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Introduction

The purpose of this experiment was to study the behavior of steel, a


widely used material in civil engineering industries. As a result of the
tensile test, we were able to discover the strain depending on the load
put on the steel.
Background
By using the data from the tensile test, we are able to collect data for a
stress strain curve. As we went through the two-part experiment, we
were able to determine the way steel reacts as the load increased. As
the length of the steel rod changed in small increments, immeasurable
with the naked eye, we used a testing machine and extensometer as
we applied load. Once the extensometer reached its limit, we
measured the change in length with dividers. The load and
corresponding length measurements gave us the values we needed to
calculate stress and strain.
Results
length (in)

Load (lbs)

Strain (in/in)

Stress (psi)

0.0005

500

0.0000625

2506.265664

0.001

880

0.000125

4411.027569

0.0015

1160

0.0001875

5814.536341

0.002

1520

0.00025

7619.047619

0.0025

1840

0.0003125

9223.057644

0.003

2200

0.000375

11027.56892

0.0035

2320

0.0004375

11629.07268

0.004

2840

0.0005

14235.58897

0.0045

3200

0.0005625

16040.10025

0.005

3560

0.000625

17844.61153

0.0055

3860

0.0006875

19348.37093

0.006

4540

0.00075

22756.89223

0.0065

4620

0.0008125

23157.89474

0.007

4720

0.000875

23659.14787

0.0075

5000

0.0009375

25062.65664

0.008

5320

0.001

26666.66667

0.0085

5400

0.0010625

27067.66917

0.009

5600

0.001125

28070.17544

0.0095

5680

0.0011875

28471.17794

0.0245

5400

0.0030625

27067.66917

0.0295

5640

0.0036875

28270.67669

0.0345

5400

0.0043125

27067.66917

0.0395

5300

0.0049375

26566.41604

0.0445

5440

0.0055625

27268.17043

0.0495

5380

0.0061875

26967.41855

0.0545

5240

0.0068125

26265.66416

0.0595

5240

0.0074375

26265.66416

0.0645

5260

0.0080625

26365.91479

0.0695

5180

0.0086875

25964.91228

0.0745

5440

0.0093125

27268.17043

0.0795

5320

0.0099375

26666.66667

0.125

5340

0.015625

26766.91729

0.15

5960

0.01875

29874.68672

0.175

6360

0.021875

31879.69925

0.3

6880

0.0375

34486.21554

0.5

8200

0.0625

41102.75689

0.7

8880

0.0875

44511.2782

0.9

9320

0.1125

46716.79198

1.1

9500

0.1375

47619.04762

1.5

9820

0.1875

49223.05764

1.7

9740

0.2125

48822.05514

1.9

9760

0.2375

48922.30576

2.1

7600

0.2625

38095.2381

FRACTURE!

5400

Discussion

Stress vs Strain
50000
40000
30000
Stress (PSI)

Steel

20000
10000
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

Strain (in/in)

0.2

0.25

Stress vs Strain (Elastic modulus)


30000
25000
20000
Stress (PSI)

15000

Steel

10000
5000
0
0

Strain (in/in)

a) Modulus of Elasticity: 24.9 x 106 psi (calculated by finding the line of


best fit and using the slope of the line).
b) .2% offset yield strength: Determined graphically, approximately
27,067 psi

Stress vs Strain (Offset Yield Strength)


30000
25000
20000
Stress
15000
10000
5000
0
0

0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

c) Upper yield: 28,471 PSI

Lower yield: Unable to be calculated because of missing data points


d) Ultimate Tensile Strength: 49,223 psi (determined from results)
e) % Elongation: 8.5% increase
f) % Area Reduction: 85.8%
Elastic Strain at 30,000 psi: 0.0012
Plastic Strain at 30,000 psi: 0.01755
Elastic Strain at 45,000 psi: 0.0018
Plastic Strain at 45,000 psi: 0.1857
True Stress?
Upon looking back to the results of the first lab, the values for true
stress were higher than those for engineering stress. Therefore, the
true stress vs. engineering strain would be higher (but fairly similar) to
the engineering stress vs. engineering strain graph.

Sample Calculations
(Engineering) Strain = l/l0 = .0005 (in)/8 (in) = 6.25 * 10-5
(Engineering) Stress = F/A0 = 500(lbs)/.1995(in2) = 2,506 psi
A0 = r2 = (d/2)2 = (.504/2)2 = .1995 in2
% Elongation: l/l0 = (2.17 2)/2 = .085 8.5% increase
% Reduction in Area: |(Af-A0)/A0| = |((.19/2)2*-(.504/2)2*)/(.504/2)2*)|
= 0.858 = 85.7% decrease
Elastic Strain = Modulus of Elasticity/Stress 30,000 psi/ 24.9*106 psi
= 0.0012
Plastic Strain: Straintotal Strainelastic = Strainplastic 0.01875 - 0.0012 =
0.01755

Conclusion
The experiment was moreover successful, as the stress vs. strain curve
looks similar to the steel alloy stress and strain curve in the laboratory
handout. In the experiment, we were able to successfully determine
the upper yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, observe the

point of fracture, and the overall stress-strain behavior of steel.


However, mistakes made in the experiment did lead to some
discrepancies in our results. For example, there was a couple of
missing data points after the upper yield. During the lab, after reaching
the upper yield, the length was changing at a rate too fast for the load
to be measured, as the load added should have been slowed down.
Because of this, we were unable to determine the lower yield that
occurs after the upper yield. We were unable to get the data point at a
length change of 0.2 inches because the extensometer had reached its
limit at that point. We also had a missing data point when measuring
the length using dividers because we were a little careless during the
lab and skipped one of the points. Another discrepancy in the lab was
observed in the elongation for each inch we observed after fracture.
We expected to see the length increase per inch as we moved toward
the center and than decrease again moving away from the center.
However, this phenomenon only occurred on half of the steel rod. On
the other half, the length per inch was nearly the same for all of the
points. A way to improve the lab would certainly be to be more
attentive at all times to avoid missing values in the results. Still, we
were able to learn about the behavior of steel under stress, so
ultimately, the labs purpose was fulfilled.