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TLIM107A Develop

safe driving habits


in others
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 3  
Planning your learning ........................................................... 4  

Section 1............................................................................................. 5  
Human Perception and Decision Making ............................... 5  

Section 2........................................................................................... 18  
Commentary Aids................................................................. 18  

Section 3........................................................................................... 36  
Low Risk Driving Commentary............................................. 36  

Section 3........................................................................................... 50  
On Road Sub-Models........................................................... 50  
TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  learning  guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  apply  high-­‐
level  safe  driving  skills  to  enable  drivers  to  apply  safe  driving  behaviours.  This  
includes  higher  order  skills,  such  as  hazard  perception,  risk  control  and  safe  
driving  judgment,  decision  making  and  multi-­‐tasking.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLIM107A  Develop  safe  driving  
behaviours  in  others  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  below.  
Deliver  training  on  safe  driving  principles  
Demonstrate  low-­‐risk  driving  strategies  to  clients  
Demonstrate  applicable  safe  driving  rules  and  regulations  to  clients  
Monitor  and  maintain  safe  driving  behaviours  of  clients  
Assess  clients  on  their  safe  driving  competence  
Review  assessment  of  clients’  safe  driving  competence  

This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  Training  Package  
(TLI07).  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  already  
have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  Learner’s  
Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
1. you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  and/or  
2. you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  following  
pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  the  questions  in  
the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  this  Learner’s  Guide  you  
need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  This  
means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  show  you  
things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  questions  you  have.  Also  
you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  
enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  a  job  
in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  work  
experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  workplace.    

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Section 1

Human Perception and Decision


Making

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Human  perception  and  decision  making  is  very  subjective  and  hard  to  
measure.  

Motivations  and  attitudes  play  a  major  role  in  how  people  perceive  what  is  
happening  around  them  and  how  they  behave.    Everyone  interprets  
information  differently  and  this  is  why  interpretations  are  subjective  when  
evaluating  the  cause  of  event,  the  degree  of  control  we  feel  we  have  over  a  
situation  and  knowledge  gained  by  past  experiences.    

People  tend  to  draw  conclusions  based  on  previous  experience.  

Drivers  must  be  trained  to  perceive  potential  danger,  by  learning  to  perceive  
hazard  causing  events  that  they  may  not  have  experienced  before.  

Perception  consists  of  the  mental  processing  of  information  by  the  senses.    
The  mind  observes  and  processes  making  an  interpretation  relevant  to  visual  
patterns  (templates  or  schemers)  which  results  in  the  recognition  and  
identification  of  potential  hazards.  

These  visual  patterns  are  strongly  influenced  by  what  we  tend  to  expect  to  
see.    For  example,  as  we  drive  down  the  road  things  that  interest  us  grab  our  
attention  like  a  particular  model  or  colour  of  car  we  may  like  or  want  to  buy.      

Perception  is  also  influenced  by  other  senses  beside  vision  such  as  hearing,  
balance  and  muscle  senses.    These  factors  play  a  large  part  in  detecting  
problems  in  special  hazardous  situations  and  high-­‐performance  driving,  but  
less  so  than  vision  in  routine  driving,  especially  for  novices.    

Perception limitations

The  driver  is  able  to  observe  and  perceive  only  a  small  fraction  of  the  
information  available  in  the  environment.    This  limitation  plays  a  major  role  in  
hazard  selection  and  how  the  mind  then  starts  to  priorities  and  effect  
recognition  of  different  closing  rates  of  approaching  vehicles  and  pedestrians.  

Motivation

Emotions,  drives  and  appetites  are  internal  forces  imposing  individual  to  
solicit  gratification  of  individual  requirements.  It  is  this  motivation  which  
influences  behaviour  and  direct  choices.    

While  motivation  comes  from  within,  it  may  be  closely  associated  with  
external  factors  such  as  individual  incentives  and  disincentives  (eg.,  Wilde,  
1994a)  as  well  as  more  internal  motivators  such  as  personal  norms  (Parker  et  
al.,  1992)  or  “active  caring”  (Geller,  1991).    

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

In  terms  of  how  motivation  relates  to  driving,  motivations  tend  to  influence  
what  the  driver  chooses  to  do,  as  opposed  to  what  they  are  able  to  do.    

Skills and experience

If  you  have  never  been  taught  correct  driving  skills  from  the  initial  stages,  
experience  you  gain  over  a  period  of  time  may  not  be  of  benefit  to  you.  Good  
driving  doesn’t  come  naturally  and  it  is  reliant  on  good  tuition  and  guided  
experience  over  a  period  of  time.    In  many  occasions,  novice  drivers  are  
extremely  lucky  to  survive  as  they  build  experience  both  good  and  bad  in  an  
experiential  way,  relying  heavily  on  trial  and  error  which  can  have  major  
consequences  in  hazardous  situations.  

To  decrease  risk  to  the  novice  driver,  experience  should  be  assisted  by  
encouraging  the  novice  driver  to  provide  a  sound  “margin  for  error",  while  
enhancing  skill  level.    It  is  useful  (wise)  to  encourage  the  novice  driver  to  
strive  to  master  more  difficult  driving  tasks  such  as  those  required  on  an  
extended  trip,  night  driving,  negotiating  different  terrain  and  conditions.    

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Information processing

Novice  driver  v's  the  experienced  driver  

Taken  from  Drummond,  'A  Review  and  Discussion  of  Issues  Related  to  
Training.'  
Skill  Perception   Novice  driver   Experienced  driver  
   Perceives  non-­‐moving    Generally  interprets  moving  
hazards  being  more   hazards  as  being  more  
dangerous   dangerous  
 Analyses  each  feature    Perceives  recurrent  general  
separately  and  independently,   patterns,  eg.  perceives  a  
therefore  cannot  process  as   pattern  as  a  single  chunk  
much  information   therefore  does  not  have  to  
search  and  integrate  as  much  
Integration    Has  difficulty  in  integrating    
diverse  information  into  
overall  assessment  of  
hazardous  situations.  
Attention    Fails  to  switch  attention    Develops  effective  and  
  flexible  priortising    
 Poor  in  attending  to  relevant    Strategies  therefore  can  
aspects  of  the  driving   switch  attention  rapidly  
environment   between  sub-­‐tasks  
Judgement    Has  difficulty  in  judging  gap    
clearance  and  closure  speeds  
Reaction  times    Slow  for  complex  traffic    Fast  for  complex  traffic  
situations   situations  
Search    Looks  near  the  vehicle.      Looks  further  away  from  the  
Monitors  only  obviously   vehicle  
dangerous  situations   Monitors  potentially  
 Monitors  vehicle  controls  and   dangerous  situations    
uses  mirrors  frequently    Monitors  vehicle  controls  
infrequently  and  uses  mirrors  
 Turns  head  while  changing  
less  frequently  
lanes.  

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 
Skill   Novice  driver   Experienced  driver  
Car  control    Braking  and  acceleration    Smoother  braking  and  
often  abrupt.   acceleration  
 Slow  recovery  after    Fast  recovery  after  avoidance  
avoidance  manoeuvres   manoeuvres  
Speed    Average  speed  increases    Slows  for  potentially  
during  the  first  year  of   dangerous  situations.  
driving.  
 Fails  to  slow  for  potentially  
dangerous  situations.  
 Shows  a  conscious  
preference  for  speed  over  
safety.  
Confidence    More  likely  to  rate  himself  or    Less  likely  to  rate  himself  or  
herself  as  a  better-­‐than-­‐ herself  as  a  better-­‐than-­‐
average  driver.   average  driver.  
 May  overestimate  the  crash  
risk  in  low  to  medium  risk  
situations  but  underestimate  
risk  of  less  frequent  high  risk  
situations.  
Risks    Seat  belt  used  less  frequently.    
 Drives  closer  to  the  vehicle  in  
front.  
 Underestimates  risks.  
Characteristics  of    Lack  of  thought  about    
deviant   potential  implications.  
behaviour    Feelings  of  repression.  
 Rebelliousness  and  
selfishness.  
  Low  self-­‐esteem  and  regard  
for  civic  responsibility  

Decisions

Decision-­‐making  is  never  ending  in  driving,  as  the  driver  estimates  the  risks  
and  then  determines  a  suitable  course  of  action.    It  is  important  to  establish  
with  the  novice  driver  that  they  form  part  of  the  traffic  scene  and  that  they  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

must  make  choices  and  decisions  that  maximise  the  safety  of  others  and  
themselves  and  these  choices  are  made  continuously.    

It  is  important  as  a  trainer,  that  you  monitor  whether  the  novice  driver,  on  
approach  to  hazards,  covers  the  brake  pedal  then  slows  down  and  stops  if  
necessary  to  help  their  decision  method.    Early  position  selection  and  covering  
the  brake  pedal  on  approach  to  hazards,  is  a  practical  way  of  assessing  if  the  
novice  driver  has  made  a  decision  to  avoid  potential  danger.  

How the brain thinks

In  the  conscious  mind,  the  human  brain  thinks  of  approximately  7  to  10  things  
at  once.  

In  the  subconscious  mind,  the  human  brain  thinks  of  approximately  100  things  
at  once.    Things  that  we  are  subconsciously  competent  at,  are  breathing,  
blinking  and  other  thinks  we  do  without  thinking  consciously.  

How speed effects vision

The  eyes  normally  send  40  complete  new  pictures  per  second  to  the  brain,  
yet,  we  only  observe  7  of  these  pictures.    This  alters  due  to  the  speed  we  are  
travelling  at.  
 Observation  is  best  when  stationary  (100%).  
 At  70  km/h,  visual  acuity  deteriorates  to  about  50%  of  stationary  awareness.  
 At  100%  km/h,  visual  acuity  deteriorates  to  about  25%  of  stationary  
awareness.  

Mental habits
Attention  of  the  mind    

Training  should  develop  the  novice  driver  to  automatically  become  


‘unconsciously  competent’  at  physical  and  mental  driving  skills.  

The  advantages  of  this  automation  are  that  it  reduces  stress  and  intense  or  
prolonged  concentration,  as  well  as  allows  the  driver  to  perform  multiple  
tasks  simultaneously  without  being  out  of  their  comfort  zone.    This  allows  the  
novice  driver  to  focus  on  and  place  hazards  in  order  of  priority.    

When  new  performances  levels  have  to  be  achieved,  conscious  focus  is  
swapped  to  the  new  task.    An  example  of  this  is,  if  a  person  competently  
drives  an  automatic  vehicle  and  decides  to  learn  how  to  drive  a  manual  
vehicle,  the  normal  subconsciously  competent  observation  skills  and  decision-­‐
making  skills  become  impaired.    Instead,  the  driver  is  driving  within  the  

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

conscious  realm  within  the  vehicle  learning  to  use  the  clutch  and  change  
gears.    This  is  why  you  must  provide  a  physically  and  emotionally  safe  
environment  (comfort  zone)  that  will  take  the  pressure  away  from  the  driver  
until  they  become  unconsciously  competent.      

Sometimes  it  is  important  to  segregate  physical  and  mental  skills  during  this  
learning  phase,  making  sure  that  the  novice  driver  has  developed  many  
vehicle  control  skills  in  the  subconscious  competence  before  introducing  
enhanced  decision  making  skills  associated  with  processing  from  scanning,  
risk  management  and  calculating  crash  avoidance  space.  

It  is  important  that  you  focus  the  learner  driver's  attention  on  the  required  
performance,  assisting  the  learner  driver,  when  required,  with  tasks  that  are  
not  automatic.    It  is  important  to  intervene  if  the  learner  driver  is  not  capable  
of  performing  a  task  landing  outside  their  comfort  zone.  

As  a  training  strategy,  the  learner  driver  should  be  shown  how  to  rationally  
and  practically  select  and  filter  information  so  as  they  can  switch  their  
conscious  attention  in  plenty  of  time,  to  deal  with  new  events  or  problems  
that  require  a  complex  decision.    The  key  factor  here  is  the  need  to  select  a  
speed  at  which  the  novice  driver  can  make  new  decisions  consciously  without  
being  under  pressure.    This  relates  to  hazard  density,  where  the  more  
potential  hazards  need  to  be  observed  and  decisions  made  and  therefore  the  
slower  the  speed  the  novice  driver  must  drive  in  order  to  compensate.  

Low-­‐risk  driving  (developing  an  in-­‐built  alarm).  

Usually  low-­‐risk  drivers  can  talk  with  passengers  whilst  driving  competently,  
having  no  trouble  in  being  aware  when  to  stop  talking  and  concentrate  on  the  
task  at  hand.    People  with  sound  experience  have  an  in-­‐built  ‘alarm’  which  
alerts  them  to  a  potential  hazard  whenever  they  are  in  a  new  situation  or  
whenever  they  consider  that  their  response  time  could  be  jeopardising  safety.    

Low-­‐risk  drivers  aim  to  commence  forecasting  events  a  minimum  of  5  seconds  
before  they  occur  which  maximise  their  observation  and  decision  making  
time.    If  their  following  distance  is  not  sufficient  to  allow  them  to  forecast  
potential  hazard  events,  then  they  adjust  speed  and  position  in  order  to  
achieve  this.  

Utilising  this  training  strategy,  the  instructor  trains  the  learner  driver  to  
calculate  the  "5  second"  distance  at  varying  speeds,  which  shows  how  
distance  increases  with  speed  and  why  it  is  important  to  alternate  thinking  
between  short,  middle  and  long  range  observation.      

This  may  be  done  from  the  passenger  side  so  as  the  novice  driver  is  under  no  
pressure  or  needs  to  think  about  other  factors  in  driving  as  the  driver  trainer  
demonstrates  and  the  novice  driver  verbalises  technique.  

Optimism  bias    

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Psychologists  who  study  the  relationship  between  thinking  styles  and  


behaviour  have  discovered  that  people  who  think  optimistically  behave  
differently  to  those  who  think  pessimistically.    People  who  are  optimistic  tend  
to  be  more  positive  in  the  way  they  think,  believing  that  they  are  more  in  
control  of  their  lives.    In  turn,  they  believe  that  more  positive  outcomes  will  
occur  than  negative  outcomes  for  them  in  comparison  to  their  peers.  

Normally,  when  optimistic  people  experience  negative  events  they  tend  to  
brush  them  aside,  not  as  failure,  but  more  as  a  temporary  setback,  most  likely  
caused  by  bad  luck  or  unfortunate  circumstances.      

Typically,  optimistic  people  do  not  take  things  personally  if  they  fail,  instead,  
they  tend  to  view  the  failure  as  just  one  incident  and  had  nothing  to  do  with  
their  overall  ability.    Optimistic  people  do  not  tend  to  spend  a  lot  of  time  on  
reflection  after  failure  because  they  still  feel  that  in  the  future  they  will  still  be  
able  to  avoid  any  future  negative  events.  

Psychologists  argue  that,  as  a  result  of  their  thinking  habits,  optimists  are  
happier  than  pessimists  and  tend  to  make  much  better  progress  towards  
achieving  their  goals.    They  have  a  strong  sense  of  control  and  disregard  for  
failure.  The  negative  side  to  this  is  they  tend  to  take  more  risks  and  in  turn  this  
factor  on  the  road  can  cause  horrific  outcomes.      

Optimistic  people  have  an  exaggerated  sense  of  control,  believing  nothing  
unfortunate  will  happen  to  them.  The  other  person  going  through  a  stop  sign  
illegally  may  be  in  danger  but  if  they  did,  because  they  have  better  reflexes  
and  skills  will  be  able  to  avoid  the  crash.    For  this  reason  they  do  not  believe  
that  they  need  to  be  as  cautious  as  those  negative  thinking  unskilled  drivers  
with  conservative  views  and  driving  habits.  

Unrealistic  optimism  and  driving  

There  are  links  between  unrealistic  optimism  and  risk  taking  in  driving.  
Unrealistic  optimism  is  common  in  most  drivers.    The  research  of  many  road  
safety  experts,  often  conclude  with  findings  that  many  average  drivers  
consider  themselves  to  be  of  above  average  and  less  likely  to  be  involved  in  a  
crash  than  their  peers.  

Source:  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

Following  are  examples  of  thought  processes  that  may  fuel  this  perception  
They  provide  a  guide  to  the  teaching  approach  needed  to  align  the  drivers'  
thinking  more  accurately:  
 'I  learnt  to  drive  in  only  eight  lessons  and  passed  my  test  the  first  time.'  
 'I  have  good  reflexes  and  so  l  am  more  likely  to  avoid  a  crash.'  
 'I'm  told  driving  is  dangerous  but  I  haven't  crashed.'  

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 'I've  driven  in  some  pretty  tough  conditions  and  managed  to  control  the  
car  OK.'  
 'I  see  information  which  says  crashes  are  common  but  I  haven't  crashed.'  
 'I've  driven  thousands  of  kilometres  and  made  very  few  serious  mistakes.'  
 'I  see  other  drivers  making  mistakes  all  the  time.'  
 'I  can  guess  which  people  are  most  likely  to  crash  by  the  stupid  things  they  
do.'  
 'I  must  be  less  likely  to  crash  and  if  I  do  crash  it's  move  bad  luck  than  bad  
management.'  

It  is  important  that  part  of  your  driver  training  strategy  addresses  problems  
associated  with  promoting  optimism  bias  views  in  the  learner  driver.    It  is  also  
important  that  when  training  licensed  drivers  who  display  a  optimistic  view  
that  you  show  their  limitations  both  in  vehicle  control  and  those  relating  to  
perception  and  risk  taking.    Your  training  strategy  must  include  the  
recognition  of  failure  and  the  importance  of  learning  to  reflect  on  this  failure  
to  minimise  risk  in  the  future  from  other  drivers  and  their  own  behaviour.  

Attribution  theory  

Source:-­‐  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

When  people  explain  what  they  think  caused  an  event,  their  description  is  
based  on  what  may  be  called  their  worldview.    A  worldview  is  constructed  
over  time,  in  response  to  answers  given  to  a  series  of  questions:  'Why  did  that  
happen?'  or  'What  caused  that?'    Such  a  process  starts  very  early  in  life  and  
continues  whenever  something  new  or  unexpected  is  experienced.  This  world  
view  may  lead  people  to  see  themselves  as  having  caused  either  all  or  part  of  
an  event,  or  it  may  lead  them  to  see  the  cause  as  being  outside  their  control.  

Causal  attribution  theory  is  a  psychological  theory  that  argues  that  people  
who  attribute  the  cause  of  an  event  to  factors  outside  their  control  will  
behave  differently  to  those  who  take  all  or  some  responsibility  for  the  cause  
of  those  events.    Taking  responsibility  for  the  cause  of  an  event  is  called  
internalising.    For  situations  that  have  an  undesired  outcome,  internalising  
could  be  described  as  having  a  'my  mistake  view.  Attributing  cause  to  other  
factors,  such  as  other  people  or  just  bad  luck',  is  called  externalising.  

The  attribution  theory  suggests  that  people  with  a  'my  mistake'  worldview  
will  be  more  cautious  in  risky  situations.    To  avoid  causing  problems,  they  
anticipate  problematic  events.  When  they  make  mistakes,  they  recognise  the  
part  they  play  and  look  for  ways  to  avoid  repeating  the  mistake.  

People  who  internalise  are  more  likely  to  give  themselves  useful  feedback  on  
their  performance  than  people  who  externalise.  However,  internalising  in  
itself  will  not  guarantee  improved  performance.    Knowledge  is  necessary,  

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both  of  the  specific  cause  and  of  what  may  lead  to  the  solution,  otherwise  the  
''why?'  questions  may  be  answered  incorrectly.    Hence,  with  the  appropriate  
knowledge  and  skill  and  internal  worldview,  explanations  may  be  explored  
and  improvements  made.    With  an  external  view,  knowledge  is  largely  used  
only  to  provide  excuses.  

Causal  attribution  and  driving  

Source:  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

The  causal  attribution  theory  presents  itself  as  a  powerful  tool  for  improving  
driver  skill  and,  more  importantly,  driving  behaviour.    Learning  experiences  
should  aim  at  producing,  in  students,  a  world  view  that:-­‐  
 Recognises  failure  when  it  occurs  and  situations  that  could  have  resulted  
in  failure;  
 Asks  challenging  and  appropriate  Why?'  questions;  
 Seeks  explanations  that  point  to  internal  factors;  
 Provides  achievable  solutions.  

It  is  important  that  the  novice  or  licence  driver  take  ownership  of  all  events  
and  internalises  their  world  view  as  part  of  this  ownership.  

As  a  trainer  how  you  comment  on  potential  danger  can  have  an  effect  on  
whether  the  driver  internalises  or  externalise  the  problem.      

'Look  out  for  bad  drivers'  can  develop  an  external  view.  

Recognise  where  the  other  driver  can  make  mistakes  and  crash  with  you,  can  
develop  an  internal  view.  The  novice  driver  must  learn  to  recognise  other  
drivers  mistakes  to  be  able  to  internalise.  

Recognise optional responses

Drivers  should  learn  to  describe  optional  courses  of  action  and  how  much  
time  they  have  to  take  this  action  in  response  to  potential  hazards.    They  
should  also  be  able  to  evaluate  which  response  is  more  appropriate,  
discussing  the  reasons  based  on  hazard  priortisation.    It  is  important  for  them  
to  discuss  the  problems  with  inaction.  

Risk  acceptance  

The  driver  should  be  able  to  justify  the  factors  which  shape  their  own  personal  
level  of  risk  acceptance,  discussing  what  level  of  risk  they  judge  decision  
making  by.  

Retry/abort  

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If  the  drivers  first  choice  is  not  appropriate,  then  they  must  be  able  to  quickly  
reassess  potential  danger  and  re-­‐alter  course  appropriate  to  prevent  danger  
of  collision.    

Motor  skills  

The  drivers  must  have  competent  psychomotor  skills  in  order  to  properly  
execute  the  intended  action  whilst  the  vehicle  is  under  total  control.    They  
should  be  able  to  verbalise  their  decision  based  on  what  could  effect  vehicle  
control.  

Novice  drivers  risk  acceptance      

Jonah  (1986)  provides  a  good  summary  of  research  on  the  positive  and  
negative  value  (or  “disutility”)  of  risk  for  young  drivers.  He  summarises  
suggested  positive  utilities  such  as:  outlet  for  stress,  impressing  others,  
increasing  stimulation  or  arousal,  taking  control  and  acting  independently,  
opposing  adult  authority,  frustration,  fear  of  failure  at  school,  and  peer  
acceptance.  

Based  on  Finnish  data,  Summala  suggests  that  it  takes  about  50,000  
kilometres  (30,000  miles)  of  driving  “before  a  young  driver  has  satisfied  his  
strongest  extra  motives  and  learnt  to  use  the  car  rationally  or  as  rationally  as  
the  older  experienced  driver:    

The value of safety

A  competent  driver  who  values  safety,  bases  this  safety  on  motivations  that  
encompasses  the  following:  
 They  highly  value  life,  both  their  own  and  others  as  well  as  property  in  our  
society.  
 They  understand  and  apply  the  road  rules  to  minimise  confusion  by  their  
own  behaviour  with  others  on  the  road.  
 They  understand  what  a  risk  is  and  how  to  priorities  and  protect  
themselves  on  the  approach  to  them.  
 Is  aware  of  the  potential  consequences  of  accidents.  

How to promote safe driving behaviour

The  behaviour  of  drivers  is  seldom  governed  by  altruistic  motives  (ie.  unselfish  
regard  for  others).  Training  should  prepare  drivers  with  an  attitude  to  
preserve  their  own  safety.  

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Human  behaviour  is  generally  motivated  more  powerfully  by  self-­‐


preservation.  Therefore,  you  should  aim  to  make  reduced  risk-­‐driving  
strategies  a  personal  motivation  for  survival  (defensive  driving).  

The  world  view  attitudes  to  road  sense  

Attitude    

Attitude  determines  how  knowledge  and  skills  will  be  used.  It  determines  
whether  a  driver  will  be  cooperative  or  competitive  in  traffic,  whether  he  or  
she  will  accept  a  high  level  of  risk  or  put  into  practice  the  concepts  taught  in  
defensive  driving  courses.    

As  a  practice  your  biggest  contribution  to  your  child's  safety  and  effectiveness  
behind  the  wheel  will  be  from  your  example.  Patience,  courtesy  and  a  
willingness  to  improve  will  be  your  greatest  assets.    

The  safety  effects  of  good  driving  skills  appear  to  be  offset  by  overconfidence  
and  increased  exposure  to  risk.    Well  trained  novice  drivers  become  licensed  
sooner  and  drive  more,  in  part  because  of  their  own  increased  confidence,  but  
also  because  their  parents  often  give  them  more  freedom  to  drive.  

Hazard perception, risk evaluation, and risk


acceptance

What  drivers  are  able  to  do  and  what  they  choose  to  do  are  two  different  
things.  Knowledge  of  how  to  control  a  car  is  not  as  critical  to  safety  as  
individual  motivation.    Strong  motivation  makes  up  for  weak  skills  more  so  
than  strong  skills  make  up  for  weak  motivation.  Without  strong  motivation  to  
reduce  risk,  advanced  driving  skills  can  lead  to  more  crashes,  not  fewer.  

Risk  acceptance  is  not  the  same  thing  as  crash  acceptance.  Few  drivers  will  
take  a  risk  if  they  know  it  will  result  in  a  crash.  Instead,  risky  choices  result  
from  poor  risk  perception  and  the  inability  to  detect  hazards  often  coupled  
with  overconfidence.  Good  risk  detection,  good  risk  evaluation  and  strong  
motivation  may  support  each  other.  However,  if  driver  education  is  to  
produce  safer  drivers  it  must  reinforce  the  individual  and  community  factors  
that  positively  influence  personal  motivation  and  social  responsibility.  

Attention    

Attention  is  meant  to  include  alertness,  arousal,  and  vigilance  that  are  
essentially  'internal'  predispositions  in  respond  to  the  environment.  Attention  
drives  the  searching,  scanning,  and  noticing  that  the  driver  does.  It  is  assumed  
that  attention  is  both  automatic  and  controllable  by  deliberate  action  of  the  
driver,  and  that  the  quality  of  this  control  can  improve  through  experience.  
Critical  factors  in  control  of  attention  are  dividing  it  over  the  many  driving  

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tasks  and  switching  the  allocation  of  attention.  Attention  must  be  distributed  
among  different  areas  (eg.,  ahead  v's.  behind)  and  different  categories  of  
objects  or  information  (eg.,  objects  in  the  road  v's.  instruments)    

It  is  possible  to  be  'paying  attention'  and  still  miss  important  information  in  
the  environment  because  of  scanning  or  other  detection  or  perception  
failures.  Our  model  assumes  that  attention  is  necessary  but  not  sufficient  for  
the  detection  of  visual  targets  and  other  information  input.    

Alertness

Recognise  effects  of  impaired  states  on  alertness  

Alertness  is  fundamental  to  attention  and  novices  should  understand  the  
range  of  possible  levels  of  alertness  and  be  able  to  identify  the  internal  states  
and  external  factors  that  can  effect  it.  They  should  be  able  to  assess  and  
recognise  symptoms  of  fatigue,  preoccupation,  and  substance  effects.  

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Section 2

Commentary Aids

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Driving when visibility is poor


 Keep  a  safe  distance  between  yourself  and  the  vehicle  in  front.      
 Do  not  stop  unless  you  have  to.    
 If  you  have  to,  stop  then  pull  off  the  road  to  the  left  side  and  switch  on  
your  hazard  warning  lights  or  your  left  indicator  to  warn  others.  
 Put  your  headlights  on  low  beam.    
 High  beam  will  not  help  you  to  see  further  because  the  light  will  reflect  
back  and  may  dazzle  you.    
 In  foggy  conditions  use  fog  lights.  

Managing  space  and  time  

The  driver  must  have  space  to  manoeuvre  and  time  to  react.    

The  3-­‐  second  rule  

Choose  a  fixed  point  on  the  roadway  ahead  and  count  three  seconds.  The  
distance  travelled  is  the  distance  you  are  required  to  maintain  when  following  
another  vehicle.  
 One  thousand  and  one,  one  thousand  and  two,  one  thousand  and  three.  
 You  must  not  let  anything  come  into  your  following  distance.  If  this  
happens  reduce  speed  to  compensate.  
 If  the  following  vehicle  does  not  keep  three  seconds  behind  you,  then  you  
add  the  desired  distance  to  your  own  following  distance.  

The  4  second  stopping  rule  

This  is  an  approximate  guide  to  enable  the  trainee  to  understand  how  much  
distance  is  needed  to  safely  stop  the  vehicle  on  the  approach  to  hazards  and  
when  they  should  cover  their  brake.  
 4  seconds  is  the  minimum  distance  required  on  the  approach  to  a  hazard  
and  also  relevant  to  how  closely  any  following  vehicle  may  be.    The  closer  
the  following  vehicle  is  on  the  approach  to  a  hazard,  the  greater  the  
braking  distance  required.    There  also  maybe  a  need  to  increase  to  a  6  
second  braking  distance  on  the  approach  to  a  hazard.  Similarly,  increasing  
the  braking  distance  maybe  necessary  when  travelling  downhill  as  apposed  
to  decreasing  the  braking  distance  uphill.  

The  12  second  visual  lead  time  

Within  12  seconds  of  forward  movement,  the  driver  should  scan  the  scene,  
including  the  paths  and  make  adjustments  to  speed  and  position  as  necessary.    
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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 Give  a  commentary  of  hazards  that  collide  with  you  or  you  may  collide  with  
over  the  distance  you  would  cover  in  12  seconds.  
 Once  you  have  identified  the  hazards,  you  must  prioritise  them  in  order  of  
impact  zones  

The  smith  system  

The  Smith  System  is  one  of  the  most  widely  used  methods  for  improving  
defensive  driving.  It  provides  five  rules  for  training  the  eyes  to  see  what  is  
important  in  driving.  In  commentary  you  must  use  'the  Smith  system'  relevant  
to  its  purpose,  explaining  how  it  applies  to  the  task.    
 Aim  high  (looking  as  far  as  you  can  up  the  road  to  improve  long  range  
planning).  
 Keep  your  eyes  moving  (don’t  fix  your  eyes  on  any  one  thing)  
 Analyse  the  big  picture  (describe  all  the  road  scene)  
 Leave  yourself  an  'out'  (have  you  got  an  escape  route).  
 Make  sure  others  see  you  (are  there  any  factors  which  could  prevent  
others  from  seeing  you).  

Professional driver trainer

Stay  alert  

A  professional  driver  trainer  anticipate  problems  and  always  be  ready  to  react  
because  some  drivers  may  give  the  impression  of  being  confident  and  in  
control  but  be  totally  unprepared  to  deal  with  any  sudden  change  in  
conditions.  Most  novice  drivers  are  reliant  on  the  driver  trainer  for  guidance  
and  assistance.    

Communicate  clearly  

Directions  should  be  given  well  in  advance  and  expressed  in  similar  terms.    It  is  
important  that  driver  trainers  are  not  misinterpreted  as  a  dangerous  situation  
may  result.    

Teach  small  manageable  chunks  

A  right  turn  involves  several  steps  such  as  checking  mirrors,  signalling,  
checking  blind  spots,  braking,  vehicle  positioning,  checking  for  traffic  before  
the  turn,  steering,  and  recovery.  To  expect  a  beginner  to  follow  all  of  these  
steps  correctly  during  the  early  sessions  is  asking  too  much  and  they  would  be  
working  out  of  their  comfort  zone.    Learning  to  drive  depends  on  having  a  
strong  foundation,  followed  by  adding  small  building  blocks  which  can  be  
easily  understood  and  preformed  so  as  confidence  is  built  and  sound  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

techniques  developed  throughout  the  process.    It  is  important  not  to  take  the  
novice  driver  to  main  roads  too  early  with  out  the  foundation  and  confidence.    

Cool,  calm  and  collective  during  practice  sessions.    

If  the  drive  trainer  acts  in  a  relaxed  manner  and  in  control  of  the  session,  it  
creates  a  sound  support  base  to  enable  the  novice  driver  to  go  on  to  more  
complex  tasks  without  feeling  unsupported.    

Information  overload:    

A  driver  trainer  is  continually  reminding  the  learner  to  check  traffic,  to  signal  
and  to  bring  attention  to  potential  hazards.    It  is  important  to  focus  on  core  
information.  Comments  should  be  few  and  assist  a  learner  driver  in  avoiding  
situations  that  are  hard  to  handle,  which  may  develop  learning  barriers  and  
which  may  be  detrimental  to  confidence.  

Review  on  the  roadside:    

After  making  a  mistake  the  learner  may  not  understand  what  you  what  
accurately  went  wrong.    Stop  as  soon  as  possible  while  the  mistake  is  still  
fresh  in  the  driver's  memory  and  discuss  the  problem.    It  is  important  that  
minor  mistake  be  tolerated  so  that  confidence  and  concentration  is  not  
impaired,  also  when  stopping  at  the  side  of  the  road  too  address  these  issues,  
minimise  the  time  as  much  as  possible.  

Planning escape route

Peripheral  vision  used  for  observing  vehicle  weave.    

Position  detection  and  speed  selection  should  be  observed  by  the  use  of  
peripheral  vision,  freeing  up  central  vision  for  hazard  response.  

Display  'inner  sense'  consciousness  for  initial  loss  of  control    


 Vehicle  movement  through  sliding  and  or  unusual  changes  in  road  surfaces  
should  be  identified  both  visually  and  auditory.    

Risk assessment

Safe  gap  acceptance    

Estimate  and  verify  'time  to  impact'      (closing  rate)  


1. Oncoming  vehicles  under  various  conditions  
2. Vehicles  from  either  side  at  intersections  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

3. Following  vehicles  
4. Overtaking  
Estimate  and  verify  'time  to  completion'  of    
manoeuvres  in  various  conditions.  
1. Right  turn.  
2. Left  and  right  turns  at  intersections.  
3. Overtaking  (completion).  

High-­‐risk  collision  evaluation    

Novice  drivers  need  to  be  aware  of  the  high-­‐risk  category  they  are  in  and  be  
aware  of  these  circumstances  on  the  road.  The  ability  to  priorities  the  context,  
situation  and  action  gathered  from  crash  statistics  should  be  used  to  enhance  
decision-­‐making.  

Individualising  risk  assessment    

Novice  drivers  need  to  know  how  overconfidence  develops.  Being  aware  of  
their  individual  limitations,  particularly  in  the  evaluation  of  risk,  is  different  
from  driver  to  driver,  so  a  sound  knowledge  of  ones  own  capabilities  is  
required.    

Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  identify  the  personal  causes  and  effects  of  
underestimating  hazards  and  overestimating  their  own  abilities.  

Others  road  users'  expectations  and  perspective's    

Differing  points  of  view    

To  predict  the  likely  actions  of  others,  drivers  have  to  consider  what  can  be  
seen  from  their  position,  and  what  they  are  trying  to  do.  Many  decisions  
depend  on  whether  the  chosen  behaviour  will  cause  conflicts  by  violating  the  
expectations  of  other  drivers,  pedestrians,  and  cyclists.  They  should  fully  
appreciate  what  others  expect  from  them.  

Causal  attribution/optimism  bias    

Situational  contributions  to  driver  error    

Novice  drivers  should  understand  causal  attribution  and  show  insight  into  
negative  emotional  effects  resulting  from  bias.  They  should  recognise  the  
effects  of  distractions,  emotions  and  conditions  effecting  their  own  driving  
which  causes  error  and  be  aware  that  others  might  perform  the  same  errors  
going  through  a  stop  sign  at  high  speed,  without  even  considering  the  
potential  outcomes,  is  a  prime  example.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 The  commentary  should  focus  on  the  mistakes  of  other  drivers,  bring  these  
mistakes  to  the  attention  of  the  novice  driver  so  that  they  may  be  aware  of  
and  hopefully  learn  to  protect  themselves  in  the  process.  

Option  matching  commentary  

Recognition  of  optional  responses    

The  novice  driver  should  be  able  to  demonstrate  the  ability  to  choose  optional  
courses  of  action  and  timing  in  response  to  hazard  identification,  relevant  to  
their  experience  and  ability.    

The  commentary  

The  novice  driver  should  be  able  to  describe  two  possible  course  options  and  
the  potential  problem  associated  with  each,  as  well  as  determines  which  is  the  
most  appropriate  course.  

Response  selection    

Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  discuss  whether  they  have  approached  and  
exited  the  hazard  appropriately.    
 The  novice  driver  should  be  able  to  verbalise  the  positives  and  negatives  of  
their  actions.  

Risk  acceptance    

Justify  level  of  risk    

Novice  drivers  should  recognise  factors  that  influence  their  own  and  others  
risk  acceptance.    

Motor skills

Acceleration  

Vehicle  handling  skills  can  be  influenced  by  a  driver's  postural  and  positioning  
choice  in  the  vehicle.  Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  adopt  an  effective  foot  
position  for  throttle  control.  They  should  be  aware  of  the  benefits  of  smooth  
acceleration  and  steady  cruising  speeds.    

Deceleration    

Novice  drivers  should  be  aware  of  the  benefits  of  early  and  gradual  
deceleration  with  regards  of  the  expectations  of  following  drivers.  They  
should  be  able  to  accentuate  steady  light  braking  and  display  smooth  stops.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

The  novice  driver  should  not  brake  too  late  or  heavily  causing  the  following  
vehicle  to  brake  in  the  same  manner.  

Braking  within  a  time  frame  

Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  use  the  brake  with  different  and  appropriate  
levels  of  deliberate  brake  pedal  impact,  stopping  at  a  desired  point.    

Optimal  braking    

An  appropriate  seating  position  is  important  for  application  of  heavy  brake  
pressure.  The  novice  driver  should  be  able  to  preform  threshold  braking  and  
understand  the  logic  for  its  use.  They  should  understand  how  to  squeeze  the  
brake  pedal  without  banging  it  and  if  break  lock  up  occurs,  know  how  to  
remove  enough  brake  pressure  to  encourage  wheel  rotation  without  picking  
up  momentum  again.    If  the  vehicle  is  fitted  with  ABS  then  they  should  be  able  
to  squeeze  the  brake  to  the  appropriate  pressure  and  allow  the  computer  to  
preform  its  task  to  keep  braking  potential  at  the  threshold  point  of  traction.  

Once  the  driver  can  preform  threshold  and  manual  ABS  braking  then  they  
should  be  able  to  demonstrate  their  ability  to  brake  and  steer  around  an  
object.  

Steering    

Novice  drivers  should  develop  consistent  seating  and  hand  position  styles  that  
allow  for  quick  and  precise  steering  control.  They  should  be  able  to  
demonstrate  smooth  steering  responses  without  under  or  oversteering  and  
have  the  ability  to  turn  a  corner  using  either  pull  push  or  hand  over  hand  
steering  and  straighten  up  using  pull  push  steering  only.    

Display  steady  lane  tracking    

Novice  drivers  should  recognise  the  best  lane  positions  relative  to  their  
situation  and  be  able  to  hold  a  steady  line  with  minimal  deviation.    

Error  correction    

Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  define  the  "point  of  no  return"  in  a  skid  and  
relate  reasons  for  lock  up  as  a  last  resort  when  correction  attempts  have  
failed.    

Demonstrate  evasion  skills    

Novice  drivers  should  recognise  error  correction  situations  which  require  


emergency  evasion  manoeuvres.  They  should  understand  the  principles  of  
and  be  able  to  demonstrate,  wheels-­‐off-­‐road,  bitumen  to  gravel  and  back  
recovery,  head-­‐on  collision  avoidance  and  rear  end  collision  avoidance.    

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Safety  margin    

Choosing  a  safety  margin  involves  managing  the  time  and  space  available  for  
detection,  perception,  evaluation,  decision,  and  response.  Safety  margin  is  
controlled  primarily  through  choice  of  driving  speed  and  placement  of  the  
vehicle.    

Speed  choice    

Model  speed  choice  that  provides  safety  margins    

Novice  drivers  must  commit  to  proper  and  moderate  speed  choice,  relevant  
to  hazard  density.  To  do  this  they  have  to  recognise  the  effects  of  excessive  
travelling  speeds  on  error  correction  time  (their  own  and  others'  errors),  
which  can  be  critical  even  when  the  travelling  speed  seems  acceptable.    

Separation    

Safe  headways    

To  commit  to  proper  following  distance  in  all  conditions,  including  speed  
novice  drivers  must  be  able  to  identify  when  they  are  too  close  to  the  vehicle  
ahead  and  readjust  their  own  following  distance  accordingly  while  giving  
consideration  to  any  following  vehicle.  

Peer  pressure  on  safety  margins  

Many  situations:-­‐  distractions,  emotions,  other  road  users'  errors.  These  


factors  can  lead  to  compromising  safety  margins.  For  novice  drivers,  
passengers  seem  to  be  a  major  risk  factor  and  novice  drivers  should  recognise  
the  effect  passengers  have  on  their  driving  and  take  steps  to  these.  They  
should  be  able  to  manage  the  effects  of  time  pressures  and  other  emotions  
(group  pressure)on  their  maintenance  of  safety  margins.  

External  conditions    

Novice  drivers  should  recognise  external  conditions  that  lead  to  compromised  
safety  margins  and  adapt  to  traffic,  roadway,  and  weather  conditions.    

Basic  driving  tips  


 Drive  defensively.    
 Concentrate  on  your  driving.    
 Obey  all  traffic  control  devices  and  traffic  laws.    
 Be  courteous  to  others.    
 Communicate  your  intentions  to  others.    
 Be  aware  and  keep  alert.  Even  though  you  follow  the  laws,  realise  others  
may  not.    
© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059
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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 Recognise  that  you  share  the  road  with  others  whether  they  are  walking,  
bicycling  or  driving.    
 Avoid  looking  at  any  one  thing  for  more  than  a  few  seconds.    
 Watch  for  vehicles  coming  from  lanes  or  parking  places  when  driving  in  a  
business  district.    
 Always  give  yourself  enough  time  and  space  to  do  what  you  need  to  do  
safely.  
 Never  follow  another  vehicle  too  closely.    
 Be  more  careful  and  increase  your  following  distance  at  night,  during  bad  
weather  conditions,  peak  hour  and  during  manoeuvres  such  as  lane  
changes  and  when  approaching  intersections.    
 Do  not  drive  when  you  are  tired.    
 Always  obey  a  police  officers  orders  or  directions.  Their  directions  take  
priority  over  a  traffic  light  or  stop  sign.    
Signalling  

Signalling  is  a  legal  requirement  and  a  courtesy.  You  are  committed  legally  to  
communicate  to  other  drivers  your  intentions  by  giving  the  required  signal  at  
least  30  metres  ahead  of  where  you  plan  to  turn,  diverge,  slow  down  or  stop.      
Before  stopping,  turning  or  diverging  make  sure  it  is  safe.  In  heavy  traffic  or  
on  freeways,  signal  sooner  so  drivers  behind  you  have  time  to  adjust  their  
speed  or  position.    Make  sure  your  turn  signal  light  stops  flashing  by  the  
completion  of  the  turn  or  divergences.    

Passing  parked  vehicles  

When  driving  past  parked  vehicles,  watch  for  vehicles  that  may  pull  out  in  
front  of  you.    Look  for  clues  such  as  a  person  in  the  driver's  seat,  exhaust  
coming  from  a  tailpipe,  illuminated  brake  lights,  a  flashing  turn  signal,  
illuminated  reversing  lights  or,  at  parallel  parking  areas,  a  vehicle's  front  
wheels  turning  out.    Watch  for  a  vehicle  door  being  opened  in  front  of  you.  
Also,  watch  for  pedestrians  or  bicyclists  trying  to  cross  the  road  between  
parked  vehicles.  

Freeway  driving  

When  merging  select  an  appropriate  speed  similar  to  the  speeds  being  
travelled  on  the  freeway  provided  it  is  legal.    Check  appropriate  mirrors,  signal  
a  minimum  of  30  metres  while  evaluating  traffic  flow.    You  might  decide  to  
lean  forward  while  glancing  between  the  front  and  side  mirrors  so  as  to  widen  
the  angle  of  the  side  mirror.    When  you  think  it  is  safe  to  proceed,  do  a  head  
check  to  remove  any  blind  spot.    Remember  it  is  important  to  travel  in  lanes  
that  are  not  effected  by  entering  or  leaving  traffic,  provided  that  it  is  safe  to  
do  so.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

You  will  need  to  concentrate  on  speed  scatter  as  well  as  your  following  
distance.  If  you  are  changing  lanes  bear  in  mind  that  there  are  three  or  more  
lanes  with  vehicles  moving  from  left  to  centre  and  right  to  left,  so  be  alert.  

When  exiting  the  freeway  you  should  not  slow  down  until  you  have  entered  
the  exit  lane,  provided  there  is  ample  braking  distance.  

Many  ramps  have  sharp  curves,  so  it  is  important  to  obey  the  posted  exit  
ramp  speed  limit.  

Always  watch  for  drivers  who  suddenly  slow  down  when  approaching  an  exit  
or  swerve  into  the  exit  lane  unexpectedly.    

If  you  miss  your  exit  ramp,  never  back  up,  turn  around  or  use  a  median  
crossover.    

Cruise  control  

Cruise  control  is  best  suited  for  use  in  rural  areas  where  there  is  not  much  
traffic.  Set  the  cruise  control  at  or  below  the  posted  speed  limit.  This  steady  
pace  saves  fuel  and  allows  acceleration  to  pass  slower  moving  vehicles.  
Acceleration  does  not  normally  cancel  the  cruise  control.    Switching  the  cruise  
control  off  or  touching  brake  pedal  will  cancel  it.    It  is  important  that  if  you  
have  touched  the  brake  pedal  and  pushed  resume  on  the  cruise  control,  it  will  
accelerate  hard  back  to  the  cruising  speed,  so  be  careful  if  you  are  following  
another  vehicle.    

Using  cruise  control  is  not  recommended  in  heavy  traffic  near  large  numbers  
of  exit  and  entrance  ramps  or  when  roads  are  slippery  from  rain,  snow  or  ice  
or  approaching  bends.  This  would  require  constant  resetting  of  the  cruise  
control  to  the  point  which  you  may  be  distracted.  

Pre-drive check

Condition  of  tyres:  


 No  less  than  match  head  tread  depth.  
 Tread  wear  indicator.  
 Even  wear  across  tread.  
 No  cuts  in  tyre  wall.  
 Visible  pressure.  
 No  mixing  of  radial  ply  tyres,  (front  or  rear).  
 Location  &  condition  of  spare  tyre.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Windscreen:  

Clean  condition.  

No  scratches  or  cracks.  

Windscreen  wipers  

No  nicks  in  rubber  blade  

Operation  (wet  window  only)  

Lights  

(head,  park,  stop,  reverse,  indicator,  hazard,  no/plate).  

Operation.  

Clean  condition  

Cracks  (white  light  showing  behind  lens)  

Emergency  equipment  

(Tools,  jack,  jack  handle,  wheel  brace,  spare  tyre)  

Location.  

Operation.  

Condition.  

Body  damage  

Check  for  any  serious  body  damage  or  rust.  

Fluid  levels  

Check  fluid  levels  of:  water,  oil,  brake  reservoir  and  battery.  

Hoses  &  belts  

Check  for  condition  &  serviceability  of  radiator  hoses  &  fan,  alternator,  air  
conditioner  &  power  steering  belts.  

Location  &  description  of  instruments  &  controls  

Dashboard  

Left  to  right  or  right  to  left  

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Fuel  gauge  

Fuel  remaining  in  tank  

Temperature  gauge  

Temperature  of  water  that  passes  through  the  radiator  to  cool  the  engine  
(should  read  normal).  

Speedometer  

Informs  the  road  speed  in  Km/h.  

Tachometer  

Informs  us  of  the  engine  speed  in  revolutions  per  minute.(RPMs):-­‐  where  
fitted  

Oil  pressure  

Alerts  us  if  oil  is  not  reaching  the  moving  parts  of  the  engine.  Serious  damage  
will  result  if  the  engine  remains  running  (light  should  be  out  while  engine  is  
running).  

Charging  light  

Informs  if  there  is  a  fault  in  the  electrical  charging  system  (battery  will  run  flat  
if  warning  light  remains  on  while  engine  is  running)  

Handbrake  

Warning  light:  Informs  us  if  parking  brake  is  not  fully  released  (must  be  out  
while  vehicle  is  in  motion).  

Ignition  switch  

Locks  the  steering  wheel  (when  key  is  removed).    

Isolates  ignition  system  to  allow  accessories  to  operate  (accessory  position).    

Activates  the  electrical  system  to  allow  operation  of  the  vehicle.(on  position).  

Starts  engine.  

Hazard  warning  

Light  switch:  Activates  signal  light  front  and  rear  (to  be  used  when  vehicle  is  
in  a  hazardous  position  while  stationary).  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Directional  signal  

Lights  (left  &  right)  To  inform  us  if  correct  signal  has  been  activated  or  
cancelled.  

Horn  Warning  device  to  alert  motorists  or  pedestrians  of  impending  danger.  

NOTE:    When  Ignition  switch  is  activated  all  instrument-­‐warning  lights  will  
be  activated.    Oil  pressure  &  charging  lights  must  be  out  when  the  engine  is  
running.    Parking  brake  warning  light  must  be  out  when  vehicle  is  in  motion.  

Head  &  taillight  switch  (including  dipping  device).  

Windscreen  wiper  (including  washers).  

Controls  

Accelerator  

To  increase  or  decrease  the  engine  speed.  


 Adds  fuel  to  engine  when  pedal  is  depressed  (increasing  speed)  and  when  
pedal  is  released  it  reduces  fuel  flow  (decreasing  speed).  
 Operated  with  right  foot.  

Brake  

To  decrease  the  speed  of  or  stop  the  vehicle.  


 Hydraulically  operated  on  all  four  wheels,  it  adjusts  the  rate  of  speed  
reduction  depending  on  the  pressure  applied  to  brake  pedal.  
 Operated  with  right  foot.  

Clutch  

To  engage  and  disengage  the  gearbox  drive  from  the  engine.  


 When  depressed,  allows  the  engine  to  remain  running  if  the  vehicle  is  
stationary.  
 When  depressed,  allows  a  gear  to  be  selected  while  the  engine  and  
gearbox  are  disengaged.  
 When  released,  allows  the  vehicle  to  be  driven  smoothly  from  a  stationary  
position  (without  jerks).  "FRICTION  POINT"  is  called  clutch  1  in  modern  
terms.  
 Allows  smooth  changing  of  the  gears  if  operated  correctly.  
 Operated  with  left  foot.    

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Gears  
 To  allow  the  vehicle  to  proceed  faster  or  slower,  with  more  power.  
 To  allow  a  neutral  gear  where  the  clutch  can  be  engaged  without  stalling  
the  engine  when  vehicle  is  stationary.      
 To  allow  a  reverse  direction.  
 Standard  "H"  pattern.  
 Palm on top of the gearshift to be used in direction of push.
 1st  gear  -­‐  slowest  gear  but  strongest.  
 5th  gear  -­‐  fastest  gear  but  weakest.  

Handbrake  
 Applies  the  brakes  by  cable  to  the  rear  wheels  of  the  vehicle  to  prevent  
rolling    (effectiveness  dependent  upon  leverage  applied).  
 Consists  of  lever,  locking  button  &  release  button.  
 Button  must  be  depressed  during  operation  to  avoid  wear  on  locking  
mechanism.  
 To  be  used  when  vehicle  is  at  rest  and  foot  brake  is  not  applied.      

Steering  wheel  
 To  direct  vehicle  in  the  required  direction.  
 Hands  positioned  at  10  to  2  or  9  to  3.  
 Hands  to  remain  on  the  outside  of  steering  wheel.  

Guide to instructive commentary

When  verbalising,  it  is  important  to  create  some  form  of  order  to  the  
commentary.  When  approaching  a  potential  hazard  the  first  thought  in  mind  
is  to  develop  a  systematic  approach  that  places  hazards  in  priority  of  potential  
danger.    If  time  is  limited  and  you  are  unable  to  explain  everything,  delete  the  
least  important  information.  

It  would  be  advisable  to  use  the  same  terminology  consistently  so  as  to  avoid  
any  confusion.    Keep  instructions  short  and  to  the  point  and  above  all  
communicate  in  simplistic  terms.    

Below  you  will  find  typical  wording,  which  may  be  of  use  in  instructive  
commentary  for  both  a  left-­‐hand  turn  and  a  right  hand  turn.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Right  hand  turns  

Check  mirrors  (interior  and  side)  signal  not  less  than  30  metres,  head  check  
and  move  when  safe  toward  the  centre  line  or  island  and  cancel  signal.    Check  
mirrors,  signal  not  less  than  30  metres,  brake,  select  2nd  gear,  clutch  up  before  
the  intersection.  

This  is  a  standard  commentary  for  diverging  and  positioning  when  negotiating  
a  right  hand.  The  next  step  is  to  instruct  the  novice  driver  of  what  should  be  
done  when  confronted  by  individual  situations.  

Red  light  

Stop  before  stop  line.  

Green  light  

Move  into  intersection  1/3  of  the  way  and  keep  wheels  straight,  give  way  to  
traffic  from  opposite  direction  proceeding  straight  and  turning  left,  bicycles  
travelling  in  either  direction  where  appropriate  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  
street  you  are  turning  into.  

Stop  sign  

Stop  before  the  stop  line,  give  way  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
the  intersecting  carriageway,  on  coming  vehicles  proceeding  straight  and  
turning  left,  bicycles  travelling  in  either  direction  where  appropriate  and  
pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  are  turning  into.    

Give  way  sign  

Give  way  to  vehicles  on  the  right  and  left,  vehicles  from  the  opposite  
direction,  bicycles  travelling  in  either  direction  where  there  is  a  bicycle  path,  
shared  or  segregated  footway  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  are  
turning  into.  

Uncontrolled  intersection  

Give  way  to  vehicles  from  the  right,  vehicles  from  opposite  direction  
proceeding  straight  and  turning  left  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  
are  turning  into.  Check  left  for  danger.    

A  roundabout  

Approach  at  a  safe  speed,  position  left  of  the  centre  of  the  carriageway  (two-­‐
way  carriageway).  Mirror  and  signal  no  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
roundabout.  

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Give  way  to  vehicle  within  the  roundabout  and  approaching  from  the  right  
and  pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  are  turning  into.    

Pass  through  to  the  left  of  the  central  island  and  position  the  vehicle  to  the  
left  of  centre  of  the  street  being  entering.  

If  turning  at  a  roundabout  where  there  are  lanes  within,  the  lane  where  you  
start  the  turn  is  the  lane  where  you  finish  the  turn.  

Keep  to  right  lane  of  roundabout  and  exit  into  the  right  lane  of  the  street  you  
are  entering,  mirror,  signal  for  at  least  30  metres,  head  check  and  move  to  the  
left  if  safe  to  do  so.  

NOTE  

Although  it  is  not  legally  required,  it  would  be  advantageous  to  signal  LEFT  
upon  exiting  from  LARGER  roundabouts  if  you  are  in  fact  crossing  a  lane/lanes  
to  do  so.  

Left  hand  turns  

Keep  left,  mirror,  signal  for  not  less  than  30  metres,  brake,  select  2nd  gear  and  
clutch  up  before  the  intersection.  

Red  light  

Stop  before  stop  line.  

Green  light  

Commit  yourself  to  the  intersection  and  give  way  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  
street  you  are  turning  into.  

Stop  sign  

Stop  before  stop  line  and  give  way  to  traffic  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
the  intersecting  road  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  are  turning  into.  

Give  way  sign  

Approach  at  a  speed  relevant  to  the  amount  of  vision  blockout.  

Give  way  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  the  intersecting  road  and  
pedestrians  crossing  the  street  you  are  turning  into.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Points  to  be  considered  during  commentary  


 Keep  1.5  metres  away  from  parked  vehicles,  so  as  to  avoid  opening  
doors,  vehicles  moving  out  and  to  allow  for  maximum  visibility  of  
pedestrians  stepping.  
 Scan  from  building  line  to  building  line  and  watch  for  pedestrians,  
animals  and  other  vehicles.  
 Scan  intersections,  cover  the  brake  if  necessary  and  ensure  other  
vehicles  are  giving  way  to  you.  
 Reduce  speed  on  approaching  hazards  and  approach  at  a  speed  that  
will  enable  you  to  stop,  if  required  cover  brake.  
 Reduce  speed  through  shopping  centres,  watch  out  for  extra  
pedestrian  activity  and  vehicles  moving  in  and  out  from  the  kerb.    Keep  
well  back  from  slow  moving  vehicles.  Cover  the  brake  if  necessary.  
 Keep  a  space  cushion  around  your  vehicle.  The  further  you  keep  away  
from  other  vehicles  the  less  likelihood  you  have  of  having  an  accident.  
 Keep  a  3-­‐second  gap  away  from  the  vehicle  ahead  so  as  to  maintain  a  
safe  stopping  distance.  (4  sec  in  the  wet).  
 Make  sure  you  can  see  the  rear  wheels  of  the  car  when  stopping  behind  
it  while  in  traffic.  
 Drive  entirely  within  lanes,  where  possible.  
 Stop  on  the  approach  side  of  stop  lines.  
 Keep  left  where  possible.  
 Keep  intersections  and  crossings  clear,  when  stopping.  
 Check  mirrors  regularly  (approximately  every  7  secs).  
 Observe  well  ahead.  The  further  ahead  you  see,  the  more  time  you  have  
to  plan  your  course  and  take  evasive  action  if  necessary.    
 Check  your  gauges  and  speed  regularly.  
 Observe  speed  signs  and  adapt  your  speed  to  suit.  
 Observe  advisory  and  temporary  signs  and  adjust  your  driving  to  suit.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Bad  habits  list  

The  items  listed  below  are  common  driving  habits  that  are  displayed  by  
drivers  who  have  not  had  professional  guidance  in  their  driver  education  
programs.  Perhaps  these  faults  have  developed  because  of  laziness  or  poor  
attitude.  However  if  your  learner  driver  displays  any  of  the  following  bad  
habits  you  should  immediately  attempt  to  rectify  them.  
 Arms  resting  on  rests  or  sills  while  the  car  in  motion.  
 Hands  not  at  approximately  the  10  to  2  position  on  the  steering  wheel.  
 Hands  placed  inside  the  rim  of  the  steering  wheel.  
 Watch  that  the  left  hand  does  not  remain  on  the  gear  selector  after  the  
completion  of  a  gear  change.  
 Watch  that  clutch  pedal  does  not  remain  depressed  too  long  after  the  
gear  is  engaged,  ie  clutch  in  around  corners.  
 Watch  that  the  clutch  is  not  depressed  too  early  when  stopping  at  
approximately  15  -­‐  20  kph.  
 Watch  for  the  foot  resting  on  the  clutch  pedal  and  perhaps  
unnecessarily  depressing  the  clutch.  
 Rear  view  mirror  incorrectly  adjusted,  causing  excessive  movement  of  
the  head.  
 Watch  for  correct  seating  position  eg,  slouching,  leaning,  stretching  of  
legs,  cramped  leg  space  and  arm  distance  from  steering  wheel.  
The  above  habits  should  be  rectified  as  early  as  possible  in  the  process  of  the  
driving  program.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Section 3

Low Risk Driving Commentary

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Commentary technique 1

Position selection and gap selection around the


vehicle

Two  commentary  techniques  (grouped  together)  


1. Early  position  planning.    
2. Front  and  rear  following  distance  and  side  clearance.  

Key  commentary  elements  (both  techniques):  


 Positioning  on  road  with  regard  to  the  legal  and  safety  requirements.  
 Following  distance  (3-­‐second  rule).  
 Increasing  following  distance  when  a  vehicle  behind  is  travelling  to  close.  
 Side  clearance.  
 The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  on  forward,  rear  and  side  gap  
selection  within  a  5  kilometre  zone  or  over  a  5  minute  period.    
 The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  on  selecting  the  safest  road  position  
on  approach  to  hazards  at  a  minimum  of  12  seconds  before  the  hazard.  

Commentary technique 2

Hazard approach (4 second brake approach)

One  commentary  technique  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Covering  the  brake  approximately  4  seconds  before  a  hazard  on  a  flat  road.  
 Covering  the  brake  approximately  4  to  6  seconds  before  a  hazard  when  
going  down  hill.  
 Covering  the  brake  approximately  2  seconds  before  a  hazard  when  going  
up  hill.  
 Explain  why  you  or  the  learner  needs  to  cover  the  brake  on  the  approach  
to  the  hazard.  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary,  instructing  when  the  learner  driver  must  
cover  the  brake  and  why,  on  the  approach  to  hazards  in  a  5  kilometre  zone  or  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

over  5  for  a  minute  period  (it  is  not  necessary  to  cover  the  brake  at  speeds  
less  than  25  km/h).  

Commentary technique 3

12 second visual lead time

One  commentary  technique    

Key  commentary  elements:  prioritise    


 Evaluating  if  potential  danger  of  a  collision  with  other  vehicles  or  
pedestrians.  
 Identifying  hazards  and  priortising  impact  order  during  a  12  second  visual  
lead  time    
 Explaining  them  and  in  validating  the  potential  danger  of  the  hazard  
identified  (trainee  or  trainer).  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary,  identifying  and  priortising  hazards  in  
impact  order.  Commentary  must  be  over  5  different  one  kilometre  zones.  

Commentary technique 4

Observation

Three  commentary  techniques  (grouped  together)    


1. High  aim  steering.  
2. Leave  yourself  an  out.  
3. Being  seen.  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Planning  over  a  short,  medium  and  long  range.  
 Creating  potential  escape  routes  and  evaluating  the  outcome  of  evasive  
action.  
 Evaluating  problems  associated  with  other  drivers  or  pedestrians  not  
seeing  your  vehicle.  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  on  all  three  observation  areas.  
Commentary  must  be  over  5  different  one  kilometre  zones  or  a  5-­‐minute  
period.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Commentary technique 5

Observation at intersections

Two  commentary  techniques  (grouped  together)  


1. 180  degree  scanning.  
2. Vision  blockout.    

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Scanning  at  intersections,  two  180  degree  scans.  
 Removing  vision  blockout.  

The  trainer  must  give  two  commentaries  on  each  of  the  following  situations;  
 Proceeding  straight  ahead  after  stopping  at  stop  sign.  
 Proceeding  straight  ahead  at  give  way  signs.  
 Proceeding  straight  ahead  at  roundabouts.  
 Right  turn  at  a  crossroads.  
 Right  turn  at  green  lights.  
 Right  turn  from  the  bottom  of  a  't'  intersection.  
 Left  turn  at  a  cross  intersection.  
 Left  turn  at  a  slip  lane.  

Commentary technique 6

Driving in a systematic way

Two  commentary  techniques  (grouped  together)  


1. System  of  vehicle  control.  
2. System  of  decision  making.  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Using  the  system  of  vehicle  control  (six  features).  
(For  each  step,  state  the  feature,  what  it  means  and  what  you  need  to  do.  
Eg  feature  on  Course,  which  might  mean  that  you  need  to  diverge  to  a  
different  position  on  the  road  by  checking  mirrors,  signalling,  head  
checking  and  moving  when  its  safe  to  do  so.)  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 Using  the  system  of  decision  making  (three  features).  


(For  each  step,  state  the  feature,  what  it  means  and  what  you  need  to  do.    
Eg.  Feature  one  Legal,  what  is  the  legal  requirement  of.  Feature  two  Risk,  
what  is  the  risk  and  Feature  three  Logic,  what  do  I  need  to  do  to  follow  the  
legal  requirement  and  at  the  same  time  how  do  I  avoid  the  risk?  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary,  using  the  system  of  decision  making  
over  a  2-­‐kilometre  zone  and  on  three  occasions.      Commentary  must  be  
completed  at  least  5  seconds  prior  to  a  hazard.  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary,  using  the  system  of  vehicle  control  over  
a  2-­‐kilometre  zone  and  on  three  occasions.    Commentary  must  be  completed  
at  least  5  seconds  prior  to  a  hazard.  

Commentary  technique  7  

Risk assessment

One  commentary  technique  


1. Risk  assessment.  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Selecting  the  Gap    
 Justify  Risk    

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  over  a  10  minute  period  with  a  minimum  
of  5  left  and  5  right  turns  on  what  is  an  appropriate  gap  selection  and  how  it  
can  be  justify  acceptance  of  that  gap.  

Commentary technique 8

Causal attribution

One  commentary  technique  


1. Attribution  theory.  

Key  commentary  elements:  

Evaluating  what  the  other  vehicles  or  pedestrians  could  do  wrong  and  which  
may  affect  the  safety  of  your  vehicle  and  others.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  over  a  5-­‐kilometre  zone  on  the  potential  
mistakes  of  other  drivers  and  how  the  learner  driver  can  protect  themselves  
and  others.  

Commentary technique 9

Speed selection

One  commentary  techniques    


 Speed  selection  relevant  to  hazard  density.  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Justifying  speed    

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  over  a  5-­‐kilometre  zone  on  correct  speed  
selection  relevant  to  hazard  density.  

Commentary technique 10

Driving at night

One  commentary  technique    


 Speed  selection  relevant  to  hazard  density.  

Key  commentary  elements:  


 Using  headlights  and  hazard  perception.  
 Speed  selection  according  to  visibility.  
 Keeping  lights  on  high  beam  until  all  hazards  are  identified  between  two  
vehicles.  
 Using  eye  technique  to  avoid  high  beam  dazzle.  

The  trainer  must  give  a  commentary  over  a  5-­‐kilometre  zone  on  skills  
appropriate  to  night  driving  and  vision.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Legal obligations

Stop  signs  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  

Proceeding        Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
STRAIGHT  AHEAD   necessary.  
   STOP  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  stop  line.    If  no  line  is  
present  stop  as  near  to  the  sign  where  you  can  see  
clearly.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road,  bicycle  path,  shared  or  
segregated  footway.  
 

Turning      RIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  RIGHT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Position  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 STOP  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  stop  line,  if  no  line  
present  as  near  to  stop  sign  where  you  can  see.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road  bicycle  path,  shared  or  
segregated  footway.  
 If  at  a  crossroad  GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  from  the  
opposite  direction  and  left  turning  vehicles.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  road  you  are  
tuning  into.  
 GIVEWAY  to  bicycles  travelling  in  the  same  or  opposite  
direction  on  a  bicycle  path,  shared  or  segregated  
footway.  
 Turn  RIGHT  of  CENTRE  of  the  intersection.  
 Complete  turn  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Complete  turn  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

   Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
Turning    LEFT   necessary.  

   Signal  LEFT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  


intersection.  
 Position  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  LEFT.  
 STOP  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  stop  line.  If  no  line  is  
present  stop  as  near  to  the  stop  sign  and  where  you  
can  see  clearly.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  
street  you  are  turning  into.  
 Complete  turn  to  the  left.  
 

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Give  way  signs  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


   
Proceeding        Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
STRAIGHT  AHEAD   necessary.  
   GIVE WAY to vehicles travelling along or turning from any
intersecting road.

Turning      RIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  RIGHT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Position  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road,  bicycle  path,  shared  or  
segregated  footway.  
 If  at  a  crossroad,  GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  from  the  
opposite  direction  and  left  turning  vehicles.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  road  you  are  
tuning  into.  
 GIVEWAY  to  bicycles  travelling  in  the  same  or  opposite  
direction  on  a  bicycle  path,  shared  or  segregated  
footway.  
 Turn  RIGHT  of  CENTRE  of  the  intersection  
 Complete  turn  to:  LEFT  of  CENTRE    if  a  2  way  road  
 Complete  turn  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 
Turning  LEFT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  LEFT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.    
 Position  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  LEFT.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road  and  pedestrians  crossing  the  
street  you  are  turning  into.  
 Complete turn to the left.

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Roundabout  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


   
Proceeding        Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
STRAIGHT  AHEAD   necessary.  

   GIVE  WAY    to  vehicles  within  the  roundabout  


approaching  from  the  right  
 Pass through to the LEFT of central island.

Turning      RIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  RIGHT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection  
 Position  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Position  to  the  right  of  centre  if  a  1  way  road.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  within  the  roundabout  and  
approaching  from  the  right.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  road  you  are  
tuning  into.  
 Pass  through  to  the  LEFT  of  central  island.  
  Complete  the  turn  LEFT  of  CENTRE  to  the  right  
boundary  of  the  carriageway  you  are  entering  if  it  is  1  
way.  
 
Turning    LEFT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  LEFT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  LEFT.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  within  the  roundabout  and  
approach  from  the  right.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  road  you  are  
turning  into.  
 Complete turn to the LEFT.

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Terminating  intersections  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


 
Turning      RIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  RIGHT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Position  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road,  bicycles  on  a  bike  path,  
segregated  footway  and  shared  footway.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  road  you  are  tuning  
into.  
 Turn  RIGHT  of  CENTRE  of  the  intersection.  
 Complete  turn  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  2  way  road.  
 Complete  turn  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 
Turning    LEFT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal    LEFT    not  less  than  30  metres  
 Position  as  near  as  practicable  to  the    LEFT  
 GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  travelling  along  or  turning  from  
any  intersecting  road,  bicycles  on  a  bike  path,  
segregated  footway  and  shared  footway.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing    road  your  tuning  
into  
 Complete turn to the left

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Traffic  lights  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


 
Proceeding    STRAIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 PROCEED  on  a  GREEN  LIGHT.  
 STOP  before  stop  line  if  light  is  AMBER  and  if  safe  to  do  
so.  
 STOP before stop line if LIGHT is RED.

Turning      RIGHT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  RIGHT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Position  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 If  a  GREEN  LIGHT,  GIVE  WAY  to  vehicles  from  the  
opposite  travelling  straight  ahead  and  left  turning  
vehicles  and  bicycles  travelling  in  the  opposite  or  the  
same  direction  if  applicable.  
 GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  road  you  are  
turning  into.  
 If  an  AMBER  LIGHT  stop  before  stop  line  if  safe  to  do  
so.  
 If  a  RED  LIGHT,  stop  before  the  stop  line.  
 Turn  RIGHT  of  CENTRE  of  the  intersection.  
 Complete  turn  to  LEFT  of  CENTRE  if  a  2  way  road.  
 Complete  turn  to  RIGHT  BOUNDARY  if  a  1  way  road.  
 

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Turning  LEFT    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Signal  LEFT  not  less  than  30  metres  before  the  
intersection.  
 Position  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  LEFT.  
 If  a  GREEN  LIGHT,  GIVE  WAY  to  pedestrians  crossing  
the  street  you  are  turning  into.  
 If  an  AMBER  LIGHT,  stop  before  stop  line  if  safe  to  do  
so.  
 If  a  RED  LIGHT,  stop  before  stop  line.  
 Complete  turn  to  the  left.  
 Where a SLIP LANE is provided, give way to all other vehicles
and pedestrians crossing the slip lane.

Pedestrian  crossing  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


 
Real    Situation    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Stop  before  the  crossing  if  necessary.  
 GIVE WAY to any pedestrians on the crossing.

Hypothetical  situation    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
(Introduction  of  another   necessary.  
vehicle    stopped  at  the    Stop  before  the  crossing  if  necessary.  
crossing)    GIVE  WAY  to  any  pedestrians  on  the  crossing.  
   Do  not  proceed  if  another  vehicle  is  stationary  at  the  
crossing  and  headed  in  the  same  direction.  
 Do not proceed until pedestrians are safely clear of your
vehicle.

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

School  crossing  

TEST  SITUATION   MAJOR  POINTS  


 
Real    Situation    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
  necessary.  
 Stop  at  the  stop  line  if  any,  or  before  the  crossing  and  
do  not  cross  if  any  pedestrian  is  on  the  crossing.  
 Proceed only when crossing is completely clear of pedestrians

Hypothetical  situation    Approach  at  a  safe  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  stop  if  
(Introduction  of  another   necessary.  
vehicle  stopped  at  the    Stop  at  stop  line  if  any,  or  before  reaching  the  crossing  
crossing  and  /  or   and  do  not  enter  crossing  if:-­‐  
supervisor  on  crossing)    Any  pedestrian  is  on  the  crossing.  
   Any  other  vehicle  is  stationary  at  the  crossing  and  
headed  in  the  same  direction  
 A  stop  sign  is  displayed  facing  you      (supervisor).  
 Proceed only when the crossing is clear of pedestrians and
stop sign has been removed.

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Section 4

On Road Sub-Models

ADELG1061 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L February 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Teaching a driving skill


The  most  important  thing  when  teaching  a  driving  skill  is  to  make  the  whole  process  
tangible,  in  order  to  link  into  either  the  trainee's  previous  experience  or  to  create  the  
desired  experiences  by  utilising  as  many  senses  as  possible  in  your  training.    Remember  it  
is  impossible  to  transfer  your  thinking,  mental  schemers  and  your  experience  to  the  
trainee  mind  by  using  words  only.  
The  definition  of  tangible  is  to  make  your  teaching:  
 Real    
 Clearly  intelligible  (that  can  be  clearly  understood)  
 Definite  (having  exact  limits,  distinct,  precise  and  not  vague)  
 Perceptible  by  touch  
 Not  elusive  or  visionary  (impractical,  puzzling,  unreal,  insubstantial,  misjudging  and  
imaginary)  

Stage  1   Pre-­‐session  explanation  


1. Inform  the  trainee  what  the  objective  of  the  session  is.  
2. Inform  them  of  the  relevance  in  terms  of  licensing  or  survival.  
3. Explain  the  type  of  teaching  method  you  are  using  and  the  advantages  to  them.  

Stage  2     Modelling/demonstration  
Modelling  can  be  done  in  two  ways  depending  on  the  trainees  preferred  learning  style.  
1. Demonstrating  the  finish  product  which  is  called  normal  
demonstration(demonstrating  the  skill  to  its  correct  assessment  standard  to  be  
competent)    
2. Demonstrating  the  key  components,  which  is  called  slow  demonstration  in  which  you  
will  need  to  explain  key  features,  as  you  are  about  to  perform  them.  
3. The  driver  trainer  drives  the  vehicle  and  questions  the  trainee  what  to  do  next  on  key  
components  of  the  demonstration.    This  is  called  the  questioning  phase.  

Stage  3     Sub-­‐modelling  
1. Learner  drives  the  vehicle.  
2. Create  the  experience  -­‐  How,  why,  when.  
3. See  sub-­‐model  guidelines.  

Stage  4     Theory  
Explain  and  use  training  aids  on  the  key  theory  points,  based  on  what  you  have  modelled.    
Remember  you  will  need  to  ask  relevant  open  questions  to  evaluate  the  effectiveness  of  
your  modelling  and  the  theory  following  it.    

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Stage  5     Transfer  of  learning  /  Practice  


This  is  where  the  trainee  is  supported  in  the  early  stages  of  doing  the  new  skill  by  
assisting  them,  relevant  to  their  needs.    
1. It  is  very  important  to  questioning  them  what  to  do  next,  in  order  to  work  out  if  there  
has  been  any  transfer  of  learning  between  stage  2  to  4.  

Stage  6     Assessment  
The  trainee  is  now  informed  that  they  will  be  doing  the  skill  without  your  assistance  to  
evaluate  their  understanding.    This  is  assessment  time  for  you.    You  must  decide  whether  
you  are  doing  a  formative  assessment  or  summative  assessment.  
Note:    If  a  person  has  driven  before  and  you  need  to  establish  current  competency,  then  you  
would  conduct  a  diagnostic  assessment.  

Stage  7     Feedback  
There  are  two  forms  of  feedback,  positive  or  negative.    Positive  feedback  is  when  the  
trainee  has  performed  the  skill  to  the  desired  standard  and  you  will  need  to  reinforce  this  
behaviour.    Negative  feedback  is  when  the  trainee  did  not  perform  the  skill  to  the  desired  
level,  so  they  need  corrective  feedback  that  covers  correct  and  incorrect  technique.    If  
using  negative  feedback,  it  is  important  that  stage  two  of  the  model  is  revisited,  starting  
at  modelling  and  finishing  once  more  with  feedback.    When  remodelling  it  is  important  to  
demonstrate  what  they  are  currently  doing  against  the  desired  assessment  performance.  

Stage  8     Evaluation  
At  the  completion  of  the  practical  session,  you  will  need  to  evaluate  the  effectiveness  of;  
 the  session  plan.  
 your  training  performance.  
 the  training  environment  selected.  
 improvement  levels  of  the  trainee.  

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'Teaching a driving skill' model


  Pre-session
  Objectives   Inexperience  
  Motivation   Trainees  
  Structure  of  session    

 
Demonstration
 1. Normal  
 2. Slow   Correction
3. Questioning  
 
 Correct  any  weakness  utilising  as  many  
senses  as  possible.  
   Sub-­‐models  or  Demonstration  will  be  used  
Sub-model
 The  trainee  experiences     as  part  of  the  correctional  feedback.  
1. Why   (Tangible)  
 
2. How    
 3. When  
 
  Theory
Key  primacy  and  recency  
 messages  explained  
 
 
Transfer of learning / Practice
 
 Use  of  leading  and  open  question.  
 
 Practice  using  over  leaning  
  techniques  
 
 
  Experience  
Assessment
Trainees  (RPL)  
 
 
Diagnostic  or  Formative  
 
or  Summative  
 assessment  
 
  Feedback Evaluation

 
Positive  feedback  to    The  session  plan.  
reinforce  desired    Trainers  performance.  
  behaviour    The  training  environment    
  Negative  feedback    Improvement  levels  of  the  trainee.  
(Correction  Phase)  
 
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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 
 

Driver training sub-models

Topic  1     Take  Offs  


Why  
Sub  model  1.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  stalling  by  bringing  clutch  out  slowly  without  holding  
at  clutch  1.  
Sub  model  1.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  we  create  momentum  by  holding  at  each  clutch  
point.    Hold  each  clutch  point  to  discover  clutch  1  to  4  and  how  we  need  to  with  each  
clutch  point  by  holding  clutch  1  to  3  for  approximately  2  metres.  
Sub  model  1.3  
 Apply  starting  power  only,  approximately  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  1,  2,  3  and  then  4  
showing  how  the  motor  dies.  
How  
Sub  model  1.4  
Clutch  technique  1.  
 Gas  approximately  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  one  for  1  to  2  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  two  for  1  to  2  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  three  for  1  to  2  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  release  clutch  to  clutch  four  position.  
Clutch  technique  2.  
 Gas  approximately  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  one  for  1  to  2  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  two  for  3  to  4  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  release  clutch  to  clutch  four  position.  
Clutch  technique  3.  
 Gas  approximately  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  one  for  4  to  5  metres.  
 Release  clutch  fully  to  the  clutch  four  position.  
Handbrake  starts  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 Gas  approximately  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  one  or  2  depending  on  the  size  of  the  
hill.  
 Release  the  handbrake  and  the  vehicle  will  balance  on  the  spot.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  two  for  2  to  3  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  hold  clutch  three  for  1  to  2  metres.  
 Reapply  gas  to  1200  RPM  and  release  clutch  to  clutch  four  position.  
When  
Sub  model  1.5  
The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  which  clutch  technique  will  need  to  be  used  in  the  
following  location:  
 Take  of  in  a  straight  line  
 Take  off  around  a  corner  
 Moving  approximately  2  the  3  metres  forward.  

Topic  2      Changing  Up  


Why  
Sub  model  2.1  
The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  that  there  is  only  so  far  the  motor  will  rev  too  and  by  
changing  to  a  higher  gear,  it  reduces  the  amount  the  engine  rev's  at  the  equivalent  
speeds.  
Exercise  1  and  2  
 Move  off  in  1st  gear  and  accelerate  to  approximately  4000  RPM  listening  to  the  sound  
of  Th  engine  and  at  the  same  time  checking  the  tachometer  every  1  to  2  seconds.  
 Do  the  same  thing  as  exercise  1  but  this  time  change  to  a  higher  gear  and  see  how  the  
rev’s  drop  down  at  the  same  speed.  
Sub  model  2.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  is  a  weak  and  strong  gear.  
 The  trainee  will  experience  taking  of  in  1st  gear  and  then  trying  to  take  off  in  2nd  or  3rd  
gear.  
Sub  model  2.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  use  the  gear  stick  while  the  vehicle  is  
parked  on  the  side  of  the  road  and  the  motor  is  turned  off.    The  key  here  is  how  the  
palm  is  position  to  change  the  gears  and  the  role  neutral  plays  in  selecting  gears.  
How  
Sub  model  2.4  

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 The  trainee  needs  to  learn  how  to  change  gears  in  an  environment  that  is  low  risk  and  
simulates  the  real  thing  without  the  distractions  of  other  vehicles  and  pedestrians.      
 While  on  the  side  of  the  road  the  trainee  will  experience  the  triangle  position  for  
preparation  stage  of  the  gear  change.  (Right  hand  on  the  steering  wheel,  left  foot  
above  the  clutch  and  the  palm  on  the  gear  stick).  
Sub  model  2.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  learn  how  to  change  gears  in  an  environment  that  is  low  risk  and  
simulates  the  real  thing  without  the  distractions  of  other  vehicles  and  pedestrians.      
 The  trainee  will  experience  changing  gears  using  the  correct  technique  with  the  
motor  turn  off.  
 Clutch  in  off  the  gas.  
 Change  gear.  
 Clutch  1,  then  add  gas  while  slowly  releasing  the  clutch  fully  out.  
Sub  model  2.6  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  changing  gears  will  moving  along,  1st  to  2nd,  2nd  to  
3rd,  3rd  to  4th.  
When  
Sub  model  2.7  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  much  the  vehicle  needs  to  be  revved  to  
before  changing  into  higher  gears  on  different  inclines  and  the  amount  of  rev's  that  
are  lost  between  each  gear.  
 The  following  is  approximately  how  many  revs  are  required  before  changing  into  
higher  gears.  
 Flat  road  2500  –3000  RPM  
 Up  Hill  3000  to  4000  RPM  
 Down  hill  2500  to  3000  RPM  

Topic  3     Braking  
Why  
Sub  model  3.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  difference  between  jabbing  the  brake  and  
squeezing  the  brake  from  approximately  40km/h  in  second  gear.  
Sub  model  3.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  slows  the  vehicle  down.  
 The  following  are  3  exercises  that  the  trainee  needs  to  experience.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 The  trainee  travels  along  at  approximately  40  km/h  in  second  gear  and  throws  the  
clutch  in  to  see  if  the  clutch  slows  the  vehicle  down.  
 The  trainee  travels  along  at  approximately  40  km/h  and  takes  their  feet  away  from  
all  pedals  to  experience  how  the  motor  slows  the  vehicle  down.  
 The  trainee  travels  along  at  40  km/h  and  brakes  to  experience  how  the  brakes  and  
the  motor  work  together  to  slow  the  vehicle  down  in  the  most  effect  way.  
Sub  model  3.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  causes  stalling.  
 The  trainee  travels  along  at  20  km/h  and  takes  their  feet  away  from  all  pedals  to  
experience  if  the  vehicle  will  stall.  
 The  trainee  travels  along  at  20  km/h  and  brakes  the  vehicle  down  to  10kmp/h  and  
stabilises  the  speed  to  experience  if  the  vehicle  will  stall.  
 The  trainee  travels  along  at  20  km/h  and  brakes  the  vehicle  down  a  stop  without  
depressing  the  clutch  to  experiences  stalling.  
How  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  brake  from  different  speeds.  
Sub  model  3.4  
 Brake  method  1    
 The  clutch  is  between  clutch  1  –  3  and  the  vehicle  is  travelling  below  10  kmp/h.    To  
stop  the  clutch  is  depressed  fully  to  the  floor  before  braking.  
Sub  model  3.5  
 Brake  method  2  
 The  vehicle  is  travelling  between  10  and  20  kmp/h  and  the  brake  is  covered  or  
slightly  squeezed  until  the  speed  is  below  10  kmp/h,  depressing  the  clutch  fully  
before  stopping.  
Sub  model  3.6  
 Brake  method  3  
 The  vehicle  is  travelling  over  20  kmp/h  and  the  vehicle  is  braked  h  in  a  high  gear  
below  20  kmp/h,  when  the  clutch  is  depressed  before  stopping.  
When  
Sub  model  3.7  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  stop  equal  with  objects  such  as  tree,  
poles,  stop  lines  or  parked  vehicles  from  different  speeds.    The  key  learning  
requirement  is  to  experience  when  to  brake  early  from  higher  speeds.  
 Braking  at  objects  form  speeds  ranging  between  20  kmp/h  to  60  kmp/h.  

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

Topic  4     Steering  
Why  
Sub  model  4.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problems  with  turning  the  steering  wheel  from  
the  bottom  of  wheel  and  looking  at  their  hands  when  turning.    They  also  need  to  
experience  the  problems  with  straightening  up  with  crossed  hands  quickly.  
Sub  model  4.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  turning  without  the  use  of  central  vision  and  the  
problems  with  trying  to  judge  were  their  going.  
Sub  model  4.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  the  more  you  turn  the  earlier  you  need  to  
straighten  the  steering  wheel.    
How  
Sub  model  4.4  
 The  trainee  need  to  experience  how  the  hands  work  operate  for  either  pull  push  or  
hand  over  hand  steering  while  stationary  (dry  steering  where  practical).  
Sub  model  4.5  
 The  driver  trainer  needs  to  operate  the  control  pedals  while  the  trainee  experiences  
turning  left  to  right  and  right  to  left  with  their  eyes  closed  in  order  to  feel  how  their  
hands  work.    
Sub  model  4.6  
 The  trainees  need  to  experience  how  to  look  at  an  object  with  their  central  vision  
while  they  turn  and  straighten  up  towards  that  object,  still  with  the  trainer  operating  
the  pedals.    
When  
Sub  model  4.7  
 The  trainees  need  to  experience  turning  90  degrees  and  then  straightening  up.  

Topic  5     Left  Turns  


Why  
Sub  model  5.1  
 The  trainees  need  to  experience  the  problems  with  wide  turns  and  then  define  what  
near  as  practical  to  the  left  means  in  terms  of  safe  distance.  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  wide  they  can  approach  a  corner  and  at  the  
same  time  prevent  a  vehicle  from  coming  up  the  inside  left.  

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 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  starting  to  close  and  turning  to  early  and  how  
they  will  need  to  turn  wide  to  miss  the  kerb  experiencing  the  potential  problems  of  a  
head  on  collision.  
Sub  model  5.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problems  with  turning  and  not  using  the  central  
vision.  
How  
Sub  model  5.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  position  the  vehicle  to  turn  correctly.  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  starting  position  which  is  approximately  1  to  
1.5  metres  out  from  the  kerb.  
 The  trainee  will  select  the  turning  position,  when  the  centre  of  the  passenger  door  is  
level  with  the  point  the  kerb  starts  to  rotate.  
 The  trainee  will  turn  the  wheel  as  much  as  the  kerb  turns  so  as  they  follow  the  
rotation  of  the  kerb.  
 The  trainee  will  finish  the  turn  the  same  distance  out  from  the  kerb  as  they  started  the  
turn  
Sub  model  5.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  eyes  should  be  used  when  turning  left:  
 On  approach  to  the  corner  the  central  eyes  sight  will  be  scanning  high  on  approach  to  
the  intersection.  
 On  approach  to  the  turning  point  of  the  corner  the  central  eyesight  will  look  down  for  
when  the  kerb  starts  to  rotate  and  assessing  whether  they  are  following  the  kerb  with  
the  same  rotation.  
 Approximately  one  quarter  around  the  corners  the  central  eyesight  looks  50  metres  
up  the  road  they  are  turning  into  towards  the  intended  finishing  position.    
When  
Sub  model  5.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  different  left  turns  from  tight  to  wide  approach  
angles.  

Topic  6     Right  Turns  


Why  
Sub  model  6.1  

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TLIM107A Develop safe driving behaviours in others

 The  trainees  need  to  experience  the  problems  with  wide  turns  and  then  define  what  
near  as  practical  to  left  of  centre  means  in  order  to  prevent  vehicles  from  coming  up  
the  inside  right  when  turning.  
Sub  model  6.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  problems  with  cutting  the  corner  or  turning  
from  the  left  side  of  the  centre  of  the  intersection.  
Sub  model  6.3  
 Trainees  need  to  experience  the  problems  with  not  scanning  between  oncoming  
vehicles  and  their  finishing  position,  in  order  to  minimise  the  potential  of  an  head  on  
accident.  
How  
Sub  model  6.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  position  the  vehicle  in  order  to  turn  
correctly.  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  starting  position,  which  is  left  of  the  centre  of  
the  carriageway.  
 Select  the  correct  turning  position  which  is  approximately  one  third  into  the  
intersection,  at  the  same  time  keeping  the  wheels  straight  were  practical.  
 Finishing  position  left  of  the  centre  of  the  carriageway.  

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Sub  model  6.5  


 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  use  the  central  eyesight  when  turning  
right:  
 The  trainee  will  approach  the  intersection  with  the  central  eye  sight  scanning  high  up  
and  through  the  intersection.  
 The  trainee  will  look  with  low  aim  steering  for  the  one  third  turning  point  of  the  
intersection.  
 Before  and  during  turn  the  trainee  will  scan  between  oncoming  vehicle  and  the  
finishing  position  approximately  50  metres  up  the  road  they  are  turning  into.  
When  
Sub  model  6.6  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  turning  at  different  size  intersection  as  well  as  
experiencing  turning  right  from  stop  or  giveway  signs.  

Topic  7     Mirror  Hazard  Approach  


Why  &  How  
Sub  model  7.1  
 The  trainees  need  to  experience  the  advantages  of  an  early  mirror  check  before  a  
hazard  to  assist  on  decision  making.  
 This  is  done  by  getting  the  trainee  to  check  the  mirrors  approximately  200  metres  
before  the  intersection  and  ask  them  when  they  would  brake  or  indicate  to  control  
the  vehicle  behind.  
 This  exercise  is  repeated  approximately  50  metres  before  the  intersection  to  evaluate  
the  difference  between  the  two  in  terms  of  time,  safety  and  driving  comfort.  
When  
Sub  model  7.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  that  the  distance  does  not  really  alter  on  approach  to  
hazards  no  matter  what  the  speed  when  you  need  to  check  mirrors  to  assist  decision-­‐
making.    

Topic  8     Signal  Knowledge  


Why  
Sub  model  8.1  
 Trainee  needs  to  experience  what  signalling  to  early  would  be  and  what  circumstance  
would  the  signal  give  the  wrong  intention.  
Sub  model  8.2  

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 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  problem  with  signalling  too  late  and  the  effect  
on  the  following  vehicle.  
How  and  When  
Sub  model  8.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  speed  effects  distance  when  the  trainee  
should  signal  to  maximise  safety  from  behind  without  causing  confusion.  
 The  trainer  should  as  the  trainee  to  stop  when  they  would  signal  and  discuss  safety  
outcomes.  

Topic  9   Changing  Down  Gears  


Why  
Sub  model  9.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  labouring  is.  
 The  trainee  will  slow  down  in  3rd  gear  to  approximately  15  to  20  kmp/h  and  
accelerating  up  to  50  kmp/h,  experiencing  the  different  engine  sounds  and  
acceleration  response.  
Sub  model  9.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  speed  range  in  each  gear  from  the  lowest  
speed  range  to  the  highest  speed  range.  
 1st  gear  0-­‐30  kmp/h  
 2nd  gear  10  kmp/h  to  50  kmp/h  
 3rd  gear  35  kmp/h  upwards  
 4th  gear  50  kmp/h  upwards  
 5th  gear  70  kmp/h  upwards  
How    
Sub  model  9.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  control  the  speed  with  the  footbrake.  
 Flat  road  at  approximately  20  kmp/h  
 Uphill  at  approximately  20  kmp/h  
 Downhill  at  approximately  20  kmp/h  
Sub  model  9.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  changing  back  technique,  controlling  the  
speed  at  the  same  speed  they  would  go  around  a  corner  and  changing  back,  still  
controlling  the  speed  with  the  brake  if  practical  and  releasing  the  clutch  smoothly.  

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When  
Sub  model  9.5  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  distance  from  the  hazard  they  must  reduce  
speed  and  change  back  to  appropriate  gear.  
Example  at  60  kmp/h  
 Start  braking  approximately  100  metres  from  the  corner.  
 30  metres  before  the  corner  the  vehicle  will  be  doing  the  same  speed  as  the  trainee  
will  negotiate  the  corner.  
 Change  back  the  gear  and  release  the  clutch  fully  no  less  than  10  metres  before  the  
corner.  

Topic  10     Unlaned  Roundabouts  


Why  
Sub  model  10.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problems  with  entering  the  roundabout  keeping  
the  wheels  straight  and  entering  the  roundabout  to  gain  a  better  view  on  the  right,  
which  prevents  the  vehicle  on  the  right  from  proceeding  through  the  roundabout.  
 Entering  the  roundabout  keeping  the  wheels  straight.  
Sub  model  10.2  
 Stoping  inside  the  roundabout  to  gain  maximum  observation  on  the  right.  
How    
Sub  model  10.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  correct  technique  for  entering,  travelling  through  
and  exiting  the  roundabout.  
1. Proceed  straight  
2. Turning  right  
3. Turning  left  
Sub  model  10.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  who  they  must  giveway  too.  
Sub  model  10.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  maximise  observation  when  proceeding  
straight,  right  turn  and  left  turn  at  a  roundabout.  
 When  travelling  straight  ahead  at  the  roundabout,  the  trainee  will  preform  two  90  
degree  scans  from  the  right  to  the  oncoming  vehicles  turning  right  and  finally  to  the  
entry  point  of  the  roundabout.    Once  they  have  entered  the  roundabout  they  will  
preform  one  90-­‐degree  scan  from  the  left  to  the  exit  point  of  the  roundabout.    
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 When  turning  right  at  the  roundabout,  the  trainee  will  preform  two  90  degree  scans  
from  the  right  to  the  oncoming  vehicles  turning  right  and  finally  to  the  entry  point  of  
the  roundabout.    Once  they  have  entered  the  roundabout  they  will  preform  one  180-­‐
degree  scan  from  the  left  to  the  oncoming  vehicle  and  then  to  the  exit  point  of  the  
roundabout.    

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

When  
Sub  model  10.6  
 The  trainee  need  to  experience  what  speed  should  be  selected  relevant  to  the  
following  vehicle  and  vision  blockout.  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  braking  distance  between:  
1. 10  kmp/h  
2. 15  kmp/h  
3. 20  kmp/h  
4. 25  kmp/h  

Topic  11     Gear  Selection  Down  Hill  


Why  
Sub  model  11.1  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  much  effect,  different  gears  have  on  the  
engine  compression  in  order  to  control  speed  of  the  vehicle  downhill.  
How    
Sub  model  11.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience,  which  gear  to  select  to  control  the  speed  for  the  
decent.    
When  
Sub  model  11.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  when  they  should  change  back  the  gear  before  
going  downhill.  

Topic  12     Intersection  Approach  


Why  
Sub  model  12.1  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  what  is  their  braking  distance  in  an  emergency  
brake  at  60  kmp/h  to  work  out  their  own  personal  braking  distance.  
Sub  model  12.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  difference  in  braking  distance  at  60  kmp/h  by  
covering  the  brake  before  braking.  
How    
Sub  model  12.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  what  speed  they  approach  the  intersection  
relevant  to  vision  blockout.  

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When  
Sub  model  12.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  when  they  should  cover  the  brake  on  the  
approach  to  the  intersection.  

Topic  13     Vision  Blockout  


Why  
Sub  model  13.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  vision  blockout  is  with  in  and  outside  the  
vehicle  at  intersections.  
How    
Sub  model  13.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  advantages  of  moving  the  vehicle  and  their  
body  to  a  different  position  in  order  to  remove  vision  blockout  at  intersections.  
Sub  model  13.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  remove  vision  blockout  from  oncoming  
vehicles  when  turning  right  
When  
Sub  model  13.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  what  is  the  best  position  to  move  the  vehicle  to  
remove  vision  blockout  at  different  type  of  intersections.    
 The  trainee  will  need  to  make  a  decision  when  they  should  stop  and  move  up  too,  in  
order  to  remove  vision  blockout  at  intersections  

Topic  14     180  Degree  Scanning  At  Intersections  


Why  
Sub  model  14.1  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  how  the  blindspot  works  in  the  eyes.  
 The  trainer  will  need  to  do  the  exercise  that  creates  the  blindspot  in  the  eyes  with  the  
paper  and  black  dots.  
How    
Sub  model  14.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  remove  the  blindspot  in  the  eyes  at  an  
intersection.  
 The  trainee  will  needs  to  experience  how  to  preform  two  180  degree  scans  at  
intersections  when  facing  a  stop  or  giveway  sign.  

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When  
Sub  model  14.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  when  180  degree  scanning  is  required  to  remove  
the  blindspot  in  the  eyes.  

Topic  15     Giveway  Signs  


Why  
Sub  model  15.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  recognise  a  giveway  sign  by  either  the  sign  or  
road  markings.  
How    
Sub  model  15.2  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  who  they  must  giveway  to  when  proceeding  
straight  ahead  or  turning.  
1. Straight  
2. Left  turn  
3. Right  turn  
When  
Sub  model  15.3  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  whether  they  need  to  stop  relevant  to  vision  
block-­‐out,  giving  way  to  other  vehicles  or  pedestrians  and  whether  there  is  enough  
scanning  time  to  evaluate  all  potential  hazards.  
Sub  model  15.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  select  a  speed  relevant  to  braking  distance  
required  to  stop  before  entering  the  intersection  if  there  is  a  problem  with  vision  or  
potential  danger  of  collision.    

Topic  16     Stop  Signs  


Why  
Sub  model  16.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  difference  between  stopping  and  almost  
stopping  the  vehicle.  
Sub  model  16.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  factors  that  determine  whether  the  intersection  
is  control  by  a  stop  or  give  way  sign  relevant  to  the  sign  or  line  markings.  
Sub  model  16.3  

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 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  difference  between  looking  at  the  stoping  line  or  
looking  at  the  vehicles  they  must  giveway  too  and  how  it  effects  concentrating  on  
stopping  behind  the  line.    
How    
Sub  model  16.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  correct  technique  used  for  approaching  stop  
signs.  
1. Stop  first  looking  at  the  stop  line.  
2. Select  appropriate  gear.  
3. Scan  for  appropriate  vehicles,  pedestrians  and  potential  danger  of  collision.  
When  
Sub  model  16.5  
 The  trainee  will  experience  how  far  they  can  move  the  vehicle  over  the  stop  line  in  
order  to  remove  vision  blockout  at  intersections  without  interfering  with  other  
vehicles.  
Sub  model  16.6  
 The  trainee  will  experience  once  they  have  stopped  behind  another  vehicle  that  they  
must  re  stop  again  at  the  stop  line.    

Topic  17     Diverging  


Why  
Sub  model  17.1  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  the  problems  with  the  vehicle  when  diverging.  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  on  the  side  of  the  road:  
 Mirror  awareness  and  the  problems  with  between  distance  and  speed.  
 Limitation  of  what  the  mirrors  can  reflect  such  as  what  mirrors  can  see  behind  the  
vehicle  on  the  left  and  right  
 The  blind  spots  when  diverging  and  the  two  different  types  of  head  checks  between  
lane  changing  and  leaving  the  kerb.  
 The  problems  when  head  checking  past  90  degrees  if  the  vehicle  in  front  was  to  brake  
while  the  trainee  when  diverging.  
How    
Sub  model  17.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  correct  technique  for  diverging  on  the  side  of  the  
road.  

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 Inside  mirror,  signal  back  to  the  road  


 Outside  mirror,  back  to  the  road  
 Inside  mirror,  back  to  the  road  
 If  safe  in  the  mirrors  and  in  the  front  
 Head  check  and  back  to  the  road  
 Option  to  check  inside  mirror  once  more  
 Move  over  safely  watching  where  you  are  moving  too  
Sub  model  17.3  
 The  trainer  will  to  experience  the  correct  technique  of  leaving  and  returning  to  the  
kerb.  
 The  focus  will  be  on  signal  knowledge  and  180  degree  head  checking  so  as  the  trainee  
can  observe  other  vehicle  approaching  from  behind  as  well  as  looking  for  potential  
danger  coming  out  of  drive  ways  or  off  footways.    
Sub  model  17.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  judge  other  vehicles  in  the  mirrors.  
 The  trainee  will  be  travelling  along  in  a  four  laned,  two-­‐way  carriageway  and  the  driver  
trainer  will  question  the  trainee  on  what  part  of  the  carriageway  is  the  vehicle  coming  
from  behind.  
 The  trainee  will  be  travelling  along  in  a  four  laned,  two  way  carriageway  and  the  driver  
trainer  will  question  the  trainee  on  whether  the  vehicle  coming  from  behind  is  
travelling  at  the  same,  slower  or  faster  speed.  
 The  trainee  will  practice  altering  their  speed  to  see  the  effect  on  the  overtaking  
vehicle.  
Sub  model  17.5  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  head  checking  to  remove  the  blindspot  while  
moving  along.  
 The  trainee  will  experience  head  checking  between  the  left,  front  and  to  the  right  and  
back  to  the  front.      
 The  trainee  will  experience  the  overtaking  vehicle  disappears  in  the  mirrors  they  will  
then  head  check  to  evaluate  the  blindspot.    
Sub  model  17.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  technique  of  diverging  with  out  using  the  signals  
at  this  stage  and  moving.    
Sub  model  17.7  
 The  trainee  will  experience  the  full  technique,  diverging  from  left  to  right.  
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When  
Sub  model  17.8  
 The  trainee  will  experience  when  how  to  select  the  best  position  to  diverge  relevant  
to  potential  danger  the  signal  could  create.    

Topic  18     Space  Cushion  

Following  distance  
Why  
Sub  model  18.1  
 The  trainee  needs  experience  how  much  distance  the  vehicle  travels  per  second  at  50  
kmp/h,  60  kmp/h  and  70  kmp/h.    
Sub  model  18.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  their  braking  distance  at  50  kmp/h,  60  kmp/h  and  70  
kmp/h  and  compare  these  distances  with  the  first  sub-­‐model.    
Sub  model  18.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  their  reaction  braking  distance  at  50  kmp/h,  60  
kmp/h  and  70  kmp/h  so  as  to  calculate  how  much  distance  they  travel  before  they  
start  to  brake.  
How  
Sub  model  18.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  calculate  their  following  distance  relevant  to  
wet  and  dry  roads.    
When  
Sub  model  18.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  increase  their  following  distance  in  order  to  
control  the  following  vehicle  that  is  a  potential  danger.    

Passing  Or  Overtaking  


Why  
Sub  model  18.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  wide  they  will  need  to  be  in  order  to  overtake  or  
pass  a  oncoming  or  parked  vehicle.  
 The  trainer  will  need  to  stop  the  trainee  and  open  the  door  relevant  to  the  parked  
vehicle  to  show  the  desired  passing  width.  
How    
Sub  model  18.7  
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 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  were  they  should  be  looking  on  the  approach,  while  
their  overtaking  or  passing  a  oncoming  or  parked  vehicle  and  final  which  point  of  the  
road  as  they  exit  the  danger  zone.  
When  
Sub  model  18.8  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  to  diverge  in  order  to  minimise  the  angle  of  
movement  and  the  potential  for  a  head  on  accident.  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  moving  out  from  
1. 50  metres  behind  the  parked  car.  
2. 15  metres  behind  the  parked  car.  
3. 5  metres  behind  the  parked  car.  
Sub  model  18.9  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  must  stop  relevant  to  legal  requirements  
and  to  avoid  a  potential  head  on  accident.  

Topic  19     Long  Range  Scanning  


Why  
Sub  model  19.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  scan  through  the  3  different  observation  
ranges,  from  short,  medium  to  long  range  planning.    The  trainee  needs  to  experience  
the  effects  on  peripheral  vision  between  long  to  short  range  scanning.  
Sub  model  19.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  advantages  of  early  position  changing  on  
approach  to  hazards.      
How    
Sub  model  19.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  change  position  were  practical  a  minimum  of  
12  seconds  before  the  hazard.    
When  
Sub  model  19.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  select  the  best  position  on  the  road  to  
negotiate  potential  hazards.  

Topic  20     Reversing  And  Parking  


Why  
Sub  model  20.1  

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 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  best  places  to  look  when  reversing  in  order  to  
maximise  safety  and  judgement.  
 The  trainer  will  need  the  conduct  the  following  3  exercises.  
1. Reversing  looking  through  the  back,  side  window,  to  show  the  problems  with  
judgment  and  safety.  
2. Reversing  looking  through  the  middle  of  the  back  window  with  the  central  vision  
and  checking  the  front  every  2  seconds  to  verify  the  position  on  the  road.  
3. Reversing  using  mirrors  only  and  the  problems  it  creates  with  judgment  and  
safety.  
Sub  model  20.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  turning  the  steering  wheel  in  different  directions  and  
the  effect  it  has  on  the  vehicle  when  reversing.  
How  and  when  
Sub  model  20.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  turning  the  steering  wheel  either  left  or  right  and  
practicing  restraightening  the  vehicle  back  to  the  intended  path.  
Sub  model  20.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  reversing  back  in  a  straight  line  approximately  1  
metre  out  from  the  kerb.  
Sub  model  20.5  
 Trainee  needs  to  experience  the  reversing  skills  relevant  to  testing  requirements.  
Sub  model  20.6  
 Trainee  needs  to  experience  driving  and  reversing  in  and  out  of  a  90  degree  parking  
spot.  

Topic  21     U  Turns  


Why  
Sub  model  21.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problems  with  turning  from  and  finishing  in  the  
incorrect  position.  
Sub  model  21.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  potential  danger  will  come  from  when  making  
a  U  Turn.  
How    
Sub  model  21.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  best  position  to  start  and  finish  a  U  Turn  

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1. Unlaned  carriageway  
2. Laned  carriageway  
3. Laned  carriageway  with  reservation  dividing  the  road  
Sub  model  21.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  correct  observation  techniques  both  for  giving  
way  and  also  were  they  could  hit  stationary  objects.  
Sub  model  21.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  a  3-­‐point  turn,  relevant  to  observation,  where  to  turn  
the  wheels  and  the  problems  with  dry  steering.  

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When  
Sub  model  21.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  best  position  to  start  and  finish  a  U  turn  
according  to  legal  requirements  a  potential  danger  from  other  vehicles,  objects  and  
pedestrians.    

Topic  22     Speed  Selection  


Why  
Sub  model  22.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problem  with  parallax  error  on  the  speedo  
needle.  
Sub  model  22.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  difference  in  braking  distance  relevant  to  high  or  
low  speed  selection.  
 The  trainee  will  measure  their  braking  at;  
a. 40  kmp/h  
b. 50  kmp/h  
c. 60  kmp/h  
d. 70  kmp/h  
How    
Sub  model  22.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  a  speed  zone  starts  and  where  it  finishes,  as  
well  as  an  awareness  of  what  is  the  maximum  speed  limit  in  that  zone.  
Sub  model  22.4  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  control  their  speed  on  flat,  uphill  and  
downhill  roads.  
When  
Sub  model  22.5  
 The  trainee  will  need  to  experience  how  to  select  a  speed  relevant  to  hazard  density.  

Topic  23     Road  Signs  And  Markings  


Why,  How  and  When  
Sub  model  23.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  road  sign  awareness.    Once  the  vehicle  passes  a  road  
sign  the  trainer  should  ask  the  trainee,  what  was  the  last  sign  they  passed?  
Sub  model  23.2  

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 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  and  be  guided  by  the  meaning  road  signs.  
 The  trainer  needs  to  question  the  trainee  on  approach  to  the  sign,  what  do  they  think  
the  intended  meaning  of  the  sign  is?    
Sub  model  23.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  and  be  guided  by  the  meaning  of  road  markings.  
 The  trainer  needs  to  question  the  trainee  on  the  approach  to  the  road  markings,  what  
is  the  intended  meaning  of  the  road  marking?    

Topic  24     School  Crossings  


Why  
Sub  model  24.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  identify  when  the  school  crossing  is  in  
operation  as  per  legal  and  safety  requirements.    
Sub  model  24.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  must  stop  and  when  they  can  proceed  
according  to  legal  and  safety  requirements.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  24.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  select  the  appropriate  speed  on  approach  to  
the  school  crossing.  
Sub  model  24.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  must  stop  if  a  vehicle  travelling  in  the  
same  direction  is  stopped  behind  the  stop  line  at  the  school  crossing.  

Topic  25     Pedestrian  Crossings  


Why  
Sub  model  25.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  identify  signs  and  line  markings  relevant  to  a  
pedestrian  crossing.  
Sub  model  25.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  must  stop  and  when  they  can  proceed  if  
there  is  no  danger  of  collision.    
How  &  When  
Sub  model  25.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  an  appropriate  speed  on  the  approach  to  a  
pedestrian  crossing.  

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Sub  model  25.4  


 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  must  stop  if  a  vehicle  travelling  in  the  
same  direction  is  stopped  at  the  crossing.  

Topic  26     Railway  Crossings  


Why  
Sub  model  26.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  identify  when  the  railway  crossing  is  in  
operation,  by  the  warning  lights,  bells,  gates,  booms  or  trains  on  or  partly  on  the  
crossing.  
Sub  model  26.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  select  the  appropriate  speed  on  the  approach  
to  a  railway  crossing.      
How    
Sub  model  26.3  
 When  the  crossing  is  operation  the  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  must  
stop.    
Sub  model  26.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  can  proceed  relevant  to  all  lights,  bells,  
booms  and  gates  are  not  in  operation.  
When  
Sub  model  26.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  the  other  vehicle  could  cause  them  to  stop  on  
top  of  the  crossing  and  create  danger  of  collision  with  trains.  
Sub  model  26.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  were  the  vision  blockout  points  are  when  looking  for  
trains  at  or  near  the  crossing.  

Topic  27     Modified  Intersections  


Why  
Sub  model  27.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  identify  a  modified  intersection,  relevant  to  
line  markings  and  traffic  islands.  
Sub  model  27.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  select  an  appropriate  speed  on  approach  to  a  
modified  intersection.  

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How    
Sub  model  27.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  follow  legal  requirements  when  negotiating  a  
modified  intersection.  
1. Straight  ahead  
2. Left  turn  
3. Right  turn  
When  
Sub  model  27.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  avoid  potential  danger  of  collision  with  other  
vehicles.  

Topic  28     Choice  Of  Lanes  


Why  
Sub  model  28.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  problems  with  travelling  in  the  right  lane  in  a  four  
laned,  two-­‐way  carriageway.    Some  of  these  problems  come  from  other  vehicles  
overtaking  from  the  left  and  the  potential  for  a  head  on  accident,  if  the  carriageway  is  
not  divided  by  a  reservation.  
Sub  model  28.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  should  travel  in  an  unlaned  carriageway  
in  order  to  prevent  vehicles  from  overtaking  on  the  left  side.  
Sub  model  28.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  it  is  practical  to  travel  by  the  centre  of  the  
carriageway  or  in  the  right  lane  because  of  a  potential  hazard  ahead.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  28.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  can  travel  in  the  right  lane  or  left  of  the  
centre  of  the  carriageway.    
1. Unlaned  carriageway  
2. Four  laned,  two  way  carriageway  
3. Unlaned  carriage  divided  by  a  reservation.  
4. Six  laned  carriageway  divided  by  a  reservation.  

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Topic  29     Fairway  


Why  
Sub  model  29.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  can  travel  to  the  right  of  a  fairway  line.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  29.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  can  make  a  right  turn  from  a  fairway  lane.  
When  
Sub  model  29.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  determine  the  potential  danger  of  collision  
with  trams  approaching  from  behind.  

Topic  30     Heavy  Vehicle  Awareness  


Why  
Sub  model  30.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  should  position  their  vehicle  behind  
heavy  vehicles  turning.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  30.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  where  they  should  position  their  vehicle  in  order  to  
allow  the  heavy  vehicle  to  turn  into  their  street.  

Topic  31     System  Of  Vehicle  Control  


Why,  How  &  When  
Sub  model  31.1  

Course  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  one  of  the  system  of  vehicle  control,  which  is  
selecting  their  course  as  early  as  practicable.  
 When  the  trainee  is  travelling  in  the  left  lane,  the  trainer  will  ask  them  to  turn  at  the  
second,  third  or  fourth  street.    Once  the  trainee  has  diverged  into  the  right  lane  as  
early  as  practicable,  the  trainer  will  then  asks  them  to  turn  left  at  the  second,  third  or  
fourth  street.    The  objective  of  this  exercise  is  to  encourage  the  trainee  to  experience  
early  position  selection  before  they  worry  about  trying  to  observe  the  street  they  are  
trying  to  turn  into.    The  main  focus  will  be  on  the  trainee  changing  position  at  a  point  
where  it  is  safe  and  practical.  

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Sub  model  31.2  

Mirror  &  signal  


 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  two  of  the  system  of  vehicle  control,  which  is  
waiting  until  they  pass  all  danger  and  then  checking  mirrors  and  signalling  for  the  
turn.  
 When  the  trainee  is  travelling  in  the  left  lane,  the  trainer  will  ask  the  trainee  to  turn  
left  at  the  second  or  third  street  to  evaluate  whether  they  have  passed  all  potential  
danger  before  mirror  and  signalling  for  the  turn.  
Sub  model  31.3  
Brake  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  three  of  the  system  of  vehicle  control,  which  
involves  applying  their  past  prior  learning  of  slowing  the  vehicle  with  the  brakes  to  
the  appropriate  speed  so  as  they  can  negotiate  the  hazard.  
Sub  model  31.4  

Gear  &  mirror  


 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  four  of  the  system  of  vehicle  control  after  
slowing  down,  which  is  selecting  the  appropriate  gear  and  checking  the  mirrors  for  
the  effect  on  the  following  vehicle.  
 This  exercise  involves  questioning  the  trainee  once  they  have  slowed  down  and  
changed  back  to  the  appropriate  gear  before  the  hazard.    What  is  the  potential  
danger  from  the  vehicle  behind?  
Sub  model  31.5  

Evasive  action  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  five  of  the  system,  which  is  the  application  of  
evasive  action.  
 This  exercise  involves  the  trainer  stopping  the  trainee  approximately  ten  metres  from  
the  intersection  and  parking  the  vehicle  beside  the  kerb.      
 The  trainer  will  then  ask  the  trainee  who  they  must  give  way  to  and  where  would  the  
potential  danger  come  from  if  they  were  turning  or  proceeding  straight  ahead?      
 The  next  exercise  will  involve  the  trainer  asking  the  same  questions,  but  this  time  
while  the  vehicle  is  moving  towards  the  intersection.  
Sub  model  31.6  

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Acceleration  1  &  2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  feature  six  of  the  system,  which  is  acceleration  one  
and  two.  
 This  exercise  involves  the  trainee  stopping  the  vehicle  at  position  A1  and  A2,  so  as  
they  can  experience  where  they  should  accelerate  on  a  wet  and  dry  road.  

Topic  32     Merging  


Why  
Sub  model  32.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  they  should  indicate,  relevant  to  changing  
position  when  merging.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  32.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  technique  of  merging  when  it's  safe  to  do  so.  
Sub  model  323  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  other  vehicle  to  merge  safely  across  in  front  
of  them.  

Topic  33     Laned  Roundabout  


Why  
Sub  model  33.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  keep  within  their  lane  when  travelling:  
1. Straight-­‐ahead.  
2. Turning  left.  
3. Turning  right.  
How    
Sub  model  33.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  correct  technique  for  entering,  travelling  through  
and  exiting  a  laned  roundabout:  
1. Proceed  straight.  
2. Turning  right.  
3. Turning  left.  
Sub  model  33.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  who  they  must  giveway  too.  
Sub  model  33.4  

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 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  maximise  observation  when  proceeding  
straight,  right  turn  and  left  turn  at  a  roundabout.  
 When  travelling  straight  ahead  at  the  roundabout,  the  trainee  will  preform  two  90  
degree  scans  from  the  right  to  the  oncoming  vehicles  turning  right  and  finally  to  the  
entry  point  of  the  roundabout.    Once  they  have  entered  the  roundabout  they  will  
preform  one  90-­‐degree  scan  from  the  left  to  the  exit  point  of  the  roundabout.    
 When  turning  right  at  the  roundabout,  the  trainee  will  preform  two  90  degree  scans  
from  the  right  to  the  oncoming  vehicles  turning  right  and  finally  to  the  entry  point  of  
the  roundabout.    Once  they  have  entered  the  roundabout  they  will  preform  one  180-­‐
degree  scan  from  the  left  to  the  oncoming  vehicle  and  then  to  the  exit  point  of  the  
roundabout.    
When  
Sub  model  33.5  
 The  trainee  need  to  experience  what  speed  should  be  selected  relevant  to  the  
following  vehicle  and  vision  blockout  on  approach  to  the  roundabout.  
Sub  model  33.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  evaluate  potential  danger  form  other  vehicles  
drifting  or  turning  illegally  out  of  their  lane.  

Topic  34     Left  Turn  At  Lights  


Why  
Sub  model  34.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  point  were  they  have  entered  the  intersection  
over  the  stop  line  and  they  are  committed  to  exiting  the  intersection.  
Sub  model  34.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  legal  and  directional  requirements  of  the  traffic  
lights  or  arrows.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  34.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  the  should  use  their  eyes  to  maximise  
observation.  
Sub  model  34.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  their  legal  requirement  of  giving  way  when  turning  
left.  
Sub  model  34.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  legal  requirements  of  the  lights  and  giving  way  
when  turning  left  at  slip  lanes.  

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Sub  model  34.6  


 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  the  eyes  should  be  used  to  maximise  
observation  when  turning  left  at  a  slip  lane.  
Sub  model  34.7  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  control  the  vehicle  from  behind  when  turning  
left  at  a  slip  lane.  

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Topic  35     Right  Turn  At  Lights  


Why  
Sub  model  35.1  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  point  where  they  have  entered  the  intersection  
and  must  clear  it  if  the  lights  change  to  amber  or  red.  
Sub  model  35.2  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  legal  and  directional  requirements  of  the  traffic  
lights  or  arrows.  
How  &  When  
Sub  model  35.3  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  one-­‐third-­‐entry  point  of  the  intersection  while  
keeping  the  wheels  straight.  
Sub  model  35.4  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  legal  requirements  of  giving  way  when  turning  
right.    
Sub  model  35.5  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  the  eyes  are  used  to  maximise  observation  
between  the  oncoming  vehicle,  lights  and  the  pedestrian  are  walking  across  the  street  
they  are  turning  into.  
Sub  model  35.6  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  and  how  they  can  remove  vision  blockout  from  
the  oncoming  vehicle.  
Sub  model  35.7  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  different  types  of  traffic  light  arrows  and  the  
legal  requirements  where  they  must  stop  if  they  turn  to  amber  or  red.  
Sub  model  35.8  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  the  different  entry  positions  when  either  islands  or  
right  turning  lanes  divides  the  intersection.  
Sub  model  35.9  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  when  turning  from  the  outside  lane  of  two  lanes  
turning  together  where  they  should  start  and  finish  their  turn.  
Sub  model  35.10  
 The  trainee  needs  to  experience  how  to  scan  for  potential  danger  of  collision  form  
other  vehicles  that  may  turn  illegally  wide.  

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