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ECE 405: Digital Data

Laboratory Report 01

Felipe Meneguitti Dias

September 2, 2015

1 Objective

2 Introduction

3 Experiment

4 Audio example

5 Questions


Analyze the addition of two signals related to phase difference and gain difference.

Figure 1: Signal sum block diagram


For the experiment we used the TIMS, a telecommunications modeling system,

The AUDIO OSCILLATOR is responsible for generating the signal. The
PHASE SHIFTER applies a phase difference between the input and output.
The ADDER sums the signals.


The experiment was conducted in this way:

1) Connect the AUDIO OSCILLATOR output to the frequency counter of
the TIMS panel;
2) Setting the frequency to approximately 1kHz;
3) Connect the AUDIO OSCILLATOR output to the external trigger of the
3) Connect the AUDIO OSCILLATOR output to the PHASE SHIFTER
4) Connect the PHASE SHIFTER output to one of the inputs of the ADDER;
5) Connect the AUDIO OSCILLATOR output to the other ADDER input;
6) Connect the ADDER output to the OSCILLOSCOPE;
After doing these steps, we set the signal gains to be equal. By performing
a phase shift we can see the signal vary from 0 to 2*GAIN in the oscilloscope.

Figure 2: Experiment diagram

Figure 3: Vector sum

Audio example

We realized that the system can cancel the input if an appropriate phase shift
is applied. We tested this result using an audio signal.
At first, we connected an audio signal to the HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER
and heard the sound. We used the LPF in an attempt to cancel the noise, but
it didnt work (the sound heard changed a little bit).
Then we used our cancellation system, and the noise heard was clearly
decreased, but it wasnt canceled completely. This is because the system itself
adds noise to the signal, so the noise cant be canceled perfectly.

Figure 4: Null signal

Figure 5: Signal twice bigger

Figure 6: Experiment Configuration


Q1) Refer to the phasor diagram of Figure 3. If the amplitudes of the phasors
V1 and V2 were within 1% of each other, and the angle 1 within 180 , how
would you describe the depth of null ? How would you describe the depth of
null you achieved in the experiment? You must be able to express the result
A1: Considering V1 = 1V, V2 = 0.99V, 1 = 0 and 2 = 179 X1 = (1cos0)
X2 = (0.99cos179)
x + (0.99sin179)
Y = x1 + x2 = (1cos0 + 0.99cos179)
x + (0.99sin179)
Y = (1 + -0.989)
x + (0.0173)
Y = (0.011)
x + (0.0173)
In the experiment, the null was so close to zero that we were unable to evaluate it.
Q2) Why was not the noise nulled at the same time as the 1 kHz test signal?
A2: The noise has many different frequency components. The PHASE SHIFTER
applies a different phase shift to different frequencies, so there isnt going to be
a noise cancellation.
Q3) Describe a method (based on this experiment) which could be used to estimate the harmonic distortion in the output of an oscillator.
A3: We could analyze the spectrum of the system after the cancellation (output of the ADDER), and compare it with the pure signal generated.
Q4) Suppose you have set up the system of Figure 2, and the output has been
successfully minimized. What might happen to this minimum if the frequency

of the AUDIO OSCILLATOR was changed (say by 10%). Explain.

A4: Because the PHASE SHIFTER applies different phase shift to different
frequencies, if w1 = 1.1w2 , the cancellation would not remain.
Q5) Figure 1 shows an INVERTING AMPLIFIER, but Figure 2 has a PHASE
SHIFTER in its place. Could you have used a BUFFER AMPLIFIER (which
inverts the polarity) instead of the PHASE SHIFTER ? Explain.
A5: We could have used a BUFFER AMPLIFIER instead of a PHASE SHIFTER
if x1 and x2 had the same initial phase (y = Acos(wt + ) Acos(wt + ) = 0).
However, any small initial phase difference would compromise the cancellation,
so an inverting amplifier could work, but it wouldnt be as effective as the