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Andrew Rosen

A) Homogeneous Matter
In 1 phase
Even distribution of material throughout the sample
Homogeneous Mixture (Solution)
Properties of materials vary
You can separate the components physically
Ex) Evaporation, Distillation
Pure Substance
a) Elements
Simplest form of matter
Made up of one kind of atom
Cant be decomposed chemically
I) Metals
Malleability (Strong Bonds)
Ductile (Ability to draw into wire)
Good conductors of heat/electricity
High melting points
Poor conductors
Low melting point
b) Compounds: 2 or more different elements chemically combined and chemically
B) Heterogeneous Matter
Uneven distribution of material throughout a sample
Properties: Set of characteristics used to characterize and identify a substance
Physical: Observed without producing a new substance
Depends on amount of sample
(mass, volume, weight)

Doesnt depend on amount of sample
(Density, boiling/freezing point, pH, odor, taste, color)

Chemical: Reacts or doesnt react with another substance

Reaction leads to chemical change and a new product with its own properties (rust, burning, cooking,
respiration, digestion)
Significant Digits:

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Percent Error =

When using scientific notation, make all the numbers the same exponent so that you
can calculate significant digits

Theoretical Yield =
Formula Weight can be used for anything. Molecular weight is only for molecules.
Separation of Mixtures:
Filtration Liquid separation from solid by using a filter
Solvents Separates substances with different solubilities
Distillation/evaporation Separates substances with different boiling points
Other properties - Sublimation
Precision v. Accuracy:
Precision Proximity of several measurements made by the same means to each other
Accuracy Proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity
The Celsius and kelvin scale have equivalent 1 degree steps
History of the Atom
Democritus: World is made up of indivisible particles (atomos)
Aristotle: Matter is continuous (not made of small particles) False
Lavoisier: The law of conservation of matter (Energy cant be created or destroyed, it can only change forms)
Proust: Law of definite proportions (constant composition)
Dalton: Proposed first atomic theory and calculated relative masses of atoms
Daltons Atomic Theory: All matter is made of small particles, atoms of an element are exactly alike,
atoms of a different element combine to form compounds (Indefinite ratios)
Newton and Boyle: Believed in the atomic nature of elements
Mendeleev: Organized period table
Lussac: Under constant conditions, volume of gases and products are in small whole number ratios

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Avogadro: Equal volumes of gas under same conditions contain same number of particles/molecules
Gerd Binnig: Atomic Force Microscopy to observe atoms
Parts of the Atom
Thomson: Cathode ray tube determined the electrons charge to mass ratio

Millikan: Oil drop test found mass of electron to be 1/1830 of hydrogen ion (proton)
Proton: Used Hydrogen. Traveled opposite direction due to opposite charge


Chadwick: Alpha Particle Beryllium Neutron (High energy, no charge, mass equivalent to proton)
utherfords Gold Foil Experiment:
Alpha Particle (+) Gold Foil

98% goes through

(Atom is mostly empty space)

2% deflected
(Small dense positive
charged nucleus)

Radioactivity: Rays produced spontaneously from unstable nuclei and discovered by Becquerel who used matter
containing uranium exposed photographic film
Rutherford: Discovered alpha radiation (+2 nuclei of helium), beta rays (-1 fast electrons), and gamma

rays (high energy photons with no charge)

Mass Spectrometry: Masses of individual ions and abundances of individual isotopes can be measured
with great accuracy using a mass spectrometer due to magnets and deflections of the differently
charged particles

Aluminum and polonium are metals (not semimetals)

Most metals are solid (except mercury)
Ionic compounds form large, complex ionic crystals (solids)
Chemical Nomenclature

Ionic Compounds

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Metal Nonmetal
(+) ion = Cation
Metals lose electrons to become positive ions
(-) ion = Anion
Non-metals gain electrons to become negative ions
Name ending changes to ide.
NaCl Sodium Chloride
MgBr2 Magnesium Bromide
KI Potassium Iodide
Empirical Formula: Simplest whole number ratio. Ionic compound are always empirical
Stock System: Uses roman numerals to represent a value of the oxidation number when
more than one is given
Iron (III) Chloride Fe+3Cl-1 FeCl3
Lead (IV) Chloride PbCl4
Zinc Chloride ZnCl2
Sodium Hydride - NaH

Stock System
Iron (II)
Iron (III)
Copper (I)
Copper (II)
Tin (IV)
Tin (II)
Gold (I)
Gold (III)
Lead (II)
Lead (IV)
*Dimercury (I)*
Mercury (II)
Copper (II) chloride
Lead (IV) bromde
Gold (III) sulfide
Copper (I) hydride

Old System (Latin)

Cupric chloride
Plumbic chloride
Auric sulfide
Cuprous hydride

Ous is for the first oxidation state and Ic is for the second oxidation state
Molecular Compounds
A. Old System Prefix
1. Mono
2. Di
3. Tri
4. Tetra
5. Penta

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*Exception with a double vowel* pentaoxide pentoxide
CO Carbon monoxide Carbon (I) oxide
CO2 Carbon dioxide Carbon (II) oxide
N2O3 Dinitrogen trioxide Nitrogen (III) oxide
P2O5 Diphosphorous pentaoxide Phosphorous (V) oxide
Exceptions are with hydrogen H2S is just hydrogen sulfide when not in water
Ternary (3 or more different atoms) Compounds
NaClO Sodium hypochlorite
Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate
Calcium hydroxide Ca+2OH-1
Magnesium phosphate Mg+2PO4-3 Mg3(PO4)2
Binary Acids: Hydrogen and a nonmetal.
Hydro --- IC
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HBr Hydrobromic acid
H2S Hydrosulfuric acid *charges must have a net of 0*
Ternary Acids: Hydrogen and polyatomic ion. Ate Ic
Ite Ous
HNO3 Nitrate Nitric acid
HNO2 Nitrite Nitrous acid
H2C2O2 Hypooxilite Hypooxalous acid
H2C2O4 Oxalic acid
H2C2O3 Oxilous acid
H2C2O5 Peroxalic acid
Hypo ite
Per ate
*Atoms in the same group have the same pattern as another element in the same group*
(PO4 and ASO4)
Polyatomic Anions Exception If it is an oxyacid with more than one hydrogen added, write
dihydrogen: H2PO4- (dihydrogen phosphate ion)
Hydrates: Add the hydrate to the end of the compound and use latin roots if necessary
Must Learn: C2H6 Ethylene, C2H2 Acetylene, C6H6 Benzene
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Have double or triple bonds between carbon atoms

Be able to name alkanes with prefixes

Alcohols (OH) go from -ane to -ol
Halogenated hydrocarbons have halo- prefixes (fluoro-, chloro-, etc.)
Carboxylic acids (-COOH) change from ane to oic acid

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Ethanoic acid is known as acetic acid

Limiting Reactants: The reactant that is used/consumer first. The other reactant is in excess.
If 40.0g H3PO4 reacts with 60.0g MgCO3, how many liters of CO2 produced at STP
2 H3PO4 + 3 MgCO3 1 Mg3(PO4)2 + 3 CO2 + 3H2O
Limiting Reactant
40.0g H3PO4 (


60.0g MgCO3 (



) = 13.7L CO2
) = 15.9L CO2


Empirical Formula Determination From Percent Composition:

70.9% K and 29.1 % S by mass
70.9g K (

) = 1.81 mol K

29.1g S (

) = .908 mol S

Assume 100g sample

K2S1 K2S

Combustion Analysis:

Whole Number Multiple =

Find grams of each atom

o Take the grams of carbon dioxide, find the moles, do a mole ratio, and use atomic mass
of carbon
o Do the same process with water for hydrogen
o For oxygen, subtract the mass of the carbon and hydrogen from the samples mass
o Now convert all masses to moles
o Set up a mole ratio to find empirical formulas