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Republic of Turkey
Trkiye Cumhuriyeti

Anthem:stiklal Mar
Independence March

Location of Turkey

3955N 3250E
Largest city


Official language(s)





Parliamentary republic

- Founder

Mustafa Kemal Atatrk

- President

Abdullah Gl

- Prime Minister

Recep Tayyip Erdoan

- Speaker of the Parliament

Cemil iek

- President of the Constitutional Court Haim Kl


Grand National Assembly


to the Ottoman Empire

- Treaty of Lausanne

24 July 1923

- Declaration of Republic

29 October 1923


- Total


- Water(%)


- 2011estimate


- 2000census


- Density




- Total

$1.073 trillion

- Per capita


GDP (nominal)


- Total

$778.089 billion

- Per capita



















Turkish lira

Time zone


- Summer(DST)




Date formats

dd/mm/yyyy (AD)

Drives on the




Internet TLD


Calling code


Turkey (Turkish: Trkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Trkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a Eurasian
country located in Western Asia (mostly in the Anatolian peninsula) and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe.
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast;
Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The
Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The
Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the
boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.[7]
Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population are Muslims.[8] The country's
official language is Turkish, whereas Kurdish and Zazaki languages are spoken by Kurds and Zazas, who constitute
18% of the population.[9]
Oghuz Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land
of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at
the Battle of Manzikert.[10] Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol
invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing
much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its

defeat in World WarI, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by
Mustafa Kemal Atatrk and his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would
establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatrk as its first president.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become
increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organisations such as the Council of Europe, NATO,
OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major economies. Turkey began full membership negotiations with the European Union
in 2005, having been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and having joined the
EU Customs Union in 1995. Turkey has also fostered close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with
the Middle East, the Turkic states of Central Asia and the African countries through membership in organisations
such as the Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
and the Economic Cooperation Organisation.
Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic
importance.[11][12][13] Given its strategic location, large economy and military strength, Turkey is a major regional

The name of Turkey, Trkiye in the Turkish language, can be divided into two components: the ethnonym Trk and
the abstract suffix iye meaning "owner", "land of" or "related to" (derived from the Arabic suffix iyya, which is
similar to the Greek and Latin suffixes ia). The first recorded use of the term "Trk" or "Trk" as an autonym is
contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Gktrks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century). The English
word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia (c. 1369).[15] The Greek cognate of this name, Tourkia
(Greek: ) was originally used by the Byzantines to describe medieval Hungary[16][17][18] (since pre-Magyar
Hungary was occupied by proto-Turkic and Turkic tribes, such as the Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Kabars, Pechenegs and
Cumans.) Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the northern shores of the Black and Caspian
seas, was referred to as Tourkia (Land of the Turks) in Byzantine sources. However, the Byzantines later began using
this name to define the Seljuk-controlled parts of Anatolia in the centuries that followed the Battle of Manzikert in


The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited regions in
the world. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as atalhyk (Pottery Neolithic), ayn (Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A to Pottery Neolithic), Neval ori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Haclar (Pottery Neolithic), Gbekli Tepe
(Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin (Yumuktepe) are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the
The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic and continued into the
Iron Age. Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken
Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many
languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the
Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have
proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the
Indo-European languages radiated.[20] The Hattians were an ancient
people who inhabited the Central Anatolia, noted at least as early as ca.
2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII),
absorbed Hattians ca. 20001700 BC. The first major empire in the
identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200
area was founded by the Hittites, from the eighteenth through the 13th
century BC. The Assyrians colonized parts of southeastern Turkey as
early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC, when the Assyrian Empire was conquered by the Chaldean dynasty in
Babylon.[21][22] Following the Hittite collapse, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until
their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC.[23] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor
states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally
Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenistic
Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by
Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded
by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (modern zmir),
and Byzantium (later Constantinople and Istanbul). The first state
established in Anatolia that was called Armenia by neighboring
peoples (Hecataeus of Miletus and Behistun Inscription) was the state
of the Armenian Orontid dynasty. Anatolia was conquered by the
Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries BC and
later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC.[24] Anatolia was
subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms
(including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which
had succumbed to the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BC.[25]

The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135


In 324, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it
New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of
the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[26]


Turks and the Ottoman Empire

The House of Seljuk was a branch of the
Knk Ouz Turks who resided on the
periphery of the Muslim world, in the
confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and
Aral Seas, in the 9th century.[27] In the 10th
century the Seljuks started migrating from
their ancestral homeland into Persia, which
became the administrative core of the Great
Seljuk Empire.
In the latter half of the 11th century the
Seljuks began penetrating into the eastern
regions of Anatolia. The victory of the
Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan against the
Byzantine emperor Romanos IV Diogenes
at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 gave rise
Ottoman territories acquired between 1481 and 1683.
to the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, which
developed as a separate branch of the Great Seljuk Empire that covered parts of Central Asia, Persia, Anatolia, the
Levant and southeast Arabia.[28]
In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate.
In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would, over the next 200 years, evolve into the
Ottoman Empire, expanding throughout Anatolia, the Balkans and the Levant.[29] In 1453, the Ottomans completed
their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople.
The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th
centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its
steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the
southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[12] At sea, the
Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues (composed
primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of
Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of
Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy) for control of the Mediterranean
The Selimiye Mosque in Edirne is one of the
most famous architectural legacies of the
Sea. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman Navy frequently confronted
Ottoman Empire.
Portuguese fleets in order to defend the empire's monopoly over the
historic maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe;
these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, which had a
considerable impact on the Ottoman economy. In addition, the Ottomans were occasionally at war with Safavid
Persia over territorial disputes or caused by religious differences between 16th and 18th centuries.[30]
During nearly two centuries of decline, the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, military power, and wealth. It
entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, an estimated 1.5
million Armenians were deported and exterminated in the Armenian Genocide.[31][32] The Turkish government
denies that there was an Armenian genocide and claims that Armenians were only relocated from the eastern war
zone.[33] Large scale massacres were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Greeks
and Assyrians.[34][35][36] Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allied Powers


sought to partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Svres.[29]

Republic era
The occupation of Constantinople and Smyrna by the Allies in the
aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish
national movement.[12] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha,
a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle
of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim
of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Svres.[11]
By 18 September 1922, the occupying armies were expelled, and the
new Turkish state was established. On 1 November, the newly founded
parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of
Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, led to the
international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed
"Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire,
and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923, in the
new capital of Ankara.[12]
Mustafa Kemal Atatrk, founder and first
President of the Republic of Turkey.

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently

introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new
secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[12] With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament
bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatrk" (Father of the Turks.)[11]
Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the
war on the side of the Allies on 23 February 1945, as a ceremonial
gesture; and on 26 June 1945, became a charter member of the United
Nations.[37] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a
communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for
military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to
declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated
American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece,
and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support.[38]
Both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and OEEC for
rebuilding European economies in 1948, and subsequently became
founding members of the OECD in 1961.

Roosevelt, nn and Churchill at the Second

Cairo Conference which was held between 46
December 1943.

After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a
bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violence
and the Greek military junta backed coup in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 staged by the EOKA B paramilitary
organization, which overthrew President Makarios (who fled to the United Kingdom) and installed the pro-Enosis
(union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974 upon the request for
guarantorship intervention by the Turkish Cypriot leader and Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus Rauf
Denkta.[39] Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey, was
The single-party period ended in 1945. It was followed by a tumultuous transition to multiparty democracy over the
next few decades, which was interrupted by military coups d'tat in 1960, 1971, 1980 and 1997.[41] In 1984, the PKK
began an insurgency against the Turkish government; the conflict, which has claimed over 40,000 lives, continues
today.[42] Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy during the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger


economic growth and greater political stability.[43]

Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a
republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[44]
Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the
main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized
The President of the Republic is the head of state and has a largely ceremonial
role. The president is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. Abdullah
Gl was elected as president on 28 August 2007, by a popular parliament round
of votes, succeeding Ahmet Necdet Sezer.[45]
Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers
which make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the
unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is
independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is
charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution.
The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the
High Court of Appeals for all others.[46]

Recep Tayyip Erdoan has been

elected three times as Prime
Minister: In 2002 (with 34% of the
popular vote), in 2007 (with 47%)
and in 2011 (with 49%).

The prime minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in the government and is most often the
head of the party having the most seats in parliament. The current prime minister is the former mayor of stanbul,
Recep Tayyip Erdoan, whose conservative Justice and Development Party won an absolute majority of
parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with
34% of the suffrage.[47]

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey in

Ankara during a speech of U.S. President Barack
Obama on 6 April 2009.

In the 2007 general elections, the AKP received 46.6% of the votes and
could defend its majority in parliament.[48] Although the ministers do
not have to be members of the parliament, ministers with parliament
membership are common in Turkish politics. In 2007, a series of
events regarding state secularism and the role of the judiciary in the
legislature occurred. These included the controversial presidential
election of Abdullah Gl, who in the past had been involved with
Islamist parties;[49] and the government's proposal to lift the headscarf
ban in universities, which was annulled by the Constitutional Court,
leading to a fine and a near ban of the ruling party.[50]

Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey
since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. As of 2004, there were 50
registered political parties in the country.[51] The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political
parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.[52][53]
There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation
system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (stanbul is divided into
three electoral districts, whereas Ankara and zmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). To
avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties winning at least 10% of the votes cast
in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament.[51] Because of this threshold, in
the 2007 elections only three parties formally entered the parliament (compared to two in 2002).[54][55]


Human rights in Turkey have been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Between 1998
and 2008 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 1,600 judgements against Turkey for human rights
violations, particularly the right to life and freedom from torture. Other issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights
and press freedom have also attracted controversy. Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant
obstacle to future membership of the EU.[56] The Turkish Journalists Association says that 58 of the country's
journalists have been imprisoned. A former U.S. State Department spokesman, Philip J. Crowley, said that the
United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey."[57]

Foreign relations
Turkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945), the OECD
(1961), the OIC (1969), the OSCE (1973), the ECO (1985), the BSEC
(1992) and the G-20 major economies (1999). On 17 October 2008,
Turkey was elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations
Security Council.[58] Turkey's membership of the council effectively
began on 1 January 2009.[58] Turkey had previously been a member of
the U.N. Security Council in 19511952, 19541955 and 1961.[58]
In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe
have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey
became a founding member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied
for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European
Union) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After
decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership
of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western
European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and
has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005.[59]
Since 1974, Turkey has not recognized the (essentially Greek Cypriot)
Republic of Cyprus as the sole authority on the island, but instead
supports the Turkish Cypriot community in the form of the de facto
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which was established in 1983
and is recognized only by Turkey.[60]

Turkey is a founding member of the OECD and

the G-20 major economies.

Turkey began full membership negotiations with

the European Union in 2005, having been an
associate member of the EEC since 1963, and
having joined the EU Customs Union in 1995.

The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign relations has been its ties
with the United States. Based on the common threat posed by the
Soviet Union, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with Washington throughout the Cold
War. In the postCold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the
Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. In return, Turkey has benefited from the United States' political,
economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.
The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and
linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia,[61] thus
enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of
Ceyhan in Turkey. The BakuTbilisiCeyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an
energy conduit to the West. However, Turkey's border with Armenia, a state in the Caucasus, remains closed
following Armenia's occupation of Azerbaijani territory during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[62]



Troops of the Turkish Army; S-353 TCG Preveze; and a Turkish F-16 Fighting Falcon.

The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air
Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are
subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in
wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and
military functions.[63]
The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force
in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of
Turkey joined NATO in 1952.
just over a million uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[64]
Since 2003, Turkey contributes military personnel to Eurocorps and
takes part in the EU Battlegroups.[65] Turkey is also considered to be the strongest military power of the Middle East
region besides Israel.[14]
Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three
weeks to fifteen months, dependent on education and job location.[66] Turkey does not recognise conscientious
objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.[67]



Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the
nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium,
Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[68] A total of 90 B61 nuclear
bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for
use by the Turkish Air Force.[69]
In 1998, Turkey announced a programme of modernisation worth
US$160 billion over a twenty year period in various projects including
tanks, fighter jets, helicopters, submarines, warships and assault
rifles.[70] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter
(JSF) programme.[71]

Turkey is one of nine partner states of the F-35

Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development and
production programme.

Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the

United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia and former Yugoslavia, and
support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in northern Cyprus; their presence
is supported and approved by the de facto local government, but the Republic of Cyprus and the international
community regard it as an illegal occupation force, and its presence has also been denounced in several United
Nations Security Council resolutions.[72] Turkey has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the United States
stabilisation force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since
2001.[64][73] In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700
ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the
Israeli-Lebanon conflict.[74]
The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president and is responsible to the prime minister. The Council of
Ministers is responsible to parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed
forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to
foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.[63] The
actual commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General Necdet zel since August 4,

Administrative divisions
Further information: List of regions of Turkey,Provinces of Turkey,andDistricts of Turkey
The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The territory
of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for
administrative purposes. The provinces are
organized into 7 regions for census purposes;
however, they do not represent an administrative
structure. Each province is divided into districts,
for a total of 923 districts.
Provinces usually bear the same name as their
provincial capitals, also called the central district;
exceptions to this custom are the provinces of
Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: zmit)
and Sakarya (capital: Adapazar). Provinces with
the largest populations are Istanbul (13 million),
Ankara (5 million), zmir (4 million), Bursa (3
million) and Adana (2 million).

Districts of Turkey



The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital Istanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the
country.[76] An estimated 75.5% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[77] In all, 19 provinces have
populations that exceed 1 million inhabitants, and 20 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500,000
inhabitants. Only two provinces have populations less than 100,000.



K. Mara



Turkey is a transcontinental[78] Eurasian country. Asian Turkey (made
up largely of Anatolia), which includes 97% of the country, is
separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of
Marmara, and the Dardanelles (which together form a water link
between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean). European Turkey
(eastern Thrace or Rumelia in the Balkan peninsula) comprises 3% of
the country.[79]
The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000mi) long
Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe
and 800km (500mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.[76] It lies
and Asia.
between latitudes 35 and 43 N, and longitudes 25 and 45 E.
Turkey's area, including lakes, occupies 783,562[80] square kilometres (300,948 sq mi), of which 755,688 square
kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe.[76] Turkey
is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea
to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara
in the northwest.[81]



Marmaris on the Turkish Riviera.

The European section of Turkey, East Thrace, forms the borders of

Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country,
Anatolia, consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains,
between the Krolu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the
Taurus Mountains to the south. Eastern Turkey has a more
mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the
Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat,
Turkey's highest point at 5,137 metres (16,854ft).[81][82] Lake Tuz,
Turkey's third-largest lake, is a macroscopically visible feature in the
middle of the country.

Turkey is divided into seven census regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia,
Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea
resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a
general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[81]
Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth
movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and
still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional
volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their
existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the
creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the
north of the country from west to east, which caused a major
earthquake in 1999.[83]


Mount Ararat (Ar Da) is the highest peak in

Turkey at 5137 metres (unknown operator:

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and
cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only
region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500
millimetres annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.
The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Sea of Marmara (including Istanbul), which connects the Aegean Sea and
the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic
climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow does occur on the coastal
areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but it usually lies no more than a few days.
Snow on the other hand is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the
Mediterranean Sea.
Conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean
influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate
with sharply contrasting seasons.
Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of 30 C to 40 C (22F to 40 F) can occur in
eastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground at least 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures
average below 1 C (34 F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 C (86 F) in the day.
Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest
regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres
(12in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[84]



Turkey has the world's 15th largest GDP-PPP[85] and 17th largest
nominal GDP.[85] The country is a founding member of the OECD and
the G-20 major economies. During the first six decades of the republic,
between 1923 and 1983, Turkey has mostly adhered to a quasi-statist
approach with strict government planning of the budget and
government-imposed limitations over private sector participation,
foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, and foreign direct investment.
However, in 1983 Prime Minister Turgut zal initiated a series of
reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system
to a more private-sector, market-based model.[43]

A cruise ship (left) and Seabus (right) navigating

through the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul. Turkish
port cities and coastal towns like Istanbul, Izmir
and Kuadas are among the popular destinations
of cruise ship holiday tours in the Mediterranean

The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of foreign loans,

spurred rapid economic growth; but this growth was punctuated by
sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[86] and 2001;[87] resulting
in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[88] Lack of additional fiscal reforms, combined
with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking
sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[89] Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the
finance minister of the time, Kemal Dervi, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and
foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen.

Entrance to the ili station of the Istanbul Metro

in front of Istanbul Cevahir, Europe's largest
shopping mall.

Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms

by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and
the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of
many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid
political debate.[90] The public debt to GDP ratio, while well below its
levels during the recession of 2001, reached 46% in 2010 Q3. The
GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 7%,[91] which made
Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that
period. However, growth slowed to 1% in 2008, and in 2009 the
Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with a
recession of 5%. The economy was estimated to have returned to 8%
growth in 2010.[92]

In the early years of this century the chronically high inflation was brought under control and this led to the launch of
a new currency, the Turkish new lira, on 1 January 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and
erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.[93] On 1 January 2009, the new Turkish lira was renamed once again as
the Turkish lira, with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. As a result of continuing economic reforms,
inflation dropped to 8% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10%.[94]


Tourism in Turkey has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty

years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2008 there
were 31 million visitors to the country, who contributed $22 billion to
Turkey's revenues.[99] Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are
banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil
refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, machine
industry and automotive. Turkey has a large and growing automotive
industry, which produced 1,147,110 motor vehicles in 2008, ranking as
the 6th largest producer in Europe (behind the United Kingdom and
above Italy) and the 15th largest producer in the world.[100][101] Turkey
is also one of the leading shipbuilding nations; in 2007 the country
ranked 4th in the world (behind China, South Korea and Japan) in
terms of the number of ordered ships, and also 4th in the world (behind
Italy, USA and Canada) in terms of the number of ordered mega


One of the fastest growing airline companies in

the world, Turkish Airlines won Europe's Best
Airline and Southern Europe's Best Airline
awards by Skytrax.
Turkish Airlines was
chosen as the official carrier by Europe's leading
football clubs like FC Barcelona
Manchester United.
The company is also the
primary sponsor of Euroleague Basketball.

Turkey's economy is becoming more dependent on industry in major

cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, and
less on agriculture. However, traditional agriculture is still a major
pillar of the Turkish economy. In 2010, the agricultural sector
Esenboa International Airport in Ankara.
accounted for 9% of GDP, while the industrial sector accounted for
26% and the services sector 65%.[92] However, agriculture still
accounted for 24.7% of employment.[103] In 2004, it was estimated that 46% of total disposable income was received
by the top of 20% income earners, while the lowest 20% received 6%.[104] According to Eurostat data, Turkish PPS
GDP per capita stood at 49% of the EU average in 2010.[105]
Turkey has taken advantage of the European Union Turkey Customs Union,
signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports,
while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the
country. Turkey now has also opportunity of a free trade agreement with the
European Union (EU) without full membership that allows it to
manufacture for tarif-free sale throughout the EU market.[106][107]

Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are

among the largest producers of consumer
electronics and home appliances in

By 2009 exports were $110 bn and in 2010 it was $117 bn (main export partners in 2009: Germany 10%, France 6%,
UK 6%, Italy 6%, Iraq 5%). However larger imports, which amounted to $166 billion in 2010, threatened the
balance of trade (main import partners in 2009: Russia 14%, Germany 10%, China 9%, US 6%, Italy 5%, France
After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting $22 billion in FDI in
2007 and is expected to attract a higher figure in following years.[108] A series of large privatisations, the stability
fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the
banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[90]




Ethnic groups in Turkey (2008)

Ethnic groups








The last official census was in 2000 and recorded a total country population of 67,803,927 inhabitants.[2] According
to the Address-Based Population Recording System of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in
2011,[1] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is
increasing by 1.35% each year. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km. People within the
1564 age group constitute 67,4% of the total population; the 014 age group corresponds to 25.3%; while senior
citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7.3%.[110] In 1927, when the first official census was recorded in the
Republic of Turkey, the population was 13.6 million.[111]
Life expectancy stands at 71.1 years for men and 75.3 years for women, with an overall average of 73.2 years for the
populace as a whole.[112] Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 97.79% for males
and 90.13% for females as of the year 2010.[113]
Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who
is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship";
therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is
different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the
Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. They are estimated at
7075% by the CIA[114] and at 76.0% by a survey of Milliyet in
The Kurds, a distinct ethnic group concentrated mainly in the
southeastern provinces of the country, are the largest non-Turkic
ethnicity, estimated at about 18% of the population according to the
CIA[114] and at 15.7% according to a survey by the Milliyet daily newspaper.[109] Minorities other than the three
officially recognized ones do not have any special group privileges, while the term "minority" itself remains a
sensitive issue in Turkey. Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census
figures do not include statistics on ethnicity.[115]
The historic stiklal Avenue in Istanbul's
cosmopolitan Beyolu district.

The three officially recognized major minorities ethnic groups (per the Treaty of Lausanne), i.e. are: Armenians,
Greeks and Jews. Signed on 30 January 1923, a bilateral accord of population exchange between Greece and Turkey
took effect in the 1920s, with close to 1.5 million Greeks moving from Turkey and some 500,000 Turks coming
from Greece.[116] Other ethnic groups include Abkhazians, Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians,
Georgians, Hamshenis, Laz, Pomaks (Bulgarians), Roma.
Minorities of West European origin include the Levantines (or Levanter, mostly of French, Genoese and Venetian
descent) who have been present in the country (particularly in Istanbul[117] and zmir[118]) since the medieval period.
An estimated 71% of the population live in urban centers.[119] In all, 18 provinces have populations that exceed 1
million inhabitants, and 21 provinces have populations between 1 million and 500,000 inhabitants. Only two
provinces have populations less than 100,000.



Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Reliable figures for the linguistic breakdown of the populace
are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[115] According to the CIA World Factbook, the Turkish
language is spoken by about 7075% of Turkey's population, while Kurdish is spoken by approximately 18%.[92]
The public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in the local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian,
Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[120] A Kurdish language public television channel, TRT 6, was opened
on 1 January 2009.[121] It was followed by TRT Avaz which was launched on 21 March 2009 and broadcasts in the
Azeri, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Turkmen languages; while the TRT Arabic television channel started
broadcasting on 4 April 2010.[122]

Religions in Turkey









Turkey is a secular state with no official state

religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for
freedom of religion and conscience.[123][124] Islam
is the dominant religion of Turkey, it exceeds 99%
if secular people of Muslim background are
included.[92][125][126] Research firms suggest the
actual Muslim figure is around 98%[127] or 97%.[8]
There are about 120,000 people of different
Christian denominations, including an estimated
80,000 Oriental Orthodox,[128] 35,000 Roman
Catholics,[129] 5,000 Orthodox (of them
3,0004,000 being Greeks)[128] and smaller
Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) in Istanbul.
numbers of Protestants. Today there are 236
churches open for worship in Turkey.[130] The
Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Istanbul since the 4th century. Christians represent less than 0.2% of
Turkey's population, according to the CIA World Factbook.[131]
There are about 26,000 people who are Jewish, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi.[132]
The Bah' Faith in Turkey has roots in Bah'u'llh's, the founder of the Bah' Faith, being exiled to Constantinople,
current-day Istanbul, by the Ottoman authorities. Bah's cannot register with the government officially[133] but there
are probably 10[134] to 20[135] thousand Bah's, and around a hundred Bah' Local Spiritual Assemblies in
Though academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million.[137][138] According to Aksiyon
magazine, the number of Shiite Twelvers (excluding Alevis) is 3 million (4.2%), and they live in Istanbul, Idr,
Kars, Ankara, zmir, Manisa, orum, Mula, Ar and Aydn.[139] There are also some Sufi practitioners.[140] The
highest Islamic religious authority is the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet leri Bakanl), it
interprets the Hanafi school of law, and is responsible for regulating the operation of the country's 80,000 registered



mosques and employing local and provincial imams.[141] The role of religion has been controversial debate over the
years since the formation of Islamist parties.[142] Turkey was founded upon a strict secular constitution which forbids
the influence of any religion, including Islam. There are sensitive issues, such as the fact that the wearing of the
Hijab is banned in universities and public or government buildings as some view it as a symbol of Islam though
there have been efforts to lift the ban.[143][144][145][146] The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are
Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the
Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on
2007:[8] 52.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (religious); 34.3
% defined themselves as "a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (believer); 9.7% defined themselves
as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (fully devout); 2.3% defined themselves as "someone
who does not believe in religious obligations" (non-believer/agnostic); and 0.9% defined themselves as "someone
with no religious conviction" (atheist).[8]

Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various
elements of the Ouz Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was
itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures)
and Western culture and traditions, which started with the
Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today.
This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and
their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path
during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[147][148]
As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based
former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very
strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of
artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic,
the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts;
such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse
historical factors play important roles in defining the modern
Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a
"modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious
and historical values.[147] The mix of cultural influences is
Nuri Bilge Ceylan won the Best Director award at the
dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the
2008 Cannes Film Festival with Maymun.
clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan
Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[149]
Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences, which were a result of the
interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, thus contributing to a blend of
Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.[150] Turkish literature was
heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the
Ottoman Empire, particularly after the Tanzimat period, the effect of both Turkish folk and European literary
traditions became increasingly felt. The Tanzimat reforms of 18391876 brought changes to the language of
Ottoman written literature, and introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short
story. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several different genres simultaneously: for instance, the
poet Nmk Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel ntibh (Awakening), while the journalist inasi is noted for



writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "air Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). Most of
the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. Broadly, there were three
primary literary movements during this period: the Edebiyyt- Cedde (New Literature) movement; the Fecr-i t
(Dawn of the Future) movement; and the Mill Edebiyyt (National Literature) movement. The Edebiyyt- Cedde
(New Literature) movement began with the founding in 1891 of the magazine Servet-i Fnn (Scientific Wealth),
which was largely devoted to progress (both intellectual and scientific) along the Western model. Accordingly, the
magazine's literary ventures, under the direction of the poet Tevfik Fikret, were geared towards creating a
Western-style "high art" in Turkey.
The first radical step of innovation in 20th century Turkish poetry was
taken by Nzm Hikmet, who introduced the free verse style. Another
revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip
Movement led by Orhan Veli Kank, Melih Cevdet Anday and Oktay
Rfat. Explicitly opposing themselves to everything that had gone in
poetry before, they sought instead to create a popular art. They
employed not only a variant of the free verse introduced by Nzm
Hikmet, but also a highly colloquial language, and wrote primarily
about mundane daily subjects and the ordinary man on the street. The
reaction was immediate and polarized: most of the academic
establishment and older poets vilified them, while much of the Turkish
population embraced them wholeheartedly.

One of the main entrance gates of the

Dolmabahe Palace in Istanbul.

Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the
region over the centuries. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey,
many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions, are to be
found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Mimar Sinan is widely
regarded as the greatest architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. Since the 18th century, Turkish
architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where
buildings like Dolmabahe and raan Palaces are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them
representing different traditions.[151]

The most popular sport in Turkey is soccer.[152] Turkey's top teams
include Galatasaray, Fenerbahe, Beikta and Trabzonspor. In 2000,
Galatasaray cemented its role as a major European club by winning the
UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup. Two years later the Turkish national
team finished third in the 2002 World Cup Finals in Japan and South
Korea, while in 2008 the national team reached the semi-finals of the
UEFA Euro 2008 competition. The Atatrk Olympic Stadium in
Istanbul hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final, while the
kr Saracolu Stadium in Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final.

Atatrk Olympic Stadium hosted the 2005 UEFA

Champions League Final.

Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also

popular. Turkey hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001 and the finals of the 2010 FIBA World Championship,
winning second place on both occasions; while Efes Pilsen S.K. won the Kora Cup in 1996, finished


second in the Saporta Cup of 1993, and made it to the Final Four of
Euroleague and Suproleague in 2000 and 2001.[153] Turkish basketball
players such as Mehmet Okur and Hedo Turkoglu have also been
successful in the NBA. Women's volleyball teams, namely Eczacba,
Vakfbank Gne Sigorta and Fenerbahe Acbadem, have won
numerous European championship titles and medals.

Trk Telekom Arena is the new home ground of


The traditional Turkish national sport has been yal gre (oiled
wrestling) since Ottoman times.[154] Edirne has hosted the annual
Krkpnar oiled wrestling tournament since 1361.[155] International
wrestling styles governed by FILA such as Freestyle wrestling and
Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World
and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both
individually and as a national team.[156]
Weightlifting has been a successful Turkish sport. Turkish
weightlifters, both male and female, have broken numerous world
records and won several European,[157] World and Olympic[158]
championship titles. Naim Sleymanolu and Halil Mutlu have
achieved legendary status as one of the few weightlifters to have won
three gold medals in three Olympics.

Istanbul Park GP racing circuit.

Motorsports are also popular in Turkey. The Rally of Turkey was

included in the FIA World Rally Championship calendar in 2003,[159]
while Formula One race weekends held at the Istanbul Park racing
circuit occurred annually between the 2005 and 2011 Formula One
seasons. The Turkish Grand Prix was, however, not included in the
2012 Formula One season's calendar.[160][161][162] Other important
annual motorsports events which are held at the Istanbul Park racing
kr Saracolu Stadium of Fenerbahe hosted
the 2009 UEFA Cup Final.
circuit include the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey, the FIA World
Touring Car Championship, the GP2 Series and the Le Mans Series.
From time to time Istanbul and Antalya also host the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing championship; while
the Turkish leg of the Red Bull Air Race World Series, an air racing competition, takes place above the Golden Horn
in Istanbul. Surfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, paragliding and other extreme sports are becoming more popular
every year.

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Further reading
Bozarslan, Hamit (2008). "Turkey: Postcolonial discourse in a non-colonised state". In Poddar, Prem et al..
Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and its Colonies. Edinburgh University
Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN1-58567-615-2.
Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook. ISBN1-58567-581-4.
Revolinski, Kevin (2006). The Yogurt Man Cometh: Tales of an American Teacher in Turkey. Citlembik.
Roxburgh, David J. (ed.) (2005). Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 6001600. Royal Academy of Arts.
ISBN 1-903973-56-2.
Turkey: A Country Study (1996). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0864-6.

External links
Official website (http://www.tccb.gov.tr/pages/)
Turkey (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html) entry at The World
Turkey (http://www.dmoz.org/Regional/Middle_East/Turkey/) at the Open Directory Project
Wikimedia Atlas of Turkey
Turkey travel guide from Wikitravel
Geographic data related to Turkey (http://www.openstreetmap.org/browse/relation/174737) at OpenStreetMap
Key Development Forecasts for Turkey (http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=TR)
from International Futures

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Flag of Turkey.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Benbennick (original author)
File:Turkey (orthographic projection).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turkey_(orthographic_projection).svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
3.0 Contributors: User:The Emirr, User:The Emirr
File:Troy1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Troy1.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Dodo, Nevit, Rrburke, 3 anonymous edits
File:Ephesus Celsus Library Faade .jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ephesus_Celsus_Library_Faade_.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: User:Benh
File:Ottoman empire.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ottoman_empire.svg License: unknown Contributors: Andr Koehne
File:Edirne 7333 Nevit.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edirne_7333_Nevit.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Nevit Dilmen
File:MustafaKemalAtaturk.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MustafaKemalAtaturk.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Cemal Iksel (1905-1989)
File:Roosevelt Inonu Churchill.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Roosevelt_Inonu_Churchill.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Photographer
File:Tayyip Erdoan.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tayyip_Erdoan.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors:
from Greece
File:Barack Obama addresses Turkish Parliament 4-6-09 2.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Barack_Obama_addresses_Turkish_Parliament_4-6-09_2.JPG
License: Public Domain Contributors: Chuck Kennedy
File:2010 G-20 Seoul summit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2010_G-20_Seoul_summit.jpg License: Creative Commons AR-Presidency Contributors: Presidencia
de la Nacion Argentina
File:Europische Zollunion.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Europische_Zollunion.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors:
European_Union_as_a_single_entity.svg: CrazyPhunk derivative work: Kolja21 (talk)
Image:Turkish troops.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turkish_troops.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: PH1 Timm Duckworth, USN.

Image:US Navy 050624-N-1464F-025 The Turkish submarine Preveze surfaces following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) submarine escape and rescue exercise Sorbet
Royal 2005.jpg Source:
License: Public Domain Contributors: Takabeg
Image:Turkish Air Force (F-16C Falcon).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turkish_Air_Force_(F-16C_Falcon).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Maurice07, Takabeg
File:NATO-2002-Summit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NATO-2002-Summit.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Cantus at
File:F35A Prototyp AA1 2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:F35A_Prototyp_AA1_2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Air Force photo by Senior
Airman Julius Delos Reyes
File:Turkey districts.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turkey_districts.png License: Public domain Contributors: User:Rarelibra
File:BlankMapTurkeyProvinces.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BlankMapTurkeyProvinces.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
Contributors: Atilim Gunes Baydin
Image:Desc-20.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Desc-20.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Trevor Parscal
File:Bosphorus Bridge-1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bosphorus_Bridge-1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Tinou Bao from San
Francisco, USA
File:Marmaris TURKEY.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Marmaris_TURKEY.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
Contributors: Nnevid, Nosferat, Osmanyaylali
File:NEO ararat big.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NEO_ararat_big.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NASA/JSC
File:Cruise ship and Seabus in Istanbul.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cruise_ship_and_Seabus_in_Istanbul.jpg License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: M.K.T. Istanbul
File:FulyaGirii.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FulyaGirii.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Danbury
File:2011-06-21 16-27-47 South Africa - Crossroads - TC-JNL.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2011-06-21_16-27-47_South_Africa_-_Crossroads_-_TC-JNL.jpg
License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Hansueli Krapf

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Esenboga terminal.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Esenboga_terminal.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors:
(Mustafa Goksu) Cheyrek
File:Beko logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Beko_logo.svg License: Trademarked Contributors: The Emirr
File:Istiklal Caddesi 06 24 09 0068.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Istiklal_Caddesi_06_24_09_0068.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0
Contributors: Harvey Barrison from Massapequa, NY, USA
File:Sultan Ahmed Mosque Istanbul Turkey retouched.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sultan_Ahmed_Mosque_Istanbul_Turkey_retouched.jpg License: Creative
Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Dersaadet
File:Nuri Bilge Ceylan Cannes 2008.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nuri_Bilge_Ceylan_Cannes_2008.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: Radikal foto
File:DolmabahceMainGate.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DolmabahceMainGate.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Anniolek, Galileo01, Pascal.Tesson
File:Atatrk Olympic Stadium Istanbul.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Atatrk_Olympic_Stadium_Istanbul.jpg License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: OlympisTR
File:Trk Telekom Arena view.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Trk_Telekom_Arena_view.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Jan Luca, User:Magnus
File:Istanbul park front straight and main grandstand.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Istanbul_park_front_straight_and_main_grandstand.JPG License: Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Homonihilis
File:FB-BJK.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FB-BJK.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Kzl aman
File:Openstreetmap logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Openstreetmap_logo.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors:

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