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SOLUTION

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION (Made Simple; and Realistic).


In making HYDROGEN PRODUCTION a Cost Effective, Space
Maximizing, and Power Optimizing Reality, incapable of Polluting the
Earths Ecosystem, in the SHORT and LONG Term, it is necessary that any
and every SOLUTION or ‘IDEA’ Proffered–as capable of Performing such
a ‘HUGE’ Task, be based on Principles that are:-
1. Simple to Understand,
2. Age Old,
3. Common Place/Familiar,
4. Well KNOWN to be FEASIBLE,
5. Easy to Implement,
6. INEXPENSIVE to work with: And Lastly,
7. Frequently Applied in our World TODAY.
These REMARKS can of a fact be used to describe Principles such as:-
(i). The Application of SOLAR Panels and or Alkaline Batteries for
Generating or Supplying the Direct Current (DC) Electric Power they are
built to supply [in this case–Electrolytic Cells are to be Powered].
(ii). Electrolysis [in this case- the Electrolysis of Acidified Water].
(iii). The Dehydrating Property of Concentrated Tetra-oxo-sulphate (VI)
Acid [in this case- it is to Dehydrate the humid air it is exposed to].
(iv). The Application of the Formula (–Knowledge) of the Resistivity of
Electric Power conveying Conductors at various Temperatures in
computing the Cross Sectional Diameter of an electrical Conductor [in
this case- Copper is the choice Conductor, and Room Temperature is the
Preferred Value with which computations are made in the Quantitative
Analysis of a simulated Application of Principle (ii), and in a simulated
Application of Principle (iv)].

*In The SOLUTION Proffered here, these Principles are applied in a manner
or order that satisfactorily explains how very much realistic the whole
‘IDEA’ is, and it as well shows how very much capable it is of making
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION so much more than easy to realize as a cost
effective, power optimizing, and space maximizing reality, practically
incapable of polluting the earth’s ecosystem.*
**The Manner or Order in which these Principles are applied is briefly
treated in the last paragraph of Page 5. **
Pages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 all contain (Theoretically Simulated) exemplary
Quantitative Applications of Principles (ii) and (iv), as well as Realistic
projections based on Principles (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) given in Page 1.
Quantitative Analysis of Electrolysis [of Dilute Tetraoxosulphate(VI)
Acid]:-
The theoretical volume of a gaseous element liberated during electrolysis
is calculated using the formula given below:
V (th) = R x I x T x t
Fxpxz
Where R = 8.314 Joule/Mole. Kelvin [J/mol.kelvin///J/mol.k]
I = Current in Amperes/Amps/A
T = Temperature in Kelvin/K/k [273+Celsius Temperature]
t = Time in Seconds/s
F = Faraday’s Constant [96,485 Coulombs/mol///C/mol]
p = Ambient Pressure ~ about 1 x 100,000 Pascals
1 Pascal = 1 Joule/Cubic Meter [J/m3]
z = number of ‘excess’ electrons [which = 2 for Hydrogen (H2)]
So at ambient temperature and pressure in the period of a minute or 60
seconds(s), while applying a steady current value of 8 Amperes(A) to
electrolyze Dilute (Dil.) Tetraoxosulphate(VI) Acid (H2SO4), the theoretical
volume of H2 molecules that will be liberated at the cathode of the
Electrolytic Cell [E-Cell] can be computed as shown below:
I = 8A; t = 60s; T = [273+27°C] 300k; with Coulombs/C = A x s [I x t];
V (th) of H2 = 8.314 x 8 x 300 x 60
96,485 x 100,000 x 2
V (th) of H2 = 1,197,216 (m3)
19,297, 000
[J/mol.k x A x k x s ]; J, mol, k, A and s all cancel out, leaving the m3 unit.
[C (A x s)/ mol x J/m3]
V (th) of H2 = 0.000062040866m3 liberated per minute. As for Oxygen (O2)
which has the value of 4 for z –‘excess’ electrons, the V (th) that will be
liberated within the same duration is computed to be 0.000031020433m3.
In Liters, the V (th) of H2 liberated and collected into an appropriate gas
storage tank will be 0.06204 Liters, and for O2, half the volume of H2 will be
liberated and collected, which is 0.03102Liters; totaling about 0.09306Liters
of ‘Water [H2O]’ liberated and collected during a minute period of
electrolyzing Dil. H2SO4, this volume though, is actually liberated and
collected as gaseous molecules of the two elements which constitute Water,
i.e. H2 and O2.
The E-Cell:-
A well fabricated E-Cell having overall outer dimensions as given below
in centimeters (cm) to be 7cm thick, 9cm long, and 16.8cm high, can be used
to conduct the electrolysis of approximately 0.44891Liters of Dilute (Dil.)
H2SO4 for a period of 4 minutes, after which 0.07667Liters of Concentrated
(Conc.) H2SO4 would be left in the electrolyte compartment of the E-Cell;
from here it is let out through the Remnant Outlet (R.Oute.) into the Water
and Acid Mixing ‘Trough’ (WAMT) positioned to receive (Humid-) air, and
or purified water. At the WAMT, the 0.07667Liters of Conc. H2SO4 either
dehydrates the humid air it is exposed to, or gets mixed with purified water,
and this action causes the Conc. H2SO4 to become dilute within the period it
stays in the WAMT, being not a moment more once the initial volume of the
Acid (being 0.44891Liters of Dil. H2SO4) used to begin each electrolysis
session is reached or equaled by the volume of the Dil. H2SO4 realized by
dehydrating (humid-) air or by purified water and acid reaction with the
0.07667Liters Conc. H2SO4 remnant of the each electrolysis session. The
electrolyte compartment in each E-Cell is 5.8cm thick, 7.6cm long and
10.5cm high (as per inner dimensions), and then after a space of 0.6cm on
the height axis, there is the R.Oute., right underneath the electrolyte
compartment, which is 5.8cm thick, 7.6cm long and 1.8cm high (as per inner
dimensions). Atop the electrolyte compartment are the pipes for collecting
and conducting the liberated gases, as well as the pipes meant to convey the
Dil. H2SO4 (realized either by air dehydration or by mixing purified water
with the Conc. Acid at the WAMT) into the electrolyte compartment. These
pipes take up the topmost part of the E-Cell, being about 3.4cm in the
16.8cm height axis of the overall outer dimension.
After each first 4 minutes electrolysis session is a 6 minutes E-Cells Rest
period. Both periods can be repeated one after the other, for as many times
as is required or desired, beginning with the electrolysis session.

*Full Details of the dimensions and modus operandi of the E-Cell are given
with the diagrams of the E-Cell.*
Realistic Projections:-
Having these Calculations and their answers, as well as these Dimensions
in mind, one can accurately project that with 924 E-Cells (occupying
approximately 1.2 m3 to 1.3m3 of space), 57.32496Liters of H2 can be
produced in a minute, meaning in 4 minutes 229.29984Liters of H2 can also
be produced with the 924 E-Cells.
Applying 12 Watts of electrical power to each E-Cell means one would be
applying 11,088 Watts [W] (or in kilowatts that would approximately be
about 11.1 kilowatts [kw]) to all 924 E-Cells in 4 minutes during which the
electrolysis of Dil. H2SO4 is being carried out for the purpose of producing
229.29984Liters of H2, which is sufficient for a Fuel Cell to generate 50 to
90kw of electrical power for approximately 20 minutes to be realistic,
considering the following facts:-
1, Fuel Cells require 10 Liters of H2 per minute on the average to generate
the electrical power output they are designed to deliver.
2, It is about a 10% percentage difference between the Theoretical Volume
of hydrogen produced at an assumed 100% efficient performance, and the
real volume collected, which makes this whole process about 90% Efficient,
and being that 90% of 229.22984Liters of H2 = 206.369856Liters of H2, the
projection that in 4 minutes about 200Liters of H2 will be produced and used
up by a Fuel Cell for 20minutes based on Fact #1 is correct.
If for 4 minutes- electrolysis of Dil. H2SO4 in 924 E-Cells is conducted,
before a 6 minutes period of rest, repeatedly, for~6 times, which is an hour,
precisely 1,238.219136Liters of H2 will be produced applying 12W to each
E-Cell, 924 in all, in a time sum of 24 minutes within an hour. In a day/24
hours ~29,717.259264Liters of H2 will be produced in a Time sum of 576
minutes/ 9.6 hours within a day/24hours or 1,440 minutes. This amount of
H2 produced could fuel a 50 to 90kw electric power generating Fuel Cell for
2,971 minutes/49 hours/two Days and an hour. One can further project with
the above information that using 92,400 E-Cells to produce H2, about
2,971,725Liters of H2 will be produced in a day, and this could fuel a 50 to
90kw electrical power output Fuel Cell for 297,172 minutes/4,952 hours/206
days/ half a year and 23 days; and in two days H2 sufficient to generate
enough power for 412 days/a year and 47 days can be produced within a
100ft long, 50ft wide, 18ft high H2 producing complex.*These Projections
seem pretty ‘unbelievable’, and far fetched, yet far better than realistic,
seeing they are but a mere financial effort away from becoming tangible
Reality, if compared to the Benefits HUMANITY Stands to gain from The
SOLUTION by having such H2 Producing complexes set up around the
WORLD instead of fossil fuel filling stations! Just IMAGINE!!!...*
*Each E-Cell is accompanied by a 12W DC electric power source [being
a Rechargeable (Alkaline) Battery] and a 3m long wire, which is 1.5m to
1.475m from each terminal of the Battery to the corresponding electrode of
the E-Cell. Since 12W is being supplied to each E-Cell, being applied in
such a way that a Voltage (V) of about 1.5 Volts (1.5V), alongside a Current
(I) value of 8 Amperes (8A) is what gets to each E-Cell, the conductor being
used would then have a computed Resistance (R) of 0.1875 Ohms (Ω).
(Where R =V/I), and knowing the Temperature Coefficient (TC) of R of
Copper (Cu) at 0 degrees Celsius (0°C) to be 1/234.5, one can easily
compute the Resistivity (Re) of Cu at Room Temperature (27 degrees
Celsius/27°C) to be 0.00000001784221748 Ωm , by using the Formula :-
Re of Cu at 27°C = Re of Cu at 0°C (1+ TC of R of Cu at 0°C x 27°C),
where Re of Cu at 0°C = 0.0000016 Ωm: With R, and Re of Cu at 27°C
known, using the Formulas given below, one can conveniently compute the
Cross sectional Diameter of the Cu wire to be used.
R/Re of Cu at 27°C = L/A; where A = (22/7 x D x D)/4; Where L, A, and D
are used to represent the Length, Cross Sectional Area, and the Cross
Sectional Diameter of the Cu wire respectively. Desiring the Cu wire to be
3m in Length (L), and imputing the already known values of R, Re of Cu at
27°C and L into the appropriate Formula, the value of A can straight way be
computed to be 0.00000028547547968 m2. Knowing A, D can therefore be
computed by imputing the computed value of A into the appropriate
Formula, and in doing so D is computed to be approximately
0.0006028912213929m or 0.6028912213929millimeters(mm).
*During the Day the Solar Panels Supply Power to the*Accumulators,
and *Electrical*Machines,*Appliances, and or*Devices ‘needed’ at the*H2
*Production*Site. The*Rechargeable Batteries Supply Power to the*E-Cells
during *Every*4 minutes long*electrolysis session to liberate and collect H2
into a*tank; right after each 4 minutes electrolysis session is a*6 minutes
long*E-Cells Rest period, being when the batteries automatically*disconnect
from all the E-Cells,*connect*serially with*themselves and to a*select set
of*Solar Panels[within the many Solar Panels] required to supply 100W
(10A, 10V) to 225W (15A, 15V) of Power to the batteries*while charging
them; the *Conc. Acid*Remnant is*let out of*each*E-Cell VIA the*R.Oute.
In this same 6 minutes E-Cells Rest period, the Conc. Acid Remnant arrives
at the*WAMT where it becomes *Dil. H2SO4; it is then pumped from the
WAMT or one of the Dil. Acid Reservoirs (DAR) into the many E-Cells:
then both sessions are repeated over and over again in the order explained
above. The *Accumulators handle the*tasks assigned to the *Solar Panels
when there is little or no sunlight, especially at Night.*
The preferable places to set up such H2 production complexes are humid
areas, especially over and or near water bodies, even as oil rigs are over
oceans, and this could also be over rivers. In a day from a single Location,
tagged -a DEGARSON [using clean, inexhaustible, and renewable
resources–sunlight, ocean winds, and rechargeable batteries–for electric
power, and Dil. H2SO4, humid air, and purified ocean, river or ground water
–as the recycled chemical compounds and mixtures] about
33,473,510,400Liters of H2 will be produced, with 11,264 of such complexes
in a DEGARSON- which is a 1,200feet (ft) long, 1,200ft wide, and 1,200ft
high structure, suspended 500ft above the water body level. Being mostly set
up over water bodies, they will not take up much space on land. The H2 will
then be distributed by sea vessels and or in trucks with tanks, just like petrol.
Projecting further, about 669,470,208,000,000Liters of H2 can be
produced per day with 20,000 of such Locations, and 244,356,625,920
million Liters of H2 per year, which is 7.603814 x 2,867 (21,800) million
tons of H2 per year, from which about 50 million tons of H2 can sufficiently
serve 100 million to 90kw Fuel Cell Electric Power Generators (one to 18
houses), delivering 9 trillion Watts per day-a year-constantly to 1.8 trillion
houses, for 9 billion people; 5 Persons to a house. From that volume of H2
produced per year, 77 million tons of H2 can serve Fuel Cells to be used-for
Large Scale Mechanized Plant, Land, and Aquatic Farming for Food
production, -for industries for processing Food, making Cloth and Clothes,
-for Building industries, and for every kind of communication machine,
device and or appliance, even serving the H2 demand of Fuel Cells used in
industries set up for the purpose of sourcing for- and refining raw materials,
as well as for industries that use raw and refined materials to manufacture
useful things, and various kinds of machines, devices and or appliances,
(especially electrically powered ones) e.g. vehicles, computers, phones, fans,
buckets, pipes, shoes etc. From that same amount of H2 about 2,700 million
tons of H2 can be used to meet the H2 demand of 5.7 billion Fuel Cell
vehicles if they were to be driven 24hours everyday, for a year; and 40
million tons of H2 from 2,867million tons of H2 projected for use per year,
which can more than serve the estimated yearly demand of 20 million tons
of H2 of which 50% is used in making ammonia from the Haber process, and
the other 50% used in producing margarines, and in welding.
The H2 produced per year from these 20,000 DEGARSON’S would then
well serve our H2 needs for 7 years and a half. For more H2, some more
DEGARSON’S will also be built on land and or underground near water
bodies or in humid areas or wherever accessible ground water is found, from
where it will be pumped out for use in these DEGARSON’S.
Check
Cross checking the computations made in Page 2 with the prevalent method
of computing for the weight and volume of a substance deposited at an
electrode during the electrolysis of an electrolyte.
[All the Formulas applied for this purpose in this Page are most suitable]
Weight of substance deposited at an electrode (W) = {(Current in Amps
[I]) x (Time in seconds[t]) x (GEW of substance deposited)}/96,500.
W = I x t x GEW/96,500. Where GEW = Gram Eq. Weight of a substance
GEW = molecular weight of substance/its number of valence electrons
The values being substituted for I, and t here, are the same as their values in
Page 2.
Computing W for H2; GEW of H2 = 2/2 = 1g/eq
W = 8 x 60 x 1/96,500 = 0.004974093264g
In computing the Volume of H2 produced in a minute at Standard
Temperature and Pressure (S.T.P.), W must be converted to moles (which is
symbolized by n [n = number of moles contained in a specified weight of a
substance]).
With 2g = 1mole, 0.004974093264g = (n =) 0.002487046632moles
Using the Ideal gas equation – P x V = n x R x T.
Being that R = 0.0821[1 atmosphere (atm)/mol.k], T (Temperature) = 273k,
V (Volume) = n x R x T/P, and P (Pressure) = 1atm
V = 0.002487046632 x 0.0821 x 273/1 = 0.055742922Liters.
At 27c [Room Temperature = 300k] V = V at S.T.P. x 300/273.
So V at 300k = 0.061255958Liters which is approximately the same with the
value of V (th) of H2 computed in the first page.
Using the same formula applied for computing the V of H2, with the
GEW of O2 being 8g/eq, and the W of O2 at S.T.P. computed to be
0.019899466g, the Volume of O2 liberated at 300k (room Temperature)
would be computed to be 0.030632738Liters, being that n for O2 =
0.001243716625moles, and V of O2 at S.T.P. = 0.027875793Liters.
The computed Values of V for H2 and O2 are as the ratio in which they are
combined in water (i.e. 2: 1 for H2, and O2 respectively).
The H2 produced in the electrolysis of Dil. H2SO4, can become
contaminated by impurities given off at the cathode; it could also mix with
O2 that diffuses through the electrolyte from the anode.
In cases where particularly pure H2 is needed, pure H2 can be collected by
passing the H2 produced over a reagent that helps to absorb the impurities
given off at the cathode, and then over an oxygen absorbing reagent. This H2
purification process would be no different from what is already in use today
in large scale H2 production by electrolysis.

Conclusion:-
The SOLUTION Proffered here will be most helpful to Every Nations
Government, and Economy; it would even be more helpful to the entire
populace of Each Nation –World wide: this being so in that it is greatly
reliable to aid HUMANITY:-
I. Generate Sufficient H2 fuel for Fuel Cells designed to generate
sufficient Electric Power to meet HER (i.e. HUMANITY)
ENERGY needs.
II. Source for- and Refine RAW Materials into Useable Materials, as
well as Manufacture Useful Machines, Devices and Appliances
with the RAW- and or Refined- Materials VIA:-
(a) Sufficiently Powered Industries set up for the purpose of
Sourcing for- and Refining- RAW Materials.
(b) Sufficiently Powered Industries set up for the purpose of
Manufacturing Useful Machines, Devices and Appliances with
RAW- and or Refined- Materials.
III. Mass Produce, Process, and Prepare FOOD –VIA:-
(a) Practicing LARGE Scale MECHANIZED Plant, Land and
Aquatic Livestock Farming.
(b) Sufficiently Powered FOOD Processing Industries, as well as
Sufficiently Powered FOOD Preparing Machines, Appliances
and or Devices.
IV. Meet HER NEEDS for SHELTER and CLOTHING –VIA:-
(a) Sufficiently Powered Industries set up for the purpose of
acquiring and Manufacturing Materials used in constructing
various kinds of Buildings.
(b) Sufficiently Powered Machines made for the purpose of using
acquired and manufactured Building Materials to Construct
Buildings that serve Residential, Recreational, and Official
Purposes, as well as other purposes not mentioned here.
(c) Sufficiently Powered Cloth Manufacturing and Clothes Making
Industries.
V. Meet HER WANTS for Mobility/TRANSPORTATION,
COMMUNICATION, and Entertainment, VIA Various
(Sufficiently Powered) Machines and Devices Manufactured to
Meet such WANTS.
This SOLUTION is formidably set to reduce the Cost of Living in the
WORLD Today, and in the WORLD of Tomorrow. The SOLUTION will
reduce the Cost of Living to the point where it will be highly inexpensive or
Very, VERY CHEAP or even Virtually free that it would Actually Cost
NOTHING at all to meet everyone’s BASIC or Primary Physiological
NEEDS for NUTRITION, ACCOMODATION, FASHION, And
TRANSPORTATION, as well as meet everyone’s WANTS or
SECONDARY Psychological NEEDS for COMMUNICATION And
Entertainment: This being so due to the realization that The SOLUTION
would clearly meet the WORLD’S NEEDS for ENERGY GENERATION
And DISTRIBUTION without doing Damage or Causing Harm to the
EARTH’S ECOSYSTEM, and as such this assures us that Everyone ALIVE,
and Yet to Be BORN can and would live in UTOPIAN Economic, and
physiological Conditions compared to Life Today.
This would ONLY be so, should EVERYONE come to appreciate such
GRAND an ‘IDEA’ called The SOLUTION, by contributing Appreciable
Efforts (according to their capacity) which would make The SOLUTION a
Tangible REALITY – GLOBALLY Appreciated for Everyone’s Benefit,
Starting with the Originator of The SOLUTION, and Those who like
yourself, and myself are privileged to have, share, and synergize our efforts
to execute This Same said SOLUTION.
*All this will obviously result in investments, and job creations, which
will reduce to negligible or nothing, the high unemployment statistics in our
World –Today.*

Note: With The SOLUTION proffered here, H2, Fuel Cells and their
Accessories, as well as the Machines and Devices which they are Designed
to Power can now all be simultaneously Produced, and Sold even as Fuel
Cell Maintenance Services are also provided, all at highly affordable prices.
Those who are set to gain the most from the implementation of The
SOLUTION are those who are presently major decision makers as concerns
Hydrogen Economy: They are the various Corporations, Individuals,
Governments, and Industries that have already invested a great deal in
funding numerous and various researches primarily concerned with the
growth and development of Fuel Cell technology and World Hydrogen
Economy, all in the search for environmentally non-harmful ways to
efficiently generate sufficient Electric Power for Our WORLD.
As the years go by with the present rate of Scientific, and Technological
development, more efficient and far better ways of clean energy generation
will be discovered, and developed for use.

NAME(S): DEGARSON O. OGHENEKEVWE


PROFESSION: HUMANE ‘TECHNOLOGIST’; SEX: MALE
MARITAL STATUS: SINGLE; DATE OF BIRTH: 11th of AUGUST, 1981
PLACE OF BIRTH: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL,
OREDO Local Government Area, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ORIGIN: SAPELE
STATE OF ORIGIN: DELTA; NATIONALITY: NIGERIAN
E-Mail Address: k202d2000@yahoo.com
COLOR OF EYES: Brown; RELIGION OR FAITH: CHRISTIAN
HEIGHT: 1.78 Meters [5 Feet, 10.25 Inches]

This WORK is empirically intended to prove how feasible it is for all of


HUMANITY to have all her physiological needs met, without her being
inhumane in any way, without her polluting the Earth’s Ecological System,
and without her carrying out hostile and unprofitable political revolutions,
but by her simple wise act of benefiting herself and generations to come by
replicating this H2 Production Technology in every nation around the World;
being that after all, no one would be disadvantaged in any way in doing this,
which as is satisfactorily explained here, would be really, very easy for the
concerned and financially capable private individuals, Non-Governmental
Organizations, Banks, Corporations, and Industries in the World, and this
would be true even if they were few, and it had to take much time to realize
it for the entirety of HUMANITY.
Being reliable as capable of doing that which it is intended to do,
HUMANITY will simply have to execute This WORK in every nation
around the World, as she must also exercise patience to see the benefits that
This WORK holds for her become REALITY, knowing that whatever it
takes her, none can term it ‘a Sacrifice’, because in the end the UTOPIAN
Economic, and physiological Conditions that she will continually bask in
would be far beyond incomparable to the depressive and pitiful state of the
World Today.
In that ‘not so far again’ UTOPIAN Economic and physiological
Conditions that HUMANITY can now confidently hope to live in, there will
be no need for youth restiveness, and inhumanity of any kind and degree,
rather, Even NOW and THEN, and ‘Beyond FOREVER’ HUMANITY can
and will make COMPASSION towards everyone the enjoyable, and non-
forced, non-violent Rule and Attitude of the Day. …LET’S DO THIS!!!