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UNIVERSITY HERCEHOVINA FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DR.

MILENKO
BRKI

Informatics and organization

Darko Ramljak

English language- Proofreading exercises

HOMEWORK

Tutor:
Daniela Mati mag.

Homework, Darko Ramljak


Bijakovii, April 2014.

Homework, Darko Ramljak

Despite the assumption that the integration of ICT inuences the entire school system,
research focusing on ICT inschools is generally limited to the study of variables at class level.
In contrast to these studies, the present research exploresICT integration from a school
improvement approach. More particularly, it examines the local school policy with respect to
ICT integration from both the principals perspective and perceptions of teachers.
Furthermore, it studies the relation-ship between school policies and the actual use of ICT in
the classroom. To answer the research questions, a representative sample of 53 primary school
principals was interviewed. In addition, the interview data were supplemented with survey
data of 574 teachers from the same 53 schools. What emerged from the analyses was that
school-related policies, suchas an ICT plan, ICT support and ICT training have a signicant
eect on class use of ICT. In addition, the ndings from the interviews indicate that school
policies are often underdeveloped and underutilised. The discussion section focuses on
challenges to improve the potential of an ICT school policy. In the literature, the question is
repeatedly put forward as to what variables determine the integration of information and
communication technology (ICT) in education. In this respect, many studies have focused on
measuring the impact of variables at class level (micro level), such as computer attitudes,
computer experience, and gender dierences. The focus on these individual factors has
oriented research focusing on ICT integration towards individual blame rather than system
blame. Previous research largely ignores the complex systemic nature of ICT integration,
including the role of national policies (macro-level) and local school policies (meso-level).
The latter requires more sophisticated statistical techniques to examine the eects of dierent
factors, measured on dierent levels, reported by different actors on the dependent ICT
integration variable. Results from an earlier study indicate a gap between the proposedICT
curriculum at the macro-level and the actual use of ICT in the classroom. The study more
specically demonstrated that the aspirations of national educational authorities to foster ICT
integration in schools do not easily result in concrete changes in instructional practices at
class level.

Homework, Darko Ramljak

Usprkos pretpostavci da intergracija ICT-a utjee na cijeli kolski sustav, istraivanja sa


naglaskom na ICT u kolama se uglavnom odnose na prouavanje varijabli na nivou uionice.
Za razliku od tih studija, sadanje istraivanje prouava ICT intergraciju sa stajalita
poboljanja kole. Tonije, ono prouava uvjete lokalnih kola u odnosu na ICT intergraciju iz
perspektive ravnatelja te perspektive uitelja. Nadalje, ono prouava odnos izmeu kolskih
uvjeta i stvarnog koritenja ICT-a u uionici. Da bi odgovorili na pitanja iz istraivanja,
intervjuiran je reprezentativni uzorak od 53 ravnatelja osnovnih kola. Osim toga, podatci
intervjua su upotpunjeni sa pregledanim podatcima 574 uitelja iz iste 53 kole. ono to je
prouzalo iz analize je da su politike vezane uz kolu, kao to je ICT plan, ICT podrka i ICT
obuka imali znaajan utjecaj na koritenje ICT-a u uionicam. Osim toga, rezultati iz intervjua
pokazuju da su kolski uvjeti esto nerazvijeni i nedovoljni. U poglavlju rasprava se
usredotoujemo na izazove za poboljanje potencijal ICT kolskih uvjeta. U literaturi se
uestalo postavlja pitanje, koje varijable odreuju integraciju informacijske i komunikacijske
tehnologije (ICT) u obrazovanju. U tom smislu, mnoge studije su usmjerene na mjerenje
utjecaj varijabli na razini uionice (mikro razini), kao to su stavovi o raunalima, raunalno
iskustvo, i dobne razlike. Fokus na tim individualnim faktorima je usmjerio istraivanja s
naglaskom na ICT integracije prema individualne sramote, a ne na sramotu sustava.
Prethodna istraivanja su uglavnom ignorira sloenu sustavnu prirodu integracije ICT-a,
ukljuujui i ulogu nacionalnih politika (makro-razini) i politike lokalnih kola (srednjerazine). Kasniji zahtijev sofisticiranije statistike tehnike za ispitivanje uinkovitosti razliitih
imbenika, mjerene na razliitim razinama, prikazuju razliitie aktere na zavisnu varijablu
integracije ICT-a. Rezultati iz ranije studije ukazuju na prazninu izmeu predloenog ICT
nastavnog plana i programa na makro razini i stvarnom koritenju ICT-a u uionici. Studija
tonije pokazuje da tenjama nacionalnih obrazovnih vlasti za poticanje integracije ICT u
kolama ne dovodi jednostavno do konkretnih promjena u nastavnim praksama na razini
uionice.

Homework, Darko Ramljak

Despite the assumption that the integration of ICT influences the entire school system,
research focusing on ICT in schools is generally limited to the study of variables at class
level. In contrast to these studies, the present research explores ICT integration from a school
improvement approach. More particularly, it examines the local school policy with respect to
ICT integration from both the principals perspective and perceptions of teachers.
Furthermore, it studies the relationship between school policies and the actual use of ICT in
the classroom. To answer the research questions, a representative sample of 53 primary school
principals was interviewed. In addition, the interview data were supplemented with survey
data of 574 teachers from the same 53 schools.