

totheformerACICode

33

OnceMnhasbeencomputed,strengthreductionfactorscanbeappliedand
finally,beamstrengthcanbecomparedwithloadeffects

34

ifthecalculatedcis
0.002,thebeamiscompressioncontrolled
lessthan3/5 then
0.005,thebeamistensioncontrolled
greaterthan3/8 then
inbetweenthetwozones,thebeamisintransitionzone

35

36

37

38

39

ANS:222.3kNm

40

41

42

ANS:near300kNm

Notethattheproblemwilluse insteadof meaning, andnot


Youwouldthenneedtocomputefortheneutralaxis, usingaquadraticequation.

43