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CHAPTER : 2 Outline

THE ENVIRONMENT : BUSINESS ORGANIZATION AND CHANNELS


1. Analyze your organization
How people work together
What goals people work toward
2.

Analyze Changes in the Business Environment


Electronic Communication
International Communication
Nondiscriminatory Communication

3. Analyze the Channels of Communication


Directional flow
Communication Channels

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BUSINESS ORGANIZATION & CHANNELS


Q.1

How do you analyze how people work together?

1.

ANALYZE YOUR ORGANIZATION


All business organization depends on communication.
There are certain written and un-written rules of communication that
guide you as to how and with whom you are supposed to
communicate in the organization.
In order to understand them it is important to understand how
people work together and what goals they work towards.
A. How People Work Together
Refer to All Chapter Notes

Q.2

What things can you learn from org structure?

The hierarchy chart lets you know

Q.4

Extent of authoritarians structure.


Emphasis on downwards comm. / upward comm.
Reporting relations who reports to whom.
Location of people.
How do you analyze what goals people work towards?

B. What goals people work for


Analyzing what goals people work for includes
1. Formal goals
2. Informal goals

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1. Formal Goals
Formal goals are officially published like as:

Recruiting brushers
Annual reports
Companys policies, procedures and job description
What company chooses to emphasize

2. Informal Goals
These goals are often called culture. This is the values, expectations and
beliefs the group members share. The goals are not published but they are
present in the atmosphere.
Listen to the stories people say about the company (Myths)
Analyze companys atmosphere like dcor dress, security
ANALYZE CHANGES IN BUSINESS ENVIORNMENTS
The business people have to be aware of changes in business environment
that have drastically influenced the business communications:A.
B.
C.

Electronic communication
International communication
Non discriminatory communication

Q.5
List giving example of each of aspects of business communication
that electronic communication has affected.
A. Electronic Communications
The recent tends and developments in electronic communication have
brought about noticeable changes. Computers have brought about a
revolution in communications. The important changes include:-

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I.

Gathering information

With the help of electronic data base and storage system has immense
ability to store information. It is also readily available through easy
access. Besides that information available in webs around the world is also
available through internet.
You can file data efficiently / systematically
You can store data under many heads
You dont require big space, files and admirals for the storage.
II.

Writing

With the help of word processes and programming of your liking and
requirement you can compose to write yourself.

III.

You can revise on the computer itself correct it and save time effort.
Correct your writing with the help of stored dictionary
Take the print out.
E Mail is another way of electronics writing making business writing a
totally changed affair. In this system you type in your own computer
and send it else where even internationally.
Speaking
Use of graphics
Ability to print out charts. pie bars and line graphs
Sizes and shapes of lettering
Scanning of printers and presenting
Tele conferencing
Picture teleconferencing
Two way interactive talking / seeing / simultaneously

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Q.6 What two major kinds of analysis and observations do you need to
keep in mind in the increasing international business environment?
B. INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
The second trend affecting the business environment is increasing
international presence.
Business was confined to different countries. Now we have large multi
national companies.
Many cross cultural communications problems stores from what you say
and how you say.
Language
One learns foreign language to be able to work with foreign
companies to be able to communicate with people.
Expression How directly can you express yourself defers from cultures.
Gestures
Gestures also vary across cultures thumbs up okay sign,
speaking to someone with hands in pocket (Germany)
Emotions
In America emotions has no value in business
communication. In Mid East / Saudi Arabia weeping, laughing, shouting is
considered as an appropriate adult behaviors.
Touching
Americans discourage touching business colleague, greeting
in Latin America hand shake ranging to hundreds. Saudi Arabia Mid East
embracing.
Distance
America 10 inches to 2 feet lating America it is differ at.
Place and things differ amongst cultures An America you discuss business
everywhere except church
In India it is impolite to discuss business at home.

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C. NON DISCRIMINATORY COMMUNICATIONS


Another factor which has come in is the alleviation of discrimination.
( Civil rights )
We must know what we should avoid and what should we prefer
Be aware of racism
Be aware of sexism
Be aware of common pitfalls

ALYZING THE CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION


There are two channels of communication:
1. Directional flow, and
2. Communication channels
1. DIRECTIONAL FLOW OF COMMUNICATION
The directional flow in which we send a message within and outside
organization affects the communication.
The research reveals that: Information gets distorted as it flows up
Information gets lost as it flows downwards
Lateral communication gets blocked by rivalry and jealousy amongst
peers.
It is therefore essential that pitfalls be removed.

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There are four types of directional flow in formal communication:


A.
B.
C.
D.

Downward Communication
Upward Communication
Lateral Communication
Outward Communication

A. Downward Communication
In this, information flows from higher level to lower levels. For example:
staff meetings, manuals, policy statements, instructions, job descriptions,
newsletter, telephone conversation etc.
It is typically used for four purposes:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

To explain standards, such as informing employees about specific job


instructions.
To provide feedback to the employees, such as giving performance
appraisals.
To encourage participation, such as giving new ideas or upward
feedback on current policies, and
To motivate or inspire, such as showing how an employees job fit
into big picture or companys general mission.

There are four important things to be kept in mind to avoid pitfalls in


downward communication:
Information may be garbled on the way.
Tone is very important. Avoid an overbearing or patronizing insulting,
sarcastic tone as well as the one having artificial warmth or
friendship.
Downward communication must be clear in a way that your desires,
wishes, or required actions must be understood.
Finally the downward communication must be based on mutual
trust. If either side doesnt trust the other, its prejudice will stand in
the way of true communication

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B. Upward Communication
One of the noticeable changes in business communication environment in
the past few years has been the increase emphasis on upward
communication. This means the flow of communication from subordinates
to their supervisors. The most typical forms of upward communication are
reports, memos, meetings, and interviews.
It typically accomplishes three purposes:
i.
ii.
iii.

To report on activities or accomplishments of a person or a division.


To offer suggestions and opinions, and
To increase participation in management functions such as planning
or controlling.

Following are the pitfalls of upward communication:


Employees try to conceal their opinions, ideas and problems from
supervisors.
Employees avoid honest opinions due to fair of punishment from
seniors.
Lack of trust between employees and managers.
C. Lateral Communication
Communication between people at the same hierarchical rank, but in
different areas or functions, is called horizontal or lateral communication.
This flow of communication is becoming increasingly important as business
become more large, complex, and specialized. Even in small companies,
lateral communication is important in order to coordinate various functions
by encouraging team work among peers.
There are three purposes of Lateral Communication:
i.
ii.

Communication between people at same level but in different


functional areas.
Helps in better coordination among various functions.

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iii.

Encourage teamwork.

Major blocks to lateral communication include:


Departmental isolation,
Lack of time and communication opportunities, and
Jealously or rivalry between groups.
The main thing to keep in mind is that it is in your best interest and the best
interest of your company to keep this flow of communication open.
D. Outward Communication
It is also known as External Communication that is the external audiences
of your communication include suppliers, dealers, vendors, manufacturers,
current customers, former customers, government agencies and
community groups.
The most common external writing is usually in the form of letters to
answer questions, deal with complaints, request information, or sell
products to your customers.
It is done by advertisements, press releases, direct mailings or
personal visits.

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2. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
Q.8

How would to analyze channels of communications?

OR
Q# Explain in detail the Channels of Communication.
All communication regardless of its directional flow uses one or more of the
three channels:
I.
II.
III.

Writing.
Speaking to one person.
Speaking to a group.

These channels analyzed in terms of:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Time
Cost
Place
Detail
Primacy
Relationship
Permanent record
Response

Write if:

You have time to prepare and Your audiences time is limited


Secretarial, material and postage costs are not prohibited.
You need to communicate detailed information.
You need a permanent record
You do not need an immediate response or no response at all.

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Speak to a group if:

You have time to prepare and your audience has time to attend
It does not involve too much cost
You need the same people to discuss the same information
You want to build a group relationship and you want group response.

Speak to person if:

You do not have time to prepare.


You need a very fast answer
Telephone cost is not prohibited
You do not need to communicate detailed information
You want to build your individual relationship
You do not need a permanent record and
You need extensive and immediate feedback.

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