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. .

2-

--

2016
!!"
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373.167.1:54
24721
444
75
:
. . . . ., .
, ;
. . . . ., . ,

75

. .
: / . . . . 2-. / : , 2016. 332, [1] . (
).
ISBN 978-5-222-26222-1
.

.
, , .

ISBN 978-5-222-26222-1

373.167.1:54
24721
. ., 2014
: , 2015

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

I.

.
, , .
,
. .
, , . . .
,
.

, .

!
- www.phoenixbooks.ru


1.

1. ,

1.1.
2 , ,
, ; . : 14,4 . , . ; :
1s1; (1);
1 ( ), 2 (D ) 3 (T ).

M :
Zn + 2HCl (20%) = ZnCl2 + H2 ( CuSO4).
Zn + CuSO4 = Cu + ZnSO4 Cu //Zn, - -, .
Fe + H2SO4 () = FeSO4 + H2
2Al() + 2NaOH () + 6H2O = 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2 ()
Zn () + 2NaOH() + 2H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2
2H2O = 2H2 + 2 ( )
2NaCl() + 2H2O = H2 + Cl2 +2NaOH ( NaCl
)
M :
(. ) + H2O ( ) = [ + H2 ] - (800900 o)
24 () + 2 () + 2H2O() = 22 () + 6H2 (800900 o, )
34 () + 2 () + H2O() = 3() + 7H2 () (800900 o, , 2)
24 () + 2 () = 2() + 4H2 () + Q (800900 o, : Ni)
"
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I.
4 () + H2O () = () + 3H2 () Q

(800900 o, : Ni)

() + H2O() = 2 () + H2 () + Q
o
(400 , : FeO/CoO)
4 () + 2H2O() = 2 () + 4H2 () (800 o, )
4 () = () + 2H2 () (t > 1500 o, )
3Fe + 4H2O( ) = Fe3O4 + 4H2 (9001000 o,
);
[BaS+Mn O ]
4H2O ()
= 4H2 + 2O2 (1912 .)
3

4 (.)


1.
M :
2H2 () + O2 () = 2H2O ()
(: Pd )
2 H2: 1 O2 =

2H2 () + O2 () = 2H2O() + Q
2 800
(t > 400 , )
2H2 () + O2() = 2H2O() + Q
(600 , )
H2 () + Cl2 () = 2HCl() ( ;
: Pt ).
H2 () + F2 () = 2HF() ( , )
H2() + Br2() 2HBr() (t, : Pd
)
H2() + I2() 2HI() (t, : Pd
)
H2() + S() H2S() (150300 C)
H2() + N2() 2NH3() (450 C, : Fe, = 200 )
H2() + N2()
;
2H2() + 2N2() + O2() + 2H2O = 2NH4NO2 (: Pd, )
H2 () + C() ;
H2 () + Si() .
#
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M :
2 () + 4H2 () = 4 () + 2H2O() (t)
S2 () + 3H2 () = H2S () + 2H2O (t; : Pd )
n() + (2n +1) H2 () = n2n + 2 + nH2O (t, -)
() + 2H2 () = 3 (p, t, : ZnO / Cr2O3)
CO2 () + 3H2 () = CH3OH + H2O (400 oC, 30 , : ZnO + Cr2O3)
N2O() + H2 () = N2 () + H2O (t)
2NO() + 2H2 () = N2 () + 2H2O (t,
)
2NO2 () + 7H2 () = 2NH3 () + 4H2O (: Pt, Ni)
SiO2 () + H2 () = SiO() + H2O() (t >1000 oC)
M .

.
,
.
,
G, ( ):

Ca Mg Li Sr Ba Al Na K Zn Rb Sn
G0: 302 285 281 280 264 264 189 161 160 147 129
CaO MgO Li2O SrO BaO Al2O3 Na2O K2O ZnO Rb2OSnO




H2 Fe
Cd Co Ni Pb Cu
Au Ag
0
G : 119 117 115 107 106 95
65 13
6
H2O FeO CdO CoO NiO PbO CuO Au2O3 Ag2O

, ,
:
Zn + H2 ,
+ H2 ,
Al2O3 + H2 .
$
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I.
, , :
+ H2 = H2
Zn + H2 = ZnH2 (t) Zn + 2H2 = ZnH2 + H2O
ZnH2 () + 2H2O = Zn(O) 2 + 2H2
2Zn + 2H2 = ZnH2 + Zn(O) 2
M
:
2O() + H2() = H + MeOH ( = Na, K, Rb, Cs)
Li2 + H2
2 + 2H2 = H2 + ()2 ( = Ca, Ba, Sr)
g + H2 ,
Be + H2
M , , :
MeO() + H2() = Me () + H2O (t, Me = Fe, o, Ni, Cu)
WO3() + 3H2() = W () + 3H2O (600 , MoO3)
CrO3() + 3H2 = Cr + 3H2O;
2CrO3() + 3H2 = Cr23 + 3H2O
Me2O7() + 7H2() = 7H2O + 2Me (t, Me Mn, Re, Te)
O() + H2() = Me + H2O (t, Me = Cu 300 oC, Hg, Ag, Pd, Au)
Sb2O3() + 3H2 = 2Sb + 3H2O (550 oC)
Bi2O3 + 3H2 = 2Bi + 3H2O (250 oC)
Fe2O3 + 3H2 = 2Fe + 3H2O (350 oC)
M , , , ,
:
Pb2 + 2 = 2 + PbO (t)
Pb + 2 = 2 + Pb (t)
MnO2 () + H2 () = H2O + MnO (350 oC),
MnO + H2 () = H2O + Mn (t)
M :
24 () + H2 () = 26 () (p, t, : Ni, , )
RC() + H2 () = R2 ()() (: Ni, t)
%
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RCR() + H2 () = RH ()R(. ) (: Ni, )


RC = 2 + H2 () + C = R22C (.)
M ( ) :

, :
2AgCl + H2 = 2Ag + 2HCl (t)
2AgF + 2 = 2Ag + 2HF (t)
2TiCl4 + H2 = 2TiCl3 + 2Cl (650 , )
2TiCl3 + H2 = 2TiCl2 + 2Cl (700 , )
VCl4 () + H2 = VCl2 + 2HCl, FeCl2 + H2() = Fe () + 2HCl (t)
FeCl3 + H2() = FeCl2 + 2HCl (: Pd, )*
2CrCl3() + H2 = 2CrCl2 + 2HCl (400500 oC)
WCl6 + H2 = WCl4 + 2HCl (t),
2WCl6 + H2 = 2WCl5 + 2HCl (t)
SiHCl3 + H2() = Si + 3HCl (t)
2MeCl3 + H2() = 2MeCl2 + 2HCl (t, Zn + Cl
)
2MeCl3 + Zn + Cl = 2MeCl2 + 2ZnCl2 + H2 (
)
XeF2() + H2() = Xe + 2HF (t), XeF4() + 2H2() = Xe + 4HF (t)
MeSO4 + 4H2() = MeS + 4H2O (1000 )
*
FeCl3 + H () = FeCl2 + HCl
FeCl3:
1) Fe + 3Cl = FeCl3 + 3H, 2) FeCl3 + H = FeCl2 + HCl
Fe + 2Cl = FeCl2 + H2,
M .
, .

:
MeSO4() + 4H2 () = MeS + 4H2O (500550 , Me = Ca, Sr);
2NH4TO4() + 7H2 = 2T + 2NH3 + 8H2O (600 oC);
2NH4TO4() = 2TO2 + N2 + 4H2O (t)
TO2() + 2H2 = T + 2H2O (t)
&
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I.
2NH4ReO4() + 4H2 = 2Re + N2 + 8H2O (1000 oC)
2NH4ReO4() + 7H2 = 2Re + 2NH3 + 8H2O (t)
2KReO4() + 7H2 = 2Re + 2 + 6H2O (t)
Ag2SO4() + 5H2 = 2Ag + H2S + H2O (t)
2KMnO4 + 10H + 3H2SO4 = 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
2KMnO4 + 5Zn + 8H2SO4 = 5ZnSO4 + K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 8H2O
2Ag3AsO3+ 2Zn + 9H2SO4 = 6ZnSO4 + 3Ag2SO4 + 2AsH3 + 6H2O
M :
PbS () + H2 = Pb + H2S (600 )
MoS2 + 2H2 = Mo + 2H2S (800 oC)
T2S7 () + 7H2 = 2T + 7H2S (1100 oC)
M :
2NO3 + H2 () = 2Me + 2HNO3 (Me = Hg, Ag, Pd, Au)
MeNO3 + 2H = MeNO2+ H2O (t, Zn + Cl
)
2AgN3 + 9H2 = 2Ag + 2NH3 + 6H2O
2.

G ,
:
Ca Li Ba Sr Na K Rb s Mg Zn H2 Be Al
G 5 68,5 75,6 70 38 34 34 29,3 18,2
0 7,7 15,5
CaH 2 LiH BaH2 SrH2 NaH H RbH sH MgH2 Zn2 BeH2 AlH3
M , ,
:
2 + H2 = 2: 2Na() + H2 () = 2NaH () (t, = Li, K, Rb, Cs);
+ H2 = H2: Ca + H2() = CaH2 () (t, = Sr, Ba);
2Na3N + 3H2 () = 6NaH() + N2; 2Li3N + 3H2 () = 6LiH () + N2
M , ,
.
M d- f- , - , s- ( Be, Mg He)
( ), Be, Mg, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Au, Hg,
Tl .

'
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3. - :
2O () + H2() = H + MeOH ( = Na, K, Rb, Cs)
2 + 2H2 = H2 + ()2 ( = Ca, Ba, Sr)


.

1.2.

H2O , ; . . , sp3- ; 10452, .

M :
2Me () + 2H2O = 2MeOH + H2 (Me = , )
Me () + 2H2O = Me (OH) 2 + H2 (Me = , )
M
, , ( , ):
3Fe() + 4H2O(. ) = Fe34 + 4H2 (800 , Fe34 = Fe . Fe23)
Fe() + H2O(. ) = Fe + H2(500 )
Co() + H2O , Ni() + H2O , () + H2O
Mg() + 2H2O(. ) = Mg(OH)2 + 2H2()
2Al() + 6H2O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2( )
2La() + 6H2O = 2 La(OH)3 + 3H2(La = , )
M :
Si () + 2H2O(. ) = SiO2 + 2H2 (500 )
C () + H2O(. ) = [CO + H2] - (8001000 )
M :
CO () + H2O = CO2 + H2 (230 , : Fe2O3)
M :
H2O + MeH() = MeOH + H2;
H2O + NaH() = NaOH + H2()

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I.
2H2O + MeH2 () = Me(OH)2 + 2H2;
2H2O + CaH2 () = Ca(OH)2 +2H2
- :
2H2O = 2H2 () + 2 () (t >1000 )
-
M :
Me2O() + H2O = 2MeOH (Me = , )
MeO() + H2O = Me(OH)2 (Me = , )
M
:
SO2 () + H2O H2SO3, P2O5 () + 3H2O = 2H3PO4
SO3 () + H2O = H2SO4, P2O5 () + H2O = 2HPO3
CO2 () + H2O H2 CO3, SiO2 () + H2O
Cl2O7 () + H2O 2HClO4; M2O7 + H2O = 2HMO4 ( = Mn, Re, Te)
CrO3 () + H2O = H2CrO4, 2CrO3() + H2O = H2Cr2O7
M2O7 () + H2O = 2HMO4 ( = Mn, Re, Te)
M :
(ZnO, BeO, Al2O3, b, SnO, Cr2O3, Fe2O3) + H2O

1.3.
H2O2 ,
, ;
; 30%- ; H2O2 ; ;
:
H +1

O
II

O
II

H +1

22
1,
, ;
; H2O2 
- www.phoenixbooks.ru

, ,
:
22O2 = O2 + 22O.
,
O42.

M :
BaO2 () + H2SO4 (p) = BaSO4 + H2O2 (0 )
BaO2 () + CO2 () + H2O = BaCO3 + H2O2
Na2O2 () + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2O2
2KO2 () + 2H2O = 2KOH + H2O2 + O2
H2S2O8 + 2H2O = 2H2SO4 + H2O2

(H3)2 () + O2 = CH3COCH3 + H2O2


Na2O2 + 25 NaOOH + C2H5ONa ( 0 C).


M
50% :
1) H2SO4 = + + HSO4 ( )
2) :
: 2+ + 2 = H2
1
: 2HSO4 2 = H2S2O8 1, : 22 2 = 22
2HSO4 + 2+ = H2 + H2S2O8 :
2H2SO4 = H2 + H2S2O8, -;
3) H2S2O8:
H2S2O8 + 2H2O = 2H2SO4 + H2O2
M NH SO :
4
4
1) :
: 2H+ + 2 = H2
1
: 2HSO4 2 = H2S2O8 1, : 22 2 = 22
2H+ + 2HSO4 = H2 + H2S2O8
2H2SO4 = H2+ H2S2O8
2) :
H2S2O8 + 2NH4+ = (NH4) 2S2O8 + 2H+


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I.
3) :
(NH4) 2S2O8 + 2H2O = 2NH4HSO4 + H2O2
M ( ):
(CH3)2CHOH + O2 = (CH3)2CO + H2O2
M :
Na2O2 + 25 NaOOH + C2H5ONa ( 0 C)
-
H2O2 ,
-:

H2O2 H+ + HO2 ,
OH + H2O2 H2O + HO2

Ba(OH)2 () + H2O2 () BaO2 + 2H2O;


NaOH() + H2O2 () NaHO2 + H2O
2NaOH() + H2O2 () Na2O2 + 2H2O;
H2O2 + C2H5OH = NaHO2 + C2H5ONa
- H2O2
.
20%- H2O2 , H2O2 .
H2O2 .
H2O2 7.
O22 + 2 = 2O2.
M :
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2 = 2H2O, H2O2 + 2H3O+ + 2 = 4H2O
M -:
H2O2 + 2 = 2OH : 2KI() + H2O2 () = I2 + 2
O22 + 2 = 2O2 1
2I 2 = I2o
1
KI() + 3H2O2 (k) = KIO3 + 3H2O,
2KI() + H2O2 () + H2SO4 (.) = I2 + K2SO4 + 2H2O

I2 + 5H2O2 () = 2HIO3 + 4H2O,
:
3H2O2 () + KI() + H2SO4 (.) = HIO3 + KSO4 + 3H2O
!
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H2O2 () + MgI2 () + H2SO4 () = I2 + MgSO4 + 2H2O


H2O2 () + PbS() = PbSO4 + 4H2O
H2O2 () + NiS() + H2SO4 () = S + NiSO4 + 2H2O
3H2O2 () + 2NaCrO2 () + 2NaOH() = 2Na2CrO4 + 4H2O
4H2O2 () + H2S() = H2SO4 + 4H2O
H2O2 () + H2SeO3 () = H2SeO4 + H2O
H2O2 () + H2SO3 () = H2SO4 + H2O SO2 + H2O2 () = H2SO4
H2O2 () + Na2SO3 () = Na2SO4 + H2O
4H2O2 () + Na2S2O3 () = Na2SO4 + H2SO4 + 3H2O (: H2O4)
4H2O2 () + Na2S2O3 () = Na2SO4 + H2SO4 + 3H2O
KNO2 () + H2O2 () = KNO3 () + H2O
2Na3[Cr (OH)6] + 3H2O2 = 2Na2CrO4 + 2NaOH + 8H2O
2K3[Cr (OH)6]() + 3KHO2 () = 2K2CrO4 + 5KOH + 5H2O
MnSO4 (p) + H2O2 () + 2NaOH() = MnO2 + Na2SO4 + 2H2O
2FeSO4 + H2O2 + H2SO4 (.) = Fe2(SO4)3 + 2H2O
Mn (O)2 + H2O2 () = MnO2 + 2H2O
2K + 2H2O2 = 2KOH + O2 + H2
:
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + Q.
H2O2 > 7:
O22 2 = O2o
M :
H2O2o 2 = O2o + 2H+
M :
H2O2o + 2OH 2 = O2o + 2H2Oo
H2O2 :
H2O2 () = H2O + [O] H2O2 + H2O2 = 2H2O + O2
O22 2 = O2o 1
O22 + 2 = 2O2 1
MnO2,
-.
5H2O2 () + 2KMnO4 () + 3H2SO4 () = 52 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
H2O2 () + 2KMnO4 () + 2() = 2 + 2K2MnO4 + 2H2O
3H2O2 () + 2KMnO4 () = 2MnO2 + 2() + 32 + 2H2O
H2O2 + MnO2 + H2SO4 = MnSO4 + O2 + 2H2O
H2O2 () + 2AgNO3 () + 2NH4OH() = O2 + 2Ag + 2NH4NO3 + 2H2O
"
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I.
H2O2 () + 2AgNO3 () = O2 + 2Ag + 2HNO3
H2O2 () + Ag2O = O2 + 2Ag + H2O
H2O2 () + l2 = 2HCl + O2
H2O2 () + l2 () + 2NaOH() = 2NaCl + 2H2O + O2
H2O2 () + PbO2 () + H2SO4 () = PbSO4 + O2 + 2H2O
H2O2 () + PbO2 + KOH = K[Pb(OH)3] + O2
2AuCl3 () + 3H2O2 () + 6NaOH() = 2Au + 3O2 + 6H2O + 6NaCl
2HIO3 () + H2O2 () = I2 + 3O2 + 2H2O
IO4 () + H2O2 () = IO3 + O2 + H2O
ClO() + H2O2 () = Cl + O2 + H2O
CaOCl2 () + H2O2 () = CaCl2 + O2 + H2O
Co2O3 + H2O2 + 2H2SO4 = 2CoSO4 + O2 + 3H2O
- H2O2
H2O2 () + H2O2 () = 2H2O + O2 ( 151 )
2Na2O2 () + 2CO2 () = 2Na2CO3 + O2 ( )
2Na2O2 () + 2H2O = 4NaOH + O2
2K + 2H2O2 = 2KOH + O2 + H2

#
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2. A

2.1.
2 , ,
; : 2, 3 4( ); ,
, Pt Au.
2z

1s

2s


:
(t (O2) = 183 o,
t (N2) = 195,8 o).
M :
22 = 22 + 2
M :
2KClO3 () = 2KCl + 3O2 (400500 o, KClO4 ) 2KClO3 () = 2KCl + 3O2 (150200 o, : MnO2, ClO2)
2KMnO4 () = K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 (210240 o)
2BaO2 () = 2BaO + O2 (t)
2H2O2 = 2H2O + O2 (: MnO2)
M :
2Na2O2 () + 22 = 2 + 4NaOH
H2O2 () + 2KMnO4 () + 3H2SO4 () = 5O2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
22O2 () + 2CO2 () = 22CO3 + O2 ( O2 CO2 ).
M

$
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I.

2.2.
3 ; . sp2- , 117,
- 3 sp3-, 108.
3 -
- ; , ; , ,
S2 , .

I4, ,

.
,
117: ,
:
+4

+4



. , ( ),
,
() . +4, 2.


( , -

):
32 2O3 69 .

%
- www.phoenixbooks.ru


M :
6KMnO4 + 9H2SO4 = 6MnSO4 + 3K2SO4 + 9H2O + 5O3:
Mn+7 +5 = Mn+2 6
32 6 = 3
5
Mn+7 +5 = Mn+2 6
2 6 = +4
5
M :
3(NH4)2S2O8 + 6HNO3 + 3H2O = 6H2SO4 + 6NH4NO3 + O3:

S2O82 +2 = 2SO42 3
32 6 = 3
1
M :
1) 4 + 12O2 = 46 + 6O3
2) 546 + 5O2 = 4510
M 50%- :

1) 2SO4 = SO4 + + (),


2) :
: 2+ + 2 = 2

: 2SO4 2 = 2S2O8

3) 2S2O8 + 22O = 22SO4 + 2O + O;


4) O + O2 = O3.
-
+4:
+4 + 2 = +2, +4 + 4 = , +4 + 6 = 2
(1)

2:
22 4 = 2, 2 2 =
(2)
- :
1: 22 + +4 + 2 = 2 + 2,
3
&
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I.
2: 22 + +4 2 = 2 + +2,
3
3: 22 + +4 = 2 + ,
3

4: 22 + +4 + 6 = 32,
5: 22 + +4 + 2 = 22 + +3, .
,
+4, (1) (3) :
3 = 2 +
+4 + 4 =
1
2

2 4 = 2 1
-
, + 2 = 2, (3) (1)
, . . (3),
(1).
NH3 () + 43 () + = N3 + 2H2O + 42:
3
N 8 = N+5
1
22 + +4 + 2 = 2 + 2
4, 1
:
N3 8 = N+5
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
4

, KI, :
2KI () + O3 + H2O = 2KOH + I2 + O2:

2I 2 = I2
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
1, 1
,
:
3I2 + 6 = IO3 + 5KI + 3H2O.
'
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, :
I2 + 5O3 + 2O = 2IO3 + 52:
I2 10 = 2I+5
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
5, 1
, :
KI() + 3O3 = IO3 + 3O2
MnCl2 + O3 + 3H2O = Mn() 4 + 2HCl + O2 ( ):
n+2 2 = n+4
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
1, 1
24[F(N)6] + 2O + O3 = 23[F(N)6] + 2 + O2:

F + 1 = F
2
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
1
:
n2 () + 3 () + 2N = N2n4 + H2O + 2:
n+4 2 = n+6
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
1, 1
4nSO4 (p) + 43 () + 12K = 4Kn4 + 42SO4 + 6H2O + 2:
n+2 5 = n+7
2
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
5, 1
2CrCl3 (p) + 33 () + 10 = 22CrO4 + 6KCl + 5H2O + 32:
Cr+33 = Cr+6
2
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
3, 1
3 () + Pb(NO3)2(p) + H2O = b2 + 2 + 2HNO3, 1
3 () + 3SnCl2(p) + 6HCl(p) = 3SnCl4 + 3H2O:
Sn+2 2 = Sn+4
3
3 + 6 = 32
1, 1
43() + bS() = bSO4 + 42:
S2 8 = S+6
1
3 + 2 = 2 + 2
4, 1
43 () + 4K() = 4K3 + 2H2O + 2:
+2

+3

22 4 = 2
1,
3 + 1 = 22 + +3 4, 3 , 5
-


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16. , ,

( ) , ;
- , -
; : Cu2S
, Ag2S , Cu2 , (CuOH)2CO3
, Cu(OH)2 . 2CuCO3 , CuFeS2 , e ; d-, : Cu:1s22s2p63s2p6d104s1, Ag: 1s22s2p63s2p6d104s2p6d105s1,
Au: 1s22s2p63s2p6d104s2p6d10f145s2p6d106s1; -
:
3d
4p
4s

,
M :
:
CuO() + H2SO4 (p) = CuSO4 + H2O; CuSO4 + Fe = Cu + FeSO4
:
2CuSO4 (p) + 2H2O = 2Cu + O2+ 2H2SO4; CuCl2 (p) = Cu + Cl2
M :
:
Cu + H2 = Cu + H2O (t); Cu + = Cu + CO2 (t)
Cu + = Cu + CO (t); Cu2 + = 2Cu + CO (t)
3Cu + 2Al = 3Cu + Al2O3 (t); Cu2 + = 2Cu + CO2 (t)
:
1) 2CuFeS2 + O2 = Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2 (t)
2) 2FeS + 3O2 = 2FeO + 2SO2 (t)
3) FeO + SiO2 = FeSiO3 () (t);
4) 2Cu2S + 3O2 = 2Cu2 + 2SO2 (t)

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I.
5) 2Cu2() + Cu2S() = 6Cu + SO2 (1300 )
2CuFeS2 + 5O2 + 2SiO2 = 2Cu* + 2FeSiO3 + 4SO2
* , , CuSO4:
: Cu 2 = Cu2+
: Cu2+ + 2 = Cu
:
Cu2S + 2Fe2(SO4)3 (p)= 4FeSO4 + 2CuSO4 + S
CuSO4 + Fe = Cu + FeSO4

:
1) Ag2S() + 2O2 + 2NaCl() = 2AgCl + Na2SO4 ()
2) 2AgCl() + Zn() = ZnCl2 + 2Ag (H2SO4)
1) Ag2S + 2O2 = Ag2SO4 ()
2) Ag2SO4 + Zn = ZnSO4 + 2Ag (H2SO4)
M :
1) Ag2S() + 4NaCN() = 2Na[Ag (CN)2] + Na2S
2Ag2S + 10NaCN + 2H2 + 2 = 4Na[Ag(CN)2] + 4NaOH +
+ 2NaSN
AgCl + 2NaCN = Na[Ag(CN)2] + NaCl
Ag2S + Na2[Zn(CN)4] = 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + ZnS
2) 2Na[Ag (CN)2] + Zn = Na2[Ag (CN)4] + 2Ag
3Na[Ag(CN)2] + Al + 4NaOH + 2H2O = 3Ag + Na[1()4(2O)2]
+ 6NaCN
M :
4AgCl() + H2CO + 6NaOH = 4Ag + 4NaCl + Na2CO3 + 4H2O
4AgCl()+ 2Na2CO3 () = 4Ag + 4NaCl + 2CO2 + O2 ()
M :
Ag2SO4 () = 2Ag + SO2 + O2 (1000 oC)
Ag2SO4 ( H SO ) + 2FeSO4 = 2Ag + Fe2(SO4)3
2
4
M Ag Ag S:
2
1) Ag2S + 2CuCl2 () = Cu2Cl2 + 2AgCl + S
Ag2S() + Cu2Cl2 () = 2AgCl + Cu2S
AgCl + NaCl() = Na[AgCl2]
2Na[AgCl2] + 2Hg = Hg2Cl2 + 2Ag + 2NaCl
M

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2) 2CuCl2 + 2Hg = 2CuCl + Hg2Cl2


Ag2S + 2Cul = 2AgCl + Cu2S
2AgCl + 2Hg = 2Ag + Hg2Cl2; AgCl + CuCl = Ag + CuCl2
M :
Ag2S + 2Nal + 2O2 = 2AgCl + Na2SO4 (500600 )
AgCl + NaCl = Na[AgCl2]; AgCl + Cu = Ag + CuCl
Na[AgCl2] + Cu = Ag + Na[CuCl2]
M :
2AgN3 () = 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2 (t > 300 oC)
3AgNO3 () + 3FeSO4 () = 3Ag + Fe(NO3)3 + Fe2(SO4)3
2AgNO3 () + Zn = 2Ag + Zn(NO3)2
2AgNO3 () + Mn(NO3)2 ()+ 4NaOH()= 2Ag + MnO2 + 4NaNO3 +
+ 2H2O
2AgNO3 + Na2CO3 + 4C = 2Ag + 2NaNO2 + 5CO
M :
3Ag + 4HNO3 () = 3AgNO3 + N + 22O
AgNO3 + 3N3 H2O = [Ag(NH3)2]OH + N4NO3 + 2H2O
2[Ag(NH 3) 2]OH + (NH 4) 2SO 3+ 3 2O = 2Ag + (NH 4) 2SO 4+
+ 4NH4OH (70 C)
2[Ag(NH3)2]OH() + HCHO = 2Ag + 3NH3 + HCOONH4 + H2O

M (
):
1) 4Au() + 8NaCN(0,2%) + 2H2O + O2 = 4Na[Au(CN)2] + 4NaOH
2) 2Na[Au(CN)2] () + Zn = Na2[Zn(CN)4] + 2Au
2Au(N3)3 () = 2Au + 6NO2 + 3O2 (t)
2Na[AuCl2]() + SnCl2() = 2Au + SnCl4 + 2NaCl

4Cu() + O2 () = 2Cu2 (t > 800 oC); 2Cu2 + O2 () = 4Cu
2Cu() + O2 () = 2Cu (400500 oC)
Cu() + S() = CuS (t); 2Cu() + S() = Cu2S (t)
Cu + 2 () = Cu2 (t, = F, Cl, Br); 2Cu + I2 () = 2CuI (t)
Cu + () = Cu3 (t); 4Cu + SO2 () = Cu2S + 2Cu (t)
4Cu + 2NO2 () = N2 + 4Cu (t)
Cu, Ag, Au + H2 () ; Cu, Ag, Au + N2 () ; Cu, Ag, Au + C
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I.
Cu, Ag, Au + H2SO4 (p) ; Cu, Ag, Au + HCl(p) ; Cu, Ag, Au + NaOH(p)
2Cu + 2HCl() 2CuCl + H2 (200 )
2Cu() + 4HBr() = 2H[CuBr2] + H2
Cu() + CuCl2 (p) + 2HCl() = 2H[CuCl2] (t)
H[CuCl2](p) = HCl + CuCl ( )
Cu + CuCl2 (p) = 2CuCl (t)
2Cu + 4HCl(p) + O2 = 2CuCl2 + 2H2O ()
4Cu + 8NH3.H2O(p) + O2 = 4[Cu(NH3)2]OH + 6H2O
2Cu + 8NH3.H2O(p) + O2 = 2[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 + 6H2O
2Cu + 8NH3 + 2H2O + O2 = 2[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2
2Cu + 8KCN(p) + 2H2O + O2 = 2K2[Cu(CN)4] + 4KOH
2Cu + 4KCN(p) + 2H2O = 2K[Cu(CN)2] + 2KOH + H2
Cu + H2SO4 () + H2SO4 () = CuSO4 + SO2+ 2H2O (t > 100 oC)
(100 oC, t > 250 oC ):
5Cu + 3H2SO4 () + H2SO4 () = 3CuSO4 + Cu2S + 4H2O, 200 oC
:
2Cu + H2SO4 () + H2SO4 () = Cu2SO4 + S2 + 2H2O
Cu + 2HN3 () + 2HN3 () = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
3Cu + 2HN3 (30%) + 6HN3 (30%) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O (t)
Cu + 2AgN3 () = Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
2Cu + O2 + H2O + O2 = CuO3 . Cu(OH)2 (t, )
8Cu + 5O2 + 6H2O + 2SO2 = 2[CuSO4 . 3Cu(OH)2] (t)
M :
Cu + 2FeCl3 () = CuCl2 + 2FeCl2

2Ag() + S() = Ag2S (t); 2Ag() + H2S() = Ag2S + H2 (t)
3Ag() + P = Ag3P (t); Ag() + N2 () ; Ag() + 2 () = Ag2 (t, = Cl, Br)
Ag() + F2 () = AgF2; 2Ag + 23 = Ag22 + 22; 2Ag + 3 = Ag2 + 2
Ag + H2SO4 () + H2SO4 () = Ag2SO4 + SO2 + 2H2O (t > 100 oC)
4 + 8KCN(p) + 2H2O + O2 = 4K[(CN)2] + 4KOH ( = Ag, Au)
Ag + HN3 () + HN3 () = AgN3 + NO2 + H2O
3Ag + HN3 () + 3HN3 () = 3AgN3 + NO + 2H2O
4Ag + 4HCl() + O2 () = 2AgCl + 2H2O
4Ag()+ 4NaCl() + O2 ()+ 2H2O = 4Agl+ 4NaOH (t)
2Ag + 2HCl() 2AgCl + H2 (200 )
6Ag + 6HClO3 = AgCl + 5AgClO3 + 3H2O
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