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cadRCS

Users Guide

The solution for RCS simulations

Co-operation partners
Dr. H. Essen, FGAN, Germany
Dr. Werner Kellner, WTD71, Germany
Marcus Genter, Blohm & Voss GmbH, Germany
Gregor Biegel, FGAN, Germany

Table of Contents
Users Guide............................................................................................................. 1
The solution for RCS simulations ............................................................................. 1
Co-operation partners............................................................................................... 2
Getting Started ......................................................................................................... 5
Installation............................................................................................................. 5
What you need to run cadRCS ............................................................................. 5
Hardware .............................................................................................................. 5
Software................................................................................................................ 5
CAD
Changing file-format.............................................................................................. 5
Running cadRCS:..................................................................................................... 6
1.
Starting cadRCS .............................................................................................. 6
1.1. File ............................................................................................................. 6
1.2. Settings...................................................................................................... 6
1.2.1. Export settings ........................................................................................ 6
1.2.2. Import settings ........................................................................................ 7
1.2.3. RCS settings........................................................................................... 7
1.2.4. Silhouette colour ..................................................................................... 8
1.2.5. Editing material numbers and reflection coefficient................................. 9
1.3. Actions ..................................................................................................... 10
1.3.1. Distance images ................................................................................... 10
1.3.2. RCS calculation .................................................................................... 10
1.3.3. Creating RCS images ........................................................................... 10
1.3.4. Creating error images ........................................................................... 10
1.4. Stop ......................................................................................................... 11
1.5. Exit........................................................................................................... 11
2.
Geometrical set-up......................................................................................... 12
2.1
Aiming point (x,y,z) .................................................................................. 13
2.2
Rotation axis (x,y,z) ................................................................................. 13
2.3
First viewing point .................................................................................... 14
2.4
Number of viewing points......................................................................... 14
2.5
Inspection angle....................................................................................... 14
2.6
Frame size width/height ........................................................................... 14
2.7
Number of columns/rows ......................................................................... 14
2.8
Frame angle............................................................................................. 14
2.9
Near field calculation ............................................................................... 15
2.10 Default Aiming point................................................................................. 15
2.11 Default Frame size................................................................................... 16
2.13 Distance................................................................................................... 16
2.14 Angle to x-axis ......................................................................................... 16
2.15 Elevation angle ........................................................................................ 16
2.16 Use extended ray trace............................................................................ 16
2.17 Only process a partition of the Viewing points Process ........................... 16
2.18 Add water surface.................................................................................... 16
2.19 Process.................................................................................................... 16
3.
Running cadRCS in the background .............................................................. 17

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Example of the cadRCS.ini file....................................................................... 17


Description of the ASCII output files............................................................... 19
Colours used in the cadRCS Hot Spot images............................................... 22
cadRCS theory............................................................................................... 22
Comparisons with measurements .................................................................. 23
Description of the micro (*.mic) files made by cadRCS.................................. 23
License agreement ...................................................................................... 25
Movie.exe visualise the RCS results......................................................... 29
Object background CAD program ............................................................. 31
Example of running object and cadRCS in the background......................... 32

Getting Started
Installation
Insert the CD in your computer CD-ROM drive and follow the instructions.
Attach the USB hasp to your computer.
Run cadRCS and start with the demo.ini file.

What you need to run cadRCS


Hardware
You need a PC with 2Gbytes of RAM, the extensive use of RAM is used by cadRCS
to minimise the calculation time.
Software
Windows XP/2000/NT is recommended, but any Windows system will work.
CAD
You need a three dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) description of the object you want to RCS calculate. The CAD model has to be translated into a cadRCS
readable file format; witch can be ASCII or binary STL files, Rhino 1 RAW files or
ASCII or binary NATO format files.
Almost all CAD programs can save the CAD file in the STL file format. If you do not
have a CAD program and just want to calculate the RCS of different objects, you
can download different CAD files from the homepage:
http://www.3dcadbrowser.com

Changing file-format

!!

When you change the file-format of your CAD-model, make sure to use the
metric system, all measurements has to be in meters.

Rhino is obtainable at www.rhino3d.com.

Running cadRCS:
1. Starting cadRCS
There are two ways of starting cadRCS; if you are starting a new project, you can
choose to start cadRCS without a CAD file. Then you should add your project name
at the menu file->Project name and working directory. Find or create a folder for
your project. Then open your CAD file using file->open CAD file. It is then recommend to choose the default Aiming point and to use quadratic pixels. Then choose
the first Viewing point for your calculation or set the viewing distance and angles.
Use default frame size and go to the menu item Settings and chose RCS settings.
Set the polarization and frequencies(s) of your calculation. Shut down cadRCS and
save your initialising file under this process in your project folder.
cadRCS has then made your project ready for RCS calculation of your CAD object;
your CAD file is stored in your project folder in a binary NATO file format, which is
necessary in order to add material properties.
Then restart cadRCS, start with the *.INI file, and choose the file, that you just
saved.
Opening the *.INI file will load the binary NATO CAD model and the previously
saved settings. The binary NATO file format is chosen in order to make quick access.
General:
!!

1.1.

Illegal settings will create a red background in the box

File

In the File menu new CAD models can be imported or added. The CAD model is
now ready for RCS prediction.
When you use cadRCS for the first time, it is recommended to use the default values.
You should always start a new project by selecting: file-> Project name and working
directory giving the folder name and project name.
1.2.

Settings

In the Settings menu you can customize the RCS settings; polarization, frequency,
High Resolution Range gate size etc.
1.2.1. Export settings

Current settings can be saved in an *.INI file.


1.2.2. Import settings
Settings used previously can be imported and edited.
1.2.3. RCS settings

Use RCS settings to set the polarization of the transmitter and the receiver(s).
The main frequency is used in order to mark the RCS images with HOT SPOTS.
The additional frequencies are for RCS-calculation only. The results of these calculations are saved in text files.
It is possible to operate with two receivers, which is normal when using circular polarization.
The High Resolution Range gate size must be set in metric units.
The minimum RCS must be set in square meters.
Minimum and maximum numbers of reflections are used to visualize the character
of the HOT SPOTS.
With a setting of three reflections or more, HOT SPOTS visible from a large spatial
angle will be shown.
If maximum number of reflections is set to one, only direct reflections will be calculated.
Only the maximum number of reflections affects the RCS calculations, which are
saved in text files.
Changing the minimum RCS will change the colour code of the HOT SPOTS.
Recommended value is 30 dB.

If the value is increased to e.g. 10dB, only HOT SPOTS of large intensity will be
shown.
It is only recommenced to use antenna gain factors when comparing calculations to
real measurements.
1.2.4. Silhouette colour

Examples of the two different settings:


The default setting (grey on blue):

and the other possibility (blue on white):

1.2.5. Editing material numbers and reflection coefficient

If the CAD model contains any information about the materials (NATO and Polygon
files) the material numbers are imported and set as default.
If you wish to add a new material number, it is saved by subsequently adding it to
your file under the file panel.
The STL and Rhino files do not contain material numbers. After setting the first material number, save your file as NATO or Polygon file and add to your file for any
further material numbers. Material number 9999 is reserved for sea surface. Importing CAD models for the first time, the description will be set to the file name without
path and extension.
The reflection coefficient and roughness must be set according to the material in
question.
Incoming ray

Random direction added to


the reflected ray. The size is
given by the roughness factor

Surface

Figure 1.1

The roughness factor affects only the direction of the reflected ray. Figure 1.1
shows the effect of changing the value. A large value (>0.0001) will result in different calculation results for the same settings.

10

1.3.

Actions

1.3.1. Distance images


If you use the model for the first time, you could start by creating only a distance
image of your object. In this way you can make sure that your CAD model has been
translated into the correct format, and you will get a quick first picture.
1.3.2. RCS calculation
In this menu you switch on RCS calculation.
When switching on the RCS calculation you will be prompted to save your results in
a text file. This is necessary for RCS calculations to start.
1.3.3. Creating RCS images
If you want to create RCS images you will be prompted to save your results in a
micro or bitmap file. The micro file format is a compact file format used by cadRCS,
it contains all the results of the calculation and the file format can be used by the
program movie.exe. If you want the format of this file for your own use, the format
can be sent to you. Please contact: gal@cadrcs.com.

!!

If RCS-calculation is not switched on, you will also be prompted to save


the.calculation result in a text-file. If you cancel, the calculations will be
cancelled.

If you want to watch the RCS images without saving the images in a file, switch only
RCS calculation on.

1.3.4. Creating error images


The error images will show when the object is too complicated for RCS calculations
to be reliable.
If you choose error images you will be prompted to save your results in a bitmap
file.

11

!!

1.4.

If RCS calculation is not switched on, you will also be prompted to save
the calculation result in a text file. If you cancel, the calculations will be
cancelled.

Stop

If the stop key is activated, RCS calculation is stopped, but the settings are maintained.
1.5. Exit
If the exit key is activated, you will be prompted to save your settings in an *.INI file
for later use.

12

2.

Geometrical set-up

Figure 2.1

13

First Viewing point


Rotation axis

Aiming point

Inspection angle

Number of viewing points

Figure 2.2

2.1

Aiming point (x,y,z)

The Aiming point is a point in or very near the object and is the centre of the pictures calculated by the program.
If you want to implement e.g. the sea surface in connection with near field calculations it is recommended to set the z-co-ordinate of the aiming point to zero (default).

!!

2.2

It is strongly recommended always to use the default co-ordinates for


the Aiming point.

Rotation axis (x,y,z)

The Rotation axis is illustrated in Figure 2.2.


The co-ordinates in the rotations axis determine the vector for calculation of the
Viewing point position.

14

2.3

First viewing point

First Viewing point is the observer co-ordinates for image no. 1 and the phase centre of the radar antenna.
First Viewing point must be different from Aiming point.
2.4

Number of viewing points

In Number of Viewing points the number of calculation runs is determined.


2.5

Inspection angle

First Viewing point determines the start angle, and the Inspection angle (0 360) is
the difference between the start angle and the stop angle.
2.6

Frame size width/height

The Frame size describes the spatial section, in which calculations are performed.

!!

If the
. Frame size is set to be smaller than your object, the calculations
will be incomplete, because rays outside the calculated section are not
included. If the Frame size is set too large the calculations will be less
accurate due to a smaller resolution. It is always recommended to use
the defaults.

If your object is very complicated, it is recommended to obtain a high resolution in


the calculations.
2.7

Number of columns/rows

The resolution of the images is set in Number of columns and rows.


The number of rays is equal to the number of pixels, unless you have chosen the
extended ray trace option.
2.8

Frame angle

Changing the Frame angle will rotate your object clockwise around the axis of Viewing and Aiming point.

15

Without near field calculation

With near field calculation

Figure 2.3

2.9

Near field calculation

If the distance to the object is short or if there are surfaces close to the radar (e.g.
the sea surface); it necessary to use near field calculations (Figure 2.3).

!!

2.10

Real near field calculation time is substantially longer than far field calculation time.

Default Aiming point

Default aiming point is the centre of the object and is calculated by cadRCS, when
the CAD model is imported.
If near field calculation is activated and a sea surface is detected, the z-co-ordinate
for Aiming point is set to zero.

16

2.11

Default Frame size

The Default Frame size is defined by the size of the object and is calculated by the
program when Aiming point and Viewing point are set.
In the case of near field calculations it is recommended to check whether the RCS
image is cut off due to near field properties, e.g. when Viewing point is very close to
the object.
2.13 Distance
The distance between the observer and the object can be set in meters.
2.14 Angle to x-axis
The azimuth angle or the angle to the x-axis can be set in degrees.
2.15 Elevation angle
The elevation angle in degrees can be set.
2.16 Use extended ray trace
If you want extra rays in the calculation and do have used the maximum possible
number of columns/rows select this option; this will add four times the number of
rays in the calculation note this will extend the calculation time by four.
2.17 Only process a partition of the Viewing points Process
It is possible to calculate any section of the Inspection angle separately, if e.g. the
calculations have been interrupted.
2.18 Add water surface
This will add a surface to your calculation, which is centred at the Origin of your coordinate system. It is 10.000 meters in radius and has the material number 9999
known to cadRCS as the water surface; the recommended sea surface roughness
is about 1.0E-6.
2.19 Process
This activates the calculation.

17

3.

Running cadRCS in the background

3.1

Background parameters

cadRCS can be activated in the background in a batch file, the run string parameters follows the syntax:
cadRCS <cadrcs.ini file> <run number> <azimuth angle> <elevation angle> <roll
angle> <pitch angle> <distance>
The angles are in degrees and the distance is in meters and is optional, whereas
the other parameters are required. The other settings are from the cadRCS.ini file.

4.

Example of the cadRCS.ini file

All input parameters are given in the cadRCS.ini file.


An example of an initialise file (*.ini):
Lines starting with * are only comments in this file.
CAD file :
Wolf1.nat
Project :
Wolf1
Start Working directory :
G:\Demo2\Wolf\ini12

Aiming point :
0.00000
0.00000

0.00000

Rotation axis :
0.00000
0.00000

1.00000

First Viewing point :


1.00000E+4
0.00000 8.73000E+1

Number of Viewing points:


360

Image Width and Height:


1.00000E+1 1.00000E+1

Inspection Angle:
0.00000

Frame Angle:
0.00000

Number of Columns and Rows:


512
512

18

Nearfield calculation on:


No
Add water surface:
No
Use micro file type:
No
Only process a part on:
Yes

IF only a part then from and to number:


1 1
Use extended ray trace:
No
*Number of wavelengths :
4
*Polarization of transmitter:(X ~ horizontal,Y ~ vertical,X + iY ~ circular)
*and other combinations of X and Y
1.00000+ 0.00000iX+ 0.00000+ 0.00000iY
Two receivers Yes/No
Yes
*Polarization of first receiver (notation as transmitter):
*results in file with extension R1.txt
1.00000+ 0.00000iX+ 0.00000+ 0.00000iY
*Polarization of second receiver( notation as transmitter ):
*results in file with extension R2.txt
0.00000+

1.00000iX+

0.00000+

*Wavelength(s) in meters:
9.99000E-2 .. 9.9932000E-3

Min display RCS in images


1.00000E-3

Range gate size


5.00000E-1

Min RCS in HRR


1.00000E-1

Output phase results:


Yes
Use antennagain parameters:
No

Antenna width :
6.00000E-1
Antenna height :

0.00000iY

19

6.00000E-1
Use theoretical far field:
No

Minimum number of reflections in images:


1

Maximum number of reflections in images:


10

*Material numbers for the object:


*Material number: New number: Reflection coef:
1
1
1.000
9999
9999
1.000

5.

Number of facets: Roughness


4374
0.000
841
1.000E-6

Descriptions:
Wolf1
Watersurface

Description of the ASCII output files

There are different ways of getting results from cadRCS. Following a description
with HRR data in phase unselected and with Discrete frequencies selected. Example of the results of total RCS result files. First the <project name> Q file:
Computer prediction of RCS.
Radar Cross Section calculation made by cadRCS, project: C:\Powerplant\example\Triple
CAD file: C:\Powerplant\example\Triple.bna
Transm. pol.: (
1.00
0.00i )X + (
0.00
0.00i )Y
Receiver pol.: (
1.00
0.00i )X + (
0.00
0.00i )Y
Frame angle:
0.0
Wave length =
1.00000000E-1
2.99796000E-2
Angle to X-axis:
Total: 2 bounce: 3 bounce: Rest: Direct:
Total: 2 bounce: 3 bounce:
Rest: Direct:
6.0020078
5.96E+4 3.95E+3 1.08E+2
3.91 8.20E+4 5.75E+4 7.57E+3 1.50E+2
8.71 3.97E+4
7.0020078
3.28E+4 9.85E+2 2.83E+2
3.82 2.25E+4 6.45E+4 6.73E+3
6.87
6.44 3.55E+4
8.0020078
4.51E+4 1.68E+4 1.00E+3 8.81E-2 4.99E+4 1.61E+6 3.66E+3 5.01E+1
1.26E-1 1.77E+6
9.0020078
2.31E+3 4.35E+3 5.54E-1 7.74E-2 5.60E+3 3.06E+4 1.90E+4 6.56E-1
2.39E-1 9.60E+3

and the other polarization if selected - the <project name> R file:


Computer prediction of RCS.
Radar Cross Section of the object:
Polygon file: Wolf1.nat
Transm. pol.: (
1.00
0.00i )X + (
0.00
0.00i )Y
Receiver pol.: (
0.00
0.00i )X + (
1.00
0.00i )Y
Frame angle:
0.0
Wave length =
9.99000000E-2
6.99310667E-2
3.99621333E-2
9.99320000E-3
Angle to X-axis:
Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase:
0.0000000
5.05E-2 7.19E+1 1.02E-1 -8.77E+1 1.37E-1 -1.09E+1 1.69E-1 -4.27E+1

The Total is the result of adding all reflections in phase, the Multi is only the multiple reflections and the Direct is the first reflection. Please note, it is possible, that
the total RCS can be smaller than the other two, due to the fact, that the results is
added in phase.
Example of the <project name> fq<frequency number> files:
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

20

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1.79E-4
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0 0 0 0 0
5.12E+3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0
3.62
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0 0
3.53E-3
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.14E-3 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

This is a listing of the RCS in the different range gates, centered about the Aiming
point.
Similar file(s) is created for the second receiver.
The four files <project name> HRRQ/R and HHHQ/R all follow the same syntax.
The HRR is the High Resolution range gate files and the HHH is the height information files all given in the Range gate size; the RCS is always in square meters.
Example of a HRRQ file:
1 10000 5.0E-1
0.0000000
5.0017945E-1 HH 99999 3.00 5.12E+3 5.34E+3
255 5.12E+3
256 3.62 99999 4.29 3.53E+3 3.66E+3
255 3.52E+3
256 2.64 99999 7.50 3.15E+3
3.15E+3
255 3.15E+3 99999 30.00 2.40E+2 2.39E+2
255 2.40E+2

The first number is the run number (1 ), the distance (10000) in meters, range gate
size in meters (5.0E-1), azimuth angle or angle to x-axis in degrees (0.0000000),
elevation angle in degrees (5.0017945E-1), the polarization of transmitter/receiver
(HH), followed by a indicator of start of frequency dependent numbers (99999), ),
the frequency in GHz (3.00), sum of RCS of the range gates in square meters
(5.12E+3), total RCS added in phase(5.34E+3), the rest of the numbers is only displayed, if the RCS is greater than the Minimum RCS in HRR profile in sqm, see
section 1.2.3; then the range gate number and the RCS in this rang gate, etc.
If the Discrete frequencies is unselected, then you will get amplitude and phase
results in the <project name> Q/R files.
Example of the Q file:
Computer prediction of RCS.
Radar Cross Section of the object:
Polygon file: Wolf1.nat
Transm. pol.: (
Receiver pol.: (
Frame angle:
Wave length =
Angle to X-axis:
0.0000000

1.00
1.00

0.00i )X + (
0.00i )X + (

0.00
0.00

0.00i )Y
0.00i )Y

0.0
9.99000000E-2
6.99310667E-2
3.99621333E-2
9.99320000E-3
Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase: Amplitude: Phase:
7.31E+1
8.61 8.64E+1 3.37E+1 1.40E+2 -3.68E+1 1.55E+2 -2.52E+1

21

If you select the option HRR data in phase (section 1.2.3), you will get phase information in the HRR files in two different ways. Example of the <project name>
fq<frequency number> files:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 7.09E+1 9.59 1.33 1.36 -8.98E-3 5.88E-2 -1.09E-2 -5.50E-2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7.86E-3 -1.08E-2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The results will be listed in (I,Q) for all range gates.


In the four files <project name> HRRQ/R and HHHQ/R you will get amplitude and
phase. An example:
1 10000 5.0E-1
0.0000000
5.0017945E-1 HH 99999 3.00 5.12E+3 5.34E+3
255 7.09E+1
9.59
256 1.33 1.36 99999 4.29 3.53E+3 3.66E+3
255 4.88E+1 3.39E+1
256 1.58 3.84E-1 99999 7.50 3.15E+3 3.15E+3
255 4.51E+1 -3.34E+1 99999 30.00 2.40E+2
2.39E+2
255 -1.40E+1 6.63

All these results can be designed for your own purpose if requested!

22

6.

Colours used in the cadRCS Hot Spot images

Colours used to show the intensity of the radar reflection:

The red colour is the highest reflection and the green colour is the lowest, the scale
is linear.
The default silhouette colours:

The brightest colour is used for parts of the objects close to the observer and the
darkest is the parts most distant from the observer.
The colour of free air, no reflection:

The watercolour, material number 9999:

The colour of Radar Absorbing Material (RAM), identified as material with a reflection coefficient below 0.1:

7.

cadRCS theory

The theory used in cadRCS is unique and have never been published due to the
fact that terrorists can read, the theory will remain a Css property.

23

8.

Comparisons with measurements

During the years a lot of comparisons with results from cadRCS and measurements
have been performed. After evaluation of the results it always had end up with
agreement within the measurement noise.
If you have disagreements, try to do some of the following tasks:
1. Reconsider you CAD model it may not agree with your real model used for
the measurement.
2. Make sure, that your calibration of your measurement system is OK. Spheres
is always a good way to do calibration with remember place it in free space
using a balloon or something else.
3. Enlarge the number of rays in the calculation and use the Nearfield option
even if you think, that your measurement takes place in the far field.
4. Remember that targets placed in the real world isnt stiff especially ships
will bend on the sea surface.
5. If you are using low reflecting foam in your measurement, then find the reflection coefficient of the foam by making a dihedral with a metal plate. Then
set in the foam in your calculation.
If by any chance you have done a good, reliable measurement and still have disagreements with the calculation results from cadRCS please contact us and we
will be very interested in getting an improvement if needed.
In the last five years there has been no such disagreement!

9. Description of the micro (*.mic) files made by cadRCS


Following definitions is used:
Byte size one byte
Integer size four bytes
Real size eight bytes
String definition: First four bytes: integer number = number of characters in the
string
Followed by the characters in ASCII format.
The micro file:
String: CAD file name
String: Working directory
Three real: Aiming point coordinates x,y,z
Three real: Rotation axis x,y,z
Three real: Viewing point coordinates x,y,z
Real: Image width
Real: Image height
Real: Frame angle
Integer: Number of columns
Integer: Number of rows
String: Nearfield is defined, if first character = Y

24

String: Water surface is added, if first character = Y


String: Left for future use
Integer: Number of wave lengths
Four real: Transmitter polarization
Four real: Receiver 1 polarization
Four real: Receiver 2 polarization
Number of wave length real: wave length 1, wave length 2 .
Real: Minimum display RCS in images
Real: Range gate size
Real: Minimum RCS in HRR and HHH profiles
String: Antenna gain is used, if first character = Y
Real: Antenna width
Real: Antenna height
Real: Future use
Real: Future use
Block start: repeated number of wavelengths
Real: Total RCS added in phase
Real: All double reflections added in phase
Real: All triple reflections added in phase
Real: Rest of multiple reflections added in phase
Real: Only direct RCS added in phase
Block end: repeated number of wavelengths
Block start: repeated number of wavelengths
Real: RMS sum of range gate RCS for HRR
Real: Future use
Integer: Number of range gate data - HRR
Block start: repeated number of range gate data
Integer: Range gate number HRR data
Real: RCS of the range gate HRR data
Block end: repeated number of range gate data
Real: RMS sum of range gate RCS for HHH
Real: Future use
Integer: Number of range gate data - HHH
Block start: repeated number of range gate data
Integer: Range gate number HHH data
Real: RCS of the range gate HHH data
Block end: repeated number of range gate data
Block end: repeated number of wavelengths
Integer: Future use
ROW = 1, COL = 1
Repeated until ROW exceeds Number of rows:
Byte: 0 or number of items
If last byte = 0 then Integer: number of items
Byte: Image lookup number
COL = COL + number of items
If COL exceeds Number of columns then ROW = ROW + 1 and
COL = COL Number of columns
End of data

25

10.

License agreement

END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENTcadRCS


IMPORTANT-READ CAREFULLY: This End-User License Agreement (Agreement)
is a legal contract between you (either (a) an individual user or (b) a business organization (you) and Licensor (as designated below) for the cadRCS software, including any associated media, printed materials and electronic documentation (the
Software).
By clicking on one of the I accept buttons, by opening the package that contains
the Software, or by copying, downloading, accessing or otherwise using the Software, you agree to be bound by the terms of this Agreement and you represent that
you are authorized to enter into this Agreement on behalf of your corporate entity (if
applicable).
If you do not wish to be bound by the terms of this Agreement, click the I do not
accept button, and do not install, access or use the Software.
An original purchaser who has not accepted the terms of this Agreement may return
the Software to the place of purchase, within 30 days of the date of purchase, for a
full refund.
As used herein, Licensor means Css, Omoegade 8, st. th. DK-2100 Copenhagen
Denmark.

SOFTWARE LICENSE
1. Grant of License. Upon your payment of the fees shown on the invoice and acceptance of this Agreement, Licensor grants you a limited, personal, nonexclusive license to install and use the Software on the terms and conditions set
forth herein.
You may install and use the number of seats settled in the invoice. You may
make back up and/or archival copy of the Software.
2. Restrictions on Use of Software. You may not (a) make the Software available
for use by others in any service bureau or similar arrangement; (b) distribute,
sublicense, transfer, or lend the Software to any third party; or (d) disassemble or
reverse engineer the Software.
You may copy the Software solely for backup/archival purposes, provided that
you include all copyright and similar rights notices. Licensor (or its licensor) retains all right, title, and interest in the Software (and in all copies). Unauthorized
copying and modification of the Software is not permitted.
3. Subject to the exceptions set forth herein, a copy of the Software installed on a
single common machine may be shared for internal use by your employees, provided that a license has been purchased for each individual user.
4. Redistributable Files. The Software component parts may not be separated for
use on more than one computer, except as set forth in this Agreement. You may
copy the files specifically identified in the documentation as redistributables and

26

redistribute such files to your end users of your products, provided that: (a) such
products add primary and substantial functionality to the redistributables, (b) all
copies of the redistributables must be exact and unmodified; and (c) you grant
your end users a limited, personal, non-exclusive and non-transferable license to
use the redistributables only to the extent required for the permitted operation of
your products and not to distribute them further.
You will reproduce with the redistributables all applicable trademarks and copyright notices that accompany the Software.
5. Limited Warranty and Disclaimer of Warranty. Licensor warrants that:
A. it has the right and authority to grant the rights described in this Agreement,
and;
B. the Software, as provided, will substantially perform the functions described in
the documentation when operated in the intended environment for a period of
ninety (90) days from the date of delivery (the Warranty Period).
THE WARRANTIES ABOVE ARE EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. LICENSOR EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS
ANY WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Licensor does not warrant that the Software will (a) achieve specific results, (b) operate without interruption, or (c) be error
free.
6. Ownership. This Agreement does not convey to you any rights of ownership in
the Software. All right, title, and interest in the Software and in any ideas, knowhow, and programs which are developed by Licensor in the course of providing
any technical services, including any enhancements or modifications made to the
Software, shall at all times remain the property of Licensor or its licensor.
You acknowledge and agree that the Software is licensed, not sold. You shall
not permit the Software to be accessed or used by anyone other than your employees whose duties require such access or use.
You will not remove, modify or alter any of Licensors copyright, trademark or proprietary rights notices from any part of the Software, including but not limited to
any such notices contained in the physical and/or electronic media or documentation, in any of the runtime resources and/or in any web-presence or webenabled notices, code or other embodiments originally contained in or otherwise
created by the Software, or in any archival or back-up copies, if applicable.
7. Transfer of Software. You may not, by operation of law or otherwise, transfer any
license rights or other interests in the Software. You may not transfer any license
rights or other interests in any other Software.
8. Limitation of Remedy and Liability. During the Warranty Period, in the event of
any breach of the warranty outlined in Section 5b above, Licensors ( and its suppliers), entire liability and your exclusive remedy will be, at Licensors option, to
either, repair or replace the defective Software.
NEITHER LICENSOR NOR ITS LICENSOR, IF ANY, SHALL BE LIABLE FOR
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR

27

FOR DAMAGE TO SYSTEMS OR DATA, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. LICENSORS LIABILITY
FOR DAMAGES HEREUNDER SHALL IN NO EVENT EXCEED THE AMOUNT
OF LICENSE FEES THAT YOU HAVE PAID.
9. Maintenance Services. If ordered by you and upon payment of the applicable fee,
you are entitled to receive technical support services, including corrections, fixes
and enhancements to the Software as such are made generally available (the
maintenance services) from Licensor in accordance with Licensors then-current
maintenance terms for the applicable maintenance level purchased by you.
Maintenance services will not include any releases of the Software which Licensor determines to be a separate product or for which Licensor charges its customers extra or separately.
10.
Upgrades and Subscription. If you purchased a license for the Software which is identified as an upgrade or subscription, you must have a valid license for the version of the Software which the upgrade or subscription supplements.
11.
Dual-Media Software. You may receive the Software in more than one
medium (electronic and on a CD, for example). Receipt of the Software in more
than a single manner (electronic or on a CD, for example) does not expand the license rights granted to you hereunder. Your use of the Software is limited to the
number of licenses that you have acquired overall, regardless of number or type
of medium on which it has been provided.
12.
You will not, directly or indirectly, export, re-export, divert, or transfer
the Software, any portion thereof or any materials, items or technology relating to
Licensors business or related technical data or any direct product thereof to any
Restricted Person.
13.
Termination. Your license may be terminated by Licensor if (a) you fail
to make payment and/or (b) you fail to comply with the terms of this Agreement
within ten (10) days after receipt of written notice of such failure. In the event of
termination, you must cease using the Software, destroy all copies of the Software (including copies in storage media) and certify such destruction to Licensor.
This requirement applies to all copies in any form, partial or complete. Upon the
effective date of any termination, you relinquish all rights granted under this
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Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as making you an employee, agent
or legal representative of Licensor.
15.
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this Agreement.
16.
Company Name. Licensor may include your company name in a list of
Licensor customers.
17.
Payment Terms/Shipments. All fees are non-refundable. Fees are due
within 30-days of the date of the invoice. Maintenance services purchased may
be renewed for the next two annual periods for the amount specified on the original invoice for the Software.

28

18.
Taxes. All fees do not include taxes. If Licensor is required to pay any
sales, use, GST, VAT, or other taxes in connection with your order, other than
taxes based on Licensors income, such taxes will be billed to and paid by you.
19.
Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the complete and entire
understanding and agreement of all terms, conditions and representations between you and Licensor with respect to the Software and may be modified only in
writing by both parties. No term or condition contained in your purchase order
will apply unless expressly accepted by Licensor in writing. Failure to prosecute
a partys rights will not constitute a waiver of any other breach.
If any provision of this Agreement is found to be invalid, it will be enforced to the
extent permissible and the remainder of this Agreement will remain in full effect.
This Agreement has been written in the English language and you waive any
rights you may have under the law of your country or province to have this
Agreement written in any other language.
Css

29

11.

Movie.exe visualise the RCS results

With movie.exe you can visualise the results from the RCS calculations done by
cadRCS.

The most information about the RCS properties of your object is done by using the
micro files (*.mic). If you choose to save the results in bitmap files (*.bmp), not all
the information is included.
As seen from the high resolution range profile in the above example, there are reflections behind the object. This is also shown by real measurements and is due to
multiple reflections.
The two different polar plots in this example is the HH (horizontal horizontal) polarization and the HV (horizontal - vertical) reflection. As seen the HH often is more
than 30dB larger than the HV, and in that case it is impossible to measure due to
the fact, that isolation on more than 30 dB is very tough to get. Please also see the
next example.

30

31

12.

Object background CAD program

Object is a CAD program, which can be activated in the background. The background syntax:
Object * <commands>
Short description of commands for CAD code object.exe:
Command
OBJECT
*
COPY
COPYPURGE

Parameters

CONTOUR

Z-coordinate or
floating

TRANS
MULT

XYZ
MX MY MZ

ROTX
ROTY
ROTZ
STORE
RAWSTORE
END
Extensions:
STLSTORE
BINSTORE
NATOSTORE
NATOBINSTORE

degree
degree
degree
filename
filename

file1,file2,
file1,file2,

filename
filename
filename
filename

Description
Start of data
Comment in file, or data in runstring
Copies CAD files:file1,file2,..
Copies CAD files:file1,file2,.. and delete the
sources
z-coordinate The next lines describe a polygon: x-coor y-coor matnr1 matnr2 or floating:
x-coor y-coor z-coor matnr1 matnr2
Move all CAD points (X,Y,Z)
Multiply all CAD points with vector:
(MX,MY,MZ)
Rotation about X-axis
Rotation about Y-axis
Rotation about Z-axis
Stores CAD data in a polygon file
Stores CAD data in a Rhino raw file format
End of data
Stores CAD data in a ASCII STL file
Stores CAD data in a binary STL file
Stores CAD data in a ASCII NATO file
Stores CAD data in a binary NATO file

Object.exe is a MS-DOS code and can either run on an input file in normal ASCII
format (*.txt) using a new line for a new command. It can also use the run string,
where commands are delimited by a ;( semicolon).

32

13.

Example of running object and cadRCS in the background

In the following example, the wing of a power plant gets turning.


OBJECT * OBJECT; COPY WINGS.RAW;TRANS
WING2.POL;COPY WING2.POL,PP.POL;STORE
cadrcs powerplant1.ini 55 0 0.4 0 0
OBJECT * OBJECT; COPY WINGS.RAW;TRANS
WING2.POL;COPY WING2.POL,PP.POL;STORE
cadrcs powerplant1.ini 56 0 0.4 0 0
OBJECT * OBJECT; COPY WINGS.RAW;TRANS
WING2.POL;COPY WING2.POL,PP.POL;STORE
cadrcs powerplant1.ini 57 0 0.4 0 0

0,0,-102.9735;ROTY 54;TRANS 0,0,102.9735;STORE


POWERPLANT1.POL;END
0,0,-102.9735;ROTY 55;TRANS 0,0,102.9735;STORE
POWERPLANT1.POL;END
0,0,-102.9735;ROTY 56;TRANS 0,0,102.9735;STORE
POWERPLANT1.POL;END

etc.
Such a batch file is easily made with Microsoft Excel.