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# Newtons First Law of Motion

- a body at rest remains at rest and a body in uniform motion will continue to move with such motion
unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force will cause it to move or accelerate.
- a body at rest or moving with uniform motion has zero acceleration
x = 0
y = 0
Force push or pull
Types:
1. Weight (W) force acting at the center of gravity of a body or system which is directed vertically
downward.
2. Normal force (N) force that is acting almost always upward perpendicular to surface contact.
3. Tension (T) force acting along the line but away from the point of consideration.

4. Compression (C) force acting along the line towards the point of consideration.
5. Friction (f) force that tends to resist the impending motion or the motion of a body.
Classification of force
1. Concurrent force acting at a common point within a body.
2. Nonconcurrent force force acting at different points within a body.
First condition of equilibrium
For a body to remain at rest the resultant or unbalanced force must be equal to zero. Therefore,
x = 0
y = 0
R=0
Procedure;
1. Sketch the problem showing all necessary data.
2. Draw the equivalent free body diagram
- isolated sketch of the problem showing only the forces acting on the system.
Sample problems
1. Solve for the tension on the cord and the compression on the wooden bar. (neglect the weight of the
wooden bar)
60O

45O
600N

2. A cylinder weighing 400 N is held against a smooth inclined plane by means of weightless rod AB as
shown in the figure. Determine the force P and N exerted on the cylinder b the rod an inclined plane
respectively.
B
W

25O

55O

80O
40O

50O

60O

200N

400N

## Friction and inclined plane

Friction
force that exists always parallel to the surfaces of bodies in contact
force that resists the motion or impending motion of a body
force that is always opposite the motion of a body.

## Two types of friction

1. Static friction (fs) the frictional force needed to keep an object from sliding.
2. Kinetic friction (fk) the frictional force that exists when the body is in contact with it.
Coefficient of friction ()
- refers to the condition of the surface (roughness or smoothness)
0<<1
= F/N
2

Laws of friction
1. Friction is directly proportional to the normal force.
2. Friction is roughly independent of the velocity or speed of the body.
3. Friction is roughly independent of the surface area in contact.
4. Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction.
Angle of repose
- also called limiting angle
- the angle between a horizontal floor and a plane surface wherein an object will slide or move with a
uniform velocity (v = k)

Problems
1. In the figure, suppose that a block weighs 20N, that the tension P can be increased to 8N before the
block starts to slide, and that the force of 4N will keep the block moving at constant speed once it has
been set in motion. Find the coefficient of static and kinetic friction. What is the friction force if the
block is at rest on the surface and a horizontal force 5N is exerted on it?

2. What force T at an angle 30o above the horizontal is required to drag a block weighing 20N to the right
as the constant speed, if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the surface is 0.20?

3. In the given figure, what must be the value of F so that the block will move up the plane with uniform
velocity k=0.4.

## Newtons Second Law

- if an unbalanced force acts on a body, it is accelerated by an amount proportional to the unbalanced
force and in the same direction but inversely proportional to its mass.
F ma

Where:
F - force (N, dynes)
m - mass (kg, g)
a acceleration (m/sec, cm/sec)
Dynamics of Translation
- a study of motion and the forces causing the motion.
Sample Problems
1. A constant horizontal force at 40N acts on a body on a smooth horizontal plane. The body starts from
rest and is observed to move 100m in 5 sec. What is the mass of the body?
Force

5s
Vo = 0

distance
2. A body of mass 15 kg rests on a frictionless surface and is acted on by a horizontal force of 30 N.
a. What is the acceleration produced?
b. How far will the body travel in 10 sec?
c. What will be its velocity at the end of 10 sec?
Force

10 s
Vo = 0

distance

3. In the given figure, determine the acceleration if a constant force of 100 N acts on the body, the
coefficient of friction between the block and the floor is 0.2.
Force
37o

Friction

Direction of Acceleration

## Sir Isaac Newton: The

Universal Law of Gravitation
There is a popular story that Newton was sitting under an apple tree, an apple fell on his head, and he
suddenly thought of the Universal Law of Gravitation. As in all such legends, this is almost certainly not true
in its details, but the story contains elements of what actually happened.
What Really Happened with the Apple?
Probably the more correct version of the story is that Newton, upon observing an apple fall from a tree, began
to think along the following lines: The apple is accelerated, since its velocity changes from zero as it is
hanging on the tree and moves toward the ground. Thus, by Newton's 2nd Law there must be a force that acts
on the apple to cause this acceleration. Let's call this force "gravity", and the associated acceleration the
"accleration due to gravity". Then imagine the apple tree is twice as high. Again, we expect the apple to be
accelerated toward the ground, so this suggests that this force that we call gravity reaches to the top of the
tallest apple tree.
Sir Isaac's Most Excellent Idea
Now came Newton's truly brilliant insight: if the force of gravity reaches to the top of the highest tree, might
it not reach even further; in particular, might it not reach all the way to the orbit of the Moon! Then, the orbit
of the Moon about the Earth could be a consequence of the gravitational force, because the acceleration due to
gravity could change the velocity of the Moon in just such a way that it followed an orbit around the earth.
This can be illustrated with the thought experiment shown in the following figure. Suppose we fire a cannon
horizontally from a high mountain; the projectile will eventually fall to earth, as indicated by the shortest
trajectory in the figure, because of the gravitational force directed toward the center of the Earth and the
associated acceleration. (Remember that an acceleration is a change in velocity and that velocity is a vector, so
it has both a magnitude and a direction. Thus, an acceleration occurs if either or both the magnitude and the
direction of the velocity change.)

But as we increase the muzzle velocity for our imaginary cannon, the projectile will travel further and further
before returning to earth. Finally, Newton reasoned that if the cannon projected the cannon ball with exactly
the right velocity, the projectile would travel completely around the Earth, always falling in the gravitational
field but never reaching the Earth, which is curving away at the same rate that the projectile falls. That is, the
cannon ball would have been put into orbit around the Earth. Newton concluded that the orbit of the Moon
was of exactly the same nature: the Moon continuously "fell" in its path around the Earth because of the
acceleration due to gravity, thus producing its orbit.
By such reasoning, Newton came to the conclusion that any two objects in the Universe exert gravitational
attraction on each other, with the force having a universal form:
5

The constant of proportionality G is known as the universal gravitational constant. It is termed a "universal
constant" because it is thought to be the same at all places and all times, and thus universally characterizes the
intrinsic strength of the gravitational force.
Universal law of Gravitation
Mathematically

m1m2
;
r2

F G

m1m2
r2

Where:
m1 - mass of the first body (kg, g)
m2 - mass of the second body (kg, g)

## r distance between the two bodies (m, cm)

G Universal Gravitation Constant
G 6.7 x10 11

Nm 2
kg 2

Sample Problem
1. Two sphere balls whose masses are 3.4 kg and 2.5 kg are placed with their centers 60 cm apart. With
what force do they attract each other?
m1

m2

60 m

2. Determine the force of attraction between the earth and the moon if the distance between the earth and
the moon is 3.84 x 108 m. Let the mass of the earth be 5.98 x 1024 kg and the mass of the moon to be
7.35 x 1028 kg.
Earth
moon

60 m

3. If the center between two 30 kg lead balls is 70 cm, with what force do they attract?
Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)
- motion along a circular path at constant speed.
Characteristic of UCM
1. The speed is constant.
2. The direction of motion is continually or uniformly changing.
3. A constant in magnitude acceleration is present. This acceleration is always directed at the center of
the circular path and is known as radial acceleration or centripetal central acceleration.
Mathematically;
Acp = v2/r
Where
Acp = centripetal acceleration
v = tangential velocity
r = radius of the circle
Principle of circle

Relationship between s, r,
s
s
s = r
Linear quantities
s = linear displacement (cm, m)
v = linear velocity (cm/s, m/s)
a = linear acceleration (cm/s2, m/s2)
Angular quantities
Relationship between v and
(s = r) /t
v = r
Derivation of centripetal acceleration
Consider a moving body along a circular path with angular displacement of very very small rads or
approaches 0.
1st characteristics
VA VB = V
7

VA + ( VB) = V

By similar triangle.
V/V = s/r
V/V = vt/r
V/t = v2/r
a = v2/r
Centripetal Acceleration in terms of
Acp = v2/r

but

v = r

Acp = (r)2/r
Acp = 2 r
Centripetal Acceleration in terms of number of revolutions (n)
n (rev/s, rev/min)
n
=k n

since k = 2 =360o

= 2n
Acp = (2n) 2 r
Acp = 42n2 r
Centripetal Force (Fcp)
- net force or a constant pull that deflects a body moving in a rectilinear path and compels it to move in
a circular path.
By Newtons 2nd law of motion
F = ma
Fcp = mAcp
Fcp = m v2/r
Fcp = m2 r
8

Fcp = m42n2 r
Where centripetal force is in terms of newtons and dynes
Centrifugal force (Fcf)
- inertial reactive force exerted by the moving body in its attempt to continue its straight line motion. It
is equal to the centripetal force in magnitude but oppositely directed.
By Newtons 3rd law of motion
Fcp = - Fcf
Sample Problems
1. UCM in vertical circle
A 50g body tied at one end of a 100 cm string is whirled in a vertical circle at a rate of 2 rev/sec.
calculate the tension in the string at the ff. position:
a. bottom of VC
b. top of VC
c. horizontal diameter of VC
d. at the point where the string makes an angle 30o above the horizontal.

## 2. UCM along a circular track (unbanked)

What is the maximum safe speed at which an automobile can round a curve of 24 m radius on a level
road if a coefficient of friction between the tires and the road is 0.30?

3. Banking of curves roads are banked, inclined at a certain angle, in order to eliminate the effect of
friction.
A curve of radius 30 m is to be banked so that an automobile may make the turn at the speed of 12
m/s, without depending on friction. What must be the slope of the curve?

## 4. Banked curve with friction.

What is the maximum safe speed at which an automobile can round a curve at 24 m radius at an angle
of 16o if the coefficient of friction between the road and the tire is 0.30?

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