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Physics 72

Rafael B. Jaculbia

Chapter 21:

We can solve the electric field at a point P

produced by a charge distribution

Chapter 22:

If the electric field pattern is known in a given

region, what can we determine in its charge

distribution?

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

Imaginary surface

Has no effect on the electric field

Closed surface

How do we determine the amount of

charge inside?

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

Charge distribution Electric field

exerts force on a test charge

q0

Test charge q0

different positions around the box and use:

E = F/q0

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

E

E

+q

+q

Test charge q0

E

E

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

We only need to measure the electric field

on the surface of the box

E

E

+q

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

-q

Electric Flux

The flow of the electric field through the

surface of the box

Either inward or outward

Inward (outward) electric flux for negative

(positive) charges

What if there is zero net charge inside the

box?

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

No charge inside

No electric flux inward or outward

No electric field

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

E

+q

-q

electric flux is inward at half and outward

at the other half of the box

Net electric field = 0

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

10

+

No charge inside

Charge is present outside the box

Electric field points into the box on one

end and out of the box in the other end

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

11

E

E

+q

+2q

net electric field is also doubled

The net electric flux through the surface of the

box is proportional to the magnitude of the net

charge enclosed

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

12

+q

+q

for each face, the average magnitude of E is the

average magnitude of smaller box (inverse square

law).

But the area of each face for the large box is 4x the

area of the corresponding face for the small box.

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

13

The outward electric flux is the same for

the two boxes if:

We define Electric flux as the product of the

average perpendicular component of E and

the area of that face and add the results for all

faces of that box

Depends on the net charge enclosed

Independent of the size of the box.

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

14

Use the analogy: Fluid flow and electric

field

Electric field is NOT a flow, this is just an

analogy

Electric field E and velocity vectors in a

flowing liquid

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

16

Volume flow rate

(dV/dt) through the wire

Wire is perpendicular to

the flow velocity:

dV

= vA

dt

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

17

Wire is tilted by and

angle

through A is:

dV

= vA cos

dt

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

18

If = 90o, dV/dt = 0

v cos() is the component of the velocity vector

perpendicular to the area A. Call this v:

dV

= v A

dt

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

19

Introduce the concept of vector area A

Has both magnitude and direction

perpendicular to the area we are

describing.

In terms of the vector area, dV/dt

becomes:

dV r r

=vA

dt

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

20

Electric field flow through an area

Replace v E

E = EA

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

21

Electric Flux

A = A cos()

E = EA cos()

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

22

Electric Flux

E cos() is the component of the electric

field perpendicular to the area

E = E A

In terms of the vector area, which is

perpendicular to the area of interest

E = EA

Electric flux for uniform electric field, flat

surface

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

23

Electric Flux

SI unit of electric flux: 1 Nm2/C

Define the unit vector n which points

perpendicular tor the area, then ,

A = An

A surface has two sides, so we choose the

direction of n to be outward of the closed

surface.

Outward Electric flux positive E

Inward Electric flux negative E

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

24

Electric Flux

If the electric field varies from point to

point or the area is curved

Divide the area A into small elements dA

each has unit vector n and vector area

r

dA = ndA

r r

E = E cos dA = E dA = E dA

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

25

disk

r

E = 2.0 x103 N / C

a)

b)

c)

What is the electric flux if the disk is turned so that it is

perpendicular to E?

What is the flux though the disk if its normal is parallel to

E?

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

26

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

27

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

28

sphere

sphere of radius 0.20m. Find the electric flux

through a the sphere due to the charge.

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

29

Gausss Law

Formulated by Carl Friedrich Gauss

(1777-1855)

An alternative to Coulombs law

Relationship between the charge and the

electric field

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

31

r r

E = E A

r

dA

r

E

r

E = E 4R 2

q

2

E =

4

R

2

4

R

E =

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

32

Flux through dA

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

33

Total flux is the sum of the flux from all the

surface element dA

Each of dA projects to a corresponding

area element of the sphere, hence the

total flux through the irregular surface is

the same as that of the sphere:

r r q

E = E dA =

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

34

r r q

E = E dA =

enclosing q

dA and the corresponding unit vectors

point out of the surface

Outward Electric field (+) E and E

Inward Electric field (-) E and E

If more than one charge is inside?

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

35

No Charge enclosed

r r

E = E dA = 0

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

When there is no

enclosed charge,

electric flux is zero

Charges outside the

surface has no net

effect on the flux

through that surface

36

Gausss Law

Now we have the general statement of

Gausss Law:

r r Qencl

E = E dA =

r r Qencl

E = E cos dA = E dA = E dA =

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

37

Gausss Law

The closed surface is imaginary

There need not be any material object at the

position of the surface

surface

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

38

Gausss Law

Electric field

points out of the

Gaussian surface

At every point at

the surface, E is

in the same

direction as dA,

=0

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

39

Gausss Law

Electric field

points into the

Gaussian surface

At every point at

the surface, E is

in the opposite

direction as dA,

=180o

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

40

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

41

Law

Gausss Law

Valid for any charged distributions and any

closed surface.

Charge distribution Electric field or vice

versa

Symmetry is important!!!

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

43

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

44

charge

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

45

charge

Planar symmetry

Charge distribution does not change if we

slide it in any direction parallel to the sheet

Electric field is always perpendicular to the

sheet

Field must have the same magnitude on the

same distance on both sides of the sheets

We use as surface a cylinder with its axis

perpendicular to charge, with ends of area A

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

46

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

47

Cylindrical symmetry

we can rotate the system through any

angle about its axis, and we can shift it by

any amount along the axis

E is radial and lie in planes perpendicular

to the wire, field magnitude depend only

on the distance from the wire

Gaussian surface a cylinder with arbitrary

radius r and arbitrary length I, with its ends

perpendicular to the wire.

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

48

Quiz

An infinitely long cylindrical conductor has

radius R and uniform surface charge

density .

a. In terms of and R, what is the charge per

unit length for the cylinder?

b. In terms of , what is the magnitude of the

electric field produced by the charged

cylinder at a distance r > R from its axis?

c. Express the result of part (b) in terms of .

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

49

Charges on Conductors

Conductor in a uniform field

Eo

Charges will rearrange

Induced charges produces

an electric field E1 which

cancels out the original field

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

51

Charges on Conductors

In electrostatics,

the electric field at

the center of the

conductor is zero.

Any excess

charges placed on

the conductor lies

on the surface

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

52

sphere

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

53

Charges on conductors

What if there is a cavity

inside the conductor?

Use arbitrary Gaussian

surface A

Since the electric field

inside the conductor = 0,

the electric field at

Gaussian surface is 0 so,

the net charge on the

surface of the cavity is 0

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

54

Charges on conductors

Place a charge q inside

the cavity

Conductor is insulated

from the charge q.

From Gausss Law, total

charge enclosed must be

zero, so there must be

negative charges

attracted to q.

So there will charges with

total charge q on the

surface of the cavity

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

55

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

56

Summary

Gauss law relates the flux through a

closed surface to the enclosed charge

Gauss law is always valid but not always

useful

Charge distribution must have symmetry

(planar, spherical, cylindrical)

entirely on its surface

Probset Due tomorrow: 10-17

Physics 72 Chapter 22: Gauss's Law

Lecturer: Rafael Jaculbia

57

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