4
Continuous functions
4.1 Some examples
Consider the functions ( ) = ^{2} and ( ) = ^{} ^{}^{}
^{.}
Figure 6: The graph of () = ^{2} (a continuous function).
Figure 7: The graph of () = ^{}^{} ^{}
(a function discontinuous at = 0).
By inspecting the graphs of and , you can notice the following di ﬀerence: the graph of can be drawn with
a single line stroke (i.e. without lifting the pencil oﬀ the paper), but the graph of cannot be drawn like this (once you arrive at the point = 0, you have to lift the pencil oﬀ the paper to continue graphing). In this section we will describe this type of behaviour of functions, known as continuity.
4.2 The continuity of a realvalued function of a real variable
Intuitively, a function is continuous at a point if its graph does not have jumps at that point. The formal de ﬁnition
is the following.
Deﬁnition 4.1 (Deﬁnition of continuity at a point) Let : ⊂ R → R and _{0} ∈. We say that is continuous at = _{0} if for any 0 there exists ( ) 0 such that
or equivalent ^{4}
 ( ) − ( _{0} ) 
for all ∈ with  − _{0}  ( )
lim 0 () = ( _{0} )
→
(5)
(6)
(the limit lim _{}_{→}_{} _{0} ( ) exists and equals ( _{0} ) ). If is not continuous at = _{0} , we say that is discontinuous at = _{0} . If is continuous at every point _{0} ∈ we say that is continuous on .
Remark 4.2 Note that unlike the de ﬁnition of the limit lim _{}_{→}_{} _{0} () , the deﬁ nition of continuity of at = _{0} requires to be de ﬁned at _{0} (i.e. _{0} ∈ ).
^{4} In fact, for the two de ﬁ nitions to be equivalent we need to assume that _{0} ∈ is not an isolated point of . If _{0} ∈ is an isolated point of , then the − _{} de ﬁ nition shows that is continuous at _{0} .
21
Example 4.3 Consider the function : = ( −1 1) ∪ (1 3] ∪ {5} → R, () = ^{3} We ﬁ rst note that _{0} = 5 ∈ is an isolated point of , so by the deﬁ nition is continuous at _{0} = 5 (every function is continuous at an isolated point). The function is continuous at _{0} = 2, because
−1 ^{.}
3
_{}_{→}_{2} lim () = _{2} _{−} _{1} =3= (2)
Similarly, at _{0} = 3, we have
lim _{%}_{3} () =
3
3 − 1 ^{=} 2
3
= (3)
hence is continuous at = 3. Note that at = −1 the function is not continuous (the function is not de ﬁned for = −1). Also, the function is not continuous at = 1 since is not de ﬁned at this point. Another reason for which the function is not continuous at = 1 is that the lim _{}_{→}_{1} ( ) does not exist (lim _{} _{%}_{1} ( ) = −∞ and lim _{} _{&}_{1} ( )=+∞). The above discussion can be summarized by saying that is continuous on = (−1 1) ∪ (1 3] ∪ {5}.
Remark 4.4 As it can be seen from the previous example, if _{0} ∈ is an isolated point of , then any function : ⊂ R → R is continuous at _{0} (i.e. any function is continuous at an isolated point).
Just as in the case of sided limits, we can deﬁne the sided continuity at a point. For example, the notion of continuity from the left is de ﬁned as follows (continuity from the right is de ﬁned similarly):
Deﬁnition 4.5 Let : ⊂ R → R and _{0} ∈ . We say that is continuous from the left at = _{0} if for any 0 there exists ( ) 0 such that
 () − ( _{0} )
for all ∈
with _{0} − ( ) ≤ _{0}
or equivalent
lim 0 () = ( _{0} )
%
(lim _{} _{%}_{} _{0} ( ) exists and equals ( _{0} ) ).
Remark 4.6 From the de ﬁnitions above it is easy to see that is continuous at = _{0} if and only if it is continuous both from the left and from the right at = _{0} , that is:
(7)
lim 0 ( ) = lim 0 () = ( _{0} )
%
&
Example 4.7 It is easy to see that the function : R → R deﬁned by
_{} _{(} _{}_{)} _{=} ^{½} 1 −1
≤ 0
0
is continuous from the left at _{0} = 0, but it is not continuous from the right at _{0} = 0 (lim _{}_{%}_{0} () = (0) = −1 6= 1 = lim _{}_{&}_{0} () ).
The following shows that the continuity is preserved under the usual operations with functions:
Theorem 4.8 Let : ⊂ R → R be continuous at = _{0} ∈.
a) The functions ± , · and (provided ( ) 6= 0 ∈ ) are also continuous at = _{0} ;
b) If () ⊂ and : ⊂ R → R is continuous at ( _{0} ) , then the composition ◦ : ⊂ R → R is also
continuous at = _{0} .
Proof. The statement follows from the deﬁ nition with limits of continuity and from the corresponding properties of limits.
Theorem 4.9 (Weierstrass’s boundedness theorem) Let ∈ R be real numbers with , and let :
[; ] → R be a continuous function. Then is bounded on [ ] and attains its bounds. That is, there exist points _{} _{} ∈ [ ] such that for all ∈ [ ] we have
(8)
( _{} ) ≤ () ≤ ( _{} )
22
Proof. Let = inf _{}_{∈}_{[}_{}_{}_{}_{]} () and = sup _{}_{∈}_{[} _{}_{}_{} _{]} ( ) , and therefore
≤ ( ) ≤
∈ [ ]
In order to show that is bounded we have left to show that and are ﬁnite, more precisely we have to show that 6= −∞ and 6= +∞. If we assume that = −∞, from the deﬁ nition of = inf _{}_{∈}_{[} _{}_{}_{} _{]} ( ) it follows that there exists a sequence ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} ⊂ [ ] such that lim _{}_{→}_{∞} ( _{} ) = = −∞. Since ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} is a bounded sequence ( _{} ∈ [ ], ≥ 1), it contains a convergent subsequence ( _{} _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} , that is lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} _{} = ∈ [ ]. Since the function is continuous on [ ], it is continuous in particular at = , so
( ) = _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} _{} ) = _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} ) = −∞
which is a contradiction. Therefore cannot equal −∞, and similarly it can be shown that cannot equal + ∞, so we have shown that
is bounded on [ ]. Next, we will show that must attains its bounds on [ ]. Assume that there is no _{} ∈ [ ] such that
( _{} ) = = inf _{}_{∈}_{[} _{}_{}_{} _{]} ( ), and therefore ( ) for all ∈ [ ] . The function : [ ] → R deﬁned by
( ) =
^{1} _{−}_{}
( )
∈ [ ]
is continuous on [ ] (the function is continuous on [ ] and 6= on [ ] ) and also ( ) 0 for ∈ [ ]
(since ( ) for ∈ [ ] ).
By the previous part of the proof it follows that is bounded on [ ], hence ^{0} = sup _{}_{∈}_{[} _{}_{}_{} _{]} () 0. We
have ( ) =
^{1}
_{} _{(}_{}_{)}_{−}_{} ≤ ^{0} or equivalent (recall that by assumption ( ) for all ∈ [ ])
1
() ≥ + _{} _{0}
which shows that
1
inf _{}_{}_{} _{]} () ≥ + _{} _{0}
∈[
in contradiction with our assumption that inf _{}_{∈}_{[}_{}_{}_{}_{]} ( ) = . The contradiction obtained shows that there exists _{} ∈ [ ] such that ( _{} ) = . Similarly it can be shown that there exists _{} ∈ [ ] such that ( _{} ) = , concluding the proof. The next result shows that a continuous function deﬁ ned on a closed and bounded interval assumes every intermediate value. This means for example that if the function takes the values −1 and 3, then it must take any value between −1 and 3; it cannot “jump” from −1 to 3 without taking all the intermediate values between them. The precise statement is the following.
Theorem 4.10 (Intermediate Value Theorem) Let ∈ R be real numbers with , and let : [ ] → R be a continuous function on [ ]. Then for every between () and ( ) there exists _{0} ∈ [ ] such that ( _{0} ) = .
Proof. Without loss of generality we may assume that () ≤ ≤ ( ).
If ^{¡} ^{}^{+}^{} ^{¢} = , then we can choose _{0} = ^{}^{+}^{}
If ^{¡} ^{}^{+}^{} ^{¢} , consider _{1} = ^{}^{+}^{} and _{1} = , and if ^{¡} ^{} ^{+}^{} ^{¢} , consider _{1} = and _{1} = ^{}^{+}^{}
Next, if ^{¡} ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1} ^{¢} = , we can choose _{0} = ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1} and conclude the proof. If ^{¡} ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1} ^{¢} , consider _{2} = ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1}
2
and conclude the proof.
2
2
2
2
2
2
^{.}
2
2
2
and _{2} = _{1} , and if ^{¡} ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1}
^{¢} = (concluding the proof), or we can construct a sequence [ _{} _{} ]
of nested intervals (i.e. [ _{}_{+}_{1} _{}_{+}_{1} ] ⊂ [ _{} _{} ] for each ≥ 1), such that ( _{} ) ≤ () ≤ ( _{} ) and _{} − _{} = ^{}^{−}^{} for all ≥ 1. Note that ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} is an increasing and bounded sequence, so it is a convergent sequence. Let _{0} = lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} be its limit.
2 ^{,}
^{¢} , consider _{2} = _{1} and _{2} = ^{} ^{1} ^{+}^{} ^{1}
2
^{.}
2
Inductively, either at some point ^{¡} ^{} ^{} ^{+}^{} ^{}
2
Since _{} = _{} + ^{}^{−}^{}
2
^{}
by construction, it follows that ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} is also a convergent sequence, and
_{}_{→}_{∞} _{} = lim
lim
_{}_{→}_{∞} _{} + lim
→∞
−
_{2} ^{} = _{0} +0= _{0} .
23
We have shown that lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} = lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} = _{0} , and since is continuous at = _{0} (it is continuous at any point of [ ]), it follows that
( _{0} ) = _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} ) = lim
→∞ ^{} ^{} ^{.}
From the construction of the intervals [ _{} _{} ] we have that ( _{} ) ≤≤ ( _{} ) for any ≥ 1, and therefore by passing to the limit with → ∞ we obtain
( _{0} ) = _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} ) ≤ ≤ _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} ) = ( _{0} )
and therefore ( _{0} ) = for some _{0} ∈ [ ], concluding the proof.
Example 4.11 Consider the function ( ) = ^{3} − 3 − 1. Note that ( −1) = 1 0 and (0) = −1 0. Since is continuous on the closed bounded interval [−1 0], by the Intermediate value theorem it follows that there exists ∈ [−1 0] such that ( )=0 . In other words, we have shown that the equation ^{3} − 3 − 1=0 has a solution in the interval [−1 0].
Example 4.12 (Bisection method) Consider again the function ( ) = ^{3} − 3− 1. Proceeding as in the proof of the Intermediate value theorem, you can ﬁ nd the approximation of the solution of the equation ^{3} − 3 − 1=0, as follows (the method is known as the bisection method). Since ( −1) = 1 0 and (0) = −1 0, you know that the equation ( )=0 has a solution in the interval [−1 0]
Since ^{¡} ^{−}^{1}^{+}^{0}
2
^{¢} = ( −05) 0 and (0) 0, you know that the equation has a solution in the interval [−05 0].
Since ^{¡} ^{−}^{0}^{}^{5}^{+}^{0} [−05 −025] .
^{¢} = (− 0375) 0 and (− 025) 0, you know that the equation has a solution in the
interval [−0375 −025].
^{¢} = ( −03125) 0 and (−0375) 0, you know that the equation has a solution in the
interval [−0375 −03125].
^{¢} = ( −034375) 0 and (− 0375) 0, you know that the equation has a solution in
the interval [ −0375 −034375].
^{¢} = ( −0359375) 0 and (− 034375) 0, you know that the equation has a solution
in the interval [−0359375 − 034375]. So one of the solutions of the equation ^{3} − 3 − 1=0 is approximately 03. Few more iterations will give you
a better approximation of the solution (more decimals).
^{¢} = (−025) 0 and ( −05) 0, you know that the equation has a solution in the interval
2
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{} ^{¡} −0 5−025
2
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{} ^{¡} −0375−025
2
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{} ^{¡} −0 375 −0 3125
2
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{} ^{¡} −0375−034375
2
4.2.1 Uniform continuity
In the Deﬁnition 4.1 of continuity at a point = _{0} , the number = ( ) depends in general on the choice of the point _{0} . If however does not depend on the choice of _{0} , the continuity of is called “uniform”, in the sense that is the “same” (or uniform) for all points _{0} . The formal de ﬁnition is as follows:
Deﬁnition 4.13 We say that the function : → R is uniformly continuous on if for any 0 there exists 0 such that
 () − ( )
for any ∈ with  −  .
We have the following:
Proposition 4.14 If : → R is uniformly continuous on then it is continuous on (i.e. it is continuous at any point = _{0} ∈ ).
Proof. Follows immediately from the deﬁnition of uniform continuity by considering = _{0} ∈.
The converse of the above theorem is not generally true, as can be checked by considering the function :
(0 1) → R with ( ) =
However, under the additional hypothesis that the domain of is a closed interval, the converse of the above proposition is true:
_{} 1 which is continuous on (0 1) but it is not uniformly continuous on (0 1) .
Theorem 4.15 If : [ ] → R is continuous on the closed interval [ ], then it is uniformly continuous on [ ].
24
Proof. Assuming is not uniformly continuous on [ ], there exists 0 such that for any _{} 0 there exist points ∈ [ ] with  −  _{} such that  () − ( )  ≥ .
_{} 1 for = 1 2, we can construct two sequences ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} and ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} of points
In particular, choosing _{} = in [ ], such that
 _{} − _{}  ^{1}
_{}  ( _{} ) − ( _{} )  ≥
and
= 1 2
Since ( _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} ⊂ [ ] is a bounded sequence, it contains a convergent subsequence, say lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} _{} = ∈ [ ].
Since  _{} − _{} 
_{} 1 for all ≥ 1, it follows that ( _{} _{} ) _{}_{≥}_{1} is also a convergent subsequence, and lim _{}_{→}_{∞} _{} _{} = .
Passing to the limit in the inequality  ( _{} _{} ) − ( _{} _{} ) ≥ with → ∞ , and using the continuity of we
obtain
¯
≤ _{¯}
¯ ¯
_{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} _{} ) − _{}_{→}_{∞} lim ( _{} _{} ) _{¯} ¯ =  ( ) − ( )  = 0
¯ ¯
contradicting 0. The contradiction obtained shows that must be uniformly continuous on [ ], concluding the proof. The following property is useful for showing a certain function is uniformly continuous:
Proposition 4.16 If : ⊂ R → R and there exists a constant ∈ R such that
 ( ) − ( )  ≤  − 
then is uniformly continuous on .
∈
Proof. Given 0, we can choose _{} =
_{} such that for any ∈ with  −  _{} we have
 ( ) − ( ) ≤ − 
and therefore is uniformly continuous on .
_{} =
Example 4.17 Using the above proposition we see that the function : [0 3] → R given by ( ) = ^{3} is uniformly continuous on [0 3], since there exists = 27 such that
 () − ( )  = ^{¯} ¯ ^{3} − ^{3} ^{¯} ¯ = ¯ ^{¯} (− ) ^{¡} ^{2} + + ^{2} ^{¢}^{¯} ¯
≤ ³  ^{2} +   +   ^{2} ´ − 
≤ ^{¡} 3 ^{2} + 3 · 3+3 ^{2} ^{¢} − 
= 27  − 
for any ∈ [0 3]. Also note that since is uniformly continuous on [0 3], it is also continuous on [0 3] by Theorem 4.15.
4.3 Continuity of a realvalued function of vector variable
Consider now a function = ( _{1} _{} ) of variables (or a function of a vector variable). We deﬁne the continuity of the function at a point _{0} similar to the case = 1 (Deﬁnition 4.1), as follows.
Deﬁnition 4.18 Let : ⊂ R ^{} → R and _{0} ∈ be a point of . We say that is continuous at _{0} = ^{¡} ^{0} _{} ^{¢} , if it satisﬁ es for any 0 there exists ( ) 0 such that
1
0
 ( ) − ( ) _{0} 
for all = ( _{1} _{} ) ∈ with
k − _{0} k ( )
or equivalent
lim 0 () = ( _{0} )
→
(lim _{}_{→}_{} _{0} ( ) exists and equals ( _{0} ) ).
25
Example 4.19 Consider the function : R ^{2} − {(0 0) } → R de ﬁned by
( _{1} _{2} ) = (
_{1} ^{2}
^{2} 1 + ^{2}
0
2
_{2} if ( _{1} _{2} ) 6= (0 0) if ( _{1} _{2} ) = (0 0)
The function is continuous at the point _{0} = ^{¡} ^{0} ^{0} ^{¢} = (0 0) by the deﬁ nition with of continuity, because given 0 there exists ( )=2 0, such that
1
2
 ( _{1} _{2} ) − (0 0) 
= 
= 

≤ 


¯ ¯
¯ − 0 ¯
¯
¯
¯
^{1}
_{2}  _{2} 
^{1}
_{2} 
1
_{2} 2 =
1 ^{2}
2
^{2} + ^{2}
1
2
¯ ^{≤}
¯
^{¯}
1 ^{2}
2
¯
¯
2
^{p}  ^{2} ^{2}
1
2
^{}
for any = ( _{1} _{2} ) ∈ R ^{2} − { (0 0) } with 0  − 0 = ^{p} ^{2} + _{2} ^{2} ( )=2. Since for ( _{1} _{2} ) = (0 0) we have trivially  (0 0) − (0 0)  = 0 , it follows
( )=2 such that  ( ) − (0 0) for any = ( _{1} _{2} ) ∈ R with  − 0 ( ) , which proves the claim.
1
that for any 0 there exists
Similar to the case when = 1, the properties of sum/diﬀerence, product/quotient and composition of continuous functions (Theorem 4.8) also hold in this case.
4.4 Continuity of a vectorvalued function of vector variable
Consider the function = ( _{1} _{} ) : ⊂ R ^{} → R ^{} and let _{0} = ^{¡} ^{0} _{} ^{¢} ∈.
1
0
Deﬁnition 4.20 We say that is continuous at _{0} = ^{¡} ^{0} _{} ^{¢} ∈ , if for each = 1 the function _{} : ⊂ R ^{} → R is continuous at _{0} ∈. We say that the function is continuous on the set if is continuous at any point _{0} ∈. We say that the function is uniformly continuous on if for any 0 there exists 0 such that
1
0
 ( ) − ( )
for any ∈ with  − 
(or equivalently, that for each = 1, the function _{} : ⊂ R ^{} → R is uniformly continuous on ).
From the above deﬁ nition, we see that the study of the continuity of a function = ( _{1} _{} ) : ⊂ R ^{} → R ^{} reduces to the study of the continuity for each of the coordinate functions _{1} _{} : ⊂ R ^{} → R.
Example
4.21 The function : R ^{2} → R ^{3} , ( _{1} _{2} ) = (1 + _{1} 2 + _{2} 3 + _{1} _{2} ) is continuous at the point _{0} =
(0 0) ∈ R ^{2} , since each of the functions _{1} ( _{1} _{2} )= 1+ _{1} , _{2} ( _{1} _{2} )= 2+ _{2} and _{3} ( _{1} _{2} )= 3+ _{1} _{2} are continuous at this point. Replacing the point _{0} = (0 0) by an arbitrary point _{0} = ^{¡} ^{0} ^{0} ^{¢} ∈ R ^{2} , we see that the function is continuous at any point _{0} ∈ R ^{2} (since _{1} , _{2} and _{3} are continuous at any point _{0} ∈ R ^{2} ).
1
2
5 Exercises
1. Study the continuity of the following functions:
(a) : [0 2] → R, ( ) = ½
^{2} + 1
∈ [0 1]
∈ (1 2] ^{;}
(b) : R → R, ( ) = ½ ^{s}^{i}^{n} 0 ^{1}
6= 0
= 0 ^{;}
(c) : R → R, ( ) = ½ ^{} 0 ^{s}^{i}^{n} ^{1}
6= 0
= 0 ^{;}
26
2. Consider the function ( ) = (0 1) , (0 1], [1 ∞) , (1 ∞)?
3. Determine if the function
_{}_{−}_{1} . On which of the following intervals is the function continuous [0 1) ,
( ) = _{(}
^{³} _{1} _{+} 
0
+ ´ sin _{}
1
6= 0 = 0
is continuous from the left / right at = 0. Is continuous at = 0?
4. Use the properties of continuous functions (Theorem 4.8) to determine the intervals on which the following functions are continuous:
(a) ( ) = ^{√} 9 − ^{2} , () = ^{√} 9 − ^{2} , () = √ _{9} _{−}_{} _{2} , () =
(b) ( ) = ^{−}^{} ^{s}^{i}^{n} ^{}^{+}^{} ^{2} , () = ln (1 + sin ) , () = sin _{}_{−}_{1} , ( ) =
3
1
1
^{√} 9− ^{2} ^{;}
3
1
1
cos ^{;}
5. Determine the value of the constant such that the following functions are continuous:
(a) : [1 3] → R, ( ) = ½
^{√} ^{2} − 2 + ^{2}
+ 3
∈ [1 2] = 0
(b) : R → R, ( ) = ½
sin((−1))
−1
^{2} + − 1
1 ≥ 1 ^{;}
(c)
: R → R, ( ) = ½ ^{} 1−cos
^{2}
2
^{2}
6= 0
= 0
^{;}
: R → R, ( ) = ½ ^{} ^{−} ^{}^{} (1 + )
3 ^{}^{+}^{2} −27 9 −9
(d)
(e) : R → R, () = ½
1
^{}
(f)
: R → R, ( ) = ½
sin(−2)
^{2} −5 +6
^{}
^{} ^{≤} ^{0}
0 ^{;}
6= 1 = 1
^{;}
2
≥ 2
^{;}
;
6. Find the constants ∈ R so that the given functions are continuous on R.
(a) 

: R → R, 
( ) = 
(b) 
: R → R, 
( ) = 

(c) 
: R → R, 
( ) = 
⎧ − ^{2} +
⎩
≤ 0
⎨
1
sin _{} +1 0 ≤
^{3} + 2
1
_{}
1
⎧ − ^{3} + 1 0
⎨ +
0 ≤ ≤ 1 ;
⎩ ^{√} + 2 1
⎧ − ^{3} + 0
⎨ +
0 ≤ ≤ 1
⎩ ^{√} + 4 1
;
7. Study the uniform continuity of the following functions:
(a)
(b)
: [−2 2] → R, () = ^{2} ;
: R → R, ( ) = ^{2} ;
: (0 1] → R, () = cos
1 ^{;}
(c)
Hint: a) use the fact that is continuous on a closed bounded interval; b) show that for any ≥ 1 there are
points _{} _{} ∈ R with  _{} − _{}  = points _{} _{} ∈ (0 1] with  _{} − _{}  =
_{} for which  ( _{} ) − ( _{} ) ≥ 1; b) show that for any ≥ 1 there are
1
_{} 1 for which  ( _{} ) − ( _{} )  = 2;
8. Determine if the following functions are continuous at (0 0)
27
(a) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ( 
(b) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ( 
(c) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ½ 
(d) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ( 
(e) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ( 
(f) 

: R ^{2} → R, 
( ) = ( 
^{3} − ^{3}
−
0
6= =
^{2} ^{2}
^{2} +
0
_{2} ( ) 6= (0 0)
( ) = (0 0)
(0 0)
( ) = (0 0)
_{+}_{} _{2} ( ) 6=
^{2}
0
sin _{(} ^{4} + ^{4} _{)}
0
^{2} + ^{2}
( ) 6= (0 0)
( ) = (0 0)
1−cos _{(} ^{2} + ^{2} _{)}
0
_{} ^{2} _{+}_{} ^{2} ( ) 6= (0 0)
( ) = (0 0)
1−cos ^{√} ^{2} + ^{2} tan( ^{2} + ^{2} )
1
_{2}
(0 0)
( ) = (0 0)
( ) 6=
9. Determine if the given functions are continuous at the indicated point:
(a) 

: 
R ^{3} → 
R ^{2} 
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