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Name of the Mechanism of Indication and Contraindication Side Effects/ Nursing

Drug Action Dosage Adverse Management


Reactions

Mefenamic Mefenamic acid 500mg/tab GI ulceration of Gi disturbances


Acid is a nonsteroidal inflammation. and hemorrhage,
Q6 RTC/ prn for
anti- Kidney or liver blood dyscrasias.
(dolfenal) inflammatory pain
impairment. Drowsiness,
drug (NSAID) dizziness,
which is an headache, visual
anthranilic acid Relief of mild to disturbances. Skin
derivative. It
moderately reactions and
exhibits anti-
inflammatory, severe somatic nephropathy.
analgesic and and neuritic pain;
antipyretic headache,
activity by migraine,traumati
inhibiting c pain, post-
prostaglandin partum pain,
synthesis in
postop pain,
body tissues.
dental pain and in
Unlike most pain and fever
other
nonsteroidal following various
anti- inflammatory
inflammatory conditions;
drugs, dysmenorrheal,
mefenamic acid menorrhagia
appears to accompanied by
compete with
prostaglandins spasm of
for binding at the hypogastric pain
prostaglandin
receptor site and
thus, potentially
affect
prostaglandins
that have
already been
formed.

Tramadol Binds to mu- 50mg Resp Nausea, vomiting, ®assess type,


opoid receptors. depression, fatigue, headache, location and
(TDL) Q6 prn for pain
Inhibits reuptake especially in constipation, intensity of pain
of serotonin and presence of drowsiness, before 2-3 hr
norepinephrine cyanosis and confusion, skin after
in the CNS. Moderate to excessive reactions, dry administration.
severe acute and bronchial mouth, facial
Therapeutic chronic pain, ®assess BP and
secretion, and flushing, sweating,
effect: painful diagnostic RR. Respi
after op on vertigo,
decreased pain procedures and depression has
biliary tract. bradychardia,
surgery. not occurred
Acute palpitation,
with
alcoholism, head orthostatic
recommended
injuries, hypotension,
doses.
conditions in hypothermia,
which restleness, ®advise patient
intracranial changes in to change
pressure is modod, miosis. position slowly
raised. Attack of Rarely, muscle to minimize
bronchospasm. weakness,appetit orthostatic
Heart failure e changes, hypotension.
secondary to difficulty in
®do not confuse
chronic lung passing urine,
tramadol from
disease. biliary spasm.
toradol.
Parecoxib Parecoxib is a Short term Hypersensitivity Body as a Whole:
prodrug of treatment of acute to parecoxib or Back pain.
(Dynastat)
valdecoxib. The pain & post-op to any other Central and
mechanism of pain. May be used ingredient of Peripheral
action of pre-op to prevent Dynastat. Nervous System:
valdecoxib is by or reduce post-op Patients who Dizziness.
inhibition of pain; can reduce have GI System:
cyclooxygenase- opioid demonstrated Alveolar osteitis
2 (COX-2)- requirements allergic-type (dry socket),
mediated when used reactions to constipation and
flatulence.
prostaglandin concomitantly. sulfonamides,
synthesis. acetylsalicylic Platelet, Bleeding
Cyclooxygenase acid (aspirin) or and Clotting:
Ecchymosis.
is responsible for nonsteroidal
generation of anti- Psychiatric:
Agitation and
prostaglandins. inflammatory
insomnia.
Two isoforms, drugs (NSAIDS)
Skin and
COX-1 and including other
Appendages:
COX-2, have cyclooxygenase- Increased
been identified. 2 (COX-2) sweating and
COX-2 is the specific
isoform of the inhibitors; pruritus.
enzyme that has asthma and
Events Occurring
been shown to urticaria ≥0.5% and <1%:
be induced by Application Site:
pro-inflammatory Injection site pain.
stimuli and has Autonomic
been postulated Nervous System:
to be primarily Dry mouth.
responsible for Body as a Whole:
the synthesis of Asthenia and
prostanoid peripheral edema.
mediators of Hearing and
pain, Vestibular:
inflammation and Earache.
fever. At Heart Rate and
therapeutic Rhythm:
doses, Bradycardia.
valdecoxib is a Metabolic and
COX-2 selective Nutritional:
inhibitor of both Hyperglycemia.
peripheral and Musculoskeletal
central System:
Arthralgia.
prostaglandins
and does not Respiratory
System:
inhibit COX-1,
Pharyngitis.
thereby sparing
COX-1- Skin and
Appendages:
dependent
physiological Rash and skin
processes in postoperative
tissues, complications.
particularly the Urinary System:
stomach, Oliguria.
intestine and
platelets. COX-2
is also thought to
be involved in
ovulation,
implantation and
closure of the
ductus arteriosus
and CNS
functions (fever
induction, pain
perception and
cognitive
function).
Cefazolin Bind to bacterial 500mg History of shock Shock; Give the
cell wall by cefazolin. hypersensitivity medication
(Stancef) IVTT
membrane reactions; around the clock
causing cell Q8H hematologic eg at evenly
death. granulocytopenia, spaced times
Therapeutic eosinophilia or and to finish the
effect: thrombocytopenia; medication
Infections of the
bactericidal hepatic, renal completely at
resp, GIT & GUT,
action against otic & bone; skin, impairment; GIT directed, even if
susceptible soft tissue & post- disease eg colitis; feeling better.
bacteria. op infections; CNS signs
Check for signs
bacteremia, including
of super
septicemia, convulsions;
infection
endocarditis & alteration in
(vaginal itching/
other infections bacterial flora; vit
discharges) and
due to susceptible deficiencies &
allergy.
organisms; others eg
surgical headache,
prophylaxis dizziness or
malaise