Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41


Year 2 Semester 2
Unit 23: Human Resources Development
Assignment title: Preparing and evaluating a training

Submitted by

Ye Myint


Page No.

1 Introduction

2 Objectives



Executive summary



Task 1 The learning theories learning style and learning curves

1.1 Comparing different learning style

1.2 The roles of the learning curve and the importance of


transferring learning in workplace

1.3 The contribution of learning styles and theories when
Planning and designing a learning event


Task 2 The different training needs assessment and systematic

Planning of training and development for a training event
2.1 Comparing the training needs for staff at different levels


in an organization
2.2 The advantages and disadvantages of training methods


used in an organization
2.3 A systematic approach to plan training and development
for a training event


Task 3 Evaluation techniques for different training events

3.1 An evaluation using suitable techniques


3.2 An evaluation of a training event


3.3 Review the success of the evaluation used


Task 4 The impact of training initiatives introduced by

government on human resource development of the organizations
in the public and private sectors
4.1 The role of government in training, development and life


long Learning
4.2 The development of the competency movement has


impacted on the public and private sectors

4.3 Contemporary training initiatives introduced by the the UK


government contribute to human resources development for an








1. Introduction
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework to helping employees
develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human
Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training,
employee career development, performance management and development,
coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition
assistance, and organization development.
2. Objective
The objective of this assignment is to understand learning theories and learning
styles, to be able to plan and design training and development, to be able to
evaluate a training event and to understand government-led skills development


3. Executive summary
The Golden Star Co.ltd is manufacturing and distributing cold-drink products with
a certain brand. The products are diversified in kind. The marketing manager of
that company, U Khin Maung Htay is facing with some problems in doing his
works. No activity can be properly functioned. The work is not smooth.
Complaints from customers and distributors are emerging day by day with a
variety of dissatisfactions in delivering, invoicing, ordering, payments and other
unnecessary communication breaks.
Altogether 60 employees are working in his marketing division. Although U Khin
Maung Htay instructs them how to do something in right and proper way, the
salesmen do things in their ways based on what they know. They know nothing
about the company's mission, rules and regulation, divisions, objective and targets,
ways of doing things, communication channels and procedures. Employers are
varied range from one year to ten years. Some of them are salesmen, some are
incharges, and the rest are supervisors. The managing committee of the company

has recently made decisions to increase 5% turnover in sales in next year and it is
informed to U Khin Maung Htay.
I have been working as a training manager in HR department an d same in working
years to U Khin Maung Htay and both of us are closed friends. U Khin Maung
Htay needs some adivice from me to handle and reduce the problems ha has been
encountering. U Maung Htay and his boss ( U Tin Myint) have discussed about this
situation and U Tin Myint has agreed to provide some appropriate trainings and
we are assigned to prepare and propose a training programme.


Task 1 The learning theories learning style and learning curves

1.1 Comparing different learning styles
Learning is the gaining over time of skills, knowledge, experience or attitude.
Learning is the process of changing our behavior so that we will be able to do
something that that we were unable to do before the learning took place. When we
learnt something we should be able to see and measure our change behavior and
this will allow us and our tutors to decide how successful we have been in the
learning process. In other words learning is a process which has the 3-Ws; what,
why and how. Human being has a general tendency for learning and it can also be
instigated. In learning, the mind and prior knowledge or previous knowledge plays
an important role.
Thorough different styles and ways we acquires skills, etiquette, knowledge, values
or preference. There are different theories about learning. Some early
commentators say that learning is a result of active engagement, others says that
learning is not only a personal matter rather it is a social phenomenon and people
learn from social exposure. Basically Learning theories are conceptual frameworks
that describe how a new knowledge or skills are acquired.
Many experts had given their own views about learning. Among the scholars of
learning style David Kolb advocates a certain type of learning style and
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford supported a different learning style. Here is a brief
comparison between the 2 famous learning styles:
KOLB's Experiential Learning Cycle
Kolb provides one of the most useful descriptive models of the adult learning
process. The theory presents a cyclical model of learning, consisting of four stages
follow as;
Concrete Experience (Do)
Reflective Observation (Observe)

Abstract Conceptualization (Think)

Active Experimentation (Plan)

( doing/having an
(planning/trying out
what we have
learned )

( concluding/
learning from the
experience )

reflecting on the
experience )

Fig (1.1) Kolb's experimental learning cycle

Kolb's four-stage learning cycle shows how experience is translated though
reflection into concepts which in turns are used as guide for active experimentation
and the choice of new experiences.
Concrete experience: either planned or accidental and where the learner actively
experiences an activity
Reflection: when the leaner consciously reflects back on that experience
Abstract conceptualization is where the learner attempts to conceptualize a theory
or model of what is observed
Kolb identified four learning style which correspond to these stages. The styles
highlight conditions under which learners learn better. These styles are;
Assimilators, who learn better when presented with sound logical theories to

Convergers, who learn better when provided with practical applications of

concepts and theories
Accommodators, who learn better when provided with 'hands-on' experience
Divergers, who learn better when allowed to observe and collect a wide range of

Honey and Mumford's learning styles

Honey and Mumford noted that people vary not just in their learning skills but also
in their learning styles. Honey and Mumford formulated a popular classification of
learning styles in terms of the attitudes and behaviors which determine an
individual's preferred way of learning. They are activist, reflector, theorist and
Activist- activist person will probably want to get in a project or specific
assignment to develop skills on the job. Tackling very practical open and flexible
learning programmes or activity-based training courses will be most suitable for
Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They enjoy
the here and now, and happy to be dominated by immediate experiences. They
open-mined, not skeptical and this ten to make them enthusiastic about anything
new. Their philosophy is I'll try anything once. They tend to act first and consider
the consequence afterwards. Their days are fills with activity. They tackle
problems by brainstorming,
Reflector- A reflector will appreciate working closely with someone experienced in
this area, and learning thorough observation and discussing their reflections and
plans with a mentor. They will also learn much from books, article and case
Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from many
different perspectives. They collect data both first hand and from the others and
prefer to think about it thoroughly before coming to a conclusion. The through
collection and analysis of data about experiences and events is what counts so they

tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusion for as long as possible. Their

philosophy is to be cautions. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all
possible angles and implications before making a move. They prefer to take a back
seat in meetings and discussions. They enjoy observing other people in action.
They listen to others and get the drifts of the discussion before making their own
points. They tend to adopt a low profile and have a slightly, tolerant, unruffled air
about them. When they act it is part of wide picture which includes the past as well
as the present and others' observations as well as their own.
Theorist- theorist person will most value theory- based courses with well-qualified
and experienced trainers, well-written books and aritcles.
Theorist adapt and integrate observation into complex but logically sound theories,
They think problems though in a vertical, step by step logical way. They assimilate
disparate facts into coherent theories They tend to be perfectionists who won't rest
easy until things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme. They like to analyze and
synthesise. They are keen on basic assumptions, principle, theories models and
systems thinking. Their philosophy prizes rationality and logic. If it's logical, it is
Pragmatist- pragmatist person will find that succinct, practical books and open and
flexible learning are goods way of quick putting new learning to practical use.
They will particularly attracted to working on real-life projects and appreciate the
help of someone who can give them some valuable feedback and coaching.
Pragmatists are keen on try out ideas, theories and techniques to see if they work in
practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first opportunity to
experiment with applications. They are the sort of people who return form courses
brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in practice. They like to get on
with things and act quickly and confidently on ideas that attract them. They tend to
be impatient with ruminating and open-ended discussions. They are essential
practical, down to earth people who like making practical decisions and solving
problems. They respond to problems and opportunities as a challenge. Their
philosophy is " there is always a better and if it works, it is good".


1.2 Explain the role of learning curve and the importance of transferring
learning to workplace

Learning curve has an impact on the overall learning process because it represents
the track record of the performance of the learners. On the other hand learning
doesnt have any impact if they are not transferred to real world, i.e. the
workplace. Every learning style has its own objective and it can only be achieved if
it is transferred to the workplace (Werner and DeSimone, 2009).
The role of learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the
workplace are stated bellow:
Role of Learning Curve:
Like any other curve a learning curve is also a graphical representation. It
represents the increase or decrease of learning in respect to experience. Its a great
tool for assessing the impact of any learning or training program as it shows the
track record.

Fig (1.2) Learning Curve


The learning curve is used to identify the key elements of learners progress and
formulate education policy. It also shows the common elements of effective

Fig (1.3) Learning curve

Learning curve is widely used in resource requirement planning and setting up
incentive rate schemes.

Importance of transferring learning to workplace:

All kind of organizations arrange training and learning sessions for the employees
(Walton, 1999). They use time, fund and energy to train the personnel to have some
benefit in the competitive market place. So it is highly expected that the learners
should transfer their learning to the work place. The importance of transferring
learning to the workplace can be stated as follow:

1. Add Value:


The prime objective of the learning session is to add value to the organization. So
if the learning is not transferred to the workplace no value will be added to the
2. Proper utilization of Fund:
Each training and learning session requires funding. Organizations have spent a lot
to develop its employees. So if the learning is not transferred to the work place
then this spent money will not be utilized in a proper way.
3. Face and Overcome Challenges:
Employees may face practical obstacles in doing his assigned responsibility.
Sometimes he may face a challenge about which he doesnt have any prior
knowledge. Learning sessions contains such case studies. So if the learning is
transferred to the workplace it will help the employees to come up with the new
environment and face and overcome challenges.


1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and
designing a learning event

Learning Styles (David Kolbs model)

David Kolb outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete
Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, and two related approaches toward
transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. In
order for learning to be effective, all four of these approaches must be integrated
.As individuals attempt to use all four approaches, they are likely to develop
strengths in one experience-grasping approach and one experience-transforming
approach. The resulting learning styles are combinations of the individual's
preferred approaches. These learning styles are as follows;

1. Converger,
2. Diverger,
3. Assimilator and
4. Accommodator

Convergers are characterized by abstract conceptualization and active

experimentation. They are good at making practical applications of ideas and using
deductive reasoning to solve problems.
Divergers tend toward concrete experience and reflective observation. They are
imaginative and are good at coming up with ideas and seeing things from different
Assimilators are characterized by abstract conceptualization and reflective
observation. They are capable of creating theoretical models by means of inductive


Accommodators use concrete experience and active experimentation. They are

good at actively engaging with the world and actually doing things instead of
merely reading about and studying them.4 Stages of Learning Unconscious
incompetence: the individual does not understand or know how to do something
and does not recognize the deficit. Conscious incompetence: Individual recognizes
the deficit and value of the new skill. Conscious competence: individual knows
how to do something but requires concentration. Unconscious competence: the
skill becomes natural and can be performed easily. Learning Curve
A learning curve is a graphical representation of the changing rate of learning in
the average person for a given activity. The learning curve also represents at a
glance the initial difficulty of learning something and how much there is to learn
after initial experience.

Different Learning Theories Behaviorist Approach: Behaviorism assumes, when

born our mind is a blank slate and afterwards our mind is shaped through
punishment, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement from our
Positive Reinforcement Involves the adding of something.
Negative Reinforcement Involves the removal of something.
Punishment Behavior which is punished so that it is less likely to occur in
the future. According to this theory there is little difference in the learning
process of humans and other animals. Therefore same research can be
carried out on animal as well as humans. Here, learning is defined as a
change in behavior in the learner.


Fig (1.4) Learning curve


Task 2 The different training needs assessment and systematic

2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in an organization
Planning and evaluation are key elements in the effective delivery of training that
will satisfy business or operational needs within an organization.
For managers to begin to take responsibility for training and development of their
people they need to be able to understand the needs of the people they manage and
how these can be met with a variety of training methods.
There are three types of training or learning need:
Organizational training and development needs are those relating to the
competence of individuals in their jobs, what those individuals do in their jobs, and
what they should do to ensure that the organization is able to meet its objectives.
An example of this could be the ability to care for customers.
Occupational training needs are those which relate to skills, knowledge and
attitudes an individual must have to carry out a job irrespective of who he or she
is. An example could be a typist requiring word-processing skills, or a operator in
a call center knowing how to use the software and the knowledge of relevant
products or services.
Individual (personal) needs relate to the needs of the individual jobholders. For
example, a manager may wish to learn keyboard skills in order to be more effective
in his or her job, even if this is not a prerequisite for the job. This will also include
interpersonal skills development.


Fig (2.1) Levels of traning need analysis

For each level of training need there are two types:
1. Present Where training is most needed, i.e. what skills and knowledge are
required and which individuals require what training?
2. Future How will training needs be affected by changes in technology,
business development, growth and legislation?
The managers role is to develop the skills of the people he or she manages. The
training input may well be the responsibility of people outside the managers team,
but the manager remains responsible for ensuring the skills learnt are put into
practice and that the individual develops as a result


2.2 The advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in an


Different methods of training and their advantages and disadvantages:

There are so many methods of training are existed in our organization society. These training
methods are varies on the needs of the organizations, the trainee and on task being performed.
These methods should be in a suitable form by which the audience, the content, the business
environment and the learning objective. These methods are chosen in such a way so that the
employee will motivated to learn, help to prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainee to
apply and practice what they have been taught ,help trainees retain and transfer what they have
learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge. There are some factors
which affecting the choice of a training methods. They are given on the bellow:
Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees
Learning styles of the trainees
Number of trainees
Trainer's skills and training style. There are so many methods of training. They are describing
with their advantages and disadvantages on the bellow:
Lecture is the method which is most commonly linked with college and secondary education. It
is also considered one of the effective ways to use for adult learners. In this method, the trainer
delivers all the training. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to
support the lecture. Here communication is primarily one-way learning from the trainer to the
Advantages: It requires less time for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot
of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details.


Disadvantages: It does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget
much information if it is delivered in verbal ways.2.

Demonstration is one of very effective way for basic skills training.in this method, the trainer
shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to
perform the task being demonstrated.
Advantages: This method highlights the trainee involvement. It engages several senses such
as seeing, hearing, feeling, touching.
Disadvantages: It requires a arrangement for the trainer preparation and planning. There also
needs to be a sufficient space for the training. If the trainer is not skilled, poor work habits can be
learned by the trainee.3.

Seminar: Seminars is a combination of several group methods such as lectures, discussions,

conferences, demonstrations.
Advantages: Here group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many
group methods as part of the seminar activity.
Disadvantages: In this technique, planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in
conducting a seminar.

Conference: Conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group

considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or
Advantages: There are handsome numbers of trainee participated at the conference. Trainees
build consensus and the trainer can use several methods such as lecture, panel, and seminar to
keep sessions interesting.
Disadvantages: Sometimes it can be difficult to control a group. Lots of opinions generated


at the conference may differ from the managers ideas and may causing conflict.

Panel: This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. A panel provides several
points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have opposite
views but they must also have objective concern.
Advantages: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process
invites employees to share their opinions.
Disadvantages: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be
difficult to evaluate.


Task 2.3 A systematic approach to plan training and development for a

training event

A systematic reproach of training is composed of some systematic stages which

come one after another. This is basically a rational approached which starts from
identifying the aim of the organization and after certain stage it finishes at
implementing the training program (Index to Human Resource Development
Review, 2006). For the company's different level of marketing, I am going to plan
a training event.
A marketing training plan sets out what our marketing training needs are and how
we will meet them. The plan helps us make the best use of your marketing training
budget, giving employees the marketing knowledge and skills they need to boost
business performance.
Marketing training needs
Firstly, the company should start their marketing training plan by assessing their
training needs. Typically, these include areas where our marketing is
underperforming for example, if levels of customer retention are falling or if an
individual salesperson is consistently underachieving. They may also include areas
of opportunity or change for example, if we are looking to break into new
markets or need to ensure that sales personnel are up to date with new sales
A training needs analysis like this will help us identify areas where improved
marketing skills or knowledge could benefit your business. Assessing employees
current level of marketing ability allows us to identify the training gap to be filled.
At the same time, consider whether alternatives to training such as recruiting
more experienced marketers, or using consultants could be a better option.
Marketing training and business objectives
The company's aim should be to identify marketing training that will help achieve
business objectives. With a limited marketing budget, we want to prioritise training
that delivers the biggest improvements. Selling skills are often a key focus, but


training that boosts efficiency (for example, by improving employees IT skills) or

strengthens the management of marketing and sales teams can also have a major
impact. Training and development that supports long-term improvements (for
example, by improving your ability to identify promising market opportunities)
might ultimately deliver the biggest benefits.
Training objectives and plans should work towards clear business outcomes.
Ideally, these will include specific, measurable results or performance standards.
For example, training in negotiation skills might aim to improve employees ability
to close deals without making excessive price concessions; the overall business
objective might be to boost margins to a specified level.
The value of the desired business outcomes can be compared to the costs of
training. Although training can have a role to play in motivating and retaining
employees, this alone is not usually enough to justify the costs.
Effective marketing training
The company's marketing training plan should build on their training objectives by
identifying the most appropriate forms of training. As well as on-the-job training,
these might include training workshops, seminars or distance learning. Coaching
and mentoring can also help with training and development, particularly for
employees in management roles.
Involving employees in agreeing their own training needs and deciding between
different training options can significantly improve training effectiveness.
Employees who buy into the value of the training for themselves and for the
business are likely to show greater performance improvements.
The training plan should also set out when and how marketing training will be
evaluated, based on the original training objectives. Training evaluation allows you
to assess how effective different training activities have been. Evaluation also starts
the process of identifying further opportunities for improvement and future training


Task 3 Evaluation techniques for different training events

3.1 Prepare an evaluation using suitable techniques

Training has been defined as a planned effort by a company to facilitate
employees learning of job-related competencies. These competencies may include
knowledge, skills, or behaviors that are critical for successful job performance.
While Development refers to any form of formal education, job experiences,
relationships and assessments of personality and abilities that can aid in the
performance of an employee in current or future jobs. (Noe 2007) Training and
development methods consists of different techniques and materials used by
trainers to structure learning experiences, and different delivery methods are better
suited for achieving certain learning objectives. Reid (2007) argued that when
determining a learning strategy for employees in an organization, four decision
criteria that must be taken into account.
Firstly, the training technique needs to be compatible with the objectives. Secondly,
transfer of learning has to take place which means that the employees need to be
able to apply the learnt skills at the workplace. In order for this to occur, the
training and development programme needs to be structured in a way that would
ensure maximum retention for the employee. Thirdly, available resources such as
the cost of the technique, cost of accommodation for running internal and external
courses and also the HRD budget. And lastly, learner-related factors i.e. the
preferred learning style of the employees, motivation of the learner as well as age
and size factors of the trainees. There are various training and development
methods and they can be categorized under different main headings: Instruction
and coaching on-the-job: This technique uses more experienced and skilled
employees to train the less skilled and experienced employees. It can also be useful
in training newly hired employees, orienting transferred or promoted employees to
their new jobs or cross-training people within departments in a workplace.
Examples of this type of techniques include coaching, job instruction technique or
job delegation or job rotation.


The following are different methods for training events;

Coaching: This is a process where a trainer works with employees to motivate and
also to help develop their skills. It can be one-one guidance or an instruction on
how to improve their work performances in specific areas. This is slightly different
from other on-the-job techniques because it focuses on trainees that have been on
the job for some time. Examples of a coach may include managers or supervisors
who may help the employee to identify and use the different learning opportunities
that occur in the course of normal work.
Planned in-house learning experiences: This could be seen as part of developing
the employee within the workplace either in the same department or in other
departments. Opportunities for planned in-house activities are sometimes
deliberately created or may be planned to assist day-to-day running of departments.
This could include techniques such as mentoring where the mentor is seen as a
role model for the employee. Mentoring can be said to be an interpersonal
relationship between a senior (trainer) and a junior employee (trainee) where the
senior employee provides the trainee with political structure, functional expertise,
guidance and a clear understanding of how the organisation functions rather than
improving technical aspects of performance. Mentors should be chosen based on
interpersonal and technical skills and they need to be trained as well. This is an
effective learning tool because it offers feedback on the employees strength and
weaknesses. However, a limitation of formal mentoring programs is that mentors
may find it difficult to provide counselling or coaching in artificially formed
Blended Learning: is described as a method that combines the use of distant
learning techniques i.e. e-learning with traditional learning. Employees prefer this
method because it provides easy access to learning for them. It also serves as an
effective technique to train employees because it combines the importance of
matching an individuals preferred learning style with the appropriate training
delivery. It is also relatively convenient. However, the learner needs to be
enthusiastic about the topic of the training to avoid de-motivation. E-learning:
various companies have taken e-learning as a method of delivery for training their


employees. This type of training is delivered online through the internet or the web
by using a computer . Support for the trainee can be provided in the form of
discussion groups, chat rooms and online tutoring where anyone involved is able to
respond at a time that is convenient.
Off-the-job experiences: This method of training takes place outside the
organisation and training is usually carried out in groups. Examples of methods
commonly employed could be the use of Lectures, role-play of various kinds
supported by video, closed-circuit television (CCTV) and other audio-visual aids.
This type of training is usually used to train groups of employees of similar grades
or jobs. However, the choice of methods and locations must be determined by the
criterion of cost-effectiveness. Compared with on-the-job training, this technique is
costly and it also requires people to leave their places of work, it is essential for
certain types of training for example, in managerial roles as it is important that
people work in groups and learn from each other. Lectures: This method is usually
for the delivery of a topic of general understanding to trainees. It can be
implemented when a large amount of people are being provided with a limited
amount of information in a relatively short period of time.
External courses: These might include professional qualifications such as the
CIPD, CIM or ACCA or other formal qualifications in the form of part-time
programmes provided by institutions. Management of this technique could be
complicated and extremely demanding has it can prove difficult for employees to
manage when work load in the workplace is high. These types of programmes are
usually implemented as a career development move as opposed to a way of
immediate training. (Reid et al 2004)
Simulators: Simulators are used to imitate real work experiences. Most simulators
are very expensive but for certain jobs, like learning to fly a 747, they are
indispensable. Astronauts also train extensively using simulators to imitate the
challenges and micro-gravity experienced on a space mission. The military also
uses video games to train soldiers. Example: Truck drivers could use simulators to
practice responding to dangerous driving situations.
On-The-Job Training: Jumping right into work from day one can sometimes be
the most effective type of training. The following are a few examples of on-the-job


Read the manual - a rather boring, but thorough way of gaining knowledge
of about a task.
A combination of observation, explanation and practice.
Trainers go through the job description to explain duties and answer
Use the intranet so trainees can post questions concerning their jobs and
experts within the company can answer them.
On-the-job training gives employees motivation to start the job. Some reports
indicate that people learn more efficiently if they learn hands-on, rather than
listening to an instructor. However, this method might not be for everyone, as it
could be very stressful. Example: New trucking employees could ride with
experienced drivers. They could ask questions about truck weigh stations, proper
highway speeds, picking up hitchhikers, or any other issues that may arise.
Lectures: Lectures usually take place in a classroom-format. It seems the only
advantage to a lecture is the ability to get a huge amount of information to a lot of
people in a short amount of time. It has been said to be the least effective of all
training methods. In many cases, lectures contain no form of interaction from the
trainer to the trainee and can be quite boring. Studies show that people only retain
20 percent of what they are taught in a lecture. Example: Truck drivers could
receive lectures on issues such as company policies and safety.
Outdoor Training: A nice break from regular classroom or computer-based training,
the usual purpose of outdoor training is to develop teamwork skills.
Some examples include:
Wilderness or adventure training - participants live outdoors and engage in
activities like whitewater rafting, sailing, and mountain climbing.
Low-impact programming - equipment can include simple props or a
permanently installed "low ropes" course.
High-impact programming - Could include navigating a 40-foot "high ropes"
course, rock climbing, or rappelling.


Outgoing and active participants may get the most out of this form of training. One
risk trainers might encounter is distraction, or people who dont like outdoor
activities. Example: As truck drivers are often on the road alone, they could
participate in a nature-training course along with depot personnel to build esprit de
Many avenues exist to train employees. The key is to match the training method to
the situation. Assess each training method implemented in the organization and get
feedback from trainees to see if they learned anything. Then take the results from
the most popular and most effective methods to design a specific training program.


3.2 Carry out an evaluation of a training event

First of all, before I plan a training event for staff of Golden star Co.Ltd to improve
the skills; delivering, invoicing, ordering, payment, communication and so on. I
will clearly and explain the company's mission, rules and regulations, divisions'
objective and the targets, ways of doing things, communication channels and
procedures as a Golden Star Co.ltd's staff trainer because those are standard and
critical elements of a company's organizational strategy.
After I have clearly explain the company's mission, rules and regulations and so
on, I will design a training programme which might help to improve the staff's
delivering, invoicing, ordering, payment, communication and so on.
I will use three different methods which are; coaching, on the job training and
outdoor training and I will categorized three types of people because some of them
much more suitable with coaching training, some are much more suitable with on
the job training and the others much more suitable with outdoor training (everyone
has their preference and the suitable ways to improve their skills.) And then I will
interview the staff face to face one by one to analyze the best training ways for
each of them.
Coaching is an approach available to everyone. It is not just a line management
responsibility. It is a style and a method of facilitation. It uses day-to-day work
situations to provide learning experiences and development opportunities. It is a
generic skill which permeates a number of areas. For example:
Performance appraisal
Communication skills


People skills
Interpersonal skills
Developing others
Delegating work
Problem solving
Needs for and benefits of coaching
Directing people to do has always produced inferior results compared to inspiring
people to want to do. Increasingly, we are finding out why we need to do things.
But why makes no profit, how to does. Coaching is the how to.
Coaching training methods will be chosen for the staffs of Golden star Ltd who are
needed to improve such kind of skills; to unlock their natural ability, performances,
learning and achieving , to increase awareness of the factors which determine
performance, self-coach and Identify and remove internal barriers to achievement.
On the job training is cost effective for companies because it often requires fewer
resources than having to recruit new employees. Staff members lacking proper
training are likelier to leave the company either by their own choice, or through
termination by the business for poor performance. Training employees while they
are working, as opposed to sending them to an offsite location, increases the
chance that learned information will be fully assimilated. Additionally, employees
often find onsite training more enjoyable than having to go to a classroom away
from the job.
On the job training method will be chosen for the staff of Golden star Ltd who can
improve the skills of them which working at the job and who are prefer onsite
training more than going to classroom away from the job.
Outdoor Training is a practical tool for creating skilled, organic teams that
function efficiently and effectively. A nice break from regular classroom or


computer-based training, the usual purpose of outdoor training is to develop

teamwork skills.
Outdoor training will be chosen the staff of Golden star Ltd who need to improve
the skills from looking others, need to know basically and the and who prefer out
site training ( going to the class room) more than onsite training.
To summarize, as I am training programmer at Golden star Ltd, I give options the
staff to choose the methods for their needed training when I design program. On
the other side, it might help to motivate the staff because they can choose their
preferences. Motivate to staff is one of the most important things in every
company. If there is no motivation for staff, the company cannot get success what
they must have to get these successful. I hopefully believe that what I design the
training program, it will work for Golden star Ltd.

Training plan for salesmen, for supervisor and incharge



Be provided
a class for
ion, selling
Be provided

To be good at
selling and

Be provide a To be good at

3 months
Sat and sun
8:00 AM to
11:00 AM

3 months


for leading the team
and time
time management

Be provide a To be good at
for leading

Sat and Sun

12:00 AM to
3:00 PM
3 months
Sat and Sun
3:00 PM to
6:00 PM

3.3 Review the success of the evaluation used

This is the practical step taken by including me the HR team for evaluation. In this
matter the HR team considers the following feedbacks:
1. Satisfaction and participants reaction:
It is the immediate assessment of the trainer. We observes the immediate reaction
of the trainees and try to understand whether the training program was effective or
not (Joy-Matthews, Megginson and Surtees, 2004). The HR team of Golden star
Ltd finds a good reaction from both of the training sessions.


2. Knowledge Acquisition:
This is another feedback material from the HR team. The HR team of Golden star
Ltd measures the rate of knowledge by immediate question and answering process
and that was bevy much interactive and most of the trainees participated and their
gesture was good. So the HR team of Golden star Ltd thinks that the rate of
knowledge acquisition rate is good.
3. Behavioral Application:
This was an aftermath of the training program. The overall approach and Behavior
of the trainees changed and the improvement was eye-catching. The Golden star
Ltd is very much content to see this improvement.
4. Measurable Business Improvement:
The HR team of Golden star Ltd observed 2 weeks from the conduction of the
training sessions and find measurable business improvement. The production cost
minimized at a notables rate due to train of the workers and employees of the
production department. And though the training of the Marketing agents the sale of
the product increases and the feedbacks from the customers are better than before.
5. Measuring with a Benchmark:
And finally the Golden star ltd compares the result obtained from the training
program with the previously determined standard. This is the final step of
evaluation. Golden star finds it pretty impressive and content of the result obtained.
Now the organization is on the verge of setting up new a new goal higher than the
previous one.


And this is the end of the evaluation process the training sessions conducted by the
Golden star. It is very much effective to evaluate by using several methods rather
than one method. It guarantees more accurate result.

Task 4 The impact of training initiatives introduced by government on human

resource development of the organizations in the public and private sectors

4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong



The role of the government in training, development and lifelong learning is very
vital. The focusing contributions of government are this perspective is given
1. Generating a Public Norm:
A government can reach to all. Though its various tolls and means the government
can initiate a process to generate a common culture among the public which will
help them to train and develop them.
2. Formulate a HR Policy for All:
The government can formulate a Human Resource Development policy for all of
its citizens and help to improve the capability of its citizens.
3. Allocate Fund:
Government can give fund for HRD in private sector as well as in public sector.
Usually the governments around the world provide fund to train and develop its
state employees. According to government policy and need they can also give fund
to the private sector too (Martin, 2009).
4. Promote HRD Study:
Government can help training and development by promoting HR study for all. It
can be done through including an intense syllabus of HRD in the National

6. Creating a Favorable Work Environment:

By providing a favorable work environment the government can help in
developing the overall capability of the citizens. It can be done in many ways. One
of the way can be passing a law containing the rights of the employees and
punishments for violations.
So we can say that government can be a pioneer in developing the training and
development and lifelong learning.


The sample of the role of UK in training, development and lifelong learning

The UK has a devolved system for education funding; this is a complex system
which the reader does not need to understand here. Suffice to say that central
control over devolved budgets is paramount; how the administrations in Scotland
Wales and Northern Ireland spend their adult learning budgets is a matter for them
but within the parameters of this funding. LLL has not done well under successive
governments and there will be a continuing battle to support wider adult learning in
the years to come; this will be difficult given the constraints on public funding.
There are legislated rights toll in the UK.
For A glimpse of the future read the Right to make the wrong choices liberty,
learning and credit systems in the 21st century a paper from a NIACE publication
on the future of lifelong learning. Hosted by NIACE, the Inquiry into the Future
for Lifelong Learning was launched in September 2007 and reported on 17
September 2009. The Learning Through Life report provide the best and most
current insight into Lifelong Learning in the UK And has far reaching implications
for government policy and spending. LLL Is often viewed as marginal to economic
success. The report explains why LL Is central to a successful society.
Learning through Life is a fundamental and convincing report about the necessity
to finally take the implementation of Lifelong Learning seriously. The analysis and
data in the report helps the reader to understand the limits of our present learning
and educational models, based on the principle of learning early on for later life,
and the enormous potential in economic, social, cultural, and individual terms of
learning through life. The recommendations in the report ... are based upon the UK
situation but they are highly relevant for all OECD countries and many new
emerging economies on the global scene. It will be very difficult for the political
community during the coming decade to ignore the recommendations in this


4. 2 Explain the development of the competency movement has impacted on

the public and private sectors

The introduction seeks to locate the origins of the competency management in

American and British management concerns with declining international
competitiveness and the need for more efficient and effective managers. It
examines the distinctive American and British approaches and identifies and


defines the ideas, concepts and techniques associated with competency in each
country. The transfer of these ideas and practices into the public sector
accompanied the spread of new public management, which has increased
throughout the 1990s. The movement is now an international one prompted by
both the OECD and the management consultancy industry. The process of adoption
and implementation has tended to be pragmatic and ad hoc but evidence suggests it
is now becoming an important vehicle for organisational cultural change. This
introduction provides the backdrop for the remaining five articles in this special
issue of the journal, which illustrate both developments in theory and practice of
competencybased management within public services.
Competency can be described as the ability to accomplish any given job (Mathis
and Jackson, 2003). This ability requires some other qualifications which are a
prerequisite to finish a job effectively. The concept of competency can be
understood from the following sequence:
Novice: Who dont any prior knowledge
Experienced beginner: Who got the primary knowledge of the job
Practitioner: Working with primary knowledge for a descent time-frame.
Knowledgeable Practitioner: Who has gathered all required knowledge of the
subject matter, but yet to reach the level of an expert.
An Expert: Who actually become proficient in the subject and developed an inbuilt understanding of the subject or job.
Competency of a person revolves through this process and there is an impact of
competency in the real world workplace.
Both public and private sector are influence by the competency movement. In the
past this knowledge of competency was not widely circulated. With the passage of
time it becomes a matter of big discussion and standard of competencies become a
common debate among the experts. Especially in the public sector the competency
of the public servant become a matter of concern. Some said that high competency
standard must be maintained in order to sever the public well. They advocated for


rigorous competition for the public sector jobs and intense training programs to
make them more competent for the job (Megginson, 1993).
For maintaining competitive advantages the private sector accepted a high
competency standard and for this reason they offered gigantic salary figures for the
competent persons. But during the recession time this competency standard was
used in favor of the corporation against many competent employees who lost their
jobs in low competency-standard ground.

4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK

government contribute to Human Resources Development for an organizarion

The UK government has several initiatives in the fields of HRD (Milkovich et al.,
1991). The government institutions which look after in this matter are:

Department of Trade and Industry

Department of work and Pension
Department of Education and Skill and



Department of Health.

The services provided by this agencies to the privately own organisations are as
follows (Mondy, Noe and Gowan, 2005):
Providing business likes to the eager and needy ones.
a) Providing skills for Business Network by Sector Skills Council.
b) Funding and planning education for the over 16s by the Learning and Skills
c) Creating skilled workforce for the industry by the University Of Industry.
d) Creating standard workforce of specific sector by National Vocational
e) Ensuring good practice of work by the Investors in Peoples Standard.

These are the few initiatives taken by the Government of the UK which helps the
organization to get better people for their jobs and ensures the commitment of the
government to help the private sector.


The Golden Star Co. Ltd must should to know the staff the company's mission,
rules and regulation, division's objectives and targets, ways of doing things,
communication channels and procedures. The company should care three things;
Communication and Feedback, Incentives and Recognition and Continuous
Learning & Support. Communication and feedback is important for managers to
speak with disengaged team members and let them know you value their feedback


on what is going well and what is not. Communication can serve as an important
bridge, for several reasons, Incentives and recognition is always important to
provide our team as a whole, as well as individual members, with clear incentives
to perform well, and recognition and rewards when they succeed. Continuous
Learning & Support is often what employees needs to get boost in their morale and
performance is a bit of technological or human support, which will help them

To summarize, Human Resource Development is an important study in todays
world. Now The HRD is an elaborated subject which includes many concepts and
studies. Understanding the learning theories and learning styles, the training need,
implications of the learning theories and style, ability to design and formulate
training events, evaluation process and method and so on. are some of the few
topics covered by the HRD study. Also the role of government in development of
training and development is a significant one.



Academy of Human Resource Development. (1998). Human Resource Development


Bratton, J. and Gold, J. (2000). Human resource management. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence


Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning, New York: Prentice Hall

Honey, P. and Mumford, A. (1992) The Manual of Learning Styles. Maidenhead: Peter

VUC handout book