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INTRODUCTION:

Human are the most precious part of the organization. In the organization,

the effective utilization of the capacity of human resources depends upon

management. Management can get the result from the people in the

organization in two ways:

By exercise of authority vested in it.

By winning support of the people.


Out of these, the second method is better as it has a

lasting effect over the people’s motivation. However, it is only possible

when a manager becomes their leader in real sense to influence their

behaviour in desired direction. Leadership by one’s position is not so

important as leadership by one’s virtue. A formal leadership based on

position and an informal leadership is equally important. A formal leader

gets work done by the employees as a person with authority. An informal

leader influences the group behaviour without any disturbance. Leadership

without influences has no success

Leadership is the focus of activity through which the

objective of the organization is achieved by motivating the employees. It is

the quality, which a manager must possess. Not all leaders are managers

because many leaders operate in a non-organizational field, public, and at

the platform. A manager has to work only in an organization. All managers

must be leaders so that their employees can function effectively and

efficiently.
.
CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP:

Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others to work willingly

and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. The later type of

response is the objective of leadership. Tennenbaum and other famous writers

has defined the leadership as given below:

According to TENNENBAUM:
“Leadership is an interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed

through communication process, towards the attainment of a specified goal or

goals.”

According to CHESTER BARNARD:


“The leadership is the quality of behaviour of individuals whereby they guides

people or their activities in organizing efforts”

According to BARNARD KEYS & THOMAS CASE:


“Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work

enthusiastically towards achieving objectives.”

After going through the above definitions of

leadership, it can safely be defined as a process of influencing group activities

towards to achievement of certain goal. Formal leadership occurs when an

organization officially bestows upon a leader the power and authority to guide

and direct others in the organizations


The person who guides or influences the behaviour of

others is called ‘leader’ and people guided and influenced are called

‘followers’. Many authors with reference to the management technique have

discussed leadership. It is a crucial part of the organization theory and

corporate development. The main characteristics flowing from the preceding


definitions of leadership are as follows:

1. Leadership is a continuous process of influencing others’ behaviour; it is

not one-short activity.

2. Leadership is a personal quality that enable leader to influence the

subordinates’ behaviour at work.

3. The success of a leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by

the followers. Off course, the situational variables also affect the

effectiveness of leadership.
4. There is a relationship between leaders and followers, which arises out of

functioning for a common goal.

5. The followers work willingly and enthusiastically to achieve those goals

thus, there is no coercive force which induces the followers to work.

6. Leadership gives an experience of help to followers to attain common

goals. It happens when the leaders feel the importance of individuals and given

them recognition, conveys them about the importance of activities performed

by them.

NATURE OF LEADERSHIP

The leadership has definite characteristics, which are retained by an

effective leader. His performance, communication, influence, power base

interaction, acceptance, followers, situations, attributes are all important

nature of leadership.

PERFORMANCE- the performance of a leader directly influences the

leader also. If he asks his employees to come on time, he himself has to

reach the work place on time. The workers follow his behaviour and

functions automatically. The leader’s performance itself guides and


motivates the employees.

COMMUNICATION- Leadership starts with communication either by


dee
ds of or words. The followers can develop themselves by observing and

accepting the work or verbal communication of a leader. Formal and

informal communication, written and oral communication and

personal and impersonal communications have respective influences.

INFLUENCE: a leader must have the capacity to influence others. Without

influencing others, a leader cannot function at all. He influences others

morally and socially by using strong communication. The outcome of a

communication is influence. The influence is long lasting in the mind

of employees work willingly even at a small gesture from the leader.

POWER BASEThere are five bases of power, viz coercion, reward,

legitimate, expert and reference. When a person threatens, other to work it is

coercion. Nevertheless, coercive power has no permanent influence. It gives rise

to negative feelings, and hostility is developed between the leaders and his

followers. It is the form of power base used in unethical an immoral activities.

INTERACTION: The relationship between two people is essentially desire

in the management. In public and politics, leadership does not require a

relationship. The leader and followers interact on a particular subject and the

followers a follow the leaders’ advice for attaining the objectives

ACCEPTANCE: followers accept the power base and interaction. If the

influence is not recognized and not accepted by the follower, leadership

does not take place in an organization. The behaviour of the follower is

changed and developed by the acceptance of the power of leadership. The

acceptance creates influences, which solves the problems of an


organization

FOLLOWERS: leadership has followers. The link between a leader and his

followers is communication. Influencing other is leadership. Therefore, there

must be others, who are being influenced to attain the objectives of the

organizations. Followers are the end users of the leadership through

interaction and communication

SITUATIONS: leadership is visible in a situation. In routine and regular

function, leadership is not required. Some situations and specific

environment leadership is necessary to guide the people to attain certain

objectives. The leaders who inspire people to solve their problems develop

new ideas and motivational attitudes

ATTRIBUTES: leadership is the attribute of a leader. The qualities of a

leader are specific. The main quality of a leader is to influence others. In a

situation, a leader can influence others. However, the qualities needed for

influencing others are personality, skill, and charismatic influence.

Leadership has its own personality.

FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP:
Leadership functions of a manager are closely related with managerial

functions he performs. Nonetheless, the leadership functions are somewhat

different. As a leader, the manager has to performed some other functions

as well following are the important ones:

1. Developing teamwork: one of the primary functions of the leader is to


develop and to combine his followers as a team. Given the followers’

competence, potential and needs, the leader needs to create a congenial

and healthy working environment for his work-team.


2. Representing the team: the leader serves as a linking- pin between his
team members and management. As and when required the leader communicate

the problems and grievance of his subordinates to the management, and helps

to solve problems by participating in problem-solving process.

3. Counseling the workman: When team members face problems in doing


their work, they seek guidance and advise from their leader. The

problems may be technical or emotional in nature.

4. Managing time: One of the functions of the leader is to ensure the timely
completion of activities undertaken by his team members. He has to

appreciate the trite saying “a stich in time saves nine.”

5. Using proper power: Leader has to exercise his power and authority over
his subordinate as per the demand of the situation. Exercise of power

needs to stimulate positive response from the subordinates.

6. Securing group effectiveness: The manager leader needs to provide for a


reward system to improve the efficiency of capable workman, delegate

authority, and invite participation of employees in decision-

making. Availability of necessary and adequate resources and

communicating necessary information to the employees also help

leader secure effectiveness of group efforts.

LEADERSHIP STYLES:

Leadership styles are the pattern of behaviour, which leaders adopt in

influencing the behaviour of his followers (subordinates in the organizational

context.). Various researchers have proposed different leadership style. These


styles are either base on behavioral approach or situational approach of

leadership. Some of the important theories or models prescribing leadership

styles are given below:

POWER ORIENTATION

Power orientation approach of leadership styles is based on the degree of

authority, which a leader uses in influencing the behaviour of his

subordinates. Based on the degree of use of power, there are three

leadership styles:

1. Autocratic leadership

2. Democratic leadership

3. Free-rein leadership

Autocratic leadership:

Autocratic leadership is also known as authoritarian, directive, or monotheist

style. In autocratic leadership style, a manager centralizes decision-making

power in him. He structures the complete situation for his employees and they

do what they are told. Here the leadership may be negative because followers

are uninformed, insecure and afraid of the leader’s authority there are three

categories of autocratic leaders.

1. Strict autocrat. He follows autocratic style in a very strict sense. His


method of influencing subordinates’ behaviour is through negative

motivation that is, by cruising the subordinates, imposing penalty, etc.

2. Benevolent autocrat. He also centralizes decision-making power in him,


but his motivation style is positive. He can be effective in getting efficiency in

many situations. Some people like to work under strong authority structure and
they derive satisfaction by this leadership.

3. Incompetent autocrat. Sometime, superior adopt autocratic leadership


style just to hide their incompetence, because in other style they may be

exposed before their subordinates. However, this cannot be used for a long
time.
The main advantages of autocratic techniques are as follows:

 Many subordinates in the organization prefer to work under centralized

authority structure and strict decupling. They get satisfaction from this
style.

 It provides strong motivation and rewards to a manager exercising this


style.
 It permits very quick decision as most of the decision is taken by a single
person.

 Less competent subordinates also have scope to work in the organization

under his leadership style as they do negligible planning, organizing, and

decision-making.

There are many disadvantages of autocratic leadership, which are as follows:

People in the organization dislike it specially when it is strict and the

motivational style is negative.

 Employees like motivation. Frustration, low morale, and conflict develop

in the organization jeopardizing the organizational efficiency.

 There is more dependence and less individuality in the organization. As

such future leaders in the organization do not develop.


 Considering the organizational efficiency and employee’s satisfaction,

autocratic style generally is not suitable.

Democratic leadership:

Participation is defined as mental and emotional involvement of a person in


group situation, which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share

responsibility in them. The participation may be either real or pseudo. In the

case of formal, a superior gives credit to subordinates’ suggestion and ideas in

taking the decision while in the case of latter, the superior preaches

participation in theory, but really he does not prefer it in practise. There are

various benefits in real participative management. These are as follows:

 It is a highly motivating technique to employees as they feel elevated

when their ideas and suggestion are given weighs in decision-making.

 The employees’ productivity is high because they are party to the

decision. Thus, they implement the decision whole-heartedly.

 They share the responsibility with the superior and try to safeguard him

also. As someone has remarked, ‘the follow in the boat with you never

bores a hole in it’ is quite applicable in this case too.

 It provides organizational stability by raising morale and attitudes

of employees high and favorable. Further, leaders are alsoprepared to take

organizational position.

The common method adopted is democratic supervision,

committees, suggestions, programmes, and multiple management. However,

this style is not free from certain limitations, which are as follows:

1. Complex nature of organization requires a thorough understanding of its

problems which lower level employeesmay not be able to do. As such,

participation does not remain meaningful.

2. Some people in the organization want minimum interaction with their

superiors of associates. For them, participation technique is discouraging

instead of encouraging.
3. Participation can be used covertly to manipulate employees. Thus, some

employees may prefer the open tyranny of an autocrat as compared to


A king can do no wrong Let’s decide together Speak no evil
See no evil
Hear no evil

AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP PARTICIPATIVE LAISSEZ-FAIRE


LEADERSHIP

covert tyranny of a group.

There are three related types of participative leader: consultative, consensual,

and democratic.
1. Consultative leadership: consultative leaders solicits opinions from group
before making a decision, yet they do not feel obliged to accept the

groups’ thinking; these leader make it clear that they alone have final

authority to make final decisions.

2. Consensual leadership: consensual leaders encourage group discussion on


an issue and then make a decision that reflects the general agreement

(consensus) of group members. Consensual leaders delegate more authority to

the group then do the consultative leaders. This style leads to considerable

delay in decision making because every member has to give his consent.
3. Democratic leadership: democratic leaders confer final authority on the
group. They function as collectors of opinion and take a vote before making

a decision. Democratic leader delegate’s full authority to subordinates. This

style is more relevant for communities’ activities then for work settings.

Free-rein leadership:

Free rein or laissez faire technique means giving complete freedom to

subordinate. In the style, manager once determines policy, programs, and

limitations for action and the entire process is left to subordinates. A group

member performs everything and the manager usually maintains context with

outside persons to bring the information and the materials, which the group

needs.
The type of style is suitable to certain situations where

the manager can leave a choice to his group. This helps the subordinates to

develop independent personality. Hence, this style is used very rarely in

business organization. Nonetheless, laissez faire style is found suitable in the

following situations when:

 Leader is able to fully delegate the powers of decision making to his


subordinates.

 Subordinates are also well competent and knowledgeable.

 Organizational goals and objectives are well communicated to the


employees.
Autocratic Free rein
(Boss centered leadership) (Subordinate centered leadership)
or

Use of authority by
the manager

Area of freedom
for subordinates

Leader makes Leader presents Leader presents Leader permits


decision and ideas and invites problems, get subordinates to
announces it. questions. suggestion, and function within limits
make decision. defined by superior

A leader sells Leader presents tentative Leader defines limits,


decisions decisions subjects to asks group to make
change. decision.

CONTINUUM OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR

THE MANAGERIAL GRID

One of the most widely known approaches of leadership styles is the

managerial grid developed by ‘BLAKE & MOUTION’. They emphasise that

leadership style consists of factors of both the task-oriented and relation-

oriented behaviour in varying degrees. Their ‘ concerned for’ for phrase has

been used to convey how manager are concerned for people or production

rather than ‘how much production getting out of group. Concern for

production means the attitudes of superiors towards a variety of things,

such as quality of policy decision, procedures and process, creativeness,


quality of staff services, work efficiency, and volume of output. A brief

description of these five leadership styles follows:

The impoverished manager (1.1) this manager has low concern for both

production and people. He exerts the minimum efforts to get essential work

done, while maintaining organizational membership. This style of

management is similar to the laissez faire style as discussed earlier.

The country-club manager (1.9) this manager has high concern for people

but low concern f production. Good feelings towards followers are the

hallmarks of such manager.

The authority obedience manager (9.1) this manager has more concern for

production but low concern for people. Production maximization is the

hallmark of such manager. This style is similar to the autocratic style of

leadership.

The team manager (9.9) this manager has high concern for both production

and people.

The organization manager (5.5) this manager has moderate levels of

concern for both production and people. Such manager goes along to get

along, conforming to and maintaining the status quo.


1,9 9,9
Country club Team
management Management

5,5
organizational
man
management

1,1 9,1
Impoverished Authority-
Management obedience
Management

7
Concern 6
with
people 5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Concern for production

Each Style points out the relative contents of

concern for production or people and implies that the most desirable
leader’s behaviour is 9.9(maximum concern for production and people).

Infact, BLAKE MOUTON have developed training program that attempt to

change managers toward 9,9 management style. Managerial grid is very

much similar to production-people orientation style as given by OHIO STATE

UNIVERSITY. However, there is one basic difference between the two in

managerial grid ‘concern for’ is a predisposition about something or an

attitudinal model that measure the predisposition of a manager, while Ohio

state framework tends to be a behavioral model that examines how leader’s

actions are perceived by other.

What makes a leadership effective?

Although, deciding what makes leadership effective seems as if it

should be a simple decision, the theories and research reviewed earlier

illustrate the complexity of the issue. In practice, people are always

impressed by something extraordinary and great and are prepared to follow

it if it really touches their heart

Mental and physical health: A healthy mind rests in a healthy. A

Leader needs to have sound health both mental and physical to be able

to bear the pulls and pressures of his role as leader. He must also possess

stamina and balanced temperament.

Knowledge and intelligence: one most important requirement

Of a leader is to have required knowledge of human behaviour,

psychology, and professional competence. In order to evince his

convincing competency, the leader also must update him continuously


and keep renewing him.

Clear-cut and worthy goals: Actions without clear-cut directions

Leads nowhere. That is why there is very little achievement in spite of a

lot of movement in life. Hence, a leader needs to be very clear in mind

about what to achieve, how to achieve and then reinforce it by a strong

will power and conviction.

Conviction: Swami Vivekanand said “great convictions are the

Mother of great deeds.” It is always man and woman with convictions

who influence other. There are millions with opinions but very few with

conviction. Leader must have courage of conviction to impress upon his

subordinates.

Sense of responsibility: a leader also must have sense of

Responsibility for the task assigned to him. In words, a leader must

discharge his responsibility thrusted upon him willingly and cheerfully.

This enjoins upon us to put our heart and soul into the work, with single-

minded dedication and devotion. This ensures our success in performing

the particular task.

Motivation: effective motivation comes from within not from

Outside. Strictly speaking, real motivation cannot be imposed or

injected from outside. In order to inculcate motivation from within the

subordinate, a leader needs to have capacity to appreciate others and

look at things from his subordinates’ angle.

Initiative and drive: as electric energy locked up in the


powerhouse is of no use unless it is flown through the cables and

manifested itself through the median of various gadgets so as to be

beneficial so, in case of leader also. Passive goodness of leader is never

helpful unless it is action orientated and result producing.

Besides, some writers have identified

a number of other factors that influence leadership effectiveness. The

important ones are:


1. The leaders own personality, past experience and expectation.

2. The expectations and behaviour of his superior.

3. The subordinates’ characteristics, expectations, and


behaviour.

4. The requirement of tasks to be performed by subordinates.

5. Expectations and behaviour of fellow manager/peers.

6. Organizational culture/climate and politics.

IMPOTANCE OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership is the process of committing a group of people to

specific goals. Without leadership, an organization would be what the

sage ‘Valmiki’ wrote in the ‘Ramayana’:

“Like a heart of cattle without a keeper

Like an army without a general

Like a night without moon

Like group of cows without a bull

Such would be the country

Where the king is not seen”


The leadership process is similar in effect to that of the

secret chemicals that turns the insect pupa into a butterfly with all the

beauty that was the pupa’s potential. Leadership, then, transforms

potentials into reality.


Leadership is not the mere using of people and their

potential for realizing an organization’s goals. It has the ultimate aim of

raising the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both the

leader and the led. High-sounding words indeed! In reality, effect

of leadership on organizational effectiveness seems to be relative

because of the following possibilities:

 Poorly performing organizations find it difficult to attract best


leaders.

 Not all leaders have the same abilities and experience.

 Environmental an organizational factors can override any effects


the leader may have.
 Organizations continue to flourish even after the change of
leadership.

The importance of good leadership can be discussed as follows:

1. Motivating employees: Higher the motivation better would be


performance. A good leader, by exercising his leadership, motivates the

employees for high performance. Good leadership in the organization itself

in a motivating factor for the individuals.

2. Creating confidence: a good leader may create confidence in his


followers by directing them, giving them advise, getting through them

good result in the organization. Once an individual with the help of a

leader puts high efficiency, he tries to maintain it as he acquires certain


level of confidence towards his capacity.

3. Building morale: morale is expressed as attitude of employees


towards organization, management, and voluntary cooperation to

offer their ability to the organization. Through providing good leadership in

the organization, employees’ morale can be raised high ensuring high

productivity and stability in the organization.

Thus, good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial

functions whether it be motivation, communication. Good leadership

ensures success in the organization, and unsatisfactory human performance

in any organization can be primarily attributed to poor leadership.


PRIYANKA UPADHYAY

CLASS = B. B. A.II SEMESTER

Teerthanker mahaveer institute of management