Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 507

, ,

1/14
87.3(5)
94

()
00-03-16025


.. (.. ), .., ..,
..- (. ), .., .,
.., .., .., ..,
.., .. (. ), .., ..
..-
..

-. -. - 94 , . . ... .: , 2001. 504 .


( . ).
ISBN 5-02-018150-1
-
(IIIIV .) - (IVV .). (, )
, ,
. - , , ; 16 (nadapmx),
, , .
87.3(5)

-. -
.
... ..
.. . .
020297 23.06.97. 30.05.2001. 6090'/,
. . . . 31,5. . .-. 32,5. .-. . 33,6. 1200 .
. 7892. . 1709
. 103051, -51, , 21
" "". 121099, -99, ., 8

I S B N 5-02-018150-1

.., . , ., ., 2001
, 2001

1959-1985 .
. . 1959-1985. , 1986.
,
.

LXXVIII.

LXXIX.

LXXX.

LXXXL 1-4.

LXXXII.

LXXX1II.
LXXXIV.

LXXXV.

LXXXVI.

, . , .
, ., . ...
., 1987.
- - (
). . . ,
. , . . ... , 1987.
. . (). . , . . .. ... ,
1987.

(1149-1169). . , . ,
. . ... 4- .
. 1. . , 1987.
. 2. , . . (. 1-7). , 1987.
. 3. , . . (. 8-12). , 1989.
. 4. , ., . (. 13-20). , 1989.
,
( - ). . , .
. ... , 1987.
'' - ( ). . , . , ., . ... ., 1993.
' ' -. - (
). . . , , , , .
... ., 1988.
. - ( ) -
( ). . , ., . - . ... ., 1989.
. ( ). .
, . . ... , 1990 (Bibliotheca
Buddhica. XXXV).

LXXXVII.

LXXXVIII.
LXXXIX.

XCI.
.

XCIV.

XCV.
XCVI.

XCVII.
XCVIII.

XCIX.

.
.

CIV.
CV, 1.
CV, 2.
CVI.

. . , , , . , .
. ... ., 1990.
(). . , . . ... ., 1989 (Bibliotheca Buddhica. XXXVI).
". ( ), ("). . , ,
. ... ., 1989.
-. .
, . , . . ... ,
1990 (Bibliotheca Buddhica. XXXVII).
. . (). . , . . .. ... ., 1990.
- . ('-
). . , . . ... ,
1990.
.
. ., , ., .,
... , 1991.
. (). . . .., . .. ... ., 1992.
' ( ). . 1208 . . , ., . . ... , 1990.
. . . , . . ... ., 1991.
'- ( ). . .
, . .. ... . .. ... . .
... ., 1997.
. ( ).
1. . . , . . ... ., 1991 (Bibliotheca Buddhica. XXXVIII).
. (). . , ., . . ... ., 1992.
. ., ., ... ., 1993 (Bibliotheca Buddhica.
XXXIX).
- -. ( ). . , . . ... ., 1992.
. ., . . ... ., 1993.
'. . . , . . ... ., 1999.
- -.
(-' ' ' -'). II.

VII.

CIX.

CXI.
.
, 1.

, 2.

CXIV.

CXV.
CXVI.

CXVII

CXVIII.
.

CXXI.

.
CXXIV.

. . , . .
... , 1997.
- -. - ( -
). . , . , . .
... , 1996.
(- -).
. , ., . .. ... , 1992.
- . ('-
' -). . , . . ... , 2000.
. . . , ,
. ... , 1993.
. . . , , , .
. ... ., 1995.
( ). 1. .
, ., . . ... ., 1997.
( ). 2.
. , ., . . ...
. (- -
). () .
... ., 1997.
(). . . , , ., ... ., 1998.
XIII-XIV .
. . 4. . .., ..,
.. ... . ... .. ...
. .
, . , , ., .
... ., 2000.
-, . . ,
., ., . ... ., 1999.
( -
-). . , . . .,
..
( ). .
. , , . ..- . .., . . ...
. . . , ., .,
. . .., ...
( ). . , . . ...

CXXV, 1.
CXXV, 2.
CXXVI.

CXXXI.

. ( ). . I. . , . . ...
. ( ). . II. . , . . ...
.
( ) . ., , . . ...
(
). 8- . . 1. . ..,
... ., , . . .., .. .., ..,
...
-. . ( ). .
, ., . . ...

...

1.
16
2.
3.
4.
5.

-. -
I
1
2
II
1
2
.
III
1
2
IV
1
2
V
1
2

10
20
20
40
60
79
114
137
143
144
178
191
231
259
291
328
357
376
396

405

Summary

485
488
489
498
502


,
- . ( ..1)
( 2). ( 3), (- , - 4). ,
- 5.
(XVII .), ,
6.

, (nyya), . , ..
, , ,
, , , ,
1

. [, 1995, . I].
. [, 1998], 1990 ., , [, 1994], , .
3
, 1992.
4
, 1995; , 1997.
5
, 1983; , 1985. .. - .
6
, 1989.
2

10

, , . , , ,
, : ,
,
, .
,

.

-,
,
,
, 7,
, , . -,

,
, , , .
, , ,
,

,
- . ,

.
,

-
7

, .
11

.
,
,
.



, 16
, :
,
. , ,

16 . 16 , , -
. , ,
16 ,
.
. , , . , , , -, . , , , 8
.
, 1888 . - ; 1892 . - , - , , 1894 . , - . ..
(1906), ,
(1909) [, 1995, . II]. [, 1930-1932].

12

, .
-, 16 ,
, ,
-.
-
. .,
, , 16 ,
,
. -
,
,
,
.

. , ( ); .
-,
-
(IX .) 9. 1995 .
17 - 10, ,
( , ),
9
[-,
1920, . 1-26].
10
. [EIPh,1995,T.I,c. 192].

13

- . : The Nyyadarsana: The Stras of Gautama


and Bhsya of Vtsyyana with Two Commentaries. Ed. by
M.Gangnatha Jh and Dhundhirja Shastri Nyyopdhyya. Benares, 1925 (Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series 281 etc.) [-, , 1925]. ,
( ) , .
, , , . -
, - .

(1874)11,
(1896), , (1920) ,
;
,
(1966). -

- .. .. (1916) . (1997) - .. (1925) . (1996)12.

;
. ,

, ( ) .
,
11

,
. .
12
-, 1874; -, -, 1896; -, 1920;
-, 1966; , 1916; , 1997; ,
1925-1926; , 1996.
14


13

, ,

14.
,
,
( ).
( )
, ,
, , , , , ,
.., (
)
(
) (
) .
, ,
, ,
,
15.
, -
,
( ) .
1. , (
..), , (
13
. [ , 1997, . 45; , 1997, . 27-28]
.
14
, , , . [ElPh, 1982, . III].
.. [, 1930-1932, . 2].
15


[ , 1997, . 105-110].

15

. )? , ,
- ( ), , . , , , ,
, , . , .,
, ,

,
. ,
,

(,
) ( ) .
2.
(
.) (
-
.)?
. , ..
. , (
, ), . , ( 16
, jntr , dravya ,
bhutni , arm , samyoga
, samavya ).

: buddhi ,
16

, ,
, ( ), , (buddhi /?/.),
( ), , ,
. dharma,
, , , , : , ,
,
.
3.
?
, - ,
. ,
, ,
, .
( ,
, , ), ,
, ( ,
)
, , - .., , , , .
,
, , , , , .
,
,
(. ) . , , ,
,
, , , , 17

. , ,
, , , , , , . , - -
(VII .), - ( ,
- ),
, ,
. - XX
. , , , , . (, , )
. , , ,

.
, ,
, ,
( ) , ,
, ; .

( 98-03-04413),
1S

, . ,
,
.
.

1

16
1.16 (padrtha)
(pramna), (), (samsaya), / (prayojana), (drtnta), (siddhnta), (avayava),
(tarka), (nirnaya), (vda), (jalpa), (vitanda), (chala), (hetvbhsa), (jti)
(nigrahasthna) ,
7 ( -) , 9 ,
25 75 . - ,
.
16 . (1823
1824)1, . (1834)2
1

, ,
( ) 14 ,
, .
[, 1833, . 51-52].
2
. [, 1834, . 1908]. ,
, , .
20

1. 16

. (1850)3; - ,
. (1908)4, . (1913)5, . (1922)6,
. (1925)7, . (1932)8, . (1971)9
. (1984)10, , . (1976)11
. (1984)12, 1 .
. , .
(1899)
16 16 , , , , ( ); . (1917)
; . (1923) 16 , , ;
.- (1923) , . . (1939) 16
3

. [, 1992, . 76].
, , padrtha
Kategorie, Hauptstck Rubrik, , ,
. . [, 1908, . 361-362].
5
. padrtha [-, 1913, . 1].
6
, (. . 4), categories (. logical categories)
subjects [, 1922-1955, . I, . 294, 302].
7
, ,

[, 1925, . 144].
8
, 1976, . 245.
9
, 1971, . 171-172.
10
. [, 1984, . 1].
, .
11
. [, 1976, . 34, 43]; ,
(. ),
, , , .
12
16 [, 1984, . XII].
13
, .
, [,
1961, . 282].
4

21

. . (1953), , 16 ,
( , ,
XIX . .-); . (1978) , , , , ;
.. (1982) ;
. (1989) 14.
, , ,
. ,

, -
. , ,
, , ( . . . 14)
, ..
-
, . ,
,
.
2. pada + artha ( pada + attha) , . , - (II . ..)
14

16
: [ , 1899, . 491-492; , 1917, . 432; , 1977, . 33-34; , , 1955, . 166-167; -, 1923, . 191; , , 1953,
. 59-60; ElPh, 1978, . II, . 43; , 1989, . 39-42]. .
[-, , 1982, . XXIV]. .
: praedicabilia , ( , , ..) .
22

. 16

pada + artha, , (III .


..). ,
,

, , ,

( 1.2.64, . 1.242.11-13)15. , ( 36-52),
:
.
, ,
, ,
(1.246.15-18)16.
pada +
artha (sabda + artha) .
- (.2.6568), , , pada + artha , , (.2.68). -
: , ,
(1.1.1), - . VVI . ( XX . ,
, ), padrtha
15
[, 1878-1885]; , ,
.
16

[, 1976, . 257]. , , [,
1938]. padrtha
... .
[, 1998, . 92-105].

23


17.
, , -, , , .
(
XX ) 18, 19 -20 ,
,
,
, , ( ) .
.
, ,
, . , (dravya), (guna),
(karma), (smnya), (visea) (samavya). (V-VI .), 17

(. [ElPh, 1995, . I, . 1 5 0 5 - 1 5 0 6 et al.]), , ,


. , ,
padrtha , XVII . ( 2 ) ( . ) , .
18
., , [, 1956, . 3 0 - 3 1 ; , 1962, . 125; ,
, 1969, . 8 3 ; , 1995, . 4 1 ] .
19
., , [, 1961, . 2 8 1 ; , 1963, . 106; , 1987, . 2 1 9 ; , 1992, . 1 9 2 ] .
20
., , [, 1975, . 6 1 ; , 1976, . 2 5 ; , 1 9 8 1 ,
. 31; , 1995, . 125-126].
24

1. 16

, (sakti), (asakti), -
(smnyavisea) (abhva) ,
(
), . , (
) , .
,
(254-260)21.
, .
(VII .),
(, ,
) (bhva), a . (abhva) ,
(
, ,
,
, , ,
). ( ),
,
,
: (paratantrat), (sakti),
(sadrsya) (samkhy).
, , ,
, , ,
,
(
21

. [, 1970, . 377-386].
25

). ,
,
. ,
- (XIII-XIV .)
( , ) (visita), (amsin)
.

, , , -
, ,
. , ,
, , .
,
.. (V-VI .) (1.2), (VIIVIII .)
, ,
pancavidhakalpan [].
, --- ( ), ,
, ,
,
. (nma):
(nmakalpan), (jtikalpan), (gunakalpan), (karmakalpan), (dravyakalpan).
, .
: (vidhi), (anupalabdhi), (tdtmya) (tadutpatti). , ,
26

1. 16

, , : , , ,
. ,
, , 23.
XXVIII
. - ( I-II . ..),
.
: (clravya), (guna)
().
:
; , ,
[ ] (. 6). -, ,
- .
(. 14): (jva), - (ajva), (bandha), (punya),
(papa), (srava), (samvara), (nirjar)
(moka).
,
, . ,
22

. [ 1930-1932, . 1, . 252-254, 259-262].



, ,
, (
--). (., , [, 1997, . 134, 150 .]).
23

27

,
.
,
, , ..
IV . ..,
, XX . .
,
, , . (
)
, :
, , , ,
. (,
, )
-24.
24
, , , . 25 ,
23 (-, -,
5 , 5 -, - )
(23 ), ,
.
,
, (kla), (prna)
(citta), . , 30
( .31-42). (
(siva), (kundaHn),
(my), , .. (pasu), (psa)
), -,

28

1. 16

3. 16

( , ), (
, ) .

. ,
()
(XII .)

. , , : -
, .
,
(
). , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
, : ,
( , (linga) ,
- ); ,
, ,
,

.
, , -, (bodhi) ( ). ,
30
, (bindu), (nda), (snta) (atta), ( 11.43).
,
, ( ).
29

;
25.
,
, ,
( ).
, ., , 14 ,
" (, , .. . ..), ,
-". , , .
, " . , ,
,
26.
, ,
: ( ), ,
27
.


, , , , ,

( ).
,
, : ( )
. , ,

25

[, 1976, . 49].
, 1976, . 51-52.
27
. - (1.2.4-9) (1.2.18) .

26

30

1. 16

( . ).


: , ,
. , . ,
;
; ,
;
, ,
,
.

,
.
, , ,
. , ,
(, , ,
- 1.1.1), (
), (
), , , , ,'
, .
,
28.
28

, ,
, , (VI .),
31

4. , 16
,
- . , -
, (. ).
, -,
16 ,
( 1) ( 2),
. , , ,
( 3), ( 4) . ,
,
( 5), .

( 6), .
(7),
, . , , ,
( 8) , ,
( 9) . , , ,
,
(astitva), (jneyatva) (abhidheyatva), ,
(XII .),
(. [, 1917, . 224; , 1994, . 1-3; , 1893, . 9 10; ElPh, 1978, . II, . 523]). ,
- ( , ).
32

1. 16

( 10), ( 11), , ( 12), ,


. ( 13),
, ( 14),

. ( 15). , , , ( 16).
, - 16 ,
,
( , , ),
(), (-),
().
, ,

(. ). : 1) ,
, ; 2) ( , , , ) .
44 (III.8.27-65), - , 22 , ,
(. . 3, 1).
-. ,
, (II. 1.7),
, -, , ,
21709

3 3

, []
(yatra yatra... sstre kathym va)
, []
[] . (sarvaparkvypitvt)
.
16 32 -
tantra-yukti (, ) , - ( 65.3),
(1- .), , 2 . , ( ,
) ,
,
(adhikarana), (vidhna),
(yoga),
(uddesa), (nirdesa),
. (atidesa), .
(pradesa), (upamna),
(nidarsana),
,
(samsaya), (anumata), (svasamjn) ..30.
, , , , ,
.
.
, - -
( . . 2,
29
., , , [, 1924-1925, . III, . 241-247].
30
-
.. . [,
1984].

34

1. 16

1) .
. .
5. , -
-, - padrtha ,
(. 2). .
16 .
1. ( , , ) ,
- , ,
[] (sacca khalu
odsadh vyudhamupadekyate).
2. (1.1.1),
(. 1), : ... (Tsm khalvsm
sadvidhnm...).
3. ,
, , ,
16 , : (vidymnrthh), [ ], (tantrrtha).
4. , ,
14 , ,

, ,
, -. 2*

35

, (nvkik)31,
(prthakprasthnh).
14 ,
, , .
5. ,
,
, , , . , ,
; ,
, ; ,

, , ; , -
.
6. -
-.
I , : , , , , , , ... ( 1.2.20).
: ,
, , ( V.2.24). ,
, ,
16 , .
. -, , ( ) 16
31


(1.2) [, 1924-1925, . I, . 16-18].
, nvkik
,
(, , .) ,

, .
36

I. 16

, , ( par
excellance), ,
16,
. -, , , , , , , , ,
, .. . -, 16 :
, ,
, , -.

.
,
(. 2) , 14
, , ,
, .
, , , , , ,
( , ) . ,
,
,
, , , (
), , , ,
. ,
, , 37

, ,
, .
, padrtha
, ,
, , (. ). ,

, 32.
,
( - . 2), , , .
, ,
(artha)
- (pada).
,
, 33.
, 16 , ,
, .
, tie ,
( ,
-). 32

, ,
, . . [,
1941].
33
, , .,
padrtha
|1 , ,
. . [, 1992, . 77].
38

1. 16

. ,

( -), , .
, ,
,
. , , , , .

,
-,
,
.
, , 1,
, , , , .
- (VIIVIII .)2,
,
3.
,
, ,
,
1

,
, (V . ..), ,
, .
,
20
. . [, 1997].
2
. [ , 1995, . 12-56].
3
, . [, 1994,
. 192-194,229-236].
40

2.

. ,
, .
1. , , .
, ,
, ,
.
.
(. ),

(
-, . 9), (VIII .) (. 13) (XII .),
(Akapda) (Akacarana)
, 4. . - , , - , ( )
(.201203). , , ,
,
, . , , ,
.
.
( ,
, , !)

4

. [-, 1920, . 1; , 1995, . 139; , 1847, . 159].


41

( , -)5.
(Gotama), .
(XII .), (XVII.75). , -,
(V.263).
, (XIV .),
6.
, ,
.
( )
. , , (Gotama Rhgana)
, ,
, , ,
(1.74-93).
-,
: ,
, (1.61.16, . 63.9)
(I.77.5)7, (1.77.11),
, (1.88.4).

,
. - : ,
, (I11.2829, 39; .5), - ,
, 5

-, 1913, e.V.
, 1858, . 112.
7
[, 1989, . 78, 94].

42

2.

(IV.4). , , ,

,
(V.3-10),

, (V.11-17).
- , (1.10).
- ( ) ,
-.

.
, , . , , ,
( ),
(I.98)8.
,
, , , , ,
(1.48).

(Drghatapas), (XI.33-34).
.,
( 1910- ) (. ), , ,
, ,
,
.; , , .
43

,
( ), ,
(-), 9,

, , (. ), I . .. , ,
- (
- ), :
10.
,
, ,
(

), ,
, ,
.
:
,
, ,
,
, .
:
, , (
)
, , (XII.261-263).
,

11.
9

-, 1913, . VI.
, . VIII-IX.
11
, , XIIXIII .,

, (. 10).
10

44

2.

2. ,
, (. ). ,
,
,
.
, .
I. ( I . ..).
, , ,
, ,

.
, ,
, - .
, ,
, , ,
,
, () . () ; , ,
. ; ,
. ..12. , ,
12
VIII.29 ( ); . [, 1995,
. 340]. - , .
- X . , , .81 : , ? , ,
(): , ? (. [, 1972, . 257]).
,
, , , [, 1992, . 124-126], - .

45


, , , , .

.
,

,
, , , , , , . (1.6.4.21),
( , ):
, [ ] ", : , ( .
..) [] "", , , ",
[ ] ", . , [ ] ". , , ".
[] , . , ". ,
,
:
1) ... ";
2) []
, ;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) ,
13
" .
13

-
[, 1994,
. 45-51]. - [, 1938, . 97].
46

2.

,
, -
vkovkya (VIL 1.2, 4; 2.1; 7.1). (VII-VIII .) 14, (. ),
,
, ,
. :
vkovkya , ,
,
, ,
.
,
(prasnin),
(abhiprasnin), (prasnavivka) ..15. ,

, , ,
16.
14

: Vakovkyam tarkasstram [, 1850, . 476].


-
[, 1974,
. 112-113].
16
.,
, ( , -), , , [, 1908, . 362-363]. , , ,
, , .
, ,
, : , .
, , .
, ... , ,
() [, , 1998, . 60].
15

47

nyya , , -,
, . ( ) :
, ( ),
, nyya , ,
(XXIV. 1-5),
, 17. , , ,
, -
(1.2) (smrti),
(pratyaka), (aitihya) (anum).
(pramna), ,
, (- 1.1.3).
. (V . ..). , I . .. , ,
,
. , ,
( )
18,
,
. 17
. [-, 1904-1913, . III, . 185].
nyya , , , (.3.122). nyyasiddha , , , .. IVII . .. . [, 1987, . 106].
18
. [,
1994, . 52-54].

48

2.


, ,
( ), (- ), , ,
, ( )9. , , ,

,
.
vkovkya
lokyata (, ), , , ( ..),
,
, , , , (, ) , 32 , . 20. , , ,
. ,
, - -, , ,
19
( ),
. [, 1997, . 34-50].
20
, , -: - -. .: - 1.8788, 135 (
Pali Text Society: , ).

49

, : ,
( ) , ( ) , 21.
, -,
-, , , : , .. 2.
. , (IIIIV .) , , , , , (. ), : - ,
, ,
.. 9 -

, , , , 23.
, , (V .) lokyata
, - vitanda, a
, : ? -. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
- ,
21
22
23

- IV.428-429.
- .77-78.
. [, 1941, . 8 7 ] .
50

2.

- -,
,
, 24.
, , , ,
.
, ,
? ?
? ? () ?
( , ),
?
? ?
, , , ( ).
,
-,
(
). ,
,
(
), , , .
: , 20
( , , ) ,
, , ,
24

VI.286; - 1.11.
51

500 , ,
, ,
25.
-,
, . ,
-,
( ,
), , ,
,
, (
), , , . :
, , [-] (takk) (vmans).
[], [] (takkapariyhatan),
[] (vimansnucaritam) [
] : ,
,' ..."26.
, ,
, ,
, 2 .
( ,
) , , 25

.: - 1.227, 232-233, 237.


-, 1967, . 16, 21, 23, 29.
27
, -,
, : , , , , , , , , (atakkvacar), [] , , [ ] -,
[-, 1967, . 30, 31, 32 .]. (
) .
26

52

2.

,

, , . ,
, -.
,
, ,
.
.
: vitanda,
(. -
IV.2.50-51, ),
tarka ,

(. -
1.1.40). ,

bellum omnium contra omnes, , ,
.
, , (
), . (. )
.
III. ( I . ..).
, ,


,
,
( . ..), ,
.
53


.
, ,
IV-III . .., 10- , , ,
, 5- (. ). ,
, , () ,
( ),
: , , ,
, , 28. ,
,
. , , ,
, .
, -
( ), (III . ..),
credo
( - ) .
250 , . ,
, .
:
28

.. . [, 1921, . 166-167].

54

2.

1) ;
2) ;
3) , : > \
4) , > .
, ,
, ,
-, ,
- .
: , ,
-:
, (1.1.1-3).
, , : (" . ..) , :
(II.2) .. . ,
,
-. ,
, .
, , .
(IV . ..) nigrhynuyoga (VIII.2.94), 16 , nigrahasthna (- 1.2.19, V.2.1-24). ,
,
(hetu) ,
(XII.211.17), ,
. ,

-, .
55

, - (
) , , , , (nyyavidah) ,
(
, )
(.4.8.12-13).
(.6.14.13)29.
., ,
,
, , , - (1.3.3-4),
30. ., nyyavid
nyya ( )
, \ ,
, , ( ) (
) 32.
nyyavid ..
- -
, , -
(, ) .
- nyyavidah,
nyyavidah ( - 1.1.1), , -.
29
30
31
32

-, 1868, . 65, 7 3 .
., , [, 1879, . XXVII].
, 1985, . 510.
, . 5 5 8 .
56

2.

- (IX .), nyyammms


(. . 3, 2) , ,
, (. ), .. , nyyavidah
33.
- ,
, . 10 , (, , , ),
-, ,
(, , ), , , vikalp (I.I. 1.8)34. , , .
,
(sith), ,
(tadanumnajnh) (hetu) (1.1.1.6). (111.20, VI.43)
- (XII. 111), 10 .
( ),
(hetuka)
(tarkin).
,
, . , nyyavid
(
. . 17), , . , .
33
34

, 1977-1990, . I, . 64, 556; . V, . 1154-1155.


-, 1907, . 3 - 4 .
57

,
, ,
, .
,
. , , ,
,
, (..
IX .) nyyavidah .
- ,
, nyyavidah -. , II. 1.5968 (. ), , . ,
, , ,
(, , )
(, , ), . IV.59-62, .
, , , , ,
,
. , , , , ,
, . , ,

,
.


,
(II.5.1-11 ).
58

2.

, (, ), (. 1). (nyyavid),
, , (. 6);
, (. 8); ,

(. 10-11)35. ,
, ,
.
(pancvayavayuktasya
vkyasya gunadoavit) (uttarottaravakt ca vadato 'pi brhaspateh) , . . , ,
.

35

, 1906, . 7.


(IIII .). , ,
(
(1- .), ),
(
(III .), II);
(), (), , ; , , , ,
(- . ..) (III . ..).

, ( ) ,
16 (. . 1, 4).
1.
. ( ) (1929)
(vda), -,
( []), ( [] ), , , -. :
, ,

60

3.

, "
, ,
vademecum
, ,
...
vademecum... -"
,
, -", " ", ",
1. , .

, 44 ,
-, - (.8.27-65),
7 , 13 4 . ( 1),
(16), (22), (23), ( vyavasya 26), ( 35),
( ahetu 27)
( 44).
(, , (drtnta), 8, 11-14 ), (,
, , - 18-21 ),
(atikla) ( 37), , , [] (40-43). . ,
( 27) , vkyado$ ( 33) 2.
. ., , ,
, , .
[ , 1929, . XXV.
. [-, 1937, . 285-291]. .
2

61

3.
, , : , ,
, 44 . ,
, , ( 2-7), ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
, :
, (uttara)4, (anuyojya),
(uplambha),
15, 29, 38. , . , , (sthpan) (pratithpan),
9, 10 ,
,
5. , 3

, 1922-1955, . 1, . 302; , 1971, . 170.


, .
(jti) [, 1922-1955, . 1, . 218; . 3, . 381-383].
5
:
, ,
, , []
, [] , ? , "; [] "; ";
, ";
[] ". , , . , , , "; [] "; ";
, []";
[] " [-, 1937, . 285-286]. , 4

62

3.

: , (XII.308.78-79), (, )
(, )6.
, .
,
(, [] []).
,

(
) ( 119), (32-48), (51-56), (57-66), (68-69)
(70-72).

, . , , ,
.
.
,
- , , (
), ..
, ,
, ,
, , .
6
, (5 ; 18 ; 9 , ;
; ),
[, 1997, . 120-121].
63

II . .. .
: , 17 ( : , ,
, ..),
,
20 (prasanga), . .,
,
(, Vda-Tradition)
, 44 -9.
:
16 , , , , , , , , 20 , ,
V - 10.
, , : (
, ),
, ( ,
, , , ),
( ,
) , , . ,
(vkyaprasams) (vkyadoa), 11. ,
I -
1.2.15-17 ,
7

, 1991, . 113.
, 1929, . 1-32.
9
, 1963, . 63, 70.
10
, 1929, . XVI; , 1991, . 110-111.
11
, 1929, . XVI-XX.
8

64

3.

, ,
. ,
(

, ) (
)12.
- , (
, ),
, (.. IV-V . ..), :
, (16), , , , 22. , ,
,
, , , 13.

, ?
, -, II . ..14,
. ,
- . .1, .
, -
,
15. ,


,
, , 12

, 1991, . 109-110.
, 1929, . IX, XIX-XXII.
14
, 1991, . 113.
15
, 1929, . XXV-XXVI. , ,
, -.
, ..
. [, 1977, . 77].
13

3-1709

65

, 1 . , (. ) ,
(
).
, , , ,
.
,
(. ). ,

, , , , ; ,
,
.
16 (
artha),
25 6 , "
( ) (
) (IIIIV . ..).
, ,
, naya-sauma ( ,
, , ). 16
, ; ( 17
) () .
, ,
( ,
16

,
18 . . . 6.
17
, 1929, . XXVIII-XXIX.
66

3.

) ;
, -, .
,
, , - , . , (XII.203.18-21) ,
-, ,
() ,
, ,
, . ,

(nyyatantrnyanekni)18. ,
,
,
-.
.
, ,
, ,
,
(. ,
. 2, 2). , . ,

-
,
.
, , , -. ;
16 ,
,
19. , ,
, - ,
18
19

3*

, 1954, . 1130-1131.
, 1963, . 102-103.
67

, . , ,
, 20.
, . , , , .. ;


( )21.
,
, , .
, ,
, deus ex machina . , ,
, , ,
( . . 4, 2), . , , 16 . , -
, , (padrtha . . 1, 2) , , , , .
(.2.61-71).
20

atitantra (/ 60 []), ,
- (. XIV .), , , . . [ , 1985, . 51-56; , 1997, . 60-63]. - - , - , , .
21
1.1.32 (. ), , . . . 1 1.1.32.
68

3.


, , , ,
(IV. 1.23-24),

(V.l.27-28).
2. . , , ,
. , - 14 , , , , ,
(1.3).
(tarkavidy)
22. 14 - (.6.27) - (61.78).

, : ,
, - (II) - (II).
.
, -

(. . 2, 2). , , , .
,
,
, , (1.64.2842). ,
, , , , 22

-, 1949, . 2.

69

(nyyatattvrthavijnna)
, , , , (sthpan), (kepa)
(siddhnta), a (lokyatikamukhya)23.
, ,
. , ,
( ) . , (hetuvdin),
(XIV.85),
.
, , ,
, (, ). ,
(hetubhiranvkamn)
, 24. , , ,
-
( ),
,
( 23

, 1933, . 289-290.
, 1924-1925, . I, . 16-18.
. ., , [, 1923-1924, . II, . 3-4; ,
1993, . 563]. , , . , ,
. : nvkik comprises
the Philosophy of Snkhya, Yoga and Lokyata (Atheism?) [, 1956, . 6].
24

70

3.

). , , (
) , .
, ,
, 25.
, * . -
: , ,
, (XII. 105).
,
, ,
() -,
(tmavidy)
(VII.43). , (hetusstra), , (nstika) 25

, -, - , . ,
-, ,
, , (. 100.38-39). , ,
-,
, 1.
.., .
. ,
(), , , (, -),
hetuvidy , ,
, .
. [ElPh, 1996, . VII, . 111, 582].
, ,
. , - (
[, 1969, . 141-145, 152-153]). , , , .
71

(vedanindaka) ( , ) ( 1). , , ,
. , , , ,
(hetuvdin), , (tarkasstra).
,
,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
(XII. 173.45-49), , .
, .
( , , ,
) - ,
, . , ( 5-6, 3051) . ,
, .
,
(, )
,
(
). () ,
, 72

3.

( II. 1.19).
: , , 26 .
, , , - (. ),
. ,
.
, ,

.
,
-, .
, , ,
(. - III. 1.1). ,
(III. 1.7),
(111.1.12,14), (III. 1.18). ,
-, ,

, , , ., , , ,
27
.
26


[, 1990, . 195-203]
[, 2000, . 311-321].
27
, 1929, . XXVII-XXVIII. . ,
- -
[, 1917, . 16]. ., ,
, ,
[, 1977, . 77].
73

. . ,
, .
. , ,
- -28.
29
- .
-.
(, ).
, , (XIII .), ( ), ( , ),
20 .
, ,
.
.. , ,
( - ) ,
, , ,
, . ( )
, , ,
28

, 1899, . 475.
, 19,
, , ,
, , , , , .. . [, 1936, . 38-50].
29

74

3.



( , ,

). , ,
( , )
, , 30.
-
(1.1.9-22) - 31. (
) ,
. 12 ,

32. ,
. ., , -, 33,
.
- - . 30

, 1984, . 2, . 47.
, ,
(. ..) , ,
[, 1984, . 2, . 5]. [, 1984,
. 2, . 48-53].
32
, , ",
,
[, 1984, . 2, . 53].
33
, .
., ,
- , , [,
, 1998, . 59].
31

75

. , (III. 1.1-2),
(linga), , -, , , , , (.2.4-5).
, , .
-,
, ,
, (.2.1-3). , - . ,
,
( ),
(.2.19-23). , (asat) (III. 1.10-12) .
- -
: ,
(VII. 1.4-9),
(IV. 1.1-5). (
.2.24-43) ( ) (VII.2.15-24).

, , ,
- , (adrta),
(
, ), , , (V.2.19-20).
76

3.


. (. . 1, 1)
- (. , 1).

( II . ..) 34 ? , samyoga ( ), samavya ( , , ). , , . , , -,

. ,
:
, , ,
- . ,
, :
, , , , .
34

, , , , - , , , , - . ..
(. . . 4, 1).
77

, , , , . 18 ( , ,
, ) - , ,
-,
(
)35.
,
, .
, , .
, , ,


.
, , , , ,
(. . 2, 2).

35

,
(VII .) - ,
[, 1917, . 7-8]. 18
( ), , . . [
, 1995, . 37]. : -,
, , (
) .
(-), ( ) (-) .

1. ,
, ,
. , - - ,
. -, , ,


. -, , , , , 1 (,

- ). -, , ,
.
?
-
: 1)
; 2)
; 3)
.
,
.
, , ,
,
, - .
XIX ., .1
,
- .

79

(1861), , -, -
, , IV . .. 2. VIV . .. ,
.. 3.
., XX .
: -, - ,
, ,
II . ..;
-, () VI . .. (
);
-, ,
16 , II, III IV, , 4.
. (1917), II . .. ( , , , , I . ..)5.
- ..
(1917), VIII .
.., ,
, , 6. .,
, , ,
- , III , 483-247 . ..7.
..
2

, 1861, . 157.
. [ , 1899, . 476].
4
-, 1913, . X; , 1918; , 1921, .49-50.
5
, 1917, . 423.
6
, 1917, . 4.
7
, 1957, . 465.
3

80

4.

(1919),
II . ..8.
. (1965), , -
III . ..9.
: . -
II . .. (1967) .-. III . ..
(1989)10. ,
- ,
. (1923), ,
- -,
II . ..11, . (1925), , -,
I III . ..12 (. ).
. (1899),
(. . 5, 1), ,
, - VVI . ..13. , ,
, ,
, .,
(1911). , - -
,
8

. [, 1985, . 560].
, 1965, . 22.
10
, 1967, . 157; , 1989, . 3918.
11
, 1922-1955, . 1, . 279, 302.
80 . ..
,
.
12
, 1925, . 142-143.
-
,
.
13
, 1899, . 477.
9

81

II IV . .., .. .
(, IV.2.25)
-,
terminus a quo 14.
.
(1913), , ,

IV . ..15. ,
., -. , III IV . .., .. , ;
,
II III . ..; ,
,
-" III ., IV .16. , : ,
. .- (1923),
, IV , III . .., .. ,
, ,
III . .. ,
.
, III . ..17.
.. (1932) ,
(. ) ,
16 , , : ,
(.. - . ..) 14

, 1911, . 2, 13.
, 1913, . 14.
16
, 1917, . 16, 86; , 1929, . XXIV.
17
-, 1923, . 190-191.
15

82

4.

, -, 18. . (1932)
- IV . .. (, , )19, ,
,
. ., , ,
, .., ,
III . .. 2 , . (1953) -
21. . (1977) , , ,
, , ,
16 . , II . ..22.
, -
, . (1923). ,
,
.
III . .. hnika
( ) -. I . .., , . ,
(. - IV. 1.40, 48 -
XV.6, VII.20 ..), , ,
. (IV.2.26) ,

18
19
20
21
22

, 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 2 , . I, . 2 8 .
. [, 1976, . 2 2 7 ] .
, , 1953, . 57 ( 1465).
, 1953, . III, . 150.
, 1977, . 78, . [, 1971, . 2 1 ] .
83

. ,
16 - .
, ( IV . ..) , ,
, (vrttika),
(1.1.5, 1.1.32, 1.2.9).
, , -
III . .. 1- . ..23.
- . (1963),
I V, ;
IIIIV, , ,
IV . .. 2 . , ,
, XX .,
- . ,
, . , , ,
, - 25. . (1905) , , , "
: , , .. I V,
, .. II-IV26. ., (1918),
-: I , II 23
24
25
26

. [, 1977, . , . 36-38].
, 1963, . 70.
, 1921, . 20, 50.
. [, 1978].
84

4.


, ,
III IV , ,
2 . . - (1928) I V, , , (hnika) , , 2 . . (1929) I
V, , , , .
-
,
- , ,
(. . 3, 1), ,
.

, ( , ),
III . .. .
, . (1961), , - IV . ..30.
. (1971), ,
,
, :
, ,
, , . .
: I V
, - (
, , ), IIIV ,
27

, 1918, . 47.
-, 1 9 2 8 , . X V I .
29
, 1929, . X X I V - X X V , X X X ; . , 1957, . 115.
30
, 1961, . 149.
28

85

( !) III . ..31.
,
. (1977), , ,
.
,
-,
: ...
, -" . ,
, - -
(1995), . II . ..32. - . . (1998): , , , IV-V . ..3 .
, -
, ., -" (1996).
,
, , , , , I, V, II
(, ,
II. 1.18-19) I . ..
, , -
- 34
.
-, ,
, , , 31

, 1971, . 294-296.
ElPh, 1978, . , . 221; . [ElPh, 1995, . I, . 101]. ,
, ,
(, . ) .
33
, , 1998, . 859.
34
, 1996, . VIIVIII.
32

86

4.

,
, - , , . ,
, . ,

(, ) .

( -) , (,
), . ( ) ,
. , - ,
, - (. ): , ,
, ,
-.
,
, , , , . , , ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
87

,
. , ,
(
), . ,
, , .
, .
-, , ,
, ,

, -,
.
( ) - : , ,
( 16 ),
, ( , ,
) ,
, . ,
-, ,
(
) .
, -,
,
.
, , prima
facie ,
IIIV .
88

4.

, ,
I V,
16 . , , -
. ,
,
I V ,
III IV, ,
II,
, , ,
. : ,
.
: ,
(. . 3, 1) .
, ,
, ,
,
, .
, , -
, , , ,
, , - III-IV . ..,
-3 . , , , 35

, IV.2.26,
, ,
,
-, ,
..,
. . [ , 1929, . XXVII].
89

, .
-
, , , , .
,
,
(.
. 3, 1),
,
, 36.
2. -, (adhyya), , -,
(hnika), , ,
. IX . , , .
84 (prakarana), 528 .
-, , .
( , 1925) 532, 538, 529, .. 550,
.. 531, 528 ..37.
, , ,
, ,
,
36


-
. . [ , 1995, . 6 1 - 8 1 ] . . [, 1994, . 194, 236; 192-193, 270-271].
37
- , ,
. . [, 1992, . 110-143].
90

4.

, ( ., ., .).
,
, , , ..38.
, - , - . , ,
, , ,
, ? ,
(., , I, II, III .. I ), , 39.
38

.. , .
20% , . 75%, .
-.
39
,
, , , . ,
(1785), , , , ,
,
,
,
(1798), , ,
, , :
, , ,
, [, 1998, . 122-123, 187-191]. I ,
III,
...
91

5 , -,
(. ).
I ,
:
, 41 , 20. , 16
,
(. . 2, 3).
1 16 ,
(1.1.1),
(apavarga), , , ,
(1.1.2).
: 16 , . (pramna)
, , ;
,
, :
(1.1.3-8). (prameya), ,
, , , , ,
, -, , , ,
, , 12 .
(bhutni),
,
(1.1.9-22). (samsaya), / (prayojana) (drtnta)
(1.1.23-25).
(siddhnta), (samsthiti) ,
,
92

4.

, (1.1.26-31).
(avayava) , , , , ,
, (1.1.32-39).

(tarka)

(nirnaya)
(1.1.40-41).
2
(vda), , , (jalpa),
, , , , , (vitand), ,
-
(1.2.1-3).
(hetvbhsa). , , , (1.2.4-10). (chala), , ,
: ,
( ), (
) (
).
, .
(. . 3, 1), (1.2.10-17). (jti) (nigrahasthna) ,
(1.2.18-20).
.
93

1.1.1-2,
, 1.2.15-17,
, 1.2.20,
. , , , 6 16 (
, , , ,
, ), , . -

; -
, .. - . , , : [- ] []
, (1.1.26).

(1.1.9-22). ( ,
; ,
; , ; ; " ; ,
),
(),
, ( [] [] , , , ,
), (, , , , ;
[] -), : [] buddhi, upalabdhi jnna .
,
-
, -
. , ,
. (1.2.1-3): , (vda)
94

4.

, , .
II : ,
,
, ,
, . , - .
- 16 ,
:

.
1 , , ,
, 1.1.23, , , ; , , (1.1.1-7).
-, , , ,
. , ,

. ,
.. , ,
(II. 1.820).

1.1.4 ( -)
, , 95

, , , .
, , , (II. 1.21-32).
. , , (. 1.33-37).
,
, -.

, , (. 1.38-39).
: , ,
, , ,
, (. 1.40-44).
,
( ),
, . , , ,
(II. 1.45-49).
: (, ) , , , . , ( ),
(II. 1.50-57).
, ,
(, ) ,
,
. ,
96

4.

, (anuvda)
(punarukti) , ,
(II. 1.58-69).
2 , , ,
(aitihya), (arthpatti), (sambhava) (, abhva), a , . , ,
(.2.1-12). (, ) , : , , ,
, , ;
(.2.13-39).

,
dadhi + atra = dadhj^atra. ,
/ ,
, , , .
, ,
,
(.2.40-59). -
(vyakti),
(krti) (jti). . , , (.2.6071).
4-1709

97


. ,
,
, (. 1.33-37), (.2.13-39)
(II.2.40-59) , .
, , ,
. . ,
(II. 1.1-7),
, .

.
: {\) {\)\ ()
()\ () () .. ( , ). , ,
, (II.2.13-39), /, (.2.4059). , .
, , ,
, ,
, , , (.2.60-71).
,

, . , ,
(II. 1.14),
98

4.

, (II. 1.12).
(. . 3,
1) , , , ,
(II. 1.16).

: ,
, (II. 1.41).

:
(
), ( , ),
. , , . , , , ,
. ,
, ,

:
,
, ,
.., :
,
.
III
, ,
, , , -, 1.1.9 .
.
, 4*

9 9

. .
1 , ( ) .

,
(III. 1.1-3). , -,
,

(III. 1.4-6). : , , , , , ,
, ; (III. 1.7-14). , ,
, -,
, ,
,
(III. 1.15-17). () , , .
,
, ( , ),
, -
(III. 1.18-26).
:
, , , (
),
(III. 1.27-31). 100

4.


, ;
, . , ,
, , (rasmi), ,
, . , (III. 1.32-51). , , ,
( ), , ? , , , ,
. ,
, ,
(III. 1.52-61).
. , , , , , ,
,
, . , ,
, (
), ( ).
:
,
(III. 1.62-73).
2
(buddhi),
. , /.
, ,
, ,
. 101

, ,
, , , , , , (.2.1-9). / :

(knikavda)? ;
, ,
, ,
? , , , ,
(.2.10-17). , ,
. , , - ,
, ,
. ,
, , . - (. ) , (paratantra). 22
(.2.18-41). ,
:
, ,
(vyakta) , , , (III.2.42-45).
, , ,
, ..,
, (.2.46-55).
- ,
, , , (III.2.56-59). 102

4.

, , ,
, , , ,

(adrta). , , ,
. , , ,
(.2.60-72).
, ,
, ,
, ,
III .
, , ,
.
,
, , (III. 1.32-51, III. 1.52-61,
.2.1-9)40. , , , .
, ,
,
(.2.18-33). ,

. , ,
; ,
, (.2.15-16).
: 40

. , , , [, 1994,
. 476], , ,
II .
103


.
, . ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
-: , .
( )
, ,
(
). , . , ; , (
), - ,
( ,
, , ).
IV
, , , , ,
1 ,
.
2 ,
.
, ,
104

4.

. , ,
.
1 ,
(IV. 1.1-2). (rga),
(dvea) (moha)
, , ,
, ,
, ,
(IV. 1.3-9). ,
, ,
, ,
,
(IV. 1.10-13).
- , ,
( . .)
41.
.
: , ,
. , , ,
,
, ( ) .

, (IV. 1.14-18). ,
, , , , ,
(IV. 1.19-21).
, ,
41

, 1971, . 103; , 1996, . 157.


105

, ,
, , , , , (IV. 1.22-24). , (anitya). ,
, , , ,
(IV. 1.25-28). ,
, ,
( ) ,
. ,
, (IV. 1.29-33).
, -
(prthak), .
, (IV. 1.34-36). , ,
(sunyat), ,
- .
,
.
(IV. 1.37-40). , , :
, , , . ,
(IV. 1.41-43).
, , :
, ?
, , , . (
, -), , ,

. ,
106

4.

, ,
, , , ,
, , .., ,
(prti), a
(IV. 1.44-55). ,
. . , ..,
(IV. 1.5558). ,
,
(klesa) .
, , , .
, ,
,
,
, , , (samkalpa) ,
, (IV. 1.59-68).
2 ,
,
(IV.2.1-3).
,
(II. 1.33-37). , , ,
,
, :
, , , ,
,
,
, .

, , , (), pralaya (IV.2.4-17).
107

. ,
.
, -,
, , ,
, . , , ,
, , , , (IV.2.18-25). -, , ,
, ,
, . , , ,
,
, (IV.2.26-37).

.
(samdhi),
-,
.
,
.. . , , , , .
,
,
(IV.2.38-49). , , ,
(IV.2.50-51).

,
108

4.

, - , . , ,
: , . , ,
, IV ,
. ,
, , , ,
/
/. , ,
, . : ,
, , , - , , - (IV. 1.14-18).
, , ,
,
, (
) (IV. 1.25-26, . 14-18). , ,
, , , . , , , ,
, ,
,
109

, ,
(IV. 1.37-40).
, ( ,
).
(IV. 1.68),
. ,

,
.. (IV. 1.55-58). ,
,
, ,
,
.
, , , ,
.
V , .
,
,
, .
,

,
. ,
, ,
.
1 24
(V.1.1). ,
, [] , , , , , , , : ,
, . ,

4.

.

(V.l.2-3). .
, , ,
, .
(V.l.4-6). ,
- -, ,
, , ,
(V.l.7-8).
,
,
, ( ) (V.l.9-11).
: , ,
, , , , , , , , , (V.l. 12-38).
,
, , ,
, .. (V.l.39-43).
2 22
(V.2.1), . , , (V.2.2-5),
(V.2.6), (V.2.7). , (V.2.8-10).
, , , , (V.2.1113). ,
in

, (V.2.1415).
, ,
,
, - (V.2.16-19). (V.2.20).

(V.2.21-22).
(V.2.23).
(V.2.24).

,
. , .
, 1
,
(V.l..18-20, 29-31, 32-34)42. 2 (V.2.14-15).
1 ,
, ,
, (V.l.39-43).
, , ,
,
, ,
( )
, ( ,
)43. , 42

, 1996, . 2 1 3 - 2 2 1 . , .
43
, , , . 1910- ..
112

4.

, (13), ( 16),


44.

,
[, 1916, . 22], .
[, 1990]. [, 1997, . 184-187].
44
,
1.1.1 , " , [] , [] .

1.
. , , , ,

-. . (. .) , , - (. . 4, 1).
, ,
. ,
,
Pakilasvmin, Vtsyyana ,
( -). , . , , , Kautilya,
Drmila Drvida,
1, , ., 2. ,
, , -
(V.41-42),
, , ( , ),
(Vatsa)3. (
1

, 1917.
, 1977, . 80.
3
. [, 1980, . 24].

114

5.

) ,
-, . ,
(.
. 2, 1 . 3, 1).
. ., 1932 ., 600 . .. 539 . ..4. , .
., , , -"
(1888), , ,
, -
-. , ,
, , ,
,
- . ..5.
,
..
III . ..
-
(
) .
. (1922), ,
, -
, , () , . IIIIV . ..,
IV . ..; ,
, 7. III4

. [ElPh, 1978, . II, . 694].


, 1888, . 15.
6
, 1957.
7
, 1985, . 560.
5

115

IV . ..
.. (1969)8.
IV . .. - ,
, . . (. . 4, 1),
. (1917, 1921) . (1922),
. (1953) . (1971) , , ,
( , , , , ,
, -
). -.
.9.
(IV-V .) -
. (1971), , , , (1977), ., ,
( )10.
IV-V . - (1913),
. (1921), . (1923), . (1925),
, , . (1957), .
11
(1965), . (1981) .
, .
, ,
- V B . .. .. (1906
1909) ,
8

, 1973, . 249.
- IV . .. . [,
1917; , 1921, . 42, 116-117; , 1922-1955, . I, . 307; ,
, 1953, . 57 ( 1466); , 1971, . 21; , 1983, . 165].
10
, 1971, . 199; , 1977, . 80.
11
, 1913, . 29-30; , 1921, . 28-29; , 1925, . 142; , 1957,
. 116; , 1965, . 22; , 1981, . 207. , , . . 4, 1.
9

116

5.

- ( . 2); (1913) ,
; .,
, V .;
.- (1923) , . -
. (1956), ,
(. ), .
. (1964)
V ., , , -, . , . (1977)
- , .,
(1978), V B . .-. (1989) - ,
, . .
V .12.

,
, , III-IV . ..
,
, 16 ,
13
(. . 4, 2) . , ,
, , . 1.2.9, ( 12

- V . .. . [,
1995, . , . 12-13; -, 1913, . X; -, 1923, . 190-191;
, 1984, . II, . 8; , 1964; , 1978, . 33; ElPh, 1978,
. , . 239; , 1989, . 3918; , , 1998, . 859].
13
. , -
, ,
[, 1971, . 199]. , .
117

) (kltta), :
, [] , ?
-
"
" .
, [ ],
[ ] ;
, . [ ]
: ...
" (V.2.11).
[] .

, , ( ), . , , , , , , ,
( ), , ( ),
, ,
, ,
. , ( : kltyaypaditah
klttah, ,
).

, ,
-. , II. 1.20, ,
,
,
-,
:
[] , , [ ]: , ". ,
118

5.


, . , IV . ..
.
,
,
,
(caryadesya),
. , , ,
, ,

(
, ) , , (. 1, 5). , , ,
,
, , , ,
, .

IIIV . (III . ..) ,
: -, ; -, ,
, .
, IV.2.26-37, - , (,
).
IV . .., , , , , , .
- -119

, , ,
II . .., , , 14. -, , , , IV . ..:
, 15. - , ( -), IV-V . .. ,
, ,
, , , . , -
( )16.
- IVV . .. , ,
. . 480-540 .

,
(, )17. , , 14

1.1.9, ,
, , , , , , , 1.1.41 : , - 1.1.14.
15
- . 17.2426 II.5. . , . 3 1.1.1 . 1 1.1.2.
16
., ,
[, 1971, . 203]. (. ),
, , ,
- , , , , , .
17
[, 1961, . 134-137].
120

5.

, ,
, ["],
(dinngaprabhrtibhirarvcmaih)18, - (, ,
),
. , ,
,
, , ,
.
2.
. -, , ,
(. )19. ,

, , ,
,
, , ,
18

, 1925-1926, . 2.
: ,
[], [] . , . , , . [], .
. ,
[ ] [ ], .
, .
,
, , .
19

121


20.
,
, , , ,
16 ,

, ,
,
. , ,
, -
(. . 1, 4).
, (
).
,
, . , 1.1.1, , ,
, . 16 (pramtr), (pramna), () (pramiti).
,
nyya. , . , , - (anvk).
" (anvkana), [] (kita)
, ,
, (nvkik), , . , 20

V,
24 22 , .
122

5.

, -.

(. . 4 1.1.1) , , .. .
, : ,
, ,
, (.
1.1.39). , ,
, .. ,
(tmavidy),
. ,
,
( 1.1.4).
, ( 1.1.3),
:
(uddesa), (lakana) (park)
.

(vibhga). I ,
1)
2)
( 1.2.5152)21. II
: , , ,
, , ,
... ( 1.2.20). : , ,
, ( V.2.24).
, - (16 )
( ) ,
21

, , , , ,
, -, , .
123

- ,
-22.
, -
, , (. ),
.
: 1) 2) ,
, , , .
.
1.1.
IV. 1.3,
(rsi) , .
(paka):
, , , ; , , , ;
, , .
1.2. ,
- ,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
: ,
, [] (. 1.41), , .
22

, , (IV . ..), ,
, -, (
I . ..), ,
(. - XXIV).

124

5.

:
( ,
)
? , , , ,
, .
1.3.
III. 1.1, .
, ,
: , , ,
: ? .
.2.15,
, ,
(, tattva) (bhkta)
. :
? [ ]
, .
, [] , [] , , [,
] . , [ ] ", .
, -

. ,
, , ;

. ,
, , (IX. 1-12), - ,
125

, , .
1.4.
.
1.1.16, -
,
, ,
, , , , , ,
( ),
, ..
. III. 1.17, IV. 1.55
,
, - ,
(pratytmavedanya).
, III. 1.14, , ,
. ,
,
, . ,
. : - ,
: , .. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
. 1.1.10
, , , , - ,
, ,
126

5.

, ,
,
,
.

, . , .
(jntr) , , ,
( .2.34).
, ( ,
)23.
1.5. , -
, ,
reductio ad
absurdum,
.
23

..
XX ., .,
-:
, - ;
; ; .
, ( , ),

, , , .. . . [, 1995, . 153177]. , , , ,
,
, , ,
, .
127

, ,
- IV. 1.54 :
? , - : , , , , , ,
. ,
,
, : , ,
, , ,
( IV. 1.56).
IV.2.25 ,

, ,
, , . , ,
,
, ,
, ( ).
2.1.
. , ,
(,
),
. ,
( IV. 1.41), : 1) , ;
2) , []
; 3) , [ ] ,
, ; 4) , [ ]
, , , . [].
128

5.

, , , 16 (.
)24. : ,
, . ,
..
[] [ ] .. , , , , .
,
"
. ? [] [ , ] (
.2.13).
,
(
), ,
, .
2.2. , - (. ),
-
,
, .

, . , ,
, , , , , .
,
( )

(
24

, - , , -
, .
5-1709

129

1.1.1),
, , ,
(tattva) . :
?
[] -.
[] [] , ,
.
, [.. -], ?
[] . , , , . ,
, [],
, [, ], ,
[ ] , -. , , ,
-.
,
: -
(sat) - (asat); ,
25.

, (viruddha)

, , , ,
. 1.1.23, ,
25

. ,
-
- [, 1977, . 81]. ,
, , - -
, (IX. 1-12), , , -. ,
.
130

5.


: [], , ,
, ;
[ ] [].... .2.58
. ( ), ,
, (virodha).
- ,
[] , . , ,
- .
, 1.1.41,
[...]
(klavikalpa). ,
, .

:
?

, , ( -) ( ) .
.2.23-24 : -
1) , ,
2) , . , , ,
, , ,
, .
,
, -
, . II. 1.6 : ...

5*

131

. , []
, ,
.... , ,
, , ,
. ,
- (X. 12-18
.), , , , .
2.3. , -,
- ,
- . .
. ,
III. 1.38, (
, ), ( ).
: 1)
, ; 2) , ; 3)
, , ..; 4)
, . , ,
, (, . . 2, 1),
: + +; + -; - -KB - - ( - , ).
,
. ,
, , , , 132

5.

. .2.71 , : 1)
(smnya) , ,
2) (jti)
.
( ) ,
, , ,
, - , , .. (1.2.4-6).
2.4.
- ,
. ,
(), , , , (),
,
. 1.1.3 : 1)
? 2)
? :
, , - (. ), - ; , ,
, .
,
,
1.1.1 : , ,
, .
,
.
133

2.5.
.
. , . , (
)
,
( , ..), , 26. :
, ( II. 1.20)
, ,
[]
[, ] ,
[] , ,
. ,
(pururtha), . . ,
,
-
.4.127. ,
, -
, ,
.

, , , , , IV. 1.21 26
27

, 1971, . 200.
. [, 1994; , 1997b].
134

5.

. ,
: , ; , ; ( ); ;
; ; .
-
,
. -

( ),
, (1.24-25). , , , , ,
,
28.
28
,
( , ,
) ,
,
, ,
. ,
, .. , (.
),
, , . ( , , , )
, (X .): I) ,
, , ;
2) , , , ,
; 3)
, ,

135

- . , , -
(VIII .) (XI .), . , , -,
, .
, 29. ,
, (X .)
. 30. ,
.
; 4) , ; 5) , , , , ; 6) ,
; 7) : , ; 8)
, .
, .
29
., , ,
". , ,
,
. , 1.1.35
[, 1977, . 81]. , V . l . 2 ,
, ,
,
(. ).
30

, (. 1306
1313, 1339-1342 1352-1357), ,
(
. 1437-1438, 1488-1498), , , , (. 1440)
(. 1567-1585) [, 1968, . 478-480, 486-487,
490-491, 514, 516, 530-533, 553-557].

, ,
,
, , ( I . ..).
, , .
1. , , , , .
,

.
( I .
..) : , , , ,
, ,
,
. ( I . ..)

, , , ,

.
,
137

.

, , , , , , , 16 , ,
,
, . ,
,
.
2. ,
(IIII . . .) ,
,
.
, , 16 -,
,
. , ( ), . ,
:
- -, , , .
, , , 16 . -
,

(, , ), , . 138

, - (
,
), .
,
,
, ,
, , .

- . , , , -
.
3.
-,

, , , ,
, , . , III-IV .,

, , , . , -
( , , , ), ,

, ,
. ,
, , ,
,
139


. ( I V)
( IIIV), , ,
, , (
).
,
,
. 16 , .
( ) , ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
.
, ,

, (
)

,
, , ,
.
4. - , , - , IV-V . .., 140

. 16 ,

(, , ),
, , -, , , . -
,

, ( . . 5, 2),
, , ,
,
.
-, ( ,
),

:
, .
(, , ), (,
, ), (
), (
, ),
141

(, ).
,
,

( , ,
..), (,
), ( ) (
) , .
- ,
,
- .

-
-

,
[], []
. ,
. , ,
. [], . .
, [ ] [ ], .
,
1.
.
, ,
. ? []
. ,
, ,
2, , ,
[] . [] .
?
[] -.
[] [] , ,
. ,
[.. -], ? [] . ,
, , . , [], , 144

I. 1

[, ],
, [ ] , -. , , , -3. [].
[] []:
, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
(1)
Pramnapraineyasam^yaprayojanadrtantasiddhntvayavatarkanirnayavdajalpaxdtandhetvbhsacchalajtinigrahasthnnm
tattvajnnnnihsreyasdhigamah

, [] 1.
[] : , . [
] 2. 3, [
], .
, , . []
. ,
, ,
4. [] .
[ ] , ?
,
. , 5.
[ ] , . [] , 6. .
, , ,
[] . ?
145

-. -

, . [] :
[ ]
[]
(I.1.41)7. , [] ,
.
[]: ?, . [ ] []
, [] [ ] .
, , ,
,
. , , , .
?
. , , -. ,
[] , ,
, , ,
9. ,
, 10. "
[] .
[ ] 11.
, , [] , .
, , , ,
, , [ ].
[] , . [] , [ ] , , , , [ ] , ,
[ ] ,
12. [], , [-] . [] , ,
, [ ].
, [] 13.
, , []
, .
146

I. 1

, , : , , ,
. [ ]. [ ,
] , [ , ] .
,
, ,
?!14 [ ], ,
[] :
, ,
, (1.1.36)
(1.1.37).
[], : !, [ ]
. , , ,
[ ], .
[] , , , 15.
: , ,
, , .
16. ,
, . . , [ ] ,
[] .
[]
, ,
, [] . :
, []?
[] :
[] , [] . , [] . , ,
147

-. -

, [] [] , .. , , . [] ,
,
. [] . , [ ]
, , , [ ] [],
, [ ]
.
, , [] . , [] . [].
[, ] ; [] . []

[]. [ ] [g ]
[] .
[ ]
[ 17
] .
, [] ,
[] .
,
- []
[ ]. , [ ] : [] [ ]
.
, , . [ :]
, [] ,
[] 18.
148

I. 1

, , [] . ,
, [], 19 (1).
, []
?
.
?

, ,
, [] (2)
Duhkhajanmapravrttidoamithyjnnnmuttarottarpye
tadanantarpydapavargah
[ ] , . ,
[ ], , ,
, ; , ,
, , , 1; ,
, [ ] , ,
[] , [] ; ,
, , , , . [], ,
.
2. , , 3; , ; ,
, , , []
, ,
4.
, , []
, , , , , [] ?!3
. , , , ..
149

-. -

, , , , ; , , , [ ] ; [ ]
, , .
, [ ] . : , , ; [] , , , ; , .
[ ] .

-, , , , :
6.

. ,
.
, . , ,
, , .
, , , [] .
[] ,
,
, ,
, []
, [ ] . [] .
, [ ] , , , , [] . , , , , ,
, .
[ ],
, , , , [ ] , ;
; , [ ] ;
, , , , 150

I. 1

, , . [ ],
, ,
, , ,
, [] ?!
:
, ,
, 7 (2).
[ ]
: , 1.
[] . ,
. , .
[] , , , . [ ] [ ] , , , :
[] [] [ ]. ... (1.2.10-11)2.
[]
[]:
, , (3)
Pratyaknumnopamnasabdh pramnni
. . [ ] , ,
, [] ,
[ ] ,
[ ] .
[ ] .
, []
, . [
] .
151

-. -

, , .. ,
.
, [], [ ] . .
[ ]1.
[] [] [ ]?
. , , , : , ,
, ,
(1.1.10).
- 2. []
: ,
[ ] , [] [] ,
[ ] . :
, , , [
]. , : [] , . [] : [] [] .
, ,
, ;
, ,
[ ] .
, [] (3).
[]:
, , , (4)
Indriyrthasannikar$otpannam
jnnam
avyapadesyam
avyatirekamavyabhicri vyavasytmakam pratyakam
[], , .
152

I. I

, []
-, [] , [ ]
?1
[ ] ,
,
[] . , , , [ ], ,
.
- [ ] ?
, , , [ ].
, ; , [] []
.
,
, : ,
..,
, , [ ] :
, , [ ] [], ?
: . ,
, . , [] , [ ], [ ]
. [],
[ ] . [] , , [] .
, , [ ]
. , [] [] . , 2
, .
, ,
[] ,
153

-. -

[] :
[] , ?
: . [],
, , .
[]
, , ,
[] , ?
: . ,
. [] . -, , []
, ,
. , [] -,
[] , [] .
[ ] ,
: , , [].
[ ] , ,
[] ?
,
. ,
, [] .
, ,
[] . [] ,

[ ]
[]3. [ ]
, [].
. ,
[] , [
] 4. [] (4).
, :
, (5)
Atha tatpurvakam trividhamanumnam purvavaccheavat
smnyatodrtam ca
154

I. 1


[]. [ ] . []
.
[]
,
[, ] . []
, , ,
, [] , [ ]
, , . []
, [], , [] , [ ]
, [], 1.
, , [] [] [] , [ ] , . [ ], , [ ] []
[ ] .
[, ] , [] , [ ] ,
,
, [ ] , , [, ] , , , , , , , . [ ],
[] ,
- []
.
, .. , : .. ;
2
; , , .
[ ]
, [] , [ ] ,
3, [] [] . 155

-. -

[ ] [
] [] [], [] , , ..
,
, . ?
:
, , . 4 (5).
, :
[]
[] (6)
Prasiddhasdharmytsdhyasdhanamupamnam
[] , ,
.
. , , [] ? [ ] [ ] , 1.
.
[]. : ,
, , []
, :
[] ". : , ,
, []

.
2 (6).
, :
(7)
ptopadesah sabdah
, [] , [ ] .
, , 1. [] ,
[ ]. ,
156

I. 1

, , , 2 (7).
: , [] (8)
Sa dvividho drtdrtrthatvt
[], , [] , , [] , .
.
?
[] , , [] . [] []
[] []1 (8).
[ ]
[] ?
:
, , , [] , , -, , , ,
, (9)
Atmasarrendriyrthabuddhimanahpravrttidoapretyabhvaphaladuhkhpavargstu prameyam
, , , , ,
, , ,
[] . [] - 1, .
, []
, , .
, []: , : , [] .
[] . [ ]

157

-. -

. ? , [] , [ ], []
, , : [
] 2. ,
, , . .
, ,
, , , 3. [ ]
[ ] , . (9).
,
, , ?
. .
?
, , , , (10)
Icchdveaprayatnasukhaduhkhajnnnytmano Ungarn
-
[] [] , []
, [] . [ ] []
[] ,
1. [] , , [],
, [, ]
.
, -
, , , ,
[] [], . [ ] []
, ,
2.
,
[ ] ,
158

L 1

. [ ] 3.
[-] []: ?
: -.
[ ] ,
.
[ ] .
[]: ...
. ,
, [] ,
[ ],
, [ ] . [], ,
,
4.
[
] , 5 (10).

, (11)
Cetendriyrthsrayah sarram
[ ] ?
, ,
. , , .
[ ] ?
, [] [ ],
[ ],
, .
[ ] ?
,
, ,
[], (11).
[]:
, , ,
, [] (12)
Ghrnarasanacakustvaksrotrnndriyni bhtebhyah
, , , . , , 159

-. -

, . , , , . , , , , [] . [] , []1. , , , . , , []
, , .
[] , [] [ ] [] [ ] [] . []

[] (12).
- [] ?
, , , ,
(13)
Prthivyptejo vyurksamiti bhtni
[] , [] ,

(13).

, , , ,
[ ] [] (14)
Gandharasarpasparsasabdh prthivydigunstadarthh
[ ] ,
[] (14).
,
[ ] ,
1, :
[] buddhi, upalabdhi jnna (15)
Buddhirupalabdhirjnnamityanarthntaram
, buddhi ,
1.
. [ ] ,
[] 2 (15).
160

I. 1

- , , [] , , , , , [ ], ..
-
[] (16)
Yugapajjnnnutpattirmanaso Ungarn
[] , [ ] .
[], , [], , []
, [ ]
, ,
. [ ] , .
[] -, , [ ] , [] 1 (16).
,
, (17)
Pravrttih vgbuddhisarrrambha iti
, , [] . [, ] , [] ; [ ] 10 1.
[] (17).
, (18)
:
,
, [ ].
. ?
,
[ ] . [ -] , [ ] , [
-] . , [] : , , (18).
6-1709

161

-. -

(19)
Punarutpattih pretyabhvah
. , , -, 1.
[]. :
, [] [] , [, ],
. , [ ], . , , [] (19).
, (20)
Pravrttidosajanito 'rthah phalam
. []
[] , . , , []
. , .
, .
, , , []
1 (20).

, (21)
Bdhanlakanam duhkham
- , . [ ]
, ; [ ],
, . ,
, ;
, ; , , (21).
, [],
(22)
Tadatyantavimoko 'pavargah
, [] , . [ ]? 162

I. 1

. [ ] . [ , ] ,
, , , . ,
, [ ] ,
. , , ,
1.
[; ] [],
, , , [], . [ ]
, :
. [
], [] , -.
- [] , , ,
,
. , [] .

, [ ] [, ] .
. [] []
, .
. [] .
. .
. ,
, [] .
. .
. [] [] .
[] [] .
[]
6*

163

-. -

, -? [
]. , . , . , , , []
, , [, ] []
, , []
. , [] ,
:
, []
, . ,

-.
. [ ] .
. , []
[] .
.

, [ , ,
, ].
. . ,
, [ ] ,
, , - .
. [ ]
.
. , .
. [] :
, [] . ,
3
.
. , [ ,
] [ ] . , 164

I. I

. [] , .
.
. [ , ], , .
. , , ,
[] , !4 .
. .
. [ ].
, [], .
.
. [ ]
.
. [ ] ,
[ ] . -
: ,
, . ,
[ ]
. [] , []
.
. []
, [ ].
. [ ] [] , , [ ],

, - .
. []
[] , []
[ ] .
. []
, [ ]
5 (22).
165

-. -

[ ]
, , [ ], 1,
:
, , ,
[] (23)
Samnnekadharmopapattervipratipatterupalabdhyanupalabdhyavyavasthtasca visepeko vimarsah samsayah
[ ] , [] [ . ] , , [ ], ,
[ ] [, ]:
?!, [ ] . [ ]
: , , [ ]
[ ]. , , , [] [ ]1.

, []
,
[, ] , [ ], , ,
, 2. , [ ].
[ ] : [],
, 3. , , , , , , , [ ] :
, [], - .
[ ].
[ ] , ,
. [], ,
166

I. 1

, , ; [ ] [], ,
[]
, [ ].
:
, . , - ,
[] , :
?
: , ,
, [ ], ,
, - . [-] -
, [] : ?,
[] [ ],
.
[]
, , . [ ]
[
] 4 (23).
[ ]
[] [ ]:
, (24)
Yamarthamadhikrtya pravartate tatprayojanam
, , , [] , [], , [] , []
. : ,
[ ], , , (24).
,
(25)
Laukikaparkaknm
yasminnarthe
buddhismyam
sa
drtntah
, ,
167

-. -

. , , , . , ,
. [] 1. (25).
[ 1 ]
. ,
, - - .
. ,
[] - , [] .

[- ] [] , (26)
Tantrdhikaranbhyupagamasamsthitih siddhntah
[]
[] .
[] ,
. [] , .
[ ],
[] (26).
:
, , , [] (27)
Sa caturvidhah sarvatantrapratitantrdhikaranbhyupagamasamsthityarthntarabhvt
(27).
:
, [ ] [] (28)
168

I. 1

Sarvatantrviruddhastantre 'dhikrto 'rthah


sarvatantrasiddhntah
, [] ,
.., .. (28).
[], (29)
Samnatantrasiddhah paratantrsiddhah pratitantrasiddhntah
, [] : - ,
; ,
, , -, 1. : 2
[]; ; ; - , 3 (29).
[] ,
(30)
Yatsiddhvanyaprakaranasiddhih so 'dhikaranasiddhntah
[] , []
[, ], , . , [ ]:

" (III. 1.1).
[] : ,
,
,
, ,
.
, ,
[ ], 1 (30).
[] (31)
Aparkitbhyupagamttadviseapark$anamabhyupagamasiddhntah
- ,
[]: ? , [] [] [] , ,
169

-. -

. [ ]
1 (31).
[ 1]
[] :
, ,
, (32)
Pratijnhetudaharanopanayanigamannyavayavh
[] , [ ] , , , 1. [ ]?
, ,
? [ , ], - [ -] , , [ ] .
, [] , [] . [ ] [
] [ ] .
. [] ,
[].
[] .
[ ], 2,
[ ] .
, []
[] , , , [ ] [].
[] []
[ ] [ ].
[] , , [
] .
[ ] , 170

I. 1

[] ,
[ ] []
[ ],
, [] (32).
, [ ], :
, (33)
Sdhyanirdesah pratijn
, 1 [ ] [ ] . [, -],
, , : (33).
[] ,
(34)
Udharanasdharmytsdhyasdhanam hetuh
[] [] [ ]
[] . [ ], , , [ ]:
[ ] . ,
[] (34).
[] ?
, [ ].
[]?
(35)
Tath vaidharmyt
.
[ ].
?
, [ ] ,
, , , ,
(35).
, , ,
(36)
Sdhyasdharmyttaddharmabhv drtnta udharanam
[ ] . [] 171

-. -

.
. : , , , . , [] ,
[ ] []1.
?
. []; []. ,
, , [] ,
. [ ]
. , , . , [, ] , , , . , , . - . ,
: , , , . [ ] ,
(36).
(37)
Tadviparyaydv vipartam
[ ] , [ ] ,
ho
: , [] , , . , [, -],
[]
. ,
[] ,
, ,
: 172

I. 1

. , ,
, ,
, . , , , , , . , ,
.

.
[] , 1.

; [] (37).

[ ] [ :] ...
... (38)
Udharanpekastathetyupasamhro na tatheti va
sdhyasyopanayah

, . [] [ ]. : , ,
, , ,
[ ] .
: , ,
, , ,
[ ]
[] .
. [ ]
[] [ ] 1 (38).
[] ,
173

-. -

(39)
Hetvapadestpratijnyh punarvacanam nigamanam
[ ] [ ] [], []: , , . [ ] [
], [ ] , ,
. , 1.
[ ]:
1) ;
2) [] ;
3) , , , ;
4) ;
5) , , .
:
1 ) ;
2) [] ;
3) , , ,
;
4) ;
5) , , .
[] ,
, , [] . [] . , []
, , . ,

[ ],
2.
, . , ...
, ... . [ ] 3.
174

I. 1

[ ].
, [ ] .
,
,
, ? , ?
, [] ,

[] . , ,
[ ], [ ]
, ?
[] . 4.
5. [].
. ,
.
6
, [] ,
[], [] , . ,
, [ ],
[ ]
. , , [] 7
, (39).
[ ]
. :
175

-. '

,
, [] ,
[] (40)
Avijntatattve rthe kranopapattitastattvajnnrthamuhas
tarkah
, [] , :
. [] , :
- ? [] : [] ,
[ -]. []
, . :
, , . [] :
, ? ,
[] , [] ,
[ ],
: , 1. , , , , [ ] []
.
2. , [ -] [ ].
,
.
[] , , - , , [ ], , [, ]
[], , [] 3. ,

[ ].
[ ], [] .
.
,
?
176

1. 1

[.
]
[] , , , : , [ ].
?

,
[ ], [ ]
. ,
, , []
5. []
[] [] , , (40).
:
[ ] [] (41)
Vimrsya pakapratipakbhymarthvadharanam nirnayah
,
[- ]. , ,
, [ ] [ ].
, , [ ]. [ ] ,
.
[ ] [] ,
[] , , [ ], [], [], . [ ] , [ ] ?
[] [ ] .
?
. []
. []
.
177

-. -

. [ ], ,
[ ] . [] [], .
, [ ] , , - . , :
1 , ,
, , , 2. [ ]
. ,
, , [] , 3.

,
[ ] [ ] , []
. []
,
[] .
[] []
[]
[ ]. []
4
(41).

[ ]
[] : , . :
[, ] [ ], [
] , [ ]
[]
( 1 )
178

I. 2

Pramnatarkasdhanoplambhah siddhntviruddhah
pancvayavopapannah pakapratipak$aparigraho vdah
,
,
[ ] ,
, 1. [], ,
, , [, ] ,
. []. , [] , . [
], [ ] , [] [] , [, ] [ ]
[] . [ ], []. , . , []
[ ], , ,
.
. , , , - [ ], []
(1.2.6) [ , ] [ ] [] [] .
[ ] ,
[, ] " ... (V.2.12) " ... [] (V.2.13).

, [ ] .
[ , ]
179

-. -

[] . ,
[
] . , .
, 3. ,
[] , ,

, [], , []
(1).
[], []
, , (2)
L
Yathoktopapannaschalajtinigrahasthnasthnasdhanoplambho jalpah
[] []
, [] , .
, , ,
, ,
, , .
, - [] , , ? [] [] ,
: [] []
[ ] (1.2.10); [] [] [ ]
(1.2.18);
(1.2.19), ..
. , [ , ] , , [ 180

I. 2

], [] , ,
1.
, [ ]
. ,
[] , , , [ ]
[] , , ,
, , .
. : ,
(IV.2.50). , [ ] , [ ]. ,
,
[ ]. 2 (2).
(3)
Sa pratipakasthapanhno vitand
.
?
, [] . ,

1. ,
.
[ ], [] ?
, , , ,
[] .
(3).
181

-. -

[]
[] , [] ,
.

, , (4)
Savyabhicraviruddhaprakaranasamasdhyasamakltt
hetvbhsh

(5)
Anaikntikah savyabhicrah
. [] , 1
1. :
1) ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) , [] 2.
[] , , [ ] 3. , [] ,

(1.1.34). , ,
[] ,
. ,
4
, ,
[], . ,
. [],
, ;
, (5).
(6)
Siddhntamabhyupetya tadvirodh viruddhah
, -;
. , [ ] [] [- ] ,
, , []
182

I. 2

[ ], . ,
. ?
[], [] [
]. [ ] ,
[] , ,
[] , [] . [
], . , , , , [],
.
, .
,
[ ] 1 (6).
, ,
[ ], [] (7)
Yasmtprakaranacmt sa nirnayrthamapaditah
prakaranasamah
[] , . [], [],
[ ]. , ,
[ ], [] . : , , ,
, , .
, , , []
.
[] [] . , . , []
, . ?
. , 183

'. -

, , , . [ ] (7).
, , []
, , (8)
Sdhyvisitah sdhyatvtsdhyasamah
, , , [ ], . , . [] ,
[] : , , . , , [ ], ,
, , [], [] . [ ]
, [] , [
]. (8).
(9)
Kltyaypadi$tah klttah
[], ,
. : ,
, . , , [] , .
, , . , []
[] . ,
[.. ], , [.. ]. , ,
. []
, .. , . ?
1. , []
.
184

I. 2

, [] 2. ?
-

.
, [ ],
[ ] ;
, . [ ]
: ...
(V.2.11).
[] 3 (9).
[ ]
[] []
[ ] (10)
Vacanavighto 'rthavikalpopapatty chalam
, . [ ]
(10).
[]
: , (11)
Tattrividham vkchalam vakturabhiprydarthntarakalpan
vkchalam ceti


[ ] , [ ]
(12)
Avisebhihite vakturabhiprydarthntarakalpan vkchalam
[]: , , [] .
[ ] [ ], [ ]. ,
, ,
: , ,
, [] :
, ?!
185

-. -

, 1.
[]. , . Navakambala , [ ] , -
, , . :
, , , ,
[ ]
, [ ], - .
.

[] , [ ] , [] []
. []
. ,
. [] [] , .
[]
, ,
[
]. !, !,
! 2.
,
, ,
[] 3. navakambala, : , :
.
(12).


[ ] (13)
Sambhavato 'rthasytismnyayogdasambhutrthakalpan
smnyacchalam
186

I. 2

, - : ,
, []:
. - []
: ,
,
.
,
. ,
, . , 1.
[ . ] [] [ ] [ ],
[] []2,
. ,
[ ]:
, [] . [ ] , []
. ,
. []: [] , , 3. []
: [] . , , . , []
(13).
[] (14)
Dharmavikalpanirdese 'rthasadbhvapratiedha upacracchalam
[ ] .
[ ], . 187

-. -

. , [ - ]: , [] []
: , .
? [], ,
[] [] .
.
, , [] [], [] .., , .
1. , []
[] ,
. ,
. ,
, . , , , [ ] .
, , ,
, [] (14).
. ,
, (15)
Vkchalamevopacracchalam tadaviset


. , , (15).
.. , [ ] [] (16)
Na tadarthntarabhvt
, ,
, . ?
[ ] [] . 188

I. 2

, []
[]
1 (16).
[] ,
, [] [] (17)
Avisee va kincitsdharmydekacchalaprasangah
[ , ], ,
[ ]. [] , [ ] , [] []
.
, (17).
[,
]
:
[] []
[ ] (18)
Sdharmyavaidharmybhym pratyavasthnam jtih
, []. , []
. [] ,

(1.1.34), . ,
(1.1.35)
. , [ ],
[ ] (18).
( 19)
Vipratipattirapratipattisca nigrahasthnam
, . . .
:

[ ]. []
189

-. -

[ ]1 (19).
[ ] : , ,
, ?
, [ ] (20)
Tadvikalpjjtinigrahasthnabahulatvam
, []
[ ]
, .
.
[ ], , , , [
], ,
. .
, , , , , , []
1 (20).

II

, [ ], [].
[ ]
[]
(1.1.41), 1.
[ ]
. []
[ ]
(1)
Samnnekadharmdhyavasydanyataradharmdhyavasydv
na samsayah
1) [ ]
[ ] .
2) , -, [ ]:
[].
3) , -,
[ ],
.
, .
4) , -, , [ ]
, [-],
,
1.
[ ]
.
5)
[], [ ] 2 (1).
191

-. -

. [ ] [ ] (2)
Vipratipattyavyavasthdhyavasycca
[] [ ].
? [ ] . [
]. ,
[] , , , ?!
[] ,
1 (2).
. []
[] (3)
Vipratupattau sampratipatteh
,
, [ ]
[ ], []
[ ]1.
[] , [ ] , [ ] (3).
. , [] (4)
Avyavasthtmani vyavasthitatvccvyavasthyh
[ ]: .
[] ?
[] , [ ] . ? [] ,
[ ] 1 (4).
. (5)
Tath 'tyantasamsayastaddharmastatyotpatteh
, [ ],
, . , 1 (5).
192

IL 1

[] :
. [] [] [],
, (6)
Yathoktdhyavasydeva tadvisepekt samsaye nsamsayo
ntyantasamsayo v
[ ] ,
. ?
[ ],
.
. , [
1.1.23]?
. [], , [] .
[ ],
, . []
: . [] ?
. [] , ,
[ ] []
.
[ ] . [ ]
:
(1.1.23), ,
[ ]. [ ],
, [].
. , ,
, , []
. ?
, , [] .
[] ,
[] , [ ] ,
, [ ] ,
, [] , .
.
, : [], []
, [] ,
[, ] , []
7-

1709

193

-. -

. [ ]: , ,
, ,
, [ ]?
[] .
, [ ],
, [,
] . ,
[] , , ,
[] . [ ]
. , [
], [] [ ] .
, []
[]. , , , ? , ,
[ ] []. , [].
, [ ] .
, []
, .

. , []
[], . [ ]
[] .
, , [ , ] [ ],
[ 194

II. 1

] . , [
] . ,
[ ] . [ ],
, [ ] .
, [
].
, [] ,
[ ,
], .
? [ ], [ ] ,
1. [ ],
[], , ,
,
(1.1.23). , , (6).
, (7)
Yatra samsayastatraivamuttarottaraprasangah
[]
, []
[] . , , 1 (7).
[ ]
, :
-. [ ]
[] 1 (8)
Pratyakdmmaprmnyam traiklysiddheh
[ ] [] [] []
. , []
[], [ ], [] (8).
7*

195

-. -

[ ]:
. [], [ ]
(9)
Purvam hi pramnasiddhau nendriyrthasannikart
pratyakotpattih
, .
, [] , 1 (9).
. [ ], (10)
Pasctsiddhau na pramnebhyah prameyasiddhih
, ? [] 2 (10).
. [] , , [] [] , [] (11)
Yugapatsiddhau
pratyarthaniyatatvt
kramavrttitvbhvo
buddhnm
, , , , [] , , .. , []
. [ ] , []
(1.1.16).
[ ] [] , [] .
[ ]
[] 1.
. [. ]
[ ]
, . [ ] . , , , [] [196

IL 1

]2. , , , [] [] .
, , , 3.
, . , , .
[ ] .
[ ], [ ] , .
, [ , ] , 4.
[ ], [ ],
, ,
[] , [ ,
] []
[ ] , [] .
, []: , , , .. ,
.
, [] , , . , , , .
, : [] [],
", []. [ ] [] [] . ,
[ ],
[] !, [] !.
[ ]:
[ ]
[] (. 1.8)
[ ]. : , , ? [ ] [] ? [] , [ ] .
197

-. -

[] , (11).

[] [ ]
[] (12)
Traiklysiddheh pratiedhnupapattih
.
[], ?! ,
1. , , , . ,
,
, [ ]
2 (12).
[ ]
(13)
Sarvapramnapratiedhcca pratiedhnupapattih
? [ ]: [] , []
.
[ ] []
1. ,
[] [] , [] , , [] , [
, ] (I.2.6)2. []
, ,
[ ] . [] .
,
,
[ ] (13).
[ ]
, (14)
Tatprmanye va na sarvapramnavipratiedhah
[ ],
, [] ,
198

IL 1

[ ],
,
[ ] [] . , 1.
[] vi- ,
, [ ] 2 (14).
,
[ ] [
], [] [] (15)
Traiklypratisedhasca sabddtodyasiddhivattatsiddheh
?
. , ,
.
, []1.
, , ,
, [ ] , [], . :
[] [] .. []
. ,
: , [] .
, []
.
.

[ ]2 (15).
. ?
, [] .
. : [
] , 1.

,
. :
,
199

-. -

, ,
,
.
:
(16)
Pramey ca tul prmnyavat

, , . , , .
[ ] 1.
, [ ] , . 2. [] , , 3. .
<
, [] , , . , [ ]
. : ,
[] [-] .
, [ ]
[]. , [, ] []
. , [ ] [] . ,
4.
[]
[] , ?
[] ,
[] . [ ] ,
[ ], . [ ] , 200

//. I

,
. [].
, [] , []
, [] . ? ,
[]
[] . [] kraka [] ,
(16).
. , , , [ ], [ ] . , [],
[ ]
.
, [], , , []
: ,
,
,
: , , , . , [],
: , []
... .. [] ,
[ , ]
- , [] [-] ? [ ]
[ ]?
.
[-] , ,
[ ]1 (17)
Pramnatah siddheh pramnnm pramnntarasiddhiprasangah
[ ]
[-] , ,
, , [
]. [ ] : [ ] , ,
, .. ,
(17).
201

-. -

[]
, [] 1 (18)
Tadvinivrtte va pramnasiddhivatprameyasiddhih
[ ]
,
.., [] . (18).
. ,
(19)
Na pradpapraksasiddhivattatsiddheh

, [] , ,
[ ], . ,
, , . , :
!1. ,
, .. ..
; , , . [ ]2. , ,
, ..,
[] 3. ,
.
, , , [ ],
[] , ,
[] , ,
, , .
.. ..
.
. .
. , []
.
. .. .. , , - .
202

II. 1

. [ ], [] . ,
, [] .
[ ]. ,
.
[ ] , [
] , -. , [ ] , .
- [] (1.1.16) , .
.
. ?
. [ ].
.
[] .
. [ ]. [ ] [ ], [ ].
, -, - . ,
[ ], .. , [-] , . ,
- [
]5 (19).
[] , , [ ]:
, 1
. []:
[ ], ,
(20)
203

-. -

Kvcinnivrttidarsandanivrttidarsancca kvcidanaikntah

[] ,
[] [ ] .
.. ,
[ ]
, . , ,
, 1, . ,
, .
, []
,
[ ]. ,
[] , . ,
.
. [] .. .. .
. ,
[] [ ]. , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
[] [, ] , [] , , 2 . , . , (20).
[ ]
.
204

II. 1

. (21)
Pratyakalakannupapattirasamagravacant
[] (21).
. , , , [ ]. , ,
[ ] -.
[]
, 1 . ,
[] [] [ ]. [ ] :
- (22)
Ntmamanasoh sannikarbhve pratyakotpattih

(22).
, [ ]
,
[ ]
, , (23)
Digdesaklksevapyevam prasangah

.., [ ] [
]. [ ],
, [] ,
.. , [] .
, [ ] []
: - .. 1 (23).
, - [ 1.1.4], :
. [ ],
1 (24)
Jnnalingatvdtmano nnavarodhah
205

-. -

, , , , , [ ]2 (24).
-, (25)
Tadayaugapadyalingatvcca na manasah
[] [ ] . ,
- []
(1.1.16), ,
[] - (25).
[] (26)
Pratyakanimittatvccendriyrthayoh sannikarasya svasabdena
vacanam
- ,
, , [] , [] .
[] [
1.1.4] (26).
, []
[] (27)
Suptavysaktamanasm cendriyrthayoh sannikaranimittatvt
[, ] , -. ,
[] .
,
, . ? .
, ,
.
, - - , [] , [ ] .
, , . ,
206

IL 1

, [ ] .
[], ,
,
(27).
[
]:
[] (28)
Taiscpadeso jnnavisenm
. ? ,
, ,
[ ] , ,
, , .
. [ ]1 (28).
. , [ ]
, . ? ,
[] .
(29)
Vyhatatvdahetuh
, , - ,
-
, [ ]:
- []
(1.1.16). [ , ] [] .
[] [] .
[] , ,
, , [ ] ,
(29).
. (30)
Nrthaviseaprbalyt
207

-. -

. ,
, [] ,
.
.
, . ,
. .
,
, []
-, [ ]. , , ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
, .
[],
[] , . , [] ,
, (30).
. ,
[] [] [] [] (31)
Pratyakamanumnamekadesagrahandupalabdheh
,
: [] , .
?
[ ] : , , .
,
1.
. , ,
[]?
208

IL I

, [ ] , [ ] , , [ ] - [ ]2, , .
[]
3, , . [ ],

, [] ,
. ,
, , []
5. [ ] [] (31).

, [ ] [ ]
[].
, [ ]
[] (32)
Na pratyakena yvattvadapyupalambht
. ? ,
[]. . , ,
, [ ].
[]
?
, . , [
] . , , ,
, .
. ,
.
.
(32).
209

-. -

[ ]
[ ] , (33)
Na caikadesopalabdhiravayavisadbhvt
. [] ?
, . ?
. , , , ,
, , .
. [ ],
[] [].
. , , [].
. , . ,
.
[ ], [] .
. ^>, . ,
, , , 1.
, , : , ? , [, , ],
2. , ,
[] , , . .
, , [ ]
, [] [
] ? [] .
[ ], , [] , , , , [], [] , ,
[] [] 210

II. 1

. [] [] , [] .
, , []
[] [ ] ,
[ ] (33).
. , [] (34)
Sdhyatvdavayavini sandehah
: , [] , [], , . ,
; [] (34).
. , []
(35)
Sarvgrahanamavyavyasiddheh
, -.
? , , , ,
1. [ ? ]
, .
[ ], , ,
. [ ] ,
[] . ,
, , [ , ]:
, [] , ,
[ ], , , ,
[ , ]: . ,
, [ ] 3 (35).
(36)
Dhrankaranopapatteh
[ : ] .
. , [] []. ,
. [, , ]
, [] ,
211

-. -

. [ ]
,
.. [ ], ,
, , , [
], , 1. , , ,
,
?!
. ,
: .
?
, , ,
. ,
. : (36).
, [ ] , ,
(37)
Senvanavad grahanamiti cenntmdriyatvdanunm
.
- , , , .
. ,
[] , : ,
, [- ] , , [ ] , 1,
, [] [] , . ,
.
. .
. , [] , [ ] , []
2.
. [ ] .
. , [ ] . , , 212

IL 1

[]
, [] , [] , [ ] , .. . , [
] []
? ,
- . [] , , .
. ?
. , , [
] , [
] 3. , ? . ,
[] . [] 4. [ ] , , [ ], 5. ,
: .
. 6
?
. , .
. []
,
.
. , [ ].
, , ,
, - , ,
[ ], , ,
[] [] ? [] [] .
213

-. -

[ ], .. , ,
,
[ ]. []
, , , . [] .
.
, []
[]. ,
, [] , .
. , ?
. , []
[] , , .
. ?
. , , , [] , , [] .
. [ ] : .
. . [ ]
[], , []
[] . [ , ]
, , , [ , ] , , . ?
. :
, : - , , 7.
: .
. ,
?
. [] ?
. []
[] .
. . : .
214

IL 1

. []?
. ,
[] . : , []
[]. . [ , ]
,
.
. ,
, .
. , . , ..,
. [] ,
.., , [ ]
, [ ] -, , :
[] 8.
, .
, , [] , []
: . ,
, .
,
. , [] , [] ,
[ ] 9.
. [ ]
?
. [ ] ,
, [ ]
?
. .
.
, [ ]
.
215

-. -

. [ ]?
.
[].
. [] [] []?
. [ ] [ ] , ,
[ ], .

. , ,
, [ ] , , , .
, ,
10 (37).
[ ]
[] . :
:
[] , [ ],
, [] 1 (38)
Rodhopaghtasdrsyebhyo vyabhicradanumnamapramnam
[]
. - , , , .
- []
[] , ,
, . ,
, [] 2 (38).
. , [
] [ ]
[ ] [] (39)
Na ekadesatrsasdrsyebhyo 'rthntarabhvt
,
[ ], [, ],
. ?
. , ,
216

II. 1

,
, , , , , , .
, ,
[-] . ,
[]
[ ]. ,
,
, 1. [] [] , ,
, (39).
[ ]
. , [ ] ,
. [ ]
, , ,
(40)
Vartamnbhvah patatah patitapatitavyaklopapatteh
, , , , ,
. , ,
, , . , [ ]
, . 1 (40).
. , ,
[] (41)
Tayorapyabhvo vartamnbhve tadapekitvt
[ ] .
? [] : . , [] ;
, ; , .
,
?! , , .
[] , [217

-. -

]: !, [] [] . , , [
] ,
1 (41).
,
[ ]
(42)
Nttngatayoritaretarpek siddhih
[] , .
, . [ ] [
]? ? [ ] ? ,
[ ] [] .
. , , 1.
. [ ]. , : , , . ,
[ ]
.
, , , ?! ,
,
2 (42).

. , ,
. , ,
(43)
Varttamnbhve sarvgrahanam pratyaknupapatteh
,
, -, .
, . ,
, [ ] ,
218

IL 1

. []
.
:
[], [ ], [-] ,
, [ ]: , .. [] , , [] . [] , , [] , []
, , , ,
, [ ] ,
[ ]. , [] :
, , , [-] .
[ ] (43).
[]:
[ ] : ,
, , (44)
Krtatkarttavyatopapattestubhayath grahanam
, ,
, [] .
, [] .
, [] . , , , , , ,
. , , , : , . , [] .
: . [] [] :
: , .
, .
[] , (44).
219

-. -

[ ]
. [ ] ,
(45)
Atyantapryaikadesasdharmydupamansiddhih

: , , : , ,
, (45).
. , (46)
Prasiddhasdharmydupamnasiddheryathoktadonupapatteh
,
?

. , ,
[ ]. [ ] (46).
^. :
,
(47)
Pratyakenpratyakasiddheh

,
(47).
. [] , .
?
, (48)
Npratyake gavaye pramnrthamupamnasya pasyma
-, [] ,
, ,
, ,
. [] :
, , [ ] , 1.
. ,
. , :
, .
220

IL 1

. [ ] ,
,
[] [] (1.1.6). ,
, , , [] (48).

, [] ,.. (49)
Tathetyupasamhrdupamnasiddhernviseah
..., , , .
[ ]1 (49).
[ ]
1

. ,
[]
(50)
Sabdo 'numnamarthasynupalabdheranumeyatvt
. ? . ? .
[ ]
,
, (50).
:
. (51)
Upalabdheradvipravrttitvt

. , []
, . []
, , , . [ ],
[ ] (51).
. (52)
Sambandhcca
[ ] .
221

-. -


(52).
. [, ],
, [], ? :
[] , [] (53)
ptopadesasmrthycchabddarthasampratyayah
, , , 1, []
, . ?
, , [] [ ], . .

{II. 1.51), []
[ ] ,
.
, [ ],
,
, . []
[] : [] ; 2 . ? [] . , [] . ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, 3 (53).
[], , , ,
, .
[]
, [ ] (54)
Puranapradhaptannupalabdhesca sambandhbhvt
222

II. 1

[ ] . . ,
, [ , ]
[ ] [] . ,
, , , , .
[] , [
] .
, , , [ ], . , - , []
1. []
.
(54).
. [] [ ] (55)
Sabdrthavyavasthndapratiedhah
, []
, .
, []
.
[] [ ] (55).
. []:
, [] [] [ ] (56)
Na smayikatvcchabdrthasampratyayasya

[] , ? ,
,
:
. ? [ ]: - - .
. []
[] . , [] [ ].
223

-. -

[ ],
[]. ,
[]
, ,
1.
, .
(56).
[] (57)
Jtivisee cniyamt
, . ,
.
, [] (57).
[ ]
. [] , [] , ,
[] , (58)
Tadaprmanyamanrtavyghtapunaruktadoebhyah
[] [], []
. [ , ] [] . ? , []
[] . :
, , [] . , , :
.
[] . ,
,
, ; [], [] , , []
, , ,
224

II. 1

, , 1.
[ ] ,
[ ]2.

[, ]:
. .
.
[, ] , , (58).
. [] , [ ] , (59)
Na karmakartrsdhanavaigunyt

[] . ? ,
. . ; ; [] . []
, . [
] , [] .
[] [] , ,
, [],
, ,
,
, .
[ ] , ;
, [ ] . ,
, ,
,
,
. [] , ,
[ ] , [] . [],
, [ ] (59).
8-1709

225

-. -

(60)
Abhyupetya klbhede doavacant
[ ]
[ ]. - [ ]
,
: [] ,
. (60).
(61)
Anu vdopapattesca
[
] [ ]. [] , .
[] , [] . [] ,
[ ] . :
, . [] ,
[] (61).
[] [] (62)
Vkyavibhgasya crthagrahant
(62).
[] :
, (63)
Vidhyarthavdnuvdavacanaviniyogt
-
, (63).

[], [ ] (64)
Vidhirvidhyakah
, [] [ -].
[-], : .. (64).
226

II. 1

, , [] (65)
Stutirnind parakrtih purkalpa ityarthavdah
, []
, ,
. ,
, [] , :
[] ,
[ ]
, ..1.
[], [] [],
, . :
. , , ,
" ..2.
[]
, , :
, ,
[ ] , ;

[ ] ..
[]
, , : ,
..
?
[] (65).
(66)
Vidhivihitasynuvacanamanuvdah
. , . , .
? [ -].
, ,
.
[] [8*

227

-. -

], [ ].
:
, . ! . [] , , , , . ! ! , [, ],
, , []. , []
,
(66).
. ,
, [ ] (67)
Nnuvdapunaruktayorviseah sabdbhysopapatteh
[ , ] ,
. . ?
. ,
(67).
. , [ ] , (68)
ghrataragamanopadesavadabhysnnviseah
, .
? []. , [ ] [], .
, . : -!, [] . .
[] . , ! [] . . , [] ,
[] .
, . , []. ,
, ,
(68).
, , [] [] ?
,
228

II. 1

, [
], (69)
Mantryurvedaprmnyavacca tatprmnyamptaprmnyt
? ,
-, - [], -, -,
[] []
. , , , ,
[] .
[]? [] . , , ?
[], , [ ] [ ] .
, , [, ], : , ,
, . [] ,
, .
[ -], [-], ,
[ ], .
, [ ]. [] , , , [, ], ,
, , [] . , 1, ,
[] [ ] .
.
[] .
[ ]
. , [ ], , : ,
,
[ , ].
229

-. -

. ,
, , [] [ ] .
. [ ]. ,
, [] [ ].
.
. [ ] , , , .
. [] , . [ ]
, , [] [], .
. .
. , [].
. .
. , ,
[] , [] [ ]
.
. [ ], ?
. ,
.
- , [ ] ,
[] 2.
,
, 3. [] , , ,
, (69).
230

II. 2

[ ]
. .
[, ] :
, , , , [] [] (1)
Na catutvamaitihyrthpattisambhavbhvaprmnyt
, . ?
, , . ?!
[] : , ...1.
[] [] , . , , [],
[ ]. [ ],
[] ,
[ ], , [] 2.
,
. ,
, 3.
[] [] - . []
, 4 (1).
. , , . [] [ ] [], [] 1. []
, , , (2)
Sabda aitihynarthntarabhvdanumne 'rthpattisambhavbhvnarthntarabhvccpratiedhah
[] . ?
(1.1.7), . [ ] ,
[] .
, [ ] .
231

-. -

[] , . , ,

.
[] . , [ ]: ,
, [] [] . [ ] (2).
. , [] []
, . ,
[] .
(3)
Arthpattirapramnamanaikntikatvt
[ ], , , [ ] ,
. [ ]
. (3).
. , :
[ ] , ,
[ ] (4)
Anarthpattvarthpattyabhimnt
, : , . [] [] 1. , , , . [] . [] ,
[] , , . ? , ,
. ,
[ ] [] , , [ ]
. , [] , (4).
232

IL 2

[] [] (5)
Pratiedhprmnyam cnaikntikatvt
, [] .
, . []
, [] , 1 (5).
, [
] []
[]
[, , ]
[]
[] (6)
Tatprmnye va nrthpattyaprmnyam
,
[] , ,

[] (6).
.
? ? []
, [] , [] , [] ,
[] ,
[ ]
(7)
Nbhvaprmnyam prameysiddheh
[ ] [] (7).
. ,
.
[] ,
(8)
Lakitevalak$analakitatvdalakitnm tatprameyasiddhih
[] []. ? [] , ,
, . :
!, ,
233

-. -

, , , .
[ ] (8).
[],
,
[] , , (9)
Asatyarthe nbhva iti cennnyalakanopapatteh
. , -, , []
. , .
. , . ,
[ ],
, . , ,
[] (9).
. [ ] ,
[ ] [
] (10)
Tatsiddheralakitevahetuh
,
, . , [], [ ]. [ ]
, , (10).
. , [ ]
[] (11)
Na lakanvasthitpeksiddheh
,
, - [] , - . , [ ], [] , .
[], , [ ] (11).
(12)
Prgutpatterabhvopapatteh
:
, .
, 1 (12).
234

II. 2

[ ]
, (1.1.7), , [ ] , .
? [ ]
[ ] , [] 1.
, , 2.
,
.. [] [ ]
..3. , , ,
, 4.
, 5.
? [] [ , ]
. ?
,
(13)
dimattvdaindriyakatvt krtakavadupcrcca
, , [, ] 1.
. , , , . ,
? , , , , , .
: ? : .
. 2 ? , ,
[] ?
[, ]
.
, , [ ] , . , 235

-. -

. ,
, , , [], . ,
3.
, . , ,
, , , , . .
. ,
,
?
. [ ].
. []
, , , [] , , .
. , [ ] :
, .
[] , , [ ], [ ]
. [ ] ,
[ ]. ,
[] .
, [ ] ,
[] .
, , [ ] ,

.
. , [
] ?
. , [ ] . []
, [ ]
[ ]. , ,
236

IL 2

,
, , .
-, , [ ] [] ,
. , , -
.
. [] ?
. [],
, , , ,
(13).
. ,
, (14)
Na ghatbhvasmnyanityatvnnityevapyanityavad
upcrcca
, [] , . ? [ ]. , , ,
. [] ?
.
[ ] ? , .
[] ?
, .
, [ ] ?
. , [ ], ,
(14).
. [] (15)
Tattvabhktayornntvavibhgdavyabhicrah
?
[ ]
, . , [] , [] , , [,
237

-. -

] . , [ ] ,
. , , ,
, (15).
[ ] , [
, ] [] ,
, [ ]
[] (16)
Santnnumnavise$ant
[] . [],
, . ? , [] 1. (16).
[, ] [] ,
, -1 (17)
Kranadravyasya pradesasabdenbhidhnt
, ,
, [].
, , [] ?
[ ] .
[ ]?
. [] , ,
[] [] 2. [ ]
. [] .
, .., ,
[ ]. [] [] [] 3.
238

II. 2

[] ?
: , , [
] . , ,
4 (17).
, , - , - , ? , [-] .
[ ]
[ ] (18)
Prguccrandanupalabdhervarandyanupalabdhesca
. ? [] .
.
.
. [ ] .
. ?
.
[] ,
[] , , ,
-
[] .. ,
, .
. ,
[] .
. , , ? , [ ]
, [] , , .. [ ] -1
[
]. [] . ,
, [] . ,
[ ] [] , [] .
, , ,
, , , [],
239

-. -

, , [, ] , [] . ?
[] , [-] . (18).
[],
[ ], [ ]
.
[] (19)
Tadanupalabdheranupalambhdvaranopapattih
[]
[], [] [ ]. , [] 1.
. ,
?
. ?
. 2
[ , ]. , , , : , , , [ ] . .
, (19).
[ ,
] :
, [] (20)
Anupalambhdapyanupalabdhisadbhvnnvarannupapattir
anupalambht
, []
, [ ], . , , , , , , [ ] - . , , (20).
. ,
(21)
240

II. 2

Anupalambhtmakatvdanupalabdherahetuh
, , , ,
; , , - . He- , .
[ ] , ,
. , [] [] , (21).
[ ] ,
[] :
. (22)
Asparsatvt
,
(22).
. [] : [ ],
, , , [ ] ,
, . [ ]
[
] 1.
, (23)
Na karmnityatvt
[ , ] (23).
[] (24)
Nnunityatvt
[] , [ ] 1 (24).
. :
[ ], (25)
Sampradnt
, , , [ ].
. ,
[ ] (25).
. , (26)
Tadantarlnupalabdherahetuh
[] ? (26).
241

-. -

[ ], [ ],
[] .
. [] []
(27)
Adhypandapratiedhah
[ ], (27).
.
(28)
Ubhayoh pakayoranyatarasydhypandapratiedhah
[] ,
: , ,
, , ,
? 1 (28).
. :
(29)
Abhyst
, . [
], [-] , [ , ] ,
, . , [ ], [ ]
. , []1 (29).
. ,
, [ ] (30)
Nnyatve 'pyabhysasyopacrt
[]
[-, , , ]: !, !, , , , .. (30).
. [] []
( .2.30):
, , (31)
Anyadanyasmdananyatvdananyadityanyat 'bhvah
, , ,
[] . [ ]: ...
242

II. 2

, [ ] (.2.30) 1 (31).
. [ ] []:
(32)
Tadabhve nstyananyat tayoritaretarpekasiddheh
,
, , [ ]
-.
, ,
? [ ]
. , []: ...
" (.2.31) (32).
. []
[] (33)
Vinsakrannupalabdheh
, , , , , [] [] []
. ,
. . (33).
. [], -, (34)
Asravanakrannupalabdheh satatasravanaprasangah
[] [], ,
-, [] , [ ].
. [,] - ?
. [ ] [
] . [ ], , [ ] ,
. [ ]
[], (34).
[]
(35)
243

-. -

Upalabdhyamne cnupalabdherasattvaanapadesah
, [] , [ ] [] , [
] [ ]: , 1.
. , [ ]?
. []. [] , , [] ,
, .. [] - [] -,

[ ]. ,
, ,
, .
,

, .
[] [] , []
, - , [] [].
, []
2. , [ , ] [], ,
, ,
[]
[ ]. , ,
[ ]
, , [ ], (35).
. [ ]
, , .
.
[ ], [] (36)
Pninimittapraslecchabdbhave nnupalabdhih
, , , . ,
[]
[ ] , [] ,
244

II. 2

, ,
[] [ ] . , , . . ,
[ ], [ ] (36).
[, ] [] ,
[] (37)
Vinsakrannupalabdhescvasthne tannityatvaprasangah
, [ ], -, , [] . ,
; ; [, ] ; []. .
[] ,
[, , ]
[] (37).
. , [ ], , ,
[ ], [
] . [, ] ,

, [
]1.
. [, ], [] (38)
Asparsatvdapratiedhah
[ ],
,
[ ] .
, ,
[] , [ ]

1 (38).
, ,
.., . ?
245

-. -

[ ]
(39)
Vibhaktyantaropapattesca samse
[ ]
. .. , [ ] , , .. , , . ,
, [] ,
, .
[ ] , [],
[ ]. [] , , .. 1 (39).
[ ]
.
[] 1
[]
(40)
Vikrdesopadestsamsayah
[] dadhyatrd [
], / , , , . , , [ ] , [ ]
, / ,
. -. ,
.
2.

[] 3. [] - , , . [ ] ,
.
246

. 2

, [] ,
[ ], , . / ,
,
. , [] .
[ ]
.
: / jKHe [] ,
[] yatate, yacchati, pryamsta ikra idam,
, [ ] i$ty
dadhyhara1. . , [] 5.
[] []
[ ]. ,
i [ ] . ?
, /. .
, [ ] , .
, ,
.
[] . / im
,
[], .
,
. [ ] .
[], . [, ] [] ^s[] 4kh AbrVrac6
, []-
, ,
, [] []
(40).
:
(41)
Prakrtivivrddhau vikravrddheh
,
1, [] 247

-. -

[ /],
2 (41).
. [ ] ,
, (42)
Nyunasamdhikopalabdhervikrnmahetuh
,
[ ]1.

[ ] (42).
. (43)
Dvividhasypi hetorabhvdasdhanam drtntah
, 1. , : , .
. , , ,
, /, [] .
, , ,
(43).


(44)
Na atulyaprakrtnm vikravikalpt
[ ] , [] . [] L ,
[] 1 (44).
. [ ]
(45)
Dravyavikre vaiamyavad varnavikravikalpah
[ ]
.
(45).
. (46)
Na vikradharmnupapatteh
248

II. 2

: ,
, .
[], - , [], i
. , / 1 (46).
:
(47)
Vikraprptnmapunarpatteh
[ ]
. ? [] , [ ]1.
, / [] , (47).
. ,
(48)
Suvarndmm punarpatterahetuh
, [] . :
, , , , .
i9 /(48).
. .
, [ ], :
, , , , ?

,
[ ] (49)
Na tadvikrnm suvarnabhvvyatirekt
[ ]
[ ] . [ ] ,
[] / .
[, ] (49).
249

-. -

. ,
(50)
Varnatvvyatirekdvarnavikrnmapratiedhah
[]
, (50).
. , , [] (51)
Smnyavato dharmayogo na smnyasya
, . []
yl ,
.
[], /[]
(51).
:
, ,
, (52)
Nityatve 'vikrdanityatve cnavasthnt
, [ ], , , , ,
, . , ?! , ,
. ? , , , [ ] . , , ,
, , , , . []
[] ?! [
] ,
1 (52).
. [ ] [] :
,
[] [] , [ ]
[] (53)
Nitynmatmdriyatvttaddharmavikalpcca
varnavikrnm
apratiedhah
, [] , [ ]. 250

II. 2

, , ,
, [] - ,
.
. [ ] ,
. , []
, . , .
, ,
, . , , [ ] , (53).
. [
] [] :
[]
, (54)
Anavasthyitve varnopalabdhivattadvikropapattih
,
.
. [] [] , .
, , , , , ,
..,
[] [] . [ ] , / , 1, , i, [ ], y [ ]. ,
(54).
[ ] [], , ,
(55)
Vikradharmitve nityatvbhvt klntare vikropapattes
cpratiedhah
[] [ ]:
[ ] ... (.2.53) .
251

-. -

, , []: ...
" (.2.54)
. dadhyatra
dadhi aura.
, /,
-?!
,
(55).
:
[] (56)
Prakrtyaniyamdvarnavikrnm
[] i9 ,
[ ] vidJiyatin vidhiyat.
[] ,
[] ,
[] [ ] (56).
. [] [] (57)
Aniyame niyamnnniyamah
, ,
, [] , [ ]
[ ] .
[] . []:
(57).
. [ ] []
(58)
Niyamniyamavirodhdaniyame niyamccpratiedhah
[] ,
.
[] , . [] , [] [-] . ? ,

, .
252

II. 2

, : ... [] (.2.57), (58).


[ ]
, - . [ ]?
[]
, , , , (59)
Gunntarpattyupamardahrsavrddhilesasleebhyastu
vikropapattervarnavikrh
[ ] , .
[]
[] .. , ,
. []. [] . , [] as
stahx. .
, . , [ ] (59).
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] (60)
vibhaktyanth padam
, 1. :
. , [ ] brhmana pacati.
. []
?! , [] 2.
. ,
, [ ] , .
(60).
[] ,
.
, [] ,
, (61)
253

-. -

Vyaktykrtijtisannidhvupcrtsamsayah
. []
[] , ,
, , [ ]
[] (61).
[
] . :
. [ ] ,
[ ]
, , , , , ,
, , (62)
Ysabdasamuhatygaparigrahasankhyvrddhyapacayavarnasamsnubandhn vyaktvupacrdvyaktih
L
. ?
. .
, , [
], [] [] . [] ,
, [ ] . []
[] , , [], ,
, []. : , ; [ ] ,
. 10 , 20
[} , , [ ] . , , : ,
. .
, ;
[ ] , . [], ,
[]
.., . : , []
[]
, , [ ]
254

II. 2

. ,
1 (62).
:
, (63)
Na tadanavasthnt
. ? . , . []: , ,
[] .
[ ]? [] .
. ..1 (63).
. , ?
. [
] [ ]
. ,
[
] [ ] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (64)
Sahacaranasthnatdarthyavrttamanadhranasampyayogasdhandhipatyebhyo brhmanamancakatarjasaktucandanagangstaknnapuruevatadbhve 'pi tadupacrah
... ,
. : ! . : ! , . :
, : . : ,
, .
: , . : , . :
. : , .
255

-. -

: . : . ,
, []
, [ ] (64).
. ,

,
[] (65)
krtistadapekatvt sattvavyavasthnasiddheh
. ? [] . ,
.
[] : , , .
,
, .
. , []
1 , .
[ ].
? , .
(65).
.
, , []
.. (66)
Vyaktykrtiyukte 'pyaprasangt prokandnm mrdgavake
jtih
. ?
[] .. ! ! ! . ? [] [].
, ,
,
[] (66).
. ,
(67)
Nkrtivyaktyapekatvjjtyabhivyakteh
256

. 2

.
,
. , [ ] (67).
, ? ?
[] , , (68)
Vyaktykrtijtayastu padrthah
. ?
, , [
] , . [ ]
[ ] [] , , .
, [] 1, , .
.
2 (68).
, , ?
.
,
(69)
Vyaktirgunavisesrayo murtih
, , , [] 1.
,
, , , , ,
, [ ]
(69).
[] []
(70)
krtirjtilingkhy
,
. ,
[] .
, , [] : []
.
9-1709

257

-. -

. , [ ] ,
, ,
(70).
, [] (71)
Samnaprasavtmik jtih
[ ] , []
. , [] [] [], .
, [] [ ], 1 (71).

III

[ ]

. ,
[ ] [] 1: , , -, ,
? [] ? 2. , [ ], .
[ ] : []

[]:
, . : , ,
, . , []
.. [ ]
[].
[ , ] [].
?
(1)
Darsanasparsanbhymekrthagrahant
, , [, , ]: , ,
, , , .
[] , [] [ ] 1. ,
, []
[], 259

-. -

, , [].
[ ]
[] ?

, , , , .
[ ]
[ ] ?
[], []
[ ]
[], .
?
[]
, (1).
1. (2)
Na viayavyavasthnt
[] .
? . : , , .

, [] 2. .
. , , [ ]
. , ?
. . ,

,
[] , ,
[] . . ,
[]
(2).
, []
, [] (3)
260

III. 1

Tadvyavasthndevtmasadbhvdapratiedhah

, ,
[] ? []
, , ,
, [] . , [], , , .
: , , , . , , ,
, , , [] ,
.
1.
,
, [] , .
:
. , , (3).
[ ]

:
, [ , ] (4)
Sarradhe ptakbhvt
[] , , - , ,
, [ ] .
[] [] [] , [] . [ ],
, ,
261

-. -

, . [ ]
[] ,
.
[ ]. , , , [] , , , . ,
1. ,
,
[] , 2. ,
, []
. [ , ], . , [ ]
(4).
. []
[] , (5)
Tadabhvah stmakapradhe 'pi tannityatvt
, , , . ? .
, . , .
, []1 (5).
. , (6)
Na krysrayakartrtvadht
, , , , , , ..
, 1. ,
, , .
[] , . []:
[] [] , , , ,
,
2.
262

III. 1

[ ]

. [ ], .
, -, , -.
, [ ]
, , . ,
[] []. , , , . ,
. (6).
[ ]
:
[] (7)
Savyadrtasyetarena pratyabhijnnt
:
, [] , .
, []: , , [ ]. []
, [] , [] , .
, 1 (7).
. , [ ] - (8)
Naikasminnssthivyavahite dvitvbhimnt
. [ , ] ,
[]1 (8).
. ,
(9)
Ekavinse dvityvinsnnaikatvam
, [] , [] .
[ ] [ ] (9).
263

-. -

. ,
(10)
Avayavanse 'pyavayavyupalabdherhetuh
[ ] ,
. ? , - , [ ]
1.
. ,
()
Drtntavirodhdapratiedhah
,
[]. ,
, , , ,
, .
, -, . , , , . ,
[] , .
, -, [] ,
[ ], , ,

, [] .
,
,
. [] [ ]. [ ] [ ] . [] [ ] (11).
,
[]:
(12)
Indriyntaravikrt
- [ ]
, ,
[] .
, ,
(12).
264

HL 1

. ,
(13)
Na smrteh smarttavyaviayatvt
, , [] . . [] ,
[] (13).
. ,
(14)
Tadtmagunasadbhvdapratiedhah
[] ,
[ ] 1.
, [ ,
] , .
,
, .
. , ,
, [], , []
. , .
[] .
,
[], .
[ ] ,
[] . : , (III. 1.13). , ,
[ ]: , , , [] : 1) ,
[ ]; 2) [ ];
3) [ ]; 4) . ,
, . ,
265

-. -

[]. ? , ,
[ ]: ,
, [ ] ... ,
.
.... , [ ...].
: , ...2. , ,
,
, . , [ ] .
[], , [ ] ,
[] [ , ]: ,
[] .
[ ]
. [
] , []. [] :
, , ,
[],
. , []
, .
, , , ,
,
[] . []
[ ]: [],
[] [] .
, [],
,
[] [ ],
(14).
[ -]
. , , [] , - (15)
Ntmapratipattihetunm manasi sambhavt
, . ? , []
, -. , , , : 266

III. 1

(III. 1.1), ,
. , [ ]
, , (15).
. [ ]
, [ ]
(16)
Jnturjnnasdhanopapatteh samjnbhedamtram
, []
, , . ,

, [ ] . , , , , [] , .
[] , .
[ - ]
[] . ,
, ,
, , [] []
1 (16).
[]
(17)
Niyamasca niranumnah
, [] , ,
, , [ ]
, []
. ..
, .., []
[ ] .
, [ ] , , [ ]
, [ ] . [ ] [ ], [ ] . -
[ ] 267

-. -

. [] [ ]:
[]1. []:
, [] ,
- (17).
[ ]
[], ,
? [] ? , [ ]
. [] , , [ ]
.
[] , [] . ?
,
(18)
Purvbhyastasmrtyanubandhjjtasya harabhayasokasampratipatteh
, ,
[ ] [] ,
[] [ ]. [ ]
, . .
, . ,
[] (18).
. [
] , [ ] (19)
Padmdiu prabodhasamlanavikravattadvikrah
[] ,
, .
. , . .
[] .
268

III. 1

[ ]
[ ].
, ,
[]. , [
] . , [] ,
[]. , [] ?! (19).
. ,
[] [] ?
.
, [] , , (20)
Na unastavarklanimittatvt panctmakavikrnm
[ ]
[, ] , .., ,
,
. ,
.., []
. , [. ]
[ ] . [
] ,
, .. []
1 (20).
:
(21)
Pretyhrbhysakrtt stanybhilt
, [] , []
. [
]? , , 269

-. -

, , [] .
[] . []
, . ,
, , , . , [] (21).
.
? (22)
Ayaso 'yaskntbhigamanavattadupasarpanam
[ ] , []
[] ? (22).
.
[] ? ,
, [] (23)
Na anyatra pravrttyabhvt
[] , .. ! [-] . ,
? , . [] .
, , .
, . [ ] [] . [ ] .
, . ? , [] . . [ ], - , .
, [] [] (23).
270

HL 1

:
, -
(24)
Vtargajanmdarsant
, [ ], , []
, .. [] [] . . , , [] . , , , , , []
, .., , [] (24).
. , ,

[] , ? (25)
Sagunadravyotpattivattadutpattih
, , [] , - [] (25).
. [] [ ] :
, [
] (26)
Na saftkalpanimittatvdrgdmm
, ,
[] , [ ]
. ? ..
. ,
[ ], ,
.
,
1 .
, , ,
[ ] , ,
271

-. -

2.
,
, . [ , ]
[] .
, , [ ] 3, , , . 4, , [] , 5. [
] [. ] , [] .
, , (26).
[ ]
, .
. , , [ ],
1. ?
. - [
] , 2. ?
[ ] ,
[ ] (27)
Prthivam gunntaropalabdheh
[ ] . ?
[ ] , [
]. , [] . []
, , , [ ]
1.
[ ], , , ,
.
[ ] .
, , [272

III. 1

] 2.
, , , ,
[] [] (27).
. [] , , [ ] (28)
Prthivpyataijasam tadgunopalabdheh
[ ] (29)
Nihsvsocchvsopalabdhescturbhautikam
, , , (30)
Gandhakledapkavyuhvaksadnebhyah pncabhautikam
. ? []
,
[], , [],
[ ] [], ,
, , , . , , , , ,
[] []1.
. , , [ ]
(III. 1.27) (30).
. (31)
rutiprmnycca
, [ ]:
, ,
[] .
, [ ]: , : ,
[] 1.
.., [ ],
[] (31 ).
[ ]
[] 1
? [] ?
273

-. -

,
[ ] (32)
Krnasre satyupalambhd vyatiricya copalambhtsamsayah
. , , . , [] ,
[ ]. [ ]
[ ] .
[] [ ] [ ] (32).
. [] . ?
, (33)
Mahadanugrahant
, , . , , , ,
. 1. [
-] , , [] , (33).
. ,

.

(34)
Rasmyarthasannikar$avise$ttadgrahanam
[] , .
[] [].
, .., 1 (34).
. []
(35)
Tadanupalabdherahetuh
[] ,
, ?! (35).
274

III 1

. ,
, (36)
Nnumyamnasya pratyakato 'nupalabdhirabhvahetuh

[] ,

1 (36).
(37)
Dravyagunadharmabhedccopalabdhyaniyamah
. ,
, , , ,
.
, , [] ,
. 1 (37).
[ ] [ ]:
[]
(38)
Anekadravyasamavyd rpavisecca rpopalabdhih
, , , [] -
. . . : 1) , ; 2)
, ;
3) , , ..; 4) , (38).
(39)
275

-. -

Karmakritascendriynm vyuhah pururthatantrah


,
[], ,
, , []
. [ ] , ,
, . ,
.
- .
[ ] []
[ ].
, , , []
[] . [ ],
,
[].
. [ ]
[ ] ,
. [],
, .
. . ?
[] , , , [], , , , , .. (39).
[ ] :
, (40)
Madhyandinolkpraksnupalabdhivattadanupalabdhih
: [] (III. 1.38).
, .
, -

. , ,
276

III. 1

. [] (40).
- , , , , [
], :
, [] (41)
Na rtrvapyanupalabdheh
, [] . 1 (41).

[] ,
(42)
Bhyapraksnugrahd viayopalabdheranabhivyaktito
'nupalabdhih
,
.
, 1. , ,
. ,
(III. 1.35), (42).
[] , ?
[- ]
[ ] (43)
Abhivyaktau cbhibhavt
. ,
,
[] . ,
, [] , [] , , 1 (43).
(44)
Naktancaranayanarasmidarsanacca
,
.. [ ] .
277

-. -

. [ ]1?
. [] , [ ] [ ] (44).
. , [ ] 1. ?
[] , (45)
Aprpya grahanam kcbhrapatalasphatikntaritopalabdheh
, , , [ ] , .
[] [ - ],
.
,
[ ] . [], , , - , ,
[] ,
.
[] (45).
. (46)
Kutyntaritnupalabdherapratiedhah
[ ], (46).
. []
[ ], , ,
.
. []
(47)
Apratighttsannikaropapattih
, , , ,
[ ] (47).
,
, :
..*
, (48)
278

III 1

dityarasmeh sphatikntarite 'pi dhye 'vightt


[ ]: , , ,
[-] . []
[ ]. .

, , . [] [ ] ,
. , , , , , . , , , , [] :
.
[] . , , ? , 1, [, -], . , , ,
, .
. , [] .
,
.. (48).
. ,
(49)

Netaretaradharmaprasangt
..
[], , , [], , [] ..,
[] (49).
. [ ]
279

-.

,
(50)
darsodakayoh prasdasvbhvyd rupopalabdhivat
tadupalabdhih
, [
].
. , , , , . , , .
.. . , ,
[ ]
, .. . [] (50).
, [ ]
(51)
Drtnumitnm niyogapratiedhnupapattih

[ ]. , , ,
, [ ]
, : ! , ,
! , , , , ,
[] , , , [],
, . ? ,
, , . . ,
[-, ]
.. , , , [],
, , ,
.
. , [, ] ,
, , ..
(51).
280

HL 1

[ ]
[ , ]
. [] ?
,
[] [,
] (52)
Sthnnyatve nntvdavayavinnsthnatvcca samsayah
, , , , , []
. [] (52).
. ,
[] 1 (53)
Tvagavyatirekt
, .
? [] . , ,
. [] ,
.
. [
] .
[]
, , ,
. , , , , ,
, .
. , .
. , [] , ? , , , , 2,
, , .
. [] .
[], , [] , [] , , .
, 281

-. -

, , . [] 3. , []
... [ ].
,
. , , []
, [] [-] 4 (53).
[ ]
[] (54)
Na yugapadarthnupalabdheh
, , , [ ], . ,
[]
, , - .
[] ,
, .
, [ ] (54).
,
[ , ] (55)
Vipratiedhcca na tvagek
[] [ ].
[ ], [] .
, .
. , [
] , ?
. , ,
[ ] . , , ,
,
? , []
, [] ,
, -
[] .
, , ,
(55).
[], [] [] , [] :
282

III 1

(56)
Indriyrthapancatvt
, .

[] . []
. []
[]
. []
[]
. , ,
, [] [] (56).
.
(57)
Na tadarthabahutvt
, [ ] . ?
. :
, ;
, ..; , ; ..; 1.
, [] [] [] 2 (57).
. ,
.. [ ] .. (58)
Gandhatvdyavyatirekdgandhdnmapratiedhah
.., , [ ], [] , [ ], [ ]
.. [ ]
, , , , ,
, .
. .. ..?
283

-. -

. , , , . , ,
,
,
, , []
. , , . .. . [ , ]
(58).
. [] ,

, []
(59)
Viayatvvyatirekdekatvam
.. [ ]
(59).
. , [ ] [, ] ,
(60)
Na buddhilakandhithnagatykrtipancatvebhyah1
, , , []. , [] , [], ,
.., , [ ] .
[] (III. 1.56).
[], []
. [
] , .
, .
. , , ; , , ; ; ; . [
, ] ,
, , .
284

III 1

[] []
. , , , , . ..
[] [] .
.
, - [, ]
. , , [] [] . , , [] .
, , , , 2.
[ ]. , .
, [] ,
[] (60).
. ,
, ?
. [] (61)
Bhutagunaviseopalabdhestdtmyam

, . [] , , ,
. [
] .
[ ] ,
[] , (61).
[ ]
, .. ..
(1.1.14). ,
[] .
:
, , ,
1 (62)
Gandharasarupasparsasabdnm sparsaparyanth prthivyh
285

-. -

, [ ] ,
, (63)
ptejovyunm purvam prvamapohyksasyottarah
[ ] 1. , , , 2.
. [] -tara
[ uttara]!
. [ ] 3. , uttara
... , [] , [] [], . [] [ ], . ,
, , , (63).
. , []
1(64)
Na sarvagunnupalabdheh
. ?
. [], , ,
[] . [ ] [] (64).
. [ ]?
. [ ]1,
(65)
Ekaikasyenottarottaragunasadbhvd uttarnm
tadanupalabdhih
, , , , , , [ ] .
, , , .
. ?
. . [] []. [] (65).
286

III 1

. , , [ , ] [-]
, , , .
. .
. ?
. (66)
Vitam hyaparam parena
[ ]
,
[ ] . [
] []
, 1 (66).
. , (67)
Na prthivpyayoh pratyakatvt
[] [] . ?
. ,
.
, , . , , ,
[ ] . , , , ,
, .
[ ] .
1, . [ ] [] [ ].
[ ] , [] .
[] [ ] ,
. ,
, . : , , ..,
[] [ ].

[ ]2. [] . [].
287

-. -

[ ] ,
. ,
, [] . [
] , [ ] .
. , , . , . [] , . ,

3.
[ ] . ,
, , . [ , ] " (III. 1.66),
,
.
, [] " ,
, , [] . ,
, .
, [.
, ] , , [ ] ,
, . , , , 4
, (67).
, [ ] [ ],
[ ]:
[ ] [ ] , [ ] (68)
288

III

Purvapurvagunotkarttattatpradhnam
[ ] . [] .. , [ ] . ? . ? [ ]. , ,
[] , ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
. [] .
,
[ ] ..,
[] , , , [
] [ ] (68).
. [] , ,
, ?
. (69)
Tadvyavasthnam tu bhuyastvt
, [
] [] ,
[].
:
,
[ ]. , [] , , .. , , [] , , [
]. [ ], ,
,
(69).
. ?
, ,
[] (70)
-1709

2 8 9

-. -

Sagunnmindriyabhvt
.. .. ? , , ,
, .
,
1, [] [] 2.
[] (70).
. [] [ ], [] ?
(71)
Tainaiva tasygrahancca
[] .
: , , . 1 (71).
. ,
(72)
Na sabdagunopalabdheh
, ,
1 (72).
. , (73)
Tadupalabdhiritaretaradravyagunavaidharmyt
, ,
, . ,
[]
[] []
. , [], ,
. [ ]
. [] ,
[]. , [], - [], . .., [] ..,
. , , . 1 (73).
290

III. 2
2

[ ]

[] . [
1.1.9] ?
[] ?
, (1)
Karmksasdharmytsamsayah
[] ,
, [ ] ; [] . (1).
.
[]
.. : ,
, .
. [ ] . [], , [] : [ ] (1.1.4), - [] (1.1.16) ..
[ ] .
[] [] .
, , , , , 1.
[ ]:
(2)
Viayapratyabhijnnt
? , , [ ]: ,
, [ ].
. [ ], , : [] 1 (2).
10*

291

-. -

. , [ ]
(3)
Sdhyasamatvdahetuh
,
. ?
. [] , , , , , 1. []
, .
,
[] :
, . , [] , , ?! , [ ], -, ?
. .
. [ ] -,
. [, ] , ,
-, . , , , , .
. [ ] [] .
. . , [ ] ,
.
, [ ] [ , ]
, , [],
, , ,
. [ , ] , , . [ , ] []
[], [ ].
. [ ] .
. , [ ]. ,
[ ], [
]. ,
292

III. 2

, ,
[ ] . [],
[ , ]
, , ,
[] [] . , [] : , , ,
. , [] []
2 (3).
. -
, [ ] .
. [] (4)
Na yugapadagrahant
, , , [ ] , , , (4).
[] (5)
Apratyabhijnne vinsaprasangah
,
, , , [
]1 (5).
-
:

(6)
Kramavrttitvdayugapadgrahanam
[ ] .
. , , [ ] (6).
(7)
Apratyabhijnnam viayntaravysangt
293

-. -

,
- [] . [] [] 1 (7).
[] []
(8)
Na gatyabhvt
[ ] []
, [ ]
, . , ,
[] .
[ ]
[]
[-] . , , ,
, ,
[] , [] .
[ ] [ ], [] . , -1. ? , [] , [-]
2. , : ,
, , . , .
[ ], , , []
[ ] . [] , , [] , . -
,
, [ ] (8).
294

III. 2

[], , [] . [ ]
[ ]:
.
(9)
Sphatiknyatvbhimnavattadanyatvbhimanah
[ ] : [] , [ ] , .., [],
, [ ].
. .
, ,
, , ,
..1. [ ] .
. [
]?
. , . , .
[
] ,
[ ] (9).
[ ]
[], , ,
[ , ]: , :
[ ] , ,
[ ], []
(10)
Sphatike 'pyaparparotpatteh kanikatvdvyaktnmahetuh
, ,
[] , . ? []
, .. ,
. ? 295

-. -

[ ]. [] , , [] . ,
[] ? , .. , , , .. [ , ] ,
[] . , ,
[] . 1 (10).
.
[] [] [], []
(11)
Niyamahetvabhvdyathdarsanamabhyanujn
[] , ,
, . ? .
, 1. , [] [], [] . , , [ ] , , , , ,
.. . : [] . , [
] , ,
(11).
,
[] , 1,
[] , , (12)
Notpattivinsakranopalabdheh
, , .., .. , [] [-]
(12).
296

III. 2

. [ ] , [ ]
(13)
Kravinse krannupalabdhivaddadhyutpattivacca tadutpattih

, [] (13).
. , (14)
Lingato grahannnnupalabdhih
, [], , ,
[] , [ ].
,
.. 1 (14).
[] [ -]:
,
(15)
Na payasah parinmagunntaraprdurbhvt
[] ,
[] , --
[ ]
. [ ] , [ ], .
1 (15).
:
[]
[] (16)
Vyhntard dravyntarotpattidarsanam purvadravyanivrtter
anumnam

[ ] , [] [, ] [] , [ ] [ ] 297

-. -

/,
[ ], ;
[ ] 1 (16).
, , [ ] :
[ ] , - , - 1 (17)
Kvacidvinsakrannupalabdheh kvaciccopalabdheranekntah
[, ]
, ,
. ? [, ] [ ], , , ,
[] [] , .. [] 2.
[] [] .
.. [] ,
, . .
[] , [ ],
, , , [ ] . [ , ,
] .. , , . [ , , ]
[] ,
, , , ,

, . [, ] 3 (17).
298

III. 2

[ ]
, : , , []?
1, [] [ ]:
! [ ]
[ ]
. [] :
[] [] [] ,
(18)
Nendriyrthayostadvinse 'pi jnnvasthnt
[] , . [ ] ,
[] , [ ]: [],
.
,
, . , -, .
[] , : [].
,
[] , .
- [] (18).
. -.
. -
[] (19)
Yugapajjneynupalabdhesca na manasah
[ , ] -
[] (1.1.16), ,
, .
? . , . [ -], [ ]
. , .. , .., [ ] , .., []
[] .
299

-. -


.. , , 1.
[] [] , [ , ] , , , []
, [] . , -. , [] [ ]
, . ,
[] , , ,
, []
, [ ] (19).
. [ ] , ,
? (20)
Tadtmagunatve 'pi tulyam
, [] (20).
. []
- (21)
Indriyairmanasoh sannikarbhvttadanutpatteh
, ..
[ ] -.
[]
, [] (21).
..
, ?
. , [ ]
[] (22)
Notpattikrannmapadest
[ ]: ..
,
[], [ ]1 (22).
. [ ]
(23)
300

HL 2

Vinsakrannupalabdhescvasthne tannityatvaprasangah
[ ] []: [ ]
, , ? (.2.20).
[] [] .
, [ , ]
, , [ ] .
[ , ] ,
(23).
. ,
[] [] [] , [ ] (24)
Anityatvagrahdbuddherbuddhyantardvinsah sabdavat
, , . , :
[ ] ,
[] (24).
.
, 1, ,
[] []
-, [ ] [], ,
, .
[] ,
:
, [ ] ,
[ ] (25)
Jnnasamavettmapradesasannikarnmanasah smrtyutpatterna
yugapadutpattih
, , , -
, ,

(25).
. , - []
(26)
Nntahsarravrttitvnmanasah
-
,
301

-. -

. , ,
, [] , [] (26).
. [] , [] []
1 (27)
Sdhyatvdahetuh
, [] , - [] (27).
. , , (28)
Smaratah sariradhranopapatterapratiedhah
, [-] ,
[ ] ,
. ,
-, :
. [],
(28).
. , - (29)
Na tadsugatitvnmanasah
- , [] []: ,
,
[ ], . , [-],
, , [ ] (29).
. , (30)
Na smaranaklniyamt
- , -
. [-] -, ,
- ,
.
[, ] . [ ] , .
[] , 302

III. 2

[] .., , []
(30).
[]: [ ] ,
, [ ]
[] [ ] (31)
tmapreranayadrcchjnatbhisca na samyogaviseah
[] []
- [ ] , ,
.. , -? ,
, . ? 1) [] , 2) [- ], 3)
[ -] .
1), [ ]: - ", " ,
- [ ] ,
, []
. [] ,
[] ,
. 2) , [
] , , [] , . 3)
, [] (31).

[] , [, ] (32)
Vysaktamanasah pdavyathanena samyogaviseena samnam
,
,
, [ ] . [ ]. , [ ]
, , .
. , , [] ?
. .
. , , [] , , -, , ?
303

-. -

. .
. : [
] , , [ ] [] [ ] (.2.31)
[] []. : , -
[] (.2.26) (32).
,
, [] [ ] 1?
[ ]: [ ],
.. (33)
Pranidhnalingdijnnnmayugapadbhvdayugapatsmaranam
-,
[] , [ ] .. , .
. , ,
.. [, ]
, ,
[
].
.
.
, ,
- [ ] - ,
, , , ,
: [ -] - [] , . [ ] [] [] .
. [ ] ?
. [ ], .
. [ ]
?
. , , [
304

III 2

], , ,
.
. [ ] .
. , []
[ ] .
. []: ... [ ], , [] .
. , [ ]:
[] [ ] [ ].
, .

, , [ ] , [ ], ,
[ ]
1.
[ ,
.2.25]: . [ ] - [ ]
,
. , []
-,
[] []
[ ] [].
. [ ] ,
[]
, []
.
.
[] : [ ]
2
[] . [ , ]
[, ] (33).
305

-. '

, , ,
, , , , :
[ ], ,
(34)
Jnasyecchdveanimittatvdrambhanivrttyoh
[] :
, , , . []
[-],
, [] ,
, [-],
, []
. , , , , ,
[]. ,
. , , , , []1. []
, 2 (34).
[ ], , :

[ ], [ ] (35)
Tallingatvdicchdveayoh prthivdyevapratiedhah
, , , ,
, , . , , , , 1,
, [ ]
, , , [] (35).
. [ ]
[] .. (36)
Parasvdivrambhanivrttidarsant
. , [-] , [] , [ ]
[] , .
306

HL 2

. [] .., [] , , [ ..].
. [ , ], ,
, , , ,
[ ] ,
, .
. []: [
], [ ] (.2.35)
. , , [] ,
[]
, .., [] , ;
. [] , , .
. , [ ] .. [ ],
, [] ,
.., .
, ,
[] [ ] ,
[ ]: ... [ ] [] (36).
(37)
Niyamniyamau tu tadviseakau
.
. [ ]? , [ ]1.
[] , ,
. [] [ ]. ,

[]
307

-. -

[ ] , [ ] .
[ ] ,
[-] ,
[],
, , ,
, , ! .
, , ,
,
.
[]
. , , [] , , , , . [] ,
, . ,
[] , ..,

.. 2.
, [ ]
, [ ]
. , , , ..
..,
. [ ] , [ ] []
, []
, , . , 3, , -, , ,
[] . ,
[]
. []: [] [] [] ,
(.2.18). [ ]: [ 308

III. 2

], [ ] (.2.35) , [] . [] -, .., , [ .2.35], (37).


[ ]
- [ ]
, [ ] :
[ ] - , [] [] [] (38)
Yathoktahetutvtpratantrydakrtbhygamcca na manasah
[ ] , []: , , , , (1.1.10),
, , -.
: , [], , ,
, [] , , .
[] [] . [ ]: , (1.1.17) [, ] , ,
, []. ,
(38).
[ ] , [ ] :
[]
(39)
Parise$dyathoktahetupapatesca
. [], : [ ], , [ ] []
309

-. -

[ ] 1. [ ]
, -
, .
[] , [] [ ], , : ,
(III. 1.1). [] ,
[] .
, -, .
, , , , .
Upapatti [] ,
[ ] ,
.
, [] [] . [] ,
, [] , .. ,
.

, , .
: , .
:
, [ ] ,
,
(39).
[] (40)
Smaranam tvtmano jnasvbhvyt
[ ] :
, . []
. ? . , , [ ]
310

. 2

, [
]: , , ,
: , , . [] ,
, , (40).
[] ,
. [], [] ?
[]
[ ] , , , , , ,
, , , [] ,
, , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , - (41)
Pranidhnaiiibandhbh^
tasambandhnantaryaviyogaikakryavirodhtisayaprptivyavadhnasukhaduhkhecchdveabhayrthitvakriyrgadharmdharmanimittebhyah

- [-] , , .
[] ,
, ,

[]. , [-], [
,] ,
1. , [ ]
, [] . [ ]: , , .
: [ ] , ,
, - 2. ,
, : [] ,
3.
311

-. -

, [ ] .. , . , [], .
[] .
[]
[ ] , . [ ] .
[, ]. .
. []
, . - , - . ..
.. .
, , , .
[] .
[ ]. , , . , . . - .
[ ] ,
. ,
(41).
[ ]
, [ ], [] , , : , , , ?
1
, . ?
(42)
312

III. 2

Karmnavasthyigrahant
[ ] ,
. , [ ]
, [ ] , ,
[] 1. [ ] , , , . []
,
, [] . ,
. , .
. ,
, ,
, [] [ ] 2.
. . ? ,
[] .
. , .
. ,
. , , 3 (42).
. ,

(43)
Avyaktagrahanamanavasthyitvdvidyutsampte rupvyaktagrahanavat
, , . [ ] ,
[ ] (43).
. [ ], ,
[ ] , []
(44)
Hetupdnt pratiedhavybhyanujn
313

-. -

, , ,
: "
.
. ,
[]1.
.
[] . -
, - , . , , 2, , [ ] [] . ? ,
.
[] .
,
[]3. , ,
, ,
[ ] . , [] , . , ,
, , 4.
[] , [] . . , [] .
, ?!
[ ] [
]
.
, . , [ ] [],
, , , .
, [ ] , [ ] (44).
314

III. 2

,
- ,

(45)
Pradprdhsantatyabhivyaktagrahanavattadgrahanam

. ?
. , ,
, ,
, .
1 (45).
[ ]
. ,
, .
. [ ]:
, (46)
Dravye svagimaparagunopalabdheh samsayah
[] [-] [-]
. , . :
[]
? (46).
. ?
(47)
Yavaccharrabhvitvdrupdnm
[
], , , ,
[ ] , .
. [ ] , ?
. [ ], 1 .
, .
[] .
,
[ ] .
, [ ] 2.
315

-. -

. ? ? ?
. [ -]
[ ] . , - [], , - . [],
, , [] ,
.. , , ,
(47).
.
[] []. ?
. , , (48)
Na pkajagunntarotpatteh
, , . (48).
:
, , [], (49)
Pratidvandvisiddheh pkajnmapratiedhah
[], ,
, , , [],
,
[]. ,
[], , ,
, . , [ ], ,
. , , ,
1 (49).
:
[] (50)
arravypitvt
316

III. 2

[] ,
[ ] ,
. , [ ], ,
. ,
,
1, .
, , (50).
. , ,
.
, [] , ..
(51)
Na kesanakhdivanupalabdheh
, ,
[], [] (51).
. [ ]
, [] (52)
Tvakparyantatvccharrasya kesanakhdivaprasangah
, -
[] , . [] 1 (52).
:
[] (53)
arragunavaidharmyt
,
, , ..
: [] , [] , [ ] ,
-. [ ] (53).
. , .. (54)
Na rpdmmitaretaravaidharmyt
..
, , (54).
. [] , ..
(55)
Aindriyakatvdrupdmmapratiedhah
317

-. -

[]. ..
, [] , , [ ] .., [ ] , . [] [] , 1.
[ ] [] ,
[] ,
(.2.39), []
[ ]. ,
, (55).
[ -]
[] , , [ 1.1.9], -. :
? [ ]:
- (56)
Jnnyaugapadydekam manah
,
, [] , []
-.
. ? -
,
[ ] , , , . , , (56).
. , [ - ],
(57)
Na yugapadanekakriyjpalabdhih
, [ ] , ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
[ ] - (57).
. [], [] ,
(58)
Altacakradarsanavattadupalabdhirsusamcrt
318

III. 2


[] - , [] [] [] , . ,
, [] [] 1.
. [ ] , [] , [] ?
.
.
[] , . ,
, . [ ]
[ ] , , . ? ,
, ; ; ; ,
;
; , . , , . . , (58).
[] (59)
Yathoktahetutvccnu
- , [] . , , , (59).
319

-. -

[ , ]
- , , , . .., , , ,
, . [] , : [] ?
[. :
(60)
Purvakrtaphalnubandhttadutpattih

, ; -;
[]
; [], . ,
. [] : ,
, , [] . , -, ,
, , [ ]
, [ ]
. [] , , . , , , , ,
. : , , [] , [] (60).
1 :
[]
[] (61)
320

III. 2

Bhutebhyo mrtyupdnavattadupdnam
, , , , .. [] ,
[] 1 (61).
. , [ ] 1 (62)
Na sdhyasamatvt
[ ] , . , , . []
[]: [, ] [], [ ] ,
. [], , []
, (62).
[] [ ] , [ ] (63)
Notpattinimittatvnmtpitroh
. ? , .
.
, , , , [] , , [ ] 1 (63).
, (64)
Tathhrasya
: .
. ,
, [ ] , , , . , . [] , 1, , , ,
, .., . [ ]
[],
11 - 1709

321

-. -

. [] , .. [] (64).
(65)
Prptau cniyamt
, . [
], [] [] , [] ,
[] , , (65).
:
, [
] (66)
arrotpattinimittavatsamyogotpattinimittam karma
, , [
], ,
, , 1, , , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
, , , , 2. []
, [ ],
, , , [ ]
[],
.
[ ] , , [ ]3. ,
, . , ,
[ ] .
(66).
322

III. 2

(67)
Etenniyamah pratyuktah
, , [] [
]. [
], [ ], [ ].
? , .
, , , [] []. , : [ ] , , , , , , ,
, .
, .
, , [] ,
[ ]
,
. , [] .
[ , ] [
] . [
, ] [] , . ?
[] .
[ ] [ ].
; [] ; ,
; [] ;
[] . , , ,
[ ] .
, ,
, (67).
323

-. -

,
, (68)
Tadadrtakritamiti cet punastatprasango 'pavarge
. -,
[, , ] .
,
. :
,
. ,
[], , , .
. ?
. . - -
,
[] [] .
. [ ]?
. , []
, [].
. , []
[] ,
.
. , [] , [] . ,
, [ ], , [ ] [] ,
[] ,
1.
,
, , [ ] . .
1. , [] ? [] , 324

III. 2

, ,
, , ,
, -, , 3.
[] , -.
. , , , []
[] [] . [ ], []
4 (68).
, -, (69)
Manahkarmanimittatvcca samyognucchedah
- ,
[] , [ ]? [
], [ ]
, []
1.
. , [-] []
- , [ ], [ ].
. , []
, , ,
, []
(69).
(70)
Nityatvaprasangasca pryannupapatteh
, [] ;
. ,
, ,
?! , , ,
[].
[] , 1 (70).
[], [ ] [] , :
325

-. -

, ? (71)
Anusymatnityatvavadetatsyt
, ,
, , , [] (71).
. , []
(72)
Nkrtbhygamaprasangt
. ? []
. []
, , []. , , . . , - [].
1.
, -, , ,
[]
[ ] ,

, , , , [ ] .
, , .
,
. [] ? , , ,
.. , [ ],
,

. [ ]
,
[] , []
, .

, , [ ] .
326

III. 2

[ ] . ,
[] .
, , , []
, , []
. , , ,
[] , , . []

[ ] , , . [ ], , . [] -
[] 2. [ ], , .
[ ] , []
[ ].
[]
, . [], , , . , ,
, (72).

IV
1

[ ]

- [ 1.1.9]. ,
-, ..,
.
:
[] (1)
Pravrttiryathokt
[, ]
(1).
[ ] . :
(2)
Tath doh
[ ] . , []
.
[] ,
, ,
. [] ,
. , 1 (2).
[ ]
, , (1.1.18). , , , , ..? :
, ,
(3)
328

IV. 1

Tattrairsyam rgadveamohrthntarabhvt
, .
, , , [ ];
, , , ; , , .
[] [ ] .
[] , ?
, , . [ ]: , ,
. . ,
: ,
: .
[ ]. , ,
.. [] []
(3).
. , (4)
Naikapratyankabhvt
[] . ?
.
, , [] [] (4).
. (5)
Vyabhicrdahetuh
[]
, [ ],
, (5).

,
(6)
Tem mohah ppiynnmudhasyetarotpatteh
,
. ?
. ,
, ,
, [] .
, 329

-. -

; , ;
. , [] [ ].
,
, , ,

["] (1.1.2) (6).
.
- ? (7)
Nimittanaimittikabhvdarthntarabhvo dosebhyah
, . , , (7).
. , (8)
Na doalakanvarodhnmohasya
, (1.1.18), (8).
(9)
Nimittanaimittikopapattesca tulyajtynm
- 1 (9).
[ ]
[ 1.1.9] []
.
. .
,
,
[ ] 1.
[] [] :

).
tmanityatve pretyabhvasiddheh

[ ] ,

IV. 1

, , []. []
(1.1.19):
,
. []
. , , [ ] ,
1. [ ]
[],
(10).
, , [ ]:
[] , (11)
Vyaktdvyaktnm pratyakaprmnyt
..?
[] .., [] , , , , , . , [ ]
. ? . , [
] .. [] ..

.., , ,
[]. , ..
.., ,
[] (11).
. , (12)
Na ghatd ghatnipatteh
, , , , , , ,
(12).
. , (13)
Vyaktd ghatanipatterapratiedhah
, , [331

-. -

]. : ,
, , ,
. [
] (13).
[ ]
.
. ,
(14)
Abhvdbhvqtpattirnnupamrdya prdurbhvt
[] , -1. ? . , . ,
, [] (14).
. (15)
Vyghtdaprayogah

[] . , , , [ .] , , , (15).
. , , [] , [] (16)
Nttngatayoh krakasabdaprayogt
, [] , . [, , ] , . [], ,
, [] , .
.
?
.
: ,
[] (16).
. , [] (17)
Na vinatebhyo 'nipatteh
332

IV. 1

,
(17).
, (18)
Kramanirdesdapratiedhah
[] [] []. [ ]
,
[ ] . []
[]
, . , , , .
, .
,
, .
- , , , [] [] (18).
[ ]
,
, ,
(19)
Isvarah kranam puru$akarmphalyadarsant
, [ ],
. , , , , . [] []1 (19).
. , (20)
Na puruakarmbhve phalnipatteh
[] ,
(20).
1 (21)
333

-. -

Tatkritatvdahetuh

, .
, . , [ ] , [
]: "2.
, [ ] []
: [ ] []
, - .
, ,
[ ] -, , ; []
, 3. 4, , ,
5. ,
, .
[ ] :
[] . ,
. ,
, , [
]. [, ] , , .
[ , ] , [ ] , .., ,
?!7 , [], [] [ ],
, [ ], ,
(.2.60..)(21).
[ ]
:
-, , , ..1 (22)
334

IV. 1

Animittato bhvotpattih kantakataiknydidarsant


. ? , , .., ,
,
, [ ] .. (22).
. -
[] (23)
Animittanimittatvnnnimittatah
, -, [ , ] , [] , .
-
1 (23).
. [] (24)
Nimittnimittayorarthntarabhvdapratiedhah
, , , . , ,
,
.
(.2.60 ..),
(24).
[ , ]
, [ ], :
, [] (25)
Sarvamanityamutpattivinsadharmakatvt
? , . , ,
, , ,
. []? ,
, . (25).
. , (26)
Nnityatnityatvt
?
[] . ? ,
, [] 1 (26).
335

-. -

. [ ] ,
(27)
Tadanityatvamagnerdhyam vinsynuvinsavat
[] . ? [], ,
(27).
.
(28)
Nityasypratykhynam yathopalabdhivyavasthnt
, [] . ? . , , , [ ] .
[] , ,
, -,
, , [] , (28).
[ , ]
:

(29)
Sarvam nityam pancabhtanityatvt
; ,
1 (29).
. , , (30)
Notpattivinsakranopalabdheh
,
[], (30).
. , [ ]
(31)
Tallakanvarodhdapratiedhah
, , , , 336

IV. 1

, [ ] [,
] , []
,
(31).
. , [-] (32)
Notpattitatkranopalabdheh
[],
[] , [] [ ].
. , , . [] ,
. . , [] .
, , [-]. ,
1.
[ ]
, , .. , ,
, , , , .
[ ] .
. [ ]
?
. [ ]
.
. [
] .
.
, ,
.. .
. ..
.
. , :
[], 337

-. -

. [ ] ,
[ ] , [], , (32).
. [] [] ,
. ,
, , , ,
, 1.
. , [ ] (33)
Na vyavasthnupapatteh
[ ]: ,
, [ ,
, ] .
,
, ,
. , - , - ,
[].
, , ,
[ ] . [],
[] , [ ] .
, , , ,
, . , []
, (33).
[ ]
:
,
(34)
Sarvam prthagbhvalakanaprthaktvt
, ,
. ? 338

IV. I

. , , . [ ],
. , ,
[. ], , ,
[] , , ,
, , ..,
(34).
. , (35)
Nnekalakanairekabhvanipatteh
[] , 1. , ,
.., , ..
, . []2 (35).

(36)
Lakanavyavasthndevpratiedhah
, .
? : , ,
[, , , ]: ,
, , . [ ] ,
, ,
, [].
. , ,
[] [].
. [] .
. , , []
, .
. [] , . [ ]

. [ ], : , [] , , [ ]
339

-. -

, [] , . [, -], [ ]:
, [] , , []
[ , ]: . , [ ] 1 (36).
[ , ]
:

(37)
Sarvamabhvo bhvevitaretarbhvasiddheh
. ? . , [] ,
, [] . ,
,
[] , :
, [ ]
(37).
. , .
[],
- . ,
[] , ,
. , , ?
[] , [] , !
. , [ ] ? , , ?
. [ ] ,

. , 1.
.
, , , : 340

IV. 1

. , , ,
, ,
2.
[] [] :

(38)
Na svabhvasiddherbhvnm
, . ? . [ : ] , , .
. ?
. , [] , , [] , ,
[ ], , ,
[] []. , . []
, [ ], . , ,
.
, [ ] , [
]: , ^ ,
.. , , .
, [] , .
? [] , . [ ] .
, [ ], , , [, ]
,
, ? , , . [ ],
[ ], , 341

-. -

? , .
[]
.., , , [] : [] , :
. :
, .
[] , :
. : , : [] [ ]1 (38).
.
(39)
Na svabhvasiddhirpekikatvt
. , ,
. ?
.
1 (39).
. , (40)
Vyhatatvdayuktam
,
[] . ? , . ?! [],
,
, , [] ,
[] . , [],
,
[]
? . []
342

IV. 1

, , .
, 1.
. ?
. [ , ] []
[ ]. ,
[ ], [ ], ,
, . []
(40).
[ ]
, [ ] [ ]: 1) , ; 2)
, [] ;
3) , [ ] , ,
; 4) , [ ] , , , . []. [] []:
[ ] ,
, (41)
Sankhyaikntsiddhih krannupapattyupapattibhym
, . ,
[] . - 1 (41).
. , [] (42)
Na kranvayavabhvt
, [ ]
. ? []
. - [ ] ,
[ ].
.. (42).
. , []
[] (43)
Niravayavatvdahetuh
[ ] ,
[, ]. ? , , ,
343

-. -

, [-] , [] .
..
, [ -]
[] , ,
, ,
. [ ],
[] , , [
] .
[] [ ]
[] []
(43).
[ ]
[ 1.1.9
] , []
, [ !
(44)
Sadyah klntare ca phalanipatteh samsayah
, []
. , [] . , :
(44).
, (45)
Na sadyah klntaropabhogyatvt
[ ] ,
. [ ] , [],
, [] .. (45).
. [], [ ] (46)
Klntarennipattixhetuvinst
, , (46).
. (47)
Prn nipattervrkaphalavattatsyt
344

IV. 1

, , .
,
, , . , , .. , .. .
. , -, []
[] . ,
" (.2.60) (47).
. , ,
:
-, , - []
- (48)
Nsanna sanna sadasatsadasatorvaidharmyt
, , , - [] . , -,
, [] , [ ] . , [ ]
[] . [ ]
- [] , [] , [, ]
, [] , [, ] , , [ ] .
1 (48).
.
. ?
(49)
Utpdavyayadarsant
. [] , []
-, []
? (49).
. [] , [] (50)
345

-. -

Buddhisiddham tu tadasat
[] , [] , , ,
, [] , [].
. , [] [] , [] 1 (50).
, [, ]
, (51)
srayavyatirekd vrkaphalotpattivadityahetuh
,
[] ,
[] , , [] .
[ ] (51).
. ,
(52)
Prtertmsrayatvdapratiedhah
[ ] , [] ,
, ,
. [ ] (52).
. , ,
, , , , .. (53)
Na putrapasustrparicchadahiranynndiphalanirdesah
.., , [ ]: ,
. , , , (53).
. [ ] ,
[] (54)
Tatsambandht phalanipattesteu phalavadupacrah
, ,
.., , ..
, [] ,
: ,
(54).
346

IV. 1

[ ]
[] ,
: , (1.1.21). ,
, [ ] ?
[] , . ?
, , . [ ] , [] , , [] ,
1. [ ]? , , , ,
, , [] , : ,
.
:
, (S5)
Vividhabdhanyogd duhkhameva janmotpattih
, : , , ;
[ ].
, . ,
, , . , ,
, ,
, 1.
. , , , .
, , ,
, , [] []
(55).
[] [ ] []?
347

-. -

[ ] , (56)
Na sukhasypyantarlanipatteh
.
? . ,
, ,
(56).
,
[]
, [] (57)
Bdhannivrttervedayatah paryeanadodapratiedhah
[],
[ ] .
, . : [ ] , []; , ,
, [ ], []

. , []
[] .
, [] .
.
:
,
[] [] .
:
,

?! (57).
, (58)
Duhkhavikalpe sukhbhimnca
, []
. [], , , [348

IV. 1

], , ,
, ,
, [] . [] [ ] ; ,
; , , , , , ,
1, . [ ]
, , .
[
], [] ,
, ,
, [ ]
. , [] ,

[] ,
,
[ ].
, :
, , :
2, []
?
[] ,
[ ]. ? ,
. ;
[ ] (58).
[ ]
[ 1.1.9] , [] :
, (59)
naklesapravrttyanubandhdapavargbhvah
1) : , :
, - ,
1. .
349

-. -

[] : ,
: . [], [] ,
.
2) :
[] , , 2.
3) :
, [ ] , , :
, , , ["] (1.1.2) (59).
[] .
1) [] ,
[ ] :
,
[]
(60)
Pradhnasabdnupapatter gunasabdennuvdo
nindprasamsopapatteh
,
[] ,
, , ,
. [] ,
[ ] . , : .
, .
? . [ ]: , [] , , [] ,
. .

. 350

IV. 1

, [ ] , . ,
, [ ] . [ ] , , .
, , : ..
, [] , [ ] , . [] : , .
, , 1. : !
! !
- ,
?!
, .
[] ,
. , , .
2 ,
: , , ,
.. .
[] . ,
, [] . :
... ,
, , , , , 3
. , , ;
[ ] [, ] [] [ , ] .
351

-. -

, [ ] , [ ,
] :
,
", : , " [].
,
[] ?4 [,
] [] .
, , . , . , [] .
[ ]. ,
[].
. , [ ]?
. . [ ] .
.
. , ,
, .
.
.
[ ],
[ ]: , ,
[ ] . , [ ]
[ ],
[] [ ]," [ ] [ ].
[]
, , , [] , [] ,
.
,
, [] . :
352

IV. 1

,

, , , 5.
, ,
[] ,
6.
, ,
:
, , , 7.
:
. ,
, , , ,
. , 8.
, 9.
: . ,
10
, .
, , [ ]
, :
; : ,
, ,
, "
11
. , .
, , . :
, ...12, []
, [ , ]
(60).
, , [ ] , []
[]. ?
[] [] (61)
12 1709

353

-. '

Samropandtmanyapratiedhah
: , , []
[ ] . , [] [ ],
, .
[] , []: , , :
, , . , [] , , " , 1 (61).
, [] ,
, [], (62)
Ptracayntnupapattesca phalbhvah

[, ,] ,
[ ], []
, [ ]: , ,
: , ?!" , [ ]
, , 1. , ,
, [ ] ,
[ ] , ,
[ ].
, , ,
.
. []?
. ,
[ ] [] .

: ,
. [] . ,
[]
354

IV. 1

, 3. [ ]. : [ ] , .
[
] [] . , , : , [ ] , .
, , , ..4 (62).
2) , [ ] , :
, , (63)
Suuptasya svapndarsane klesbhvdapavargah
, , , ,
[] .
(63).
3) , [ ] ,
, , []
(64)
Na pravrttih pratisandhnya hnaklesasya
, ,
.
,
[].
,
, .
. ?
. ,
[ ] . ,
,
[ ] ,

(64).

-. -

. (65)
Na klesasantateh svbhvikatvt
.
? , . , , ,
(65).
:
(66)
Prgutpatterabhvnityatvavatsvbhvike 'pyanityatvam

, [] ' (66).
:
(67)
Anusymatnityatvavadv
, 1.
[]
. [ ] , .
. , 2 (67).
:
, [ ]
(68)
Na sankalpanimittatvcca rgdnm
:
, . ,
, , , , , , []. ,
, - , . [
] : ,
, , . 356

IV. 2

[] .
[] [ ].
[ , ] , [ ]
. , , ,
. , ,
, 1.
, , - , 2. [ ] , ,

, ..,
[ ] []
3 (68).

[ ]

, , 1 [] ?
[ ].
[] , . [] ,
, , [] , , [ , ] [] ,
.
,
.
, .
?
, ,
[ ] , : [ 357

-. -

] , -, - , :
[ ] , .
,
?
, , -, 2.
[ ] ?
, : -
, , , , , , [ ]; , ; , . , , , , ,
: 3, , , , . . :
,
, , , [] (IV. 1.64). [ ] , , ,
, . , .
, ,
4, [ ] ,
, [] , .

,
, ( 1 )
Doanimittnm tattvajnndahankranivrttih
, , ,
.
, , [] ,
, 1,
. -
, , ,

358

IV. 2

["] (1.1.2).
[] [],
- (1).
1 :
, [] (2)
Dosanimittam rupdayo viayh sankalpakrth
, .., . ,
, , . , , , 1.
, . , , ,
, (2).
, ,
[ ]
. ?
(3)
Tannimittam tvavayavyabhimnah
.
, [-] , .
1.
, , [] ,
[] , [] , [] , [] ,
[] . ,
, -, - ..2.
, ,
.
, , , , ,
, , , .. 3. , , . []
, ,
, , , ,
, [ ] , , ,
4 (3).
359

-.

[ ]
, [] ,
:
(4)
Vidy 'vidydvaividhyt samsayah
. - . , [] ,
1. , (4).
.
(5)
Tadasamsayah purvahetupratisiddhatvt
. ? [] (5).
. []
(6)
Vrttyanupapatterapi na samsayah
, 1 (6).
:
,
[] (7)
Krtsnaikadesvrttitvdavayavnmavayavyabhvah
, [ ]
[] . [ ]
1 (7).
. [] ?
. , [] (8)
Teu cvrtteravayavyabhvah
[ ] 1, , 2,
360

IV. 2

.
(8).
. ,
(9)
Prthak cvayavebhyo 'vrtteh
.
[] ,
[ ] ,
1. (9).
. (10)
Na cvayavyavayavh
. ? , (IV.2.8),
[ ] .
,
1 (10).
. ,

[ ] (11)
Ekasmin bhedbhvd bhedasabdaprayognupapatteraprasnah

. ? [ ]. [] , - []
, , ,
[ ], ,
[ ] 1 (11).
[ , ], []
, , [
], :
, []
[ ] (12)
Avayavntarabhve 'pyavrtterahetuh
[ ]: .
, , []
[ ] , [ ].
[ ]
, [ , ] []
[ ] [] , .
361

-. -

. [ ] [
]?
. ,
[] [].
. [] ?
. , [- ] . - ; 1.
. [ ] ?
. .
. 2?
.
. ,
,
, (12).
, :
, []
(II. 1.35), [ ] :
.
(13)
Kesasamhe taimirikopalabdhivattadupalabdhih
, ,
, [] . (13).
. , , ,
(14)
Svavi$aynatikramenendriyasya patumandabhvd viayagrahanasya tathbhvo nviaye pravrttih
, [ ] .
, , , , , ,
[]. -, 362

IV. 2

, , ,
- , ,
. , ,
. [ ],
[] , , , [
, ] , , ., , [ ] ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
, [ ],
2.
-.
3?
. , , , [], , [-], [ ] . [] , [], . [ ] : , [ ] . , [ ] , ..,
[ ]. [] , (14).
[] [ ] [] (15)
Avayavvayaviprasangascaivampralayt
, , , [], [] , ,
. [ ] , ,
, , 1 (15).
363

-. -


[] , (16)
Na pralayo 'nusadbhvt
[] [], [ ] [ ],
[]
[]. , [] ,
, . , ,
, ,
, [] . , (16).
[ , ] (17)
Param va truteh
, [] 1 (17).
[ ]
, [] ,
, :
, [] (18)
ksavyatibhedt tadanupapattih
. ?
[] . , ,
, , ,
(18).
. ?! (19)
kssarvagatatvam v
,
, [ ] ,
(19).
. -, , ,
(20)
364

IV. 2

Antarbahisca kryadravyasya kranntaravacandakrye


tadabhvah
-[], ; , ,
1. -,
, . , . ,
, [] ,
, , [] (20).
,
(21 )
abdasamyogavibhavcca sarvagatam
, [] , -, , ,
.
[ ] [] (21).
,
(22)
Avyhvitambhavibhutvni cksadharmh
[] [] ,
, , [ ] 1. ? . [] , . ? .
, , , , [] , ,
, [, ]
.
[, ] , [ ]
, , [ ].
,
[]. ?
, [ ] . ,
[ ], , , [] .
, - .
365

-. -

, . , [] [], , [ ]
(22).
. , , ,
(23)
Murttimatm samsthnopapatteravayavasadbhvah

, , 1 . ,
, . ,
(23).
(24)
Samyogopapattesca
,
, .
, []
, , . , [] [ ] , [ ]
, .
. [], , , , , [ ] .
? ,
, , , []
, ,
, , [] - .
[] , , [ ] [] , [
] . : , 1, , [] , [] [] , .
, , , , [ ] , [] . ,
,
, , - (24).
366

IV. 2

, [], , [ ]
, []
[], , (25)
Anavasthkritvadanavasthnupapattescpratiedhah
, [] ,
, .
[] , . [
] , [] . , , , ,
, ,
1 (25).
[ ]
1. , , , [], ,
, , 2
:
,
(26)
Buddhy vivecanttu bhvnm ythtmynupalabdhis
tantvapakarane patasadbhvnupalabdhivat tadanupalabdhih
, .. ,
,
[]
. [ ] [] (26).
. (27)
Vyhatatvdahetuh
, , ,
. , [] . 367

-. -

, , ,
(I V.2.15) (27).
, (28)
Tadsrayatvdaprthaggrahanam
- - , , , 1.
. ,
, [
] (28).
, (29)
Pramnatascrthapratipattih
:
, , , . , , . , .
, - , - . , [] 1 (29).
(30)
Pramnnupapattyupapattibhym
1, , . ?
.
, : , 2,
, , ?!
[ ] - ,
, [ ] ,
?! (30).
. [] (31 )
Svapnaviaybhimnavadayam pramnaprameybhimnah
, (32)
Mygandharvanagaramrgatrnikvadv
[ ]
, [ ] , 368

IV. 2

,
[] [ ] (32).
. (33)
Hetvabhvdasiddhih
[ ] , [ ] , [] , [ ] [] .
[ ] , .
. [ ] , [] .
. , .
[]
, , ,
[ ] [ ] .
[]
[, ]. [ ] , [] . 1 [] , [].
, :
2.
,
.. , ,
, . - , - , - , - . [],
, [] [] (33).

(34)
Smrtisankalpavacca svapnaviaybhimnah
[ ]
. , ,
, ,
1.
369

-. -

, , , [ - ] . , , , , [] : . [ ] .
[] , .
[ ] , [] . ,
, , [ ] , , 2.
[]. , : , ,
[ ],
[ ] , , .
:
[]3 (34).
,
(35)
Mithyopalabdhervinsastattvajfint
svapnaviaybhimnapransavatpratibodhe
,
,
. , [] .
, []
, , . []
, [] .
[ ]
.. [] . ,
, , , 370

IV. 2

, .
,
[], , .
[ , ], , ,
, . [] , -
[] . [ , ],
,
, . ,
(35).
[] , [] [ ] 1 (36)
Buddhescaivam nimittasadbhvopalambht
[] , [] , . ? [] [ ] .
,
, []. [] (36).

(37)
Tattvapradhnabhedcca mithybuddherdvaividhyopapatteh
, ; : []. [] , .
[] , [] 1.
, , [ ].
, , [
] , [ ]
[] []
[ ] 2. , , (37).
371

-. -

[ ]
, ,
, (IV.2.1).
[] ?
(38)
Samdhivisesbhyst
-,
1 , , , .
, , (38).
. ,
(39)
Na arthavise$aprbalyt
, . ? .
, , , ..
, (39).
. , []
.. (40)
Kuddibhih pravarttancca
, , . [] (40).
. , [], ,
[ ] .
(41)
Purvakrtaphalnubandhttadutpattih
, , ; []
[] .
, .

(41).
[ ]
372

IV. 2

, ,
.. (42)
Aranyaguhpulindi$u yogbhysopadesah
, [] ,
. ,
, , , , , . [],
,
: , (42).
. ,
[ ]
? (43)
Apavarge 'pyevain prasangah
:
1 (43).
. , [] [] [] (44)
Na nicpannvasyambhvitvt
, , , [] ,
[ ] .
, , , [] , [] (44).
[] (45)
Tadabhvascpavarge
[]
- .
,
(IV.2.43), .
. , 1
, , , , ,
, (45).

1,
(46)
373

-. -

Tadartham yamaniyambhymtmasamskro yogccdhytmavidhyupyaih


. [] , 2.
.
, , [ ], [ ],
, 3. (46).
,
(47)
Jnnagrahanbhysastadvidyaisca saha samvdah
/ , - , ; []; , , .
, . , , , . [ ] (47).
[] , [ ], :
, , , [ ]
, (48)
Tam siyagurusabrahmacrivisitasreyo 'rthibhiranasyibhir
abhyupeyt
[] (48).
[ ] , ?
(49)
Pratipaksahnamapi va prayojanrthamarthitve
: .
374

IV. 2


, 1 (49).
[ ]

.

, (50)
Tattvdhyavasyasamrakanrtham jalpavitande bjaprarohasamrakanrtham kantakaskhvaranavat
[] 1, (50).
[ ]
,
[] [] (51)
Tbhym vigrhya kathanam
, .
[ ] []
, (51).

[ , ]

, [] [ ] [ ]
(1.2.18,
20). [] .
, [] [ ], 24 [] []:
[] ,
, , , ,
, , -, -, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , 1 (1)
Sdharmyavaidharmyotkarpakaravamyvarnyavikalpasdhyaprptyaprptiprasangapratidrtntnutpattisamsayaprakaranahetvarthpattyaviseopapattyupalabdhyanupalabdhinitynityakryasamh
[] []
, [ ], [ ] [
]. . , (1).
[ ] :
[]
, []
,
[ ] (2)
376

V. 1

Sdharmyavaidharmybhymupasamhre taddharmaviparyayopapatteh sdharmyavaidharmyasamau


[] , , [], , , []
[] . , [ ]:
1) ;
2) , ,
1;
3) , ,
, ;
4) [ ] ;
5) , [] .
[]
:
1) ;
2) , [] ;
3) , [], , , ;
4) [ ] ;
5) , .
, [],
. []
[ ].
[] . [ ]:
1) , ,
, ;
2) [ ] 2;
3) , , , .
, []
, . [ ] [] [ , ]
[] . , [ ]:
1) ;
2) ;
377

-. -

3) , , ,
, ;
4) ;
5) , [] .
:
1) , , ,
, ;
2) ;
3) , .
, [] ,
. []
[ ] [] .
[ ] [] :
1 ) ;
2) , [] , ;
3) ;
4) , [] .
: [, ]
[], 3. [ ]
[] 4 (2).
[] :

(3)
Gotvdgosiddhivattatsiddhih
, , . : []
,
[] , ..
, [ ] .., [] .. , rfl,Q
: []
378

V. 1

[ ] ,
1. [, ] [] 2 (3).
[ ,
]
, , ,
,
(4)
Sdhyadrtntayordharmavikalpdubhayasdhyatvccotkarpakaravarnyvarvikalpasdhyasamh
[ ],
[] . [, ]: , , , , ,
. ,
, ;
.
, [ ] . [, ]: ,
, , , , , ,
,
1.
, . []
,
[ ].
,

, , [ ]
. [, ]: , , , ,
, , , , , ;
-, ,
379

-. -

, - ,
.
, ;

. [, ]: , , , , , . , , . ,
, , , 2 (4).
[] :
, , [] , (5)
Kincitsdharmydupasamhrasiddhervaidharmydapratiedhah
, , [] , , []: , .
.
,
.., [
], (5).
, ,
1 (6)
Sdhytidescca drtntopapatteh
, ,
, [ ]
. , 2(6).
[, -
-]
- -
[, ] [], , ,
, (7)
Prpya sdhyamaprpya v hetoh prpty 'visitatvd
aprpty 'sdhakatvcca prptyaprptyasamau
380

V. 1

, [] []
? [] ,
. , , ?
[] , :
[, ] . [] -
[] , [ ] [] -1 (7).
[ ] :
[] , ,
.., [] (8)
Ghatdinispattidarsant pdane cbhicrdapratiedhah
[ ] .
, ,

.., - :
[ ]1 (8).
[
]
[ ], [,
] , [ ] (9)
Drtntasya krannapadest pratyavasthncca pratidrtntena
prasangapratidrtntasamau
, [ ],
.. []: , , , [
], .

. [], :
,
, ,
: , , , .
? 381

-. -

1, 2 (9).
[] :
[ ] ,
[] [ ] (10)
Pradpopdnaprasangavinivrttivattadvinivrttih
[ ] :
, [], ?
, ,
.

?
, , , [] , 1.
[]:
?
.
?
, [ ], [] .
: ,
(1.1.25).
.
(10).
[]
:
, (11)
Pratidrtntahetutve ca nheturdrtntah
, ,
, , : ,
. , , .
?! [] ,
1 (11).
[
]
[,
] [-] [] (12)
382

V. 1

Prgutpatteh kranbhvdanutpattisamah
[] : , , , : , , []
[ ] , , , [] .
1 (12).
[] :
[] , [] , [] , , [] (13)
Tathbhvdutpannasya kranopapatter na kranapratiedhah
[] , [] , [] [ ], ,
. []
[] , []
[]
(13).
[ ]
[, ] [] (14)
Smnyadrtntayoraindriyakatve samne nitynityasdharmytsamsayasamah
[] : , ,
[]
, [ ] :
[]
, 1.
, 2 (14).
[] :
, ; ,
383

-. -

;
(15)
Sdharmytsamsaye na samsayo vaidharmydubhayath va
samsaye 'tyantasamsayaprasango nityatvnabhyupagamcca
smnyasypratiedhah
, ,
[] .
, [] . [ ] , , , [ ] .
, ,
[]
. [] , ,
1 (15).
[ ]
[] (16)
Ubhayasdharmyt prakriysiddheh prakaranasamah
, , [ ] [] []. , ,
,
[] , []
[] . , [ ],
,
[] , [] , ,
[ ].

.
[] . , : [] , [ ], []
[ ] 1 (16).
384

V. 1

[] :
[ ] , [] (17)
Pratipaktprakaranasiddheh pratiedhnupapattih
pratipakopapatteh
,
[ ], [] [] . [
],
[] . []
, . ,
[] , [] , , , [] .
[] , , : , (17).
[
]
[], [
] (18)
Traiklysiddherhetorahetusarnah
, , [ ]
[]. , ,
? [ ], , , ?
, ? 1.
[ ] 2 (18).
[] :
[]
, (19)
Na hetutah sdhyasiddhestraiklysiddhih
13 1709

385

-. -

, [] [ ]
. ?
. ,
, . : ?,
[ ], 1 (19).
[] 1 (20)
Pratiedhnupapattesca pratieddhavypratiedhah
[ ]
, [ ] []. [] (20).
[ ]

(21)
Arthpattitah pratipakasiddherarthpattisamah
[] , : , , [] . [
]: , , , , [];
[] (21).
[] :
[ ] [ ], [] , (22)
Anuktasyrthpatteh pakahnerupapattiranuktatvd
anaikntikatvccrthpatteh
[, ], [ ]
[ ], [ ]. : [ , ] , . 386

V. 1

, :
, ,
, , [ ] . ,
[],
, , , , [ ]: :
(22).
[
]

(23)
Ekadharmopapatteravisee sarvviseaprasangt sadbhvopapatteraviseasamah
.
, ,
. ?
. [] , [] 1 (23).
[] :
, - [] , - [] (24)
Kvaciddharmnupapatteh kvaciccopapatteh pratiedhbhvah
, [] ,
,
, , , .
. ,
, [] ?
13*

387

-. -

. ,
, , [] , . !
[] ,
. ,

, . [ ] , ,
, [
] ,
, [] (24).
[ ]
[] (25)
Ubhayakranopapatterupapattisamah
, ,
, .
[]
, (25).
[] :
, [ ]
(26)
Upapattikranbhyanujnndapratiedhah
,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, , .
. [ ]
[ ]?
. [] [].
. [ ] ?
388

V. 1

. []
, , []
(26).
[ ]
[]

(27)
Nirditakranbhve 'pyupalambhdupalabdhisamah
[, , ]
[] []
, [, ]
. [ ]
[]
(27).
[] :
, , - (28)
Kranntardapi taddharmopapatterapratiedhah
, [ ], []
[] , [ ]
[ ] [] ,
[ ] . ,
?! (28).
[
]
, []
. ? [ ] . - ,
, . , ,
, [] .
[ ], , [
] .
389

-. -

[],
: [ ]
(29)
Tadanupalabdheranupalambhdabhvasiddhau tadvipartopapateranupalabdhisamah
, , , []. [] [ ], - [ ]1.
[] , :
.
,
[ ] []
, 2 (29).
[] :
,
(30)
Anupalambhtmakatvdanupalabdherahetuh
, ,
[] . ?

. [ ] , , ,
[, -]: - [] . , , , [ ]: .
,

, [] . [ ]. , [] .
, , , []
, , , , .
[ ], []
1 (30).
390

V. 1

,
(31 )
Jnnavikalpnm ca bhvbhvasamvedandadhytmam
[ ]
.
, :
[ ] [ ] .
, , , .
1:

[] .
: [] (V.l.29) (3.1).
[ ]
[,
] , []
[] (32)
Sdharmyttulyadharmopapatteh sarvnityatvaprasarigd
anityasamah
, , , [] ,
, .
, [] [ ] [ ]1 (32).
[] :
, [ ] [] [] , [] (33)
Sdharmydasiddheh pratiedhsiddhih pratiedhyasdharmyt
,
. . ,
[ ]. , [] [ ]
, []
[] , 1 (33).
391

-. '

, , [] (34)
Distante sdhyasdhanabhvena prajntasya dharmasya
hetutvttasya cobhayath bhvnnviseah
, , [] , [] , .
[]:
, - .
, . ,
,
. ,
, [] : [, ]
, [] [] (V.l.32), . , , 1.
[ ]
[ ], []
(35)
Nityamanityabhvdanitye nityatvopapatternityasamah
: ,
[] ? ,
, , .
, [] . [] , []
[ ] (35).
[] :
, [] (36)
Pratiedhye nityarnanityabhvdanitye 'nityatvopapatteh
pratiedhbhvah

.
,
392

V. 1

[], . , , .
, [] . :
? . ?
,
,
1,
. , , []
. , [] ,
, (36).
[ ]
[], (37)
Prayatnakrynekatvtkryasamah
[], . ,
, , [] , .
, , ,
. .
, [ ] . ..
[] ,
, , [ ]
. [] [?
] . [] 1 (37).
[] :
[] , ,
(38)
Krynyatve prayatnhetutvamanupalabdhikranopapatteh
[] , ,
[ ]
1. 393

-. -

, [ ] ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
, (38).
[ ]
[ ], , [], . , , [ ],
(39)
Pratiedhe 'pi samno doah
[A ] [] .
- , -
.
, -, [ ]
[] ,
, [
]; [ ] []
, , . ,
, (39).
(40)
Sarvatraivam
[ ] , , , ,
1 (40).
. , (41)
Pratiedhavipratiedhe pratiedhadoavaddoah
, , , , .
: ,
[] . : [ ] .
394

V. 1

[] 1; . , [ ], -
. , [ ]: ,
(41).
. [] ,
, , , [ ]
(42)
Pratiedham sadoamabhyupetya pratiedhavipratiedhe
samno doaprasango matnujn
[] ,
, , ,
,
. 1 (42).
. [ ] , [ ] , [ ] , [ ]
, (43)
Svapakalakanpekopapattyupasamhre heturnirdese
parapakadobhyupagamtsamno doah
, [ ] ,
[] ,
, .
? [] . , , ,
[], [],
: [ ]: .
[ ], , [
]. ? ,
,
, [], ,
[] . , ,
, , [] . [ ,
395

-. -

] , , , , . , , .
, [], , .
. , [] ;

,
. . : , ,
. ,
, . [ ] [] ,
[] . []
[] .
, [],
[]? [] [ ],
,
. [ ] , , , , , [] , [] , , []
[ ],
[]1 (43).

:
(1.2.19). 396

V. 2

[]. , 1
, , , .
:
, , ,
, , , , , , , [ ], ,
, , , [], , , , , (1)
Pratijnhnih pratijfintaram pratijnvirodhah pratijnsannyso hetvantaramarthntaram nirarthakam avijntartham
aprthakamaprptaklam nyunama dhikam
punaruktamananubhanamajnnamapratibh vikepo matnujn
paryanuyojyopekanam niranuyojynuyogo 'pasiddhnto
hetvbhssca nigrahasthnni
22 (1).
[ ]

(2)
Pratidrtntadharmbhyanujn svadrtnte pratijnhnih
[
] , ,
[ ] , , , , [ ]
. , :
, , ,
: , , [] ? : , . , ,
, , ;
, , (2).

(3)
397

-. -

Pratijntrthapratiedhe dharmavikalpttadarthanirdesah
pratijnntaram
:
, ,
: , , ,
[ ]
[]: , , , .
? , ,
, , , .
, ,
. ? [ ] , ,
[ ] .
1 (3).

(4)
Pratijnhetvorvirodhah pratijnvirodhah
: , :
- , .. , , . ?
,
, - ,
.. , .., , , . , , -,
.., ,
[] (4).
(5)
Pakaprati$edhe pratijntrthpanayanam pratijnsannysah
[ ] : ,
: ,
, , . [] , [ ] :
, ?!,
(5).
398

V. 2

,
[ ]
[] (6)
Aviseokte hetau pratiiddhe viseamicchato hetvantaram
: . ?
. ,
, , . , , , . [ ],
, . ,
[ ]. ,
: , [ ],
. [ ] : , , , , , , , , , , [ ] , 1.
,
[], []
[]. []
, [ ] . , [] ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
, [] (6).
[ ]
[],
(7)
Prakrtdarthdapratisambaddhrthamarthntaram
: [,
] ...
399

-. -

(1.2.1), [ ]: : " [ ] . " , krt, -tun V7


[ ]: , , 1. , , [
] , . , , ,
. ,
, . , , [ ], , ..
[] [] (7).
, [] [] (8)
Varnakramanirddesavannirarthakam
, : , ka, , ta
ja, ba, ga, da, da sa, jha, bha,
ha, gha, dha, dha $. [] . []
[] [] (8).
-, [] [] , ,
(9)
Pariatprativdibhym trirabhihitamapyavijntam
avijntrtham
[] , ,
,
,
. ,
[ ], (9).
[ ] (10)
Paurvparyyogdapratisambaddhrthamaprthakam

, 400

V. 2

, [], , . , [ ]: ,
, , ,
[] , [] , (10).
[ ]

()
Avayavaviparysavacanamaprptaklam
, ,
. ,
(11).
[ ]
(12)
Hmainanyatamenpyavayavena nyunam
[] , ,
: 1
(12).
[ ] [] (13)
Hetudharandhikamadhikam
[] , [] . [
], []
1 (13).
[ , ]
,
[ ],
[ ] (14)
Sabdrthayoh punaruktamanyatrnuvdt
, . :
, [] .
[
], 1. [, ],
2 (14).
401

-. -

, [ ] (15)
Arthdpannasya svasabdena punarvacanam
[] . , [-],
: , ,
, , , . , . . [] .
(15).
[ ,
]
(16)
Vijntasya pariad
trirabhihitasypyapratyuccaranainananubhanam
, , [ ] ,
[] . [ ]
[], ? !( 16).
(17)
Avijntam cjnnam

,
. [ ] , [ ], [ ] ?!1 (17).
(18)
Uttarasypratipattirapratibh
- . [ ] , 1 (18).
[] (19)
Kryavysarigtkathvicchedo vikepah
,
, [-] ,
[]: ; ,
. ,
402

V. 2

[ ] , [ ] [
], [] 1 (19).
[ ,
]
,
, (20)
Svapake dobhyupagamt parapake doaprasango
matnujn
, , [ , ,] [] ,
: ! , [ ], , 1 (20).
, (21 )
Nigrahasthnaprptasynigrahah paryanuyojyopekanam
, , [] : !
, : ?, , , (21).
, (22)
Anigrahasthne nigrahasthnbhiyogo niranuyojynuyogah
, , , , : !,
[] ,
[] (22).
[ ]
- , ,
[] , [ ] (23)
Siddhntamabhyupetyniyamt kathprasango 'pasiddhntah
, ,
, - - , , [ ] , [
] . , , :
, , -
, 1, [] 403

-. -

:
[ , , ]
. , ,
.., [ ] ,
; ,
[] [ ] , .
, [] , ...
[] : ,
? [ ]: ,
,
. , [ ] .
[] , - , . [ ] , .
, , ..,
, , .
. ,
, , ,
, -, [ ] ,
[] [] (23).
(24)
Hetvbhssca yathokth
[] .
, ,
?
: .
, , , (24).
[-], ,
,
1.
404

, , ,
(artha)
, . (arthavattva) , , . , ,
, . (1874),
, (Gemtsbewegungen),
. . [, 1996, . 82-83].
2
: ,
(pramana), Vm + (, ).
, , ,
, . , , -, .. .
3
( , ) : ,
-, ?
, -,
, ( )
, . . [, 1916, . 8-9].
1.1.1
1

Dvandva , ( 16
, + + ...).
2
,
,
: ..Jattva]MnnnJhsreyasdhigamh ( , (tatpurua) ).
406

: vidyamnarthh.
Arthapada padrtha ( . . 1
16 ). ( - . [-, -,
1982, . 3]) , , , , (.) , /
(.), , ,
.
, , .
- (. ,
, , ), (11.17, 24-26), , .,
. - ,
(.. ), (), (-) ( ) (. [,
1984, . 325326, 336]).
. [, 1964, . 311-315; , 1977, . 210].
(VI .) - (11.15), (X .) (XVI .) -.
5
,
(1.2) ( )
(tray), (vartt"), (danda) (nvkik). , .,
( .), nvkik

,
, ( , ) ( , ,
. . 3, 2) [, 1924-1925, . 1, . 16-18].

, (X .), nvkik
(, , )
(, , ). . [, 1931,
. 1314]. nvkik

( ,
, ) .
[, 1994, . 162-170].
4

407

, . , , ,
( summum bonum),
, , , ,
.
7
,
(
-, , ).
8
14
,
, ,
II
:
(. 1.16).
9
: nvkik anvk,
. , , (
, ) .
10
: nyybhsa , .
11

vda, ,
, jalpa, ( ) vitanda.
(171 30):
, :
, [,
1978, . 555].
12
, .
, ,
, , .
13

( , )
( ,
).
14
(nstika) -,
.
, .
15
sdhana, sdhaka sdhya ,
408


, , , -, , ,
, , .

. , [, 1984].
, ,
. / . [, 1998, . 209-210].
16
: So 'yam paramo nyya iti.
, , ,
, ,

, [ , 19671976, . I, . 23].
17
. , IV.2.50.
18
(1.2), , ,
, .
19
, , .
1.1.2
1

- (. . 4 1.1.1), , , II.5: , , , -, , ,
.
2
-,
I . ..,
,
8 400 000 ,
.
3
punarbhva (,
). -,
.
4
, , , , -
.
409

, , , , .
, ,
. ,
summum bonum ,
, 1.1.22.
6

( , )
: . - .2.1 ..; . - VI. 11-13.
7
. , .
1.1.2-3
1

: trividh... pravrttih, .. .
2

, , ( ),
,
: , , (. [, 1833, . 50; , 1834, . 1903]). ,
, ,
(vibhga). ,
.
, , , , , , .
1.1.3
1

. . 2 . , ,
.

, ,
, ,
I . ..
2

, .

410


- ., (1.9). (. [, 1998]).
3
, .
1.1.4
1

:
.
- , II.
2
, , , , : , ( ), , . , ,
, . , , .
(nirvikalpaka) ... (savikalpaka) ; , , .
3
1.1.16.
4
* - ,
-
, , --
. (- . 27)
. - , ,
(antahkarana) (. 33),
(
).
, - (
10 , ), ,
.
1.1.5
1

,
(. . 4
1.1.4), . , ,
-
411


, , ,
, . : 1) (viseato
drtam) 2) (smnyato drtam). , -, , ,
(
). , , ,
, . . [
, 1995, . 53].
[, 1991, . 47-51].
, [, 1972].
2
.,
,
[, 1996, . 4],
. , ,
prvavat, seavat smnyato
drtam, , . , [, 1916, . 47].
3
nyya.
4
, . ( , )
, triklamanumnam trividhamanumnam (
[] ) [, 1966].
trividham... y ,
I -, , ,
. ., [, 1968-1969, . 196-201; , 1969, . 841842].
1.1.6
1


, (, , ,
), , ,
, . ,
:
(- 1.1.5).
412


: , , - , , ,
, ,
,
[, 1916, . 57-58].
,
(IX-X .) .
1.1.7
1

(pta) (pti).
pta, ptavacana, ptasruti ( ),
ptgama ( ) . [, 1991, . 118123].
2
, .
1.1.8
1

: ,
, , ,
. ,
, , (V . ..), ,
,
. - 1.1.4.
1.1.9
1

,
(antahkarana) (. . 4
1.1.4 . 1 1.1.5), , , ,
, [ , 1995, . 75].
( - -), , .
2
, IV. 1.55-58.
413

, -,
X . ( ),
.
1.1.10
1

-
, . , ,
.
2

(. . 1) ,
.
3
, ,
,
: , .
4
,
(
, , ), (
, , ),
.
5
, ,
, , ,
, , , , , , .
,

( . . [, 1906, . 232, 241]),
. .: ,
( )
, ,
,

, [, 1998, . 145]. , ,
.. . [, 1997, . 178-179]. ,
..,
, , 414


( . [, 1998, . 105-106]).
1.1.12
1

, (tvak) , , , , , .
, ( - ).

1.1.14-15
1

: cetanasykartur upaladbhiriti. , -, . 19-20.


1.1.15
1

,
, -, (- . 23, 37, 63).
2
, ,
, .
1.1.16
1

, ,
-
,
par excellance. , , ,
:
, , ,
(. , 1.1.10). , ( )
, ,
(. , 1.1.14-15). ,
-, , ,
(),

, , , , , .
415


1.1.17
1

10 10 1.1.2: , , , ,
; , , , [ ] ; [ ] , , . , [ ] . : , , ; [] , , ,
; , . [ ] .
1.1.19
1

buddhi , ,
(. , 1.1.15),
,
-.
, (. ,
1.1.15).
, , , , , , .
1.1.20
1

, , , .
1.1.22
1

,

, (
, ,
nanda), (
, )
.
2
, .
,
, .
, ,
: , ,
, .
416

, ,
, .
4
. ,
,
, , , .
5
, , .
- (, ,
,
).
1.1.22-23
1

1.1.1, , .
1.1.23
' : ...apeka samsayasyapravarttika varttate tena vise$pek$o
vimarsah samsayah. . [ , 1967-1976, . 1, . 93] . , , ,
. : ...
[ ] ,
. ,

. . [, 1916, . 87-101].
2
, ,
, ,
, .
3
, .
4
, . , ,
, ,
, :
,
, .. . [, 1916, . 87-101].

1.1.25
1

1.1.1.

/2 14 1709

417

1.1.25-26
1

nyysraya...
1.1.29

, , , - -. , .
2
, ( ), ( ), (
) .
3
. . 1.2, (
) , .
, .
, , ^yuj
,
, , , .
1.1.30
1


, III. 1.1. , ,
: '
, , , ,
X.
1.1.31
1

: ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
()
[, 1916, . 107]. , [ , 1925-1926, . 1, . 269, 274].

1.1.31-32
1

: nyyaprakarana , ( , 1.1.1
).
418


1.1.32
1

: Dasvayavneke naiyyik vkye sancakate...


naiyyik , (. . 3
1.1.5), . , (VIIVIII .)
, ,
(vykhynga),
, [, 1998, . 89-90].
( ),
, -.
( ) . . 1 1.1.5.

2
14 , , 1.1.1.
1.1.33
1

: dharmin, .. , .
1.1.34

: ...sdhanatvacanam hetuh. : ... .


1.1.36
1

sdhya {\ (5, ). .
2
,
.
1.1.37
1

1.2.4-9.
V. 1.1.
1.1.38
1

upasamhra Vr+ upa +


, .

saw-

1.1.39
1

nigamana ^gam + ni, ,


, , -, - [SW, . , . 154].
2 *

419


, ,
.
2
1.1.36.
3
1.1.1.
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
,
.
.
4
dharmin (
) dharma ().
5
: ...sdhakabhvavacanam hetvrthah.
6
: hetdharanaparisuddhau... ,
....
7
, .
1.1.40
1

, , .. , ,
. ,
, , , ,
,
, , , , .
, ,

, .
2
. , 1.1.2.
3
, , , , (
. , . 1).
4

, ,
420


, , , , 1.1.30.
5
1.2.1.
1.1.41
1

- 1.1.15.
2
, ,
, , .
3
, : 1) , :
; 2) , , X
; 3) , :
X
XUQ .
4
,
,
.
, (justification),
(justified true belief), . . [ , 1998, . 128].
1.2.1
1

, ,
, - ( )
( - ).
2
, , ,

, , , , [-, 1937,
. 282]. , ,

,
.
3

, ,
,
.
14 1709

421


1.2.2
1

( ) , , .
2
, , , .
: , ,
, .
, , -
, , ,
, .
. [, 1916, . 162].
1.2.3
1

. , 1.1.41.
1.2.5

vyabhicra, , .
2

,
. , :
, .
3
- , , ,
.
4
, , .
1.2.6
1

, ,
,
-. (. 9)
, , ( 11.16), , 23
. 422


(. 10) , , ,
, . , , , ,
, .
1.2.9
1

, , , ,
. ,
, .
2
, , , .
3

: , , -, 176. .
[, 1928].
1.2.12
1

navakambala
, nava , .
2
, ,
, .
. , . 1, 2.
3
, ,
, .
1.2.13
1

, ,
,
, , , , , .
2

, -
, .
3
,
.
1.2.14
1

: Atra samdhih... -423


14*


, , , .
1.2.16
1

, ,
, ..
,
.
1.2.19
1

,
, , ,
: Vipratipattyapratipatti (. . 1 1.1.1).
1.2.20
1

, , ,
16 , . , ,
, , - ,
(. . 4, 1).

II

, 16 - ,
,
. , 15 , , , ,
, .
, , , , ( ), (.
. 8 1.1.1).
.1.1
1

, , , , , , .
424

, 1.1.23: ... ... ,


(upapatti)
, ,
(
adhyavasya) ,
.
, , .
.2
1

,
1.1.23, , , , , , ,
, - , .
.1.3
1

,

, ,
,
, . 1.2.1 (. ).

.1.4
1

, ( ?) ,
- - ( ,
16 ), .
, -
.
.1.5
1

1.1.23,
reductio ad absurdum.
.1.6
1

(, ,
425


, , , ), . . . 3 1.1.23.
. 1.7
1

, ,

- , . .
[, 1916, . 185].
, , 1.1.23 ,
,
, , , ,
, ,
, , ( - , ).
II.1.8
1


. .
II. 1.8-11 , - , (buddhi) ,

, .
( ., II . ..), , , (1.1-3).
, : ( ),
, , ( ), , ,
( ). . [ElPh, 1996, . VII, . 367-369]. ,
, ,
( ad hominem), . , , II. 1.8-11
[, 1985, . 107, 115].
. ,
, , 426

.- -: , , -: , , . , .
- ,
, . ad hominem
.

(
) [, 1991,
. 4-7, 11].
,
, . . ,
, reductio ad impossibile
-
(-, 1-). . 1.17-18
. 1.9 .
. 1.9
1

, , 1.1.4: , ...
.1.10
1

,
, ,
.
2
, pramna, . . 2 . 3 1.1.3.
.1.11
1

. :
,
,
(. . 1 . 1.8) [, 1991, . 34-35].
2
, , , , , .
3
, , , .
427

, - , (. ) -
.
11.1.12
1

, ,

, , ,
, , , .
2
, .
.13
1

, , , .
2
, , , .
II.1.14
1

, ,
, ,
, ,
, , (. 56).
2
, , vi- vipratiedha
.
II.1.15
1

. 1.11 : Taditah
samutthnam yath vijnyeta.
2
. 1.11.
.15-16
1


.
11.1.16
1

, , (tantrrtha)
1.1.1.
428

.. 1.1.10.
pramiti , , , .
4
- (
)
kraka, ,
, . , ,
1.4.24, 32, 42, 45, 49, 54 (
, hetu).
- [, 1976, . 216-222].
3

II.1.17
1


. 32, , , , -.
.1.18
1


. 33,
: ( ) , ( )
. , , ,
, .
.19
1

, ( , , ) ,
.
2
, ,
, (,
) . ,
, .
: , , .. ..,
,
(, , ),
, .
3
: ...samyogavised tmasamavycca.
, , ,
429


(samyoga),
.
4
, , , , ( ).
5
, - , ,
. -. , . 34-39, ,
.
( . . 33) , ,
(. 34), argumentum
ad absurdum, , , ,
(. 35) ,
, (. 36; . .12).
.19-20
1


, , ,
.
.1.20
1

.
2

, , , - (. 1.1.1).
.1.21
1

buddhi (pi).
II.1.23
1

reductio ad absurdum: ,
- ? , , , 1.1.4 , , , ..
430


. 1.24
1

. 1.1.10,
.
2
,
, ,
(, , ), , , .
II. 1.28
1

, ,
, 1.1.4
, :
,
, .
.1.31
1

, , :
.
2
: dravyntarotpattipake , , .
3
( )
buddhi (sg.). pratyaya.
4
, : (
) [, 1916, . 212-213].
5
.,
[-, -, 1982, . 95].
, , ,
, .
. 1.33
1

, , ,
, , .
2
: ...iti tatrvayavavrttam nopapadyata iti (, [] , ).
.1.35
1


, , ,
.
431

, , ,
, , ,
(
), , , ,
, .
.., ,
,
[, 1930-1932, . I, . 444445]. ,

.
3
,
, ,
( -
, ).
.1.36
1

, , , , ..
,
.
. 1.37
1

: ...bhkta ekabuddhih.
( ) ( )
, .
2
, , ,
,
1.2.8.
3
(pradhnam) , ( , - ).
4
, .
5
,
II. 1.35.
6
, , .
7
'
.
8
,
. 432


,
, .
9
- ,
(.. )
: (. . 2 . 1.35), .
10



, - (-), X. (1859-1932), . (1880
1943), . (1886-1941) . (1887-1967).
, , (Gestalt), .
-,
, .
.1.38
1

, ,
( )
( ).
2
- ,
. ,
( ), ,

.
II.1.39
1

, (. ), ,
, :
.
.1.40
1

( .
433


. 1.32, ) ,
, ,
.
0 - .,
.
,
, , . , - (
). . [, 1983,
. 96-97]. , , .
.1.41
1

(
) .,
,
, ,
. ,

, . :
.
.1.42
1

(nihsvabhvatva) (-). (
). ., , (. 48-50),
.
2
, , , , , .
.1.46-47
1

, .
, , ,
, , . - (V-VIBB.) [-, 1973,
. 12] (IX .) [ , 1871,
. 27-28].
434


11.1.48
1

, ( ) , . ,
- . , , ,

, , ,
, , , .
II. 1.49
1

, ,
: , , ( ). , ,
, .
.1.50
1

, ,
.
.1.53
1

(dvpa), : , ,
, , , , . , ,
; , , .
2
: prptilakariastu.
, (autpattika) . - 1.1.5; , , (nitya).
3
:
, ( , ).
, ,
(, ).
, ,
( , , , ), 435


. ,
, ,
.

II. 1.53-54
1

. , ,
,

( ,
).
. 1.54
1

, , .

II. 1.56
1

, , .

.1.57-58
1

,
, .
.1.58
1

yva -, sabala .
, X. 14.1011, , .
2
,
: , ,
, , , .
.1.65
1
2

XVI.7.2.
XVI. 1.2.
11.1.68-

( ).
.1.69

, : 1) ; 2) ; 3)
436


. , , , .
2
, : , ; ,
; , .
3
Ayuj+ ni , ,
niyoga .
.2.1
1

aitihya ,
, , .. ; , , , : , .
2
(arthapatti),
, (1.1.5), ,
: , ,
, (abduction) .,
. , , , , , , , .
, , . . [, 1958, . 89164].
3
. sambhava , [, 1968-1969, . 204], ,
, , .
4
abhva ,
, .
, (. VI . ..), ( 1.1.4).

.2.1-2
1

, , ,
. ,
, ,
437


,
. , ,
.
,
, , (. . 1 II. 1.48).

.2.2
, , , - ,
. , , , ,
: , , .
,
, , ,
.
1

II.2.4
1

: abhvasya hi bhvah pratyanka iti.


, ,
( ).
.2.5
1

, , , ,
, .
.2.12
1

, , : - ,
( , ).
.2.12-13
1


, , 1.1.23.
2
., .
3
., .
4
., .
5
., .
.2.13
1

Figura etimologica: di ()
dyate asmt.
438


" : vyanjaka, , , ,
, , .
J
, ,
, .
.2.16
1

(samtna) :
, .., ( ) ,
.
.2.17
1

-, ( ).
2
, .
3
, .
4
. , - .
.2.18
1

varna
ipL), , , , . . [SW,
. VI, . 27].
.2.19
1

, ,
.
2
: pratytmavedanyatvt.
.2.22-23
1

1.2.8.
.2.24

, II.2.22:
, , ( ).
.2.28
1

, , ,
.
439


.2.29
1

, ,
, ,
.
.2.31
1

, - .
.2.35
1


.
2
, , . ,
.
IL2.37-38
1

.
, , , , .
.2.38
1

: , - ? , ,
,
, [, 1916,
. 306].
.2.39
1

( ) , , ,
, ..
,
. ,
, , , -
, .
.2.39-40
1

dhvanimtra
varntmaka . varna . . 1 II. 1.18.
440


II.2.40
1

dadh/atra = dadhi + atra. , .


2
, , (- 1.1.5-18), , ( /),
, , , / .
, ,
,
, ( -), , ,
, , , . / - ; , ,
. . [, 1959, . 41-47].
3
: anvaya .
. :
, ,
.
4
itK = iti +; dadh/hara = dadhi +hara.
5
, , , .
6
II.4.52.
.2.41
1

, ., ,
, .
2
, /
, /.
.2.42
1

, .,
, .
.2.43
1

, .
.2.44

: , ,
/, /.
151709

441

.2.46
1


, , , ,
. , , , , , , , ,
. , sui generis ,
.
.2.47
1

, , .
.2.52
1

, ( ), , ( ), . - ,
.
II.2.54
1

, , .
.2.56
1

vyadh (); , ,
//.
.2.59
1

stah as ().
.
.2.60
1

: samjn , , ,
. ,
, .
2
, ( V .
..), : , , 442


(). ,
, [, 1952].
.2.62
1

s m n y a jti , .
.2.63
1

, , .
.2.65
1

: jtivisea , -,
. - s m n y avisera.
.2.68
1

: smnyagati.
, .
, , (. , .2.70).
, ,
, : , ,
[, 1916, . 332].
2

11.2.69
1

, ,
II.2.62.
2
.
.2.70
1

.
.2.71

,
- (. . 1 .2.65). ,
.
15

443


III

, , (. 1.1.1), , , , , 1.1.9.
2
: vyapdesa, , , .
ULLI
1

, ,
kartr , (
agent), .
,
kartr.
2
, ,
, .
III.1.2
1

, , .
2

anvaya vyatireka.
III.1.3
1

, , , ,
, , , , , .
III.1.4
1

, , , , , , , , ,
. :
, , ,
, .
2
,
,
, ,
,
, , , 444


, , ,
.
III.1.5
1

, -
, ,
. ,
, ,
( ., ) , - , (.6) . [, 1994,
. 223-224]. , -, , , : , (. 18-19).
.1.6
1

kartr
, , , , , , , .
2
, , (
, ucchedavdin, [-, 1967, . 34-35]). ,
,
, ,
, , (
: ,
,
XII.211.31-36). ,
.
111.1.7
1

, , ,

. ,
, , .
.1.8
1

, , , , , .
445

III.1.10
1

.
, ,
(
, II. 1.33-37),
.

.1.14
1

, , .. (. 1.2.8).
2
, , 1) ;
2) ; 3) .
III.1.16
1

-
. , - , , , ,
, .
- . , ,
:
, .
.1.17
1

-
: 1)
2) , , . - :
. , , , - (
antahkarana),
- ,
- .
III.1.20
1

, , ,
( ).
, , , 446


: 1) , , ; 2) , .. ,
- [. 1916, . 367
368].
III. 1.25
1

,
, .
.1.26
1

: cintana,
,

. , ,
anucintana .
2
: tmotpddhikarannm tu rgotpattirbhavant... , , , , ( ).
3
Adrta ; -, .
4
: tanmytvat (, , ).
5
Bhvan , , ;
(samskra) - , ,
.
.1.26-27
1

: ekaprakrtikam nnprakrtikam ,
.
2
, , ..
; , , , , .
.1.27
1

, , ,
.
, ,
.
447

, , ( ,
,
).
.1.30
1

,
, ..;
,
- , .
,
, .

.31
1

;
(.16.3):
G , !
, !
, ,
!
(. ..). . [, 1972, . 200].
.1.31-32
1

, ,
11 ( , -) (), ,
, (), , , , (avyakta). .
- . 25 (. . 22).
III. 1.33
1

: cakuh , ,
-, .
III.1.34
1

, , , , ( ), , ,
. ,
,
, ,
, (III-IV . ..), (skmasarra)
448


, , (vibhu), . , , , ,
. . [, 1998, . 187, 230].
III .36

, .
1

.37
1

,
, . - , .
.41
1

III. 1.40.
.42

., , , , , , . . III. 1.38.
III. 1.43
1

,
, , .
.1.44
1

, , .
.44-45
1

, , 1.1.4.
.1.48
1

: ...avyuhyamnvayavena , .
1.53
1

, , . .,
, , ,
[, 1994, . 643-644].
449


, , .2.10.
;
. , ,
(antahkarana) , , 7, 11.
, ,
, , , , ,
.
2
, , , ,
.
3
: ,

, , ,
( ).
, :
,
[, 1916, . 387].
4

: ,
,
, .
.1.57
1

: sabd varntmano dhvanimtrsca.


2
,
, ( ,
).
.1.60
1

krti pancatvebhyah jti, , .


2
Samskra , ( ),
, . , -
(VI . ..)
-
( ),
( ) , ,
(. IV.9). , ,
(. III. 18). ,
, ,
450


, : ,
, .., ,
, (. 11.15 IV.27).
, .
,
, , , .
(. . 3 III. 1.26).
.1.62
1

, , ,
, ,
, -.
: (
) , ,
, .
.1.63
1

Sparsaparyanth sparsaparyantnm.
2
,
.
3
uttara, ,
, , , ..
.1.64
1

, -
; , , : ; , , : , .. . - -
, , , , , . ,
(IIIIV . ..) ,
,
.. [, 1998, . 187].
,
. ( ) .
III .66
1

(bhutasrti) ,
[ , 1996, . 492].
451


.1.67
1

, , , , , .
2
( ) ,

, , ,
.
3
.
4
,
,
, , , .
III. 1.70
1

, .
2
., , ,
.
III.1.71
1

- .
III.1.72
1

, , ,
.
.1.73
1

seavat
1.1.5.

.2.1-2
1

,
. ( ,
): , (- . 10).
III.2.2
1

, , .
.2.3
1

,
, , purua. 452


, , - , -. ,
, -, - .
2
-, , :
.
. , ,
, , , .
.2.5
1

,
, ( , ) , ,
, ,
.
.2.7
1


:
, - , ,
.
.2.8
1

- -
(1.1.4), , ,
,
.
2
, ( -, , , ), ,
, (- . 10).
.2.9
1

, , .
453

, .
.2.10
1

,
,
, ,
,
(, ). ,
(. ).
.2.11
1

, ,
, ,
, ( ), .

.2.11-12
1

, ,
, , , ,
,
, .
.2.14
1

: (, ) (, ) ,
(, ) . . [,
1916, . 412-413].
.2.15
1

(parinmavda),
, ,
(. - . 9
.). . [,
, , 1984, . 1324] . [, 1971, . 80]. , , -
.
.2.16
1

, , ,
454


- ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , , .

, .
.2.17
1

1.2.5 .
2
, , , ,
, , , , , .
3
, ,
, -, ,
,
.
.2.17-18
1

1.1.10 , , , , , .
III.2.19
1

, , , - ,
, . ,
.
.2.22
1

- .
.2.24-25

. . III. 1.69.
IIL2.27

.
1.2.8: , , []
, , .
455

.2.32-33
1


- .
.2.33
1

: ...jnturvikaranadharmano. , ,
.
2
, , ,
, ,
,
,
.
.2.34
1

, ,
buddhi, ,
, , (- . 22).
2
, , , , . ,
, (VII .)
( [] )
(VIII .),
...
- ( ) ,
.
,
. [, 1998, . 93-95, 106-109]. ,

, - -

.
.2.35
1

, , , . . III. 1.27-31.
.2.37
1

, , , .
2
( , ),
456


,
, .
3
.
.2.39
1

-
, 1.1.5.
2
Nirtmaka , .
.
.2.41
1


( dhransstra), ..
,
, - ( -). , ,
., .. . [ , 1967-1976, . 4, . 148].
2
, , , ,
- , (, ,
, ,
).
3
, -; , VI.47. , , , , , .

.2.41-42
1

: utpannpavargin , .
. ,
( ) [,
1988, . 295], , , (
) ,
, . , , ,
, , .
-, , III.2.41-45
III.2.1-8: 457


(buddhi) ,
[,
1996, . 137].
.2.42
1

.
, , : , , ,
.
3
, ,
, .. ,
, ,
(, ) , , ,
.
2

.2.44
1

, , , , .. , , . ,
,
, .
2
, .
3
, - .
4
, .
.2.45
1


, III.2.43.
: , . : , , ,
.
(. . 1 .2.41-42), (
, , . - .443).
.2.47
1

karana, a krana, .. .
458


( , )
, ,
, .
.2.49
1


, ,
,
(, ).
.2.50
1


( . 18 .).
2
argumentum ex contrario:
, ,
, .
.2.52
1

, , ,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
.2.55
1

.2.53
(, ) (, ), . , , .
.2.58
1

,
,
. . . 1 .2.45.
.2.60-61
1

: nstika, ,
- .
459


.2.61
1

( puruartha), , , , . , : .
.2.62
1

1.2.7.
.2.63

: iti utpannam bjnuvidhnamiti. , ,


, . ,
, .
.2.64
1

Arbuda , ,
.
.2.66
1

dhtu , .
,
-: , , , , ,
, , .
2
,
, , ,
( ),
, , ,
, ,
.
3
, ,
, , , , .
.2.68
1

, ,
, 460


. ,
- (- . 67), , .
2
, . , , , (
) -,
- [ , 1967-1976, . III, . 175].
3
, (adrsta) ,
, -. - , , ,
, - (V.2.3-14, 19-20). , ,
, , .
4
-, ,
( ) .
.2.69
1

, , .
.2.70
1

. :
, ..,
, .
.2.72
1

, , , , , .
2

.

IV

IV.1.2
1

: ...iti prdurbhvatirodhnadharmaka. ,
, , , (
), ( ., ,
461


). .
IV.1.9
1

, , ,
, ,
.
IV.1.9-10
1

,
, ,
,
( ), . ,
;
( ), . , , , .
IV.1.10
1


,
, , ,
.
IV.1.14
1

, , , ,
-;
.
IV.1.19
1

, , , , (. issakranavda ). -
( V.227-246), , ,

, . , (akiryavda). . - (III.31.27) :
462

, ,
.
[ , 1995, . 230].
IV. 1.21
1


, ..
, . , , ,
.
2
,
, . ,
, ,
( .. 14-22).
3

-, (),
, , , (1.24).
,
,
( ), ,
.
4
, , - , .
5
, ,
.
6
: ...nirmnaprkamyam.

, .
7
, ,
(.
- 1.5-9), .
IV. 1.22
1

( ,
[ ] ) , , ,
, ,
463


.
- 1.2, svabhva (kla) (niyati).
, , -, . , .,
[, 1921, . 399]. , (.231.3-6,
. 225.19-21). ,
( . [, 1937, . 67-72]). (. 61) , , :
, ?
.
[ , 1995, . 231].
- [, 1904, . 1050; -,
1973, . 72; , 1922, . 75].
IV.1.23
1

, -
( . [, 1997,
. 51-57]).
IV.1.26
1

, ,
, (IV. 1.23),
.
IV.1.29
1

( ) (. . 1 IV. 1.32-33), . , -
464


[-, 1967, . I, . 55], ,
(, , ),
( , ), , . . [, 1997, . 61-62].
IV. 1.32
1

.
IV.1.32-33


(- . 9), ,
.
I . .. -, :
, ", , , , , , [, ] [-, 1967, . I, . 14 .].

rv.1.35
1

, :
aneka vidhalakanair...
2
. 1.1.14; II.1.36; .1.62.
IV.1.36
1

,
, , -, , - ,
( , ,
). , ,, : , , - (
,

).
IV.1.37
1

, , , , , , : ,
, , ,
,
465


[ , 1967-1976, . IV, . 47-48].
: ,
, .
.
IV.1.37-38
1

, , : .
2
- , :
(,
), .
IV.1.38
1

, ,
, , , ,
.
IV. 1.39
1

,
(svabhva) . ,
,
,
- (-), -
(XXIV. 18). , ,
(. 22 .).
IV.1.40
1

, , ,
, .
IV.1.41
1

, , , ,
. , , ,

( , ..). , , , ()
(. ),
466


IV. 1.48
1

(
)
, -
(- 1.1-6).
IV.1.50
1

-
, , , , . ,
, , . ( ).
IV.1.54-55
1

-: , [ ] , , ,
[] , (II. 15) [, 1963, . 66].
IV. 1.55
1

,
. - III. 18, , , , . . [, 1963, . 128].
IV.1.58
1

, ,
, , , , , ,
, (. ..), , [-, 1884-1898, . V,
. 421-423].
2
: ...duhkhameva janmeti...
467


IV.1.59
1

. - VI.3.10.5.
-, ,
, , (1.7.2.1-5).
2
klesa (, ) ,
, - (. 1.24, .2-3, 12, IV.28, 30).
IV.1.60
1

, ,
, .
2
(, ) (, ).
( ). , , . . - -.
3
.
4
, , - , .
5
(.5) - (. 3), (X. 10.3).
6
- ( ) XXI. 18, -
III. 12.7.
7
- III. 8.
8
- 11.23.1. , ,
. - -, , , - , - - .
9
- IV. 4.22.
10
- IV.4.5.
11
- IV.4.6.
12
- V.7.2.3.
IV.1.61
1

- IV.5.15. :
[] , - (. . 8 IV. 1.60).
IV.1.62
1

- IV.4.22.
468

,
,
,
.
3
,

,
,
, ,
, . , , . , . , ,
, ,
, .
4
, ,
, , ..
IV.1.64
1

.
IV 1.66
1

, ,
,
.
IV.1.67
1

, .
2
, .
IV.1.68
1

.,
,
.. ( ),
,
,
( ).
2
, ,
,
. , ,
469


, ,
.
3
, , . , , , , ,
( jvanmukti).
IV.2.1
1

. , 12
(), 1.1.9.
2
. III. 1.1.
3
. . 1 IV. 1.54-55.
4
, : 1) , ,
( 1.1.9); 2) , ; 3)
; 4) , ,
. . [
, 1967-1976, . IV, . 5]. ,
arthapada 1.1.1:
" , , ,
. []
.
IV.2.1
1

( ) , .
IV.2.1-2
1

: prasankhyna , , , .
IV.2.2
1

.
IV.2.3
1

: anuvyanjanasamjn.
2
, , ,
..
470


,
, , ,
.
.
4
,
,
, .
IV.2.4
1

. , ,
, 1 . 1 . 2 3 .
IV.2.5
1


.
. 1.33-37.
IV.2.6
1

II. 1.34- .
IV.2.7
1

. , , , , . ,
, .
IV.2.8
1

, .
2
, : , .
IV.2.9
1

, , , , -, , ,
, .. ,
().
471

IV.2.10
1


: ( ),
, .
IV.2.11
1

,
, , :
, ( samavya). , ,
.
IV.2.12
1
2

.
: sraysrayibhva.
V.2.14

, .
2
, ,
, ,
, .
3
, (),
, , ,
. , , , ,
(V.2). ,
,
.
1

IV.2.15
1


. -, , ,
(
), , , . -, ,

.
IV.2.17
1

,
.
472


,
( ), , (
, ).
IV.2.20
1

., ( ), , .
IV.2.22
1

: ...yath kthenodakam. . , , , , : , .
, , .
2
veg.
IV.2.23
1

: sama. , ,
, , .
IV.2.24
1

, ,
, , .
. [, 1986, . 89-92].
IV.2.25
1

,
,
,
.
IV.2.25-26
1

,
, . .,
, - - (.167 ..), ,
IIIIV . .., ..
[-, 1913, . 85, 167]. . .,
16 - 1709

473


- [,
1911, . 9-11; , 1971, . 216-217]. , . [, 1985, . 124-126]. , , . -
.
2
: buddhy vivecana , .
IV.2.26
1


.
IV.2.28
1

,
, .
IV.2.29
1

, .
IV.2.30
1

.
2
,
, , ,
. , , .
IV.2.33
1

, .
2

. .
-, , - , ,
.
IV.2.34
1

,
.
2
, ,
.
474

.
IV.2.36

,
, , , .
IV.2.37
1

, .
, , :
.
2

IV.2.38
1

: dhrakena prayatnena , .
IV.2.43

,
,
.
,
IV . .. , ,
-, , .
( ),
III . ..,
(. 1-20).
,
.
IV.2.45
1

: yatana.
IV.2.46

yama
niyama, -:
, , ,
, , , , (11.30, 32).
2
,
( ),
, , , ,
(- .63).
16*

4 7 5


, .
3
(prnyama),
(pratyhara) (dhran)
,
-, (dhyna)
, (11.49, 54, III. 1,2).
IV.2.49
1

: ...svadarsanam parisodhayediti anyo 'nyapratyankani ca


prvduknm darsanni. ,
, .
IV.2.50
1

V
V.1.1
1

, ,
(sama): , , .. ,
, .., ,
, .
V.1.2
1

(prayatna), ,
, , - (1.1.5).
2
.
3
, , ,
, ,
( ), ( ). ,
, . , , ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
476



8-9 ( . , . 3,
1). :
1) ;
2) , ; 3) ; 4) , ,
: , , ;
[, 1991, . 112]. ,

.
V.1.3
1

(prakarana) ,
, ,
- . 1.1.39 [-, 1966, . 348],
,
, (.
1.1.1 1.1.39).
2
, /, , ,
( comparaison n'est pas
raison ).
, , , , , ,
.
V.1.4
1

- , , ,
,
.
2
( 1, 2) utkarasama apakarasama
: ,
, , ( , , , ), 477


: , , [, 1991,
. 112].
V.1.6
1

,
,
. [-, -, 1982, . 381]. . [-, 1913, . 146], ,
, , , .
2
,
,
.
V.1.7
1

- -
11 12 . . [, 1991, . 111].
V.1..8
1

, , ,

: , .

,
, , .
V.1.9
1

: samskra.
,
,
.
2

V.l.10
1

. 1.1819, .
V.l.11
1

, , , .
478


V.1.12
1

, II.2.1329.
V.1.14
1

,

. ,
.
2
( 15) samsayasama.
: , , ,
[, 1991, . 112-113].
V.l.15
1

. , ,
, ,
, (), ().
. 1.1.23.
V.l.16
1

,
, ,
, , ,
.
V.1.17
1


,
, , .
V.1.18
1

, , .
2
. , II. 1.9-11,
. . . II. 1.8.
V.l.19
1

., .,
479


[, 1991, . 50; , 1996, . 215].
, .
V.1.20
1

.,
, (
) -
[, 1991, . 50]. . ,
:
V.1, , , ,
[, 1996, . 215-216].
V.1.23
1

14 . .
[, 1991, . 111-112].
V.1.28
1

, , ,
, .
V.1.29
1

,
, II.2.19.
2
17 : , [, 1991, . 113].
V.1.30
1

.2.21, , ,
(.. ), -
.
V.1.31
1

: svasamvedya.
V.1.32

, , ,

.
480


V.1.33
1

, , ,
.
, . , ,
.
V.l.34
1

. V.1.23.
V.1.36

, , - ( -) , - .
V.1.37
1

16
: , , , [, 1991, . 113].
V.l.38
1

, .
V.1.40

.
,
, ( V), I, ,
- [,
1996, . 223].
V.1.41
1

, V.l.37-38.

V.1.42
1

, , , , .
481


V.l.43
1

. ,
, , ! (22-25). , - . . [,
1996, . 222-223].
V.2.1
1

: ...parjayavastunyapardhadhikaranni.
V.2.3


.
V.2.6
1

,
- . 15-16. ,

, , ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.
V.2.7
1


, , (V-IV . ..). . [, 1952].
V.2.12
1

,
.
V.2.13
1

, ,
, .
V.2.14
1

.
2
. 1.1.39 .1.65.
482


V.2.17
1

1.2.19
.
V.2.18
1

, , ,
,
, ,
-. . [-, 1937, . 282-285].
,
, . . :
.
, , .
" , " ; , ,
. [ ] ,
, , [ ]. [, 1997,
. 299]. ,
, .
V.2.16 (
) V.2.13,
.
V.2.19
1

, , , .
V.2.20
1

, (V.l.39-43).
V.2.23
1

, , -: , , 483


: , - ,
- IV.2 [, 1963,
. 165]. , ,
1.1.29.
V.2.24
1

1.2.4-9.

Yo 'kapdamrim nyyah pratyabhdvadatm varam


Tasya vtsyyana idam bhyajtamavartayat
Bhyajtam [] .
,
(., , [-, , 1982, . 421]), , , , .
, , . . 5, 1.

,
;
.
(), .
Emblic Myrobalan, , .
, .
, , ,
( , , ); , , , , ; , ,
.
Calotropis gigantea, , , .
, : , ,
; , .
Zizyphus Jujuba, , , ( . ).
-, .
Aegle Marmelos, ,
, .

, ,

.

(
).
,
, -, -, -, ;
( ).
485


,
.
,
, .

, ,
.
, , .
, , (), ,
.
,
I . .. , -, - -; () (.) (.), .
iti hsa, , ,
(.),
, , , ,
(
, ).
( ) ,
(
-).
Acacia Catechu, Mimosa Catechu, , , .
,
306 720 000 ; 14
, .
, .
Phaseolus Radiatus, ,
.
Glycine Debilis, , .
Phaseolus Mungo, , .
Phaseolus Trilobus, , .
Butea Frondosa.
486


, (, , ).
, 1 .
,
, , I . ..; 18
( ) ().
-, (
)
; : , ,
, , , ,
.
,
, .
.
.
-, .
, .
, .

. .

. .

. .
BEFEO Bulletin de l'cole Franaise d'Extrme-Orient. Hano.
BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. L.
ElPh
The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. General Editor K.Potter.
Vol. I-VII. Delhi e.a. Vol. I. Bibliography (1970, 1984, 1995); Vol. II. Indian
Metaphysics and Epistemology. The Tradition of Nyya-Vaiseika up to
Gangesa (1978); Vol. III. Advaita Vednta up to Samkara and His Pupils
(1982); Vol. IV. Samkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy (1987);
Vol. VII. Abhidharma Buddhism to 150 A.D. ( 1996).
EPh
Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Ed. P.Edwards. Vol. IVIII. N.Y., L.,
1967.
EPhU
Encyclopdie philosophique universelle. Publ. sous la direction
d'A.Jacob. IIII. Ill, t. 2. Philosophie occidentale: 1889-1990. Pense asiatique. Conceptualisation des socits traditionnelles. Rpertoires, index, tables.
P., 1992.
ERE
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Ed. by J.Hastings. Vol. 1-12.
Edinburgh, 1908-1921.
HIL
A History of Indian Literature. Ed. by J.Gonda. Wiesbaden.
IIJ
Indo-Iranian Journal. s'Gravenhage.
JAOS
Journal of the American Oriental Society. New Haven.
JlPh
Journal of Indian Philosophy. Dordrecht.
JRAS
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. L.
REPh
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1-. Ed. E.Craig. L.,
1998.
Stil
Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik. Reinbek.
SW
Sanskrit-Wrterbuch in krzerer Fassung bearb. von O.Bhtligk.
Th. I-VII. St.-Petersburg, 1879-1889.
WZKSOA Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde Sd- und Ostasiens. Wien.
ZDMG
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft. Wiesbaden.

( )
I)
, 1925-1926.Nyyavrttik Tatparya Tika by Sri Vachaspati Mishra. Ed. by Nyayacharya Pandit Sri R.S.Dravid. Vol. 1-2. Benares,
1925-1926.
, 1996. Nyayavrttikatatparyatik of Vcaspatimisra. Ed.
by A.Thakur. New Delhi, 1996.
, , , 1984. Gautama: The Nyya-Sutras of
Gautama. With the Bhya of Vatsyayana and the Varttika of Uddyotakara.
Transi, into English with Notes from Vchaspati Mishra's 'Nyya-VrttikaTtparyatk', Udayana's Tarishuddhi' and Raghuttama's 'Bhyachandra' by
Gangnatha Jh. Delhi, 1984.
-, 1874. The Nyya Darshana of Gotama with the Commentary of
Vatsyayana and the Gloss of Vishwanatha. Ed. by Pundit Jibananda Vidyasagara. Calcutta, 1874.
-, 1920.Nyaya Darsana of Gautama. With the Commentary of
Vatsyayana and the Gloss of Visvanath Nyaya Panchanana. Ed. with Notes by
M.M.Lakshmana Shastry Dravida and Nyayacharya Sri Ram Shastry Bhandary
and M.M.P.Vindhyeshwari Prasad Dvivedi. Benares, 1920.
-, 1966.Vatsyyanabhasyasamvalitam gautamyam Nyayadarsanam [hindbhanuvadasampannam]. Sampdakah anuvdakasca Svm
Dvrikadsasstr. Vrnas-1, 1966.
-, 1913. The Nyaya Stras of Gotama. Transi, by Mahmahopdhyya Satisa Chandra Vidybhana. Allahabad, 1913.
-, 1928. Gautama: Die Nyyasutras. Text, bersetzung, Erklrungen
und Glossar von W.Ruben. Lpz., 1928.
-, -, 1896. The Nyayastras with Vtsyyana's
Bhashya and Extracts from the Nyyavrttika and the Ttparyatka. Ed. by
M.Gangadhara str Tailanga. Benares etc., 189!
-, -, 1925. The Nyyadarsana: The Sutras of Gautama
and Bhaya of Vatsyayana with Two Commentaries. Ed. by M.Gangnatha
Jh and Dhundhirja Shastri Nyayopdhyya. Benares, 1925 (Chowkhamba
Sanskrit Series 281 etc.).
-, -, 1982.Nyya. Gotama's Nyaya-sutra with
Vtsyyana's Commentary. Transi, by M.Gangopadhyaya. With Introd. by
D.Chattopadhyaya. Calcutta, 1982.
489


, 1916.Nyayavartikam. A Critical Gloss on Nyaya Darshana
Vatsyana's Bhashya. Ed. by V.P.Dvivedi and L.S.Dravida. Benares, 1916.
, 1997.Nyyabhsyavrttika ofBhradvaja Uddyotakara. Ed. by
AThakur. New Delhi, 1997.
, 1967-1976. Nyya Philosophy. Literal Translation of Gautama's Nyaya-sutra and Vatsyyana's Bhya along with a Free and Abridged
Translation of the Elucidation by M.Phanibhus.ana Tarkavgisa. Eds D.Chattopadhyaya, M.Gangopadhyaya. Pt I-IV. Calcutta, i 967-1976.
2)
, 1989.. - ( )
- ( ). . , .,
. - . ... , 1989
(. LXXXV).
-, 1868. Apastambyadharmastram. Aphorisms on the
Sacred Law of the Hindus by Apastamba. Ed. with a Transi, and Notes by
G.Bhler. Pt I. Bombay, 1868.
, 1923-1924. Arthasstra of Kautilya. A New Edition by J.Jolly
and R.Schmidt. Vol. III. Lahore, 1923-1924.
, 1924-1925. The Arthasstra of Kautalya with the Commentary
Srmla of Mahmahopdhyaya T.Ganapatisstr. Pt IIII. Trivandrum,
1924-1925 (Trivandrum Sanskrit Series. . 82).
, 1956. Kautilya's Arthasstra transi, by the late Dr. R.Shamasastry. With an introd. note by the late Dr. J.F.Fleet. Mysore, 1956.
, 1993. . . .
. . ... , 1993.
-, 1907. The Bodhayana-Dharma-Sutra with the Commentary of Govindasvmin. Ed. by Lrinivschrya. Mysore, 1907.
-, 1904-1913. The Baudhyana rauta Sutra Belonging
to the Taittirya Samhit. Ed. by W.Caland. Vol. IIII. Calcutta, 1904-1913.
, 1994. . ( ). . . . , ., . - . .. ... ., 1994.
, 1998. . , . I. , . II. , .
. . .. ... ., 1998.
, 1871. Sankhyatatwa Koumudi by Bachaspati Misra. Ed.
with a Comment, by Pundit Taranatha Narkavachaspati. Calcutta, 1871.
,
1963.Ptanjala
yogadarsanam.
Tattvavaisaradsamvalitavysabhayasametam. Sampdakah Kapilsramyaptanjalayogadarsanakaralabdhayogavidyah. Varnas, 1963.
-, 1967. The Dgha Nikaya. Ed. by T.W.Rhys Davids and
J.E.Carpenter. Vol. IIII. Vol. I. L., 1967 (Pali Text Society).
, 1929. TucciG. Pre-Dignaga Buddhist Texts on Logic
from Chinese Sources. Transi, with Introd., Notes and Indices. Baroda, 1929.
490


, 1879. The Sacred Books of the East. Vol. I-L. Vol.11. The
Sacred Books of the ryas as Taught in the Schools of pastamba, Gautama,
Vsitha and Baudhayana. Transi, by G.Bhler. Pt 1. Oxf., 1879.
, 1992. (-
-). . , ., . .. ... ., 1992 (. CIX).
, 1995. : , , . . . ... ., 1995.
, 1858.Sarvadarsana Sangraha; or an Epitome of the Different
Systems of Indian Philosophy. By Madhvcharya. Ed. by Pandita
Isvarachandra Vidysgara. Calcutta, 1858.
, 1922.Snkhya Krik by Iswara Krishna. With a Commentary of
Mtharcharya. Ed. by P.Vishnu Prasad Sarma. Benares, 1922.
, 1906. Sriman Mahabharatam. A New Edition Mainly Based on
the South Indian Texts, with Footnotes and Readings. Ed. by T.R.Krishnacharya
& T.R.Vyasacharya. Sabhparva. Bombay, 1906.
, 1933. The diparvan, Being the First Book of the Mahbhrata,
the Great Epic of India. For the First Time Critically Edited by V.S.Sukthankar.
Vol. l.Poona, 1933.
, 1954. The Mahbhrata for the First Time Critically Edited by
V.S.Sukthankar, S.K.Belvalkar. Vol. 15 [Mokadharma, A]. Poona, 1954.
, 1904. La Samkhyakarika tudie la lumire de sa version
chinoise (II). Par M.Takakusu. BEFEO. 1904, t. IV.
, 1878-1885. The Vykarana-Mahbhsya ofPatanjali. Vol. IIII.
Ed. by F.Kielhorn. Bombay, 1878-1885.
, 1994. Complete Word Index to the Printed Editions of the
Prasastapadabhs.ya. By J.Bronkhorst and Y.Ramseier. Delhi, 1994.
, 1931.The Kvyammmsa of Rajasekhara. Ed. with His own
the Kvyarnmarnsa Chandrik Commentary by Shitycharya Pandit Sri
Nryana stri Khiste. Pt 1. Benares, 1931.
, 1972. . . ., . ,
... , 1972.
, 1989. : IIV. . . ... .,
1989.
, 1995. : VVIII. . . ...
., 1995.
-, 1884-1898. Samyuta-nikya. Ptl-V. Pt I. Sagtha-vagga.
Pt II. Nidna-vagga. Pt V. Mah-vagga. Ed. by L.Feer. L., 1884-1898.
-, 1973.Smkhya-Saptati-Vrtti. Ed. by E.Solomon. Ahmedabad, 1973.
, 1997. : -, -, -, --. . .
... ., 1997.
, 1969.. . . T. I-IV. . I, . 1. ., 1969.
491


, 1847. Hemakandra's Abhidhnakintmani, ein systematisch
angeordnetes synonymisches Lexikon. Hrsg., bers, und mit Anm. begleitet von
O.Bhtligk und Ch.Rieu. St.-Petersburg, 1847.
, 1917. The Vaiseika Philosophy According to the Dasapadrthastra: Chinese Text with Introduction, Translation and Notes by H.Ui. L., 1917.
-, 1937.The Charakasamhita of Agnivesa Revised by Charaka
and Dridhabala. Ed. by Sahitya-yurvedcharya Pandit Tardatta Panta.
Pt I. Benares, 1937 (The Haridas sanskrit series 67).
, 1850. The Chhndogya Upanishad, with the Commentary of
ankara chrya, and the Gloss of nanda Girl Ed.by E.Rer. Calcutta, 1850
(Bibliotheca Indica. No. 3).
, 1983. - (. 1- ). . , . . ... . 1983, 4.
, 1985. -. . 4-
. . , . . ... . 1985,
5.
, 1968. Acryasrsntarakitaviracitah Tattvasangrahah v
Kamalaslakrtapanjikopetah.
Prathamo Bhgah. Sampdakah Svm
Dvarikdsasstr. Varnas, 1968.
-, 1938.Satapatha brhmanam (atkndtmakah). Ks,
1938.
, 1893. -- The Saptapadrth of ivditya together with its Commentary the Mitabbin of Madhava Sarasvat. Ed. by R.Tailanga. Benares, 1893
(The Vizianagram Sanskrit Series. No. 8).
, 1998.Yuktidpika. The Most Significant Commentary on the
Smkhyakarika. Crit. ed. by A.Wezler and Sh.Motegi. Vol. I. Stuttgart, 1998.
-, 1949.Yajnavalkyasmrti of Yogsvara Yajnavalkya
with the Commentary of Vijnnesvara. Ed. by Narayan Ram Acharya
Kavyatirtha. Bombay, 1949.

1)
, 1978. . . . 2. ., 1978.
, 1996. . . ., 1996.
, 1992. Philosophisches Wrterbuch. Hrsg. von W.Brugger. Freiburg
u.a., 1992.
, 1984. .. . , 1984.
, 1834. Windischmann CJ.H. Die Philosophie im Fortgang der
Weltgeschichte. Th. I, Abt. 4. Bonn, 1834.
, 1908. Deussen P. Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie. Bd. I,
Abt. 3. Lpz., 1908.
, 1995. Julia D. Dictionnaire de la philosophie. P., 1995.
, 1998. . . . III. . , 1998.
492


, 1998. . . . .. . . ., .
, ... ., 1998.
, 1997. . . , 1997.
, 1956. Cuvillier A. Nouveau vocabulaire philosophique. P., 1956.
, 1962. Lalande A. Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie.
P., 1962.
, 1976. LaceyA.R. A Dictionary of Philosophy. L., 1976.
, 1941. .. . . 2. , 1941.
, 1987. Meyers kleines Lexikon. Philosophie. Mit eine
Einl. von Prof. Dr. Lorenz. Mannheim u.a., 1987.
, 1963. Neuhusler A, Grundbegriffe der philosophischen Sprache.
Mnchen, 1963.
, 1958. Pierce Ch. Collected Papers. Vol. I-VIII. Vol. VII. Cambridge,
Mass., 1958.
, 1970. . . . . ., 1970.
, 1916. . . .
., 1916.
, 1990. . . ..
1990, 3, . 57-133.
, 1997. .. .
., 1997.
, 1998. . .
2- ., . ., 1998.
, 1975. The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers. Ed. by J.O.Urmson. L., 1975.
, 1983. . M.,
1983.
, , 1969. Foulqui P., Raymond S.-J. Dictionnaire de la langue
philosophique. P., 1969.
, 1961. . . . . . . .
... ., 1961.
, 1992. . Homo ludens. M., 1992.
, 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Ed. by T.Honderich.
Oxf.,N.Y., 1995.
, 1981. Angeles P.A. Dictionary of Philosophy. N.Y., 1981.
, 1906. . . . 1. . .
. .. , 1906.
2)
, 1990. .. . ., 1990.
, 2000. .. . - . ., 2000.
, 1983. Balslev A.N. A Study of Time in Indian Philosophy. Wiesbaden,
1983.
493


, 1921. Barua . A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy. Calcutta,
1921.
, 1978. Bahadur K.P. The Wisdom of Nyaaya. New Delhi, 1978.
, 1952.Brough J. Audumbaryana's Theory of Language. BSOAS.
1952, Vol. 14.
, 1985. Bronkhorst J. Ngrjuna and the Naiyyikas. JlPh. 1985,
vol. 13, No. 2.
, 1968-1969. Wezler A. Die "dreifache" Schlussfolgerung im Nyyastra
I.1.5. IIJ. 1968-1969, vol. 11.
, 1969. Wezler A. Digngas Kritik an der Schlusslehre des Nyya und
die Deutung von Nyyasutra 1.1.5. ZDMG. 1969, Suppl. 1, 3.
, 1984. Wezler A. On the Quadruple Division of the Yogasstra, the
Caturvyuhatva of the Cikitssstra and the "Four Noble Truths" of the Buddha. Indologica Taurinensia. 1984, vol. 12.
, 1917. Vidyabhusana S. The Ancient Indian School of Logic: an
Outline. Commemorative Essays Presented to Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar. Poona, 1917.
, 1918. Vidyabhusana S. Influence of Aristotle on the Development of the Syllogism in Indian Logic. JRAS. 1918.
, 1921. Vidyabhusana S.Ch. A History of Indian Logic. Ancient,
Mediaeval and Modern Schools. Calcutta, 1921.
, 1888. Windisch E. ber das Nyyabhya. Lpz., 1888.
, 1985. Winternitz M. History of Indian Literature. Vol. IIII. Vol. III.
Pt 1. Classical Sanskrit Literature. Pt2. Scientific Literature. Transi, from
German into English by S Jha. Delhi e.a., 1985.
, 1917. Garbe R. Nyya. ERE. 1917, vol. IX.
, 1861. Goldstcker Th. Pnini. His Place in Sanskrit Literature.
L., 1861.
, 1965. Dandekar R.N. Post-Vedic Literature. Poona, 1965.
, 1922-1955. Dasgupta S. A History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. I-V.
Oxf., 1922-1955.
, 1992. Daya Krishna. Indian Philosophy: A Counter Perspective. Delhi, 1992.
, 1937.Johnston E.H. Early Srnkhya. An Essay on its Historical
Development according to the Texts. L., 1937.
, 1957. Ingalls D.H.H. Human Effort Versus God's Effort in Early
Nyya. Felicitation Volume Presented to Prof. Sripad Krishna Belvalkar.
Banaras, 1957.
, 1991. Kajiyama Yichi. On the Authorship of the Upyahrdaya.
Studies in the Buddhist Epistemological Tradition. Proceedings of the Second
International Dharmakirti Conference. Vienna, June 11-16, 1989. Ed. by
E.Steinkellner. Wien, 1991.
, 1977-1990. . V. History of Dharmasstra. Ancient and Mediaeval
Religious and Civil Law. Vol. I-V. Poona, 1977-1990.
, 1976.CardonaG. Pnini. A Survey of Research. The Hague-Paris,
1976.
, 1921. Keith A.B. Indian Logic and Atomism. An Exposition of Nyya and
Vaisesika Systems. Oxf., 1921.
494


, 1833. Colebrooke M.H.T. Essais sur la philosophie des hindous.
Trad, de l'anglais par G.Pauthier. P., 1833.
, 1991. Kumar F. The Philosophies of India: A New Approach. Lewinston
e.a., 1991.
, 1984. Kumari P.P.L. Theories of Categories in Indian Philosophy. Diss.
Waltair, 1984.
, 1986. . :
. ., 1986.
, 1998. . : . . .
. , . . , 1998 (.).
, 1998. Lyssenko V. La connaissance suprarationnelle chez Prasastapda. Etudes Asiatiques. 1998, Bd. LU, 1.
, 1899.Mller Max F. The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
L. e.a., 1899.
, 1917. MallikD.N. Optical Theories, Based on Lectures Delivered
before the Calcutta University. Cambridge, 1917.
-, 1923.Masson-Oursel P. Esquisse d'une histoire de la philosophie indienne. P., 1923.
, 1971.Matilal B.K. Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar in Indian
Philosophical Analysis. The Hague-Paris, 1971.
, 1977. Matilal B.K. Nyya-Vaisesika. HIL. 1977, vol. VI, pt 3,
fasc. 2.
, 1989. May J. Ngrjuna. EPhU. Ill, t. 2.
, 1936. Mishra U. Conception of Matter According to Nyya-Vaises.ika.
Allahabad, 1936.
, 1957. Mishra U. History of Indian Philosophy. Vol. 1. Allahabad, 1957.
, 1996.Meuthrat A. Untersuchungen zur Kompositionsgeschichte der
Nyyastras. Wrzburg, 1996.
, 1953.Mookerjee S. Nyaya-Vaisesika. The Cultural Heritage
of India. Vol. IIII. Calcutta, 1953.
, 1957.Mookerji S. The Absolutist's Standpoint in Logic. Nalanda,
1957.
, 1974. Mookerji R.K. Ancient Indian Education. Delhi e.a., 1974.
, 1976.Narain H. Evolution of the Nyya-Vaiseika Categoriology.
Vol. 1. Early Nyya-Vaisesika Categoriology. Varanasi, 1976.
, 1963. Oberhammer G. Ein Beitrag zu den Vda-Traditionen Indiens. WZKSOA. 1963, Bd. 7.
, 1964. Oberhammer G. Pakilasvarnin's Introduction to his
Nyyabhsya. Asian Studies (Philippines). 1964, vol. 2, No. 3.
, 1966. Oberhammer G. Zur Deutung von Nyyasutram 1.1.5.
WZKSOA. 1966, Bd. 10.
, 1977. Oberhammer G. Strukturen yogischer Meditation. Wien, 1977.
, 1984. Oberhammer G. Wahrheit und Transzendenz: Ein Beitrag
zur Spiritualitt des Nyya. Wien, 1984.
, 1991. Oberhammer G. Terminologie der frhen philosophischen
Scholastik in Indien. Bd. 1. Wien, 1991.
495


, 1988. OetkeC. "Ich" und das ich. Analytische Untersuchungen zur
buddhistisch-brahmanischen tmankontroverse. Stuttgart, 1988.
, 1991. Oetke C. Zur Methode der Analyse philosophischer Sutratexte. Die
Pramna Passagen der Nyyasutren. Reinbek, 1991.
, 1941. Paranjpe V.G. The Text of the Nyyasutras according to
Vcaspatimisra. Proceedings of the All-Indian Oriental Conference (PAIOC).
1941, vol. 10.
, 1980. Pathak V.S. History of aiva Cults in Northern India. From
Inscriptions (700 to 1200 A.D.). Allahabad, 1980.
, 1994. Preisendanz K. Studien zu Nyyastra .1 mit dem
Nyyatattvloka Vcaspati Misras . Teil 1-2. Stuttgart, 1994.
, 1977. Radhakrishnan S. Indian Philosophy. Vol. III. Bombay,
1977.
, , 1953. Renou L., Filliozat J. L'Inde classique. Manuel des tudes
indiennes. T. II. Hanoi, 1953.
, 1971.Ruben W. Die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung im alten Indien.
Bd. IV. Die Entwicklung der Philosophie. ., 1971.
, 1959. Ruegg D.S. Pnini et Patanjali. Contributions l'histoire de la
philosophie linguistique indienne. Ed. M.Boccard. P., 1959.
, 1967. Smart N. Indian Philosophy. EPh. Vol. IV.
, \961.~StaalJ.F. Indian Logic. EPh. Vol. IV.
, 1928.StasiakS. Fallacies and Their Classification. Rocznik Orientalistyczny. 1928, 6.
, 1913. Suali L Introduzione all studio dlia filosofia indiana. Pavia, 1913.
, 1957. Tucci G. Storia dlia Filosofia Indiana. Bari, 1957.
, 1918. Faddegon . The Vaiseika System, Described with the Help .
of the Oldest Texts. Amsterdam, 1918.
, 1989. Verpoorten J.-M. Gautama. EPhU. Ill, t. 2.
, , 1998. Franko E., Preisendanz . Gautama, Akapda.
REPh. Vol. II.
, , 1998. Franko ., Preisendanz . Nyya-Vaiseika.
REPh. Vol. VII.
, 1961. Frauwallner E. Landmarks in the History of Indian
Logic. WZKSOA. 1961, Bd. V.
, 1984. Frauwallner E. History of Indian Philosophy. Pts I-II.
Transi, from Original German by V.M.Bedekar. Delhi, 1984.
, 1984a. Frauwallner E. Nachgelassene Werke. I. Aufstze, Beitrge, Nachgelassene Werke. Hrsg. von F.Steinkellner. Wien, 1984.
, 1981. Halbfass W. Indien und Europa. Perspektiven ihrer geistigen
Begegnung. Basel, Stuttgart, 1981.
, 1992. Halbfass W. On Being and What There Is. Classical Vaisecika
and the History of Indian Ontology. N.Y., 1992.
, 1994. Halbfass W. Menschen und Lebensziele. Beobachtungen zu
den puru$arthas. Hermeneutics of Encounter. Essays in Honour of G.Oberhammer on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Ed. by F.X.D'Sa and R.Mesquita.
Vienna, 1994.
496


, 1995. Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and
Modern Vednta. Ed. by W.Halbfass. N.Y., 1995.
, 1938. Hiriyanna M. Vydi and Vjapyyana. Indian Historical
Quarterly. 1938, vol. 14.
, 1976. Hiriyanna M. Outlines of Indian Philosophy. Bombay, 1976.
, , 1955. .,.
. . . ., 1955.
, 1973. . .
. ., 1973.
, 1965. Chemparthy G. The Testimony of the Yuktidpik Concerning the svara Doctrine of the Pasupatas and Vaseikas. WZKSOA. 1965,
Bd. IV.
, \9%1.Sharma R.N. The Atadhyy of Pnni. Vol. 1. New Delhi, 1987.
, 1978. Sastri Haraprasad. An Examination of the Nyyasutras. Studies
in the History of Indian Philosophy. An Anthology of Articles for Scholars,
Eastern and Western. In three volumes. Vol. 2. Calcutta, 1978.
, 1994. .. : . ., 1994.
, 1997. .. . ., 1997.
, 1997. ( XII.308).
, , . . ... . 1997,
4.
, 1997b. Schokhin V. Smkhya on the Ends of Man (puru$artha).
Stil. 1997, Bd. 21.
, 1998. .. .. . ., 1998.
, 1961.Steinkellner E. Die Literatur des lteren Nyya.
WZKSOA. 1961, Bd. V.
, 1925. Strauss . Indische Philosophie. Mainz, 1925.
, 1972. Schuster N.J. Inference in the Vaiseikasutras. JlPh. 1972,
vol. 1, No. 4.
, 1930-1932. Stcherbatsky Th. Buddhist Logic. Vol. IIL Leningrad, 1930-1932.
, 1995. ..
. . I. . . . . , . . ... ., 1995.
, \9ll.Jacobi
H. The Dates of the Philosophical Sutras of the Brahmans. JAOS. 1911, vol. 31.

*
- 54
41, 114
10
136
71, 464
136
- 49
- 49, 50
10, 12
10, 24
44
- 56, 58
407
26, 38, 50, 408, 432
34,36,70,72,123,407,409,
418
60, 66, 73, 82, 85,445
61, 82,83, 120
- 69
57
54, 80
48, 429, 441

- 47, 468
. 426, 427, 474
44, 48, 49, 51, 52, 71, 80, 426, 464,
467, 486
50
136
91, 422, 445
54
.. 14
120
136, 413
56
. 56, 57
61, 85
23
- 468
() 29-31
74
136
63, 82, 83,425
- 73-77, 90, 119-120,
125,130,132,133,421,447,453,461,476
- 114
74
- . 16
- 42
78, 451, 483
- 57
85
10, 61, 65, 82, 83, 85, 88, 91,
117,120,483
11, 13-15, 18, 30, 34-39, 68, 71,
84, 87, 88, 90, 112-126, 128-136,
140, 142, 404, 406-433, 436, 438, 439-

. 21
. 116, 434
. 464
- 57, 58
- 48, 124
. 117
. 75
.. 80
- 51-53, 445, 464
- 49
- 450
. 406

* ( , ) ( ).
, ( ). .: -,
-, -, -, -, - ..
498


444, 446-447, 450-452, 454-457, 459,
460, 463^66, 468-473, 476-481, 483
10, 13, 14, 18, 41, 81,
90, 92, 114, 115, 121, 418, 434, 451,
461,465,473
- 41,44, 69
61
- (-) 10, 42,
56, 134
.91
. 433
. 407, 412, 437
72, 73, 83, 117, 427429,434, 466, 478,479
12, 78, 407
426
- 50
^

. 14, 90, 454


11, 12, 26, 29, 81, 115-117, 120,
121,411,432,476
- 49, 51, 445, 465
.21,47
.. 14, 90
.. 14, 90
12,456
12
.. 80
.. 448
128,434,473,474

84, 87,

{ 0

90,411,413,422

. 14, 90
. 115, 116, 119, 121
. 20
116, 117, 413, 448
456
. 56, 115, 120
. 129
57-58, 136
- 69
23, 48
10, 42, 117, 407, 450, 467, 484

- 407, 450, 484


- 117, 120, 135,407,409,457,
476
4 6 3
4 6 7
4 6 8
475
. 63-65, 70
II 60
- 468
43
26
- 114
. 56-58
60
27 91 414
. 414
54, 55,475
- 43, 91, 445
23,48, 80, 115, 116, 119,441
. 433
- 463
74
.. 116
. 20
. 433
28
78
. 21
25
109

. 407, 417, 431, 436, 438,


441, 449, 452, 457, 461, 469-471, 473,
478
. 12, 21, 33, 80, 87, 91
10, 462, 464
- 43
57
. 79-80, 87
50-51
. 115
. 81, 116
. 21,61,62, 81,87, 116, 119
. 21
90
14
.. 14,90
. 408
. 434
( )
47, 50

32
- 50, 89, 458, 473
- 50
.. 23
499


- 52
42
26
462
. 21, 22, 32, 74, 81
- . 427
.. 80
- ( ) 57, 71, 407, 475, 486
28, 29
- . 21, 33, 82, 83, 117
- 29
. 65, 73, 83, 114, 116, 130, 136
464
426
- 462
43, 44, 55, 58, 63, 66, 67,
69, 70, 136, 407, 445, 462-464, 469
23, 38, 83, 104, 115, 119,
423
472
475
- 468
. 22
- 56, 412, 413, 437
- 56, 435, 437, 441
. 74,80
51
. 86, 91, 105, 112, 412, 479^181
. 83, 88
- 82, 83, 427,
430, 466,467
60, 63, 72, 73, 82, 83, 85, 86,
91, 117, 138, 427-430, 434, 466, 467,
478, 479
42
- 486
. 21,30,32,407
66, 469
- 11, 13, 14, 18, 33, 35, 81, 87,
114-117,119-122,124-131,133,135, 136,
140-142, 407, 409, 411, 414, 417, 422,
428-430, 433, 440, 446, 451, 455, 457,
461,464,466,467,474,477,478,484
- 136
- 14, 18
- 18
135
- 11-14, 18, 23, 24, 30-31, 33,
35, 36, 38, 39, 44, 53, 58, 60-61, 64,
65, 67, 68, 73-76, 79-92, 97, 114, 115,
117, 120, 123, 132, 136, 139, 140, 409,
500

412, 424, 425, 430, 451, 457, 477, 478,


481,484
13,41, 90,418
. 21, 64, 84-86, 89, 116-117,
139,407,412,413
. 91, 426, 427, 457, 479, 480
. 91
- 42
22, 48, 55, 87, 115, 116, 119, 124,
429,441,444,457
413
78, 80, 87
464
51
() 22, 23, 38, 48,
80, 83, 104, 115, 119, 423-424, 441
() 10
() 413
- 28
. 437
- 43
25
.. 112
49
. 14, 15,22,33,77,86, 117
25, 26
29
26
49
31,411
. 75, 86, 103, 117, 445, 449
51
51
50
43
407
. 21, 83, 84, 87, 114, 116
43, 71
42, 45, 57, 436, 448, 457, 487
. 21,61,85, 91, 105, 116, 117, 120,
134, 139,454,473
51
42, 43, 57, 468
- 464
- 50, 52, 467
23
51
- 10, 12, 40, 41, 90, 120,
411, 415, 419, 422, 434, 448, 452-454,
456,459,461, 462, 464, 465,482,483


. 16
. 75, 86, 117
. 34, 74, 75, 77, 117, 120
. 426

- 407
- 434,464
- 10,12, 407
456
42
51
51,52
- . 22
. 81
- 49
. 82, 83, 116, 119
- 69
. 43
- 34, 460
78
29

. 16,127,407
. 38, 116, 134
41, 71, 115
66, 82-84
41, 44, 114
. 21, 83
24, 32, 62, 73, 78, 82, 443
- 33, 38, 60, 61, 64, 65,
67, 77, 81, 85, 87, 138,407,421, 483
. 21
.. 22, 116
445
- 468
- 42, 47, 468

.. 14,90
- 48, 468
- 47, 468
- 468
- 410, 468
436
74
. 18, 409, 432, 435, 439,
440-442, 450, 461, 465, 470, 472
24, 80
60, 61, 65, 80, 85
434
- 411
68
26, 136
66
. 16
54
. 60, 61, 63-66, 73, 74, 85, 86,
89,116,139,482
. 14, 90

56, 57, 412, 413, 435, 437


41,71
. 70
10, 47, 56, 450, 473
136
26, 136
.. 90
.. 84,89, 139
- 468
- 46,468
66, 73
411,412
- 464,468
. 127
32, 74
21
42
. 85
. 21, 81, 88, 116

. 75
32, 135,407
14, 18, 120, 136, 406, 412,
413, 417, 418, 422, 423, 426, 431, 440,
443, 446, 447, 450, 454, 473
. 63,73,74,78,82, 83, 117
88, 411
60, 61, 63-66, 93, 138, 477482
- 27
. 84
.. 81, 117
. 22,33,83, 88, 116, 119

501

.. 10, 12, 15, 26, 82, 83,


88, 116,414,415,432,433,456
80
X. 433
. 414
40, 419, 448, 449, 451
- 57, 69,486
47, 57, 227, 468, 485, 486
. 36, 77, 81-83, 87, 116, 119, 407,
473
410,442,482

SUMMARY

It is for the first time that the Nyyasutras (circa the 3rd-4th centuries
A.D.) together with their commentary Nyyabh$ya (the 4th-5th centuries
A.D.) have been translated into Russian from their Sanskrit originals. As a
result, both experts in the history of philosophy and "laymen" can be introduced
into the famous Indian philosophical school which specialized in the theory of
argumentation and debates, laid solid foundations of the whole medieval
scholastic philosophizing in India and presented a full-scale system of doctrines
in the areas of epistemology, logic, philosophy of language, ontology, natural
philosophy and soteriology wherein its contributions were extensive and usually
of fundamental importance.
Ascribed by the native tradition to the mythical philosopher Gautama
(Aksapda), the Nyyasutras were actually being codified during several
centuries until they received their final shape. The text has five sections further
divided into chapters. The first section deals with the sixteen padrthas or main
topics. The second one is dedicated to discussions of doubt, instruments of
knowledge (in general), perception, the problem of the whole and parts,
inference, present time, analogy, verbal testimony and reliability of the Vedas
followed by defence of the fourfoldness of the instruments of knowledge (in
opposition to other Indian systems), discussion of the noneternal nature of
sound (in opposition to Mmrns) and certain issues of philosophy of the
language, such as explanation of euphonic changes (the samdhi rules) and the
meaning of words. Some of controversial problems having to do with "physics"
are being dealt with in the third section. The compilers of the stra-text prove
that the Self (tman ) is not to be confounded not only with the sense organs
but also with the mental organ (manas), discuss the nature of body, senses and
their objects, investigate the transitory nature of judgements (buddJii), relation
of destruction and production, the Self as the locus of judgements, and the role
of karma in the production of the body. The fourth section's topics are matters
of "practical philosophy", i.e., defects of consciousness (do$a); the role of God
in the world; substantiation of the view that some things are eternal whereas
other noneternalfruits of one's actions, suffering {duhkha) and release
(mok$a) interrupted by such quite "metaphysical" problems as the whole and
parts or the measure of the existence of the external world (arguments against
Buddhist Idealists are evident here). The last, fifth, section of the text deals
separately with various kinds of futile answers, ways of losing an argument in
debate. It was this enlarged reiteration of the first section's topics in the last one
that led G. Oberhammer and some other Indologists to the conclusion that these
502

two sections made sometimes something like a separate textbook on dialectics


(i.e., Vda-Tradion) expanded later by the subject-matter of three other sutra
sections (this view is criticized in the book).
The Nyyabhsya, composed by the outstanding philosopher Vtsyyana,
has been, it seems, the very standard of a philosophical commentary in the
whole Brhmanic tradition. The author of the commentary does not confine
himself to elucidating the sutras, but also tries to transform their meanings into
a coherent philosophical system. Of crucial methodological significance is
Vtsyyana's commentary on the very first stra. Here, in his "prolegomena",
the bh$yakrin formulates, for the first time in the history of Indian thought,
the difference between real philosophizing as theoretical, i.e., investigative
activity (the term nvksik is cited) and "the mere knowledge of tman"
which was characteristic of the Upanisadas. This very activity is, further,
distributed between three successive "philosophical undertakings" of (1) enumerating some classes of topics, (2) defining these classes and (3) verifying the
definitions proposed.
All Indian philosophical traditions presented their tenets in polemics with
all other schools, and Nyya, which developed the very method of controversy,
was by no means an exception to this rule. This Indian dialogical mentality has
been emphasized in the translation of the abovementioned texts presented to
some degree as a play where the Naiyaika and representatives of Materialism,
Buddhism, Smkhya, Mmms, etc. are the main characters.
The introduction to the translation deals with defining the 16 classical
Nyya topics (padrtJia), i.e., the means of the right knowledge (pramana),
objects of knowledge (prameya), doubt (samsaya), motive {prayojana),
illustrative examples {drstnta), tenets (sddJinta), the members of a syllogism (avayava), reasoning (tarka), ascertainment of the right solution of a
dilemma (nirnaya), dispute (vda), sophistic debate (JaJpa), eristic debate
(vitanda), cavils (cJiaJa), pseudoarguments (hetvbhsa), futile rejoinders
( jti ), and the causes of defeat in a debate (nigrahasthna ) constituting the
specific heritage of the darsanaXo the same extent as seven dimensions of being
(including non-being) in Vaisesika, which is close to this tradition, nine
parameters of individual being in Jainism, 25 cosmic principles in Smkhya or
75 dharmas in classical Buddhism. Nevertheless, no other system of fundamental principles of any Indian philosophical system ever caused so much essential
controversy among Indologists, arguing whether these padrthas are to be
regarded as philosophical "categories" (T. Colebrooke and his successors)
or nothing more than mere "topics" (F. Max Mller and his followers) to this
day. The proposed solution of this old dilemma differs from preceding
attempts, since it is not "dogmatic" but essentially historical. Initially the
16 padrthas were not philosophical categories and represented rather a
curriculum of the "interdisciplinary" discursive and polemical activity of an
Indian intellectual (competing with several other curricula one of which was
503

preserved in Caraka-Samhit, III.8.27-65). They became real philosophical


categories only in the work of Vtsyyana, and therefore Nyya, which took
serious steps toward becoming a philosophical school (these efforts are already
reflected in the stras), becomes a philosophical system based on a specific
categorial foundation. At the same time, we are probably dealing with a
historical paradox: a "non-categorical" list of topics originally served as the
initial material for all-Indian categoriology. But any history, including the
history of philosophy, prefers experiments through paradoxes, especially when
its plans are destined to be fulfilled by such outstanding figures as Vtsyyana.
This solution can form a valid foundation for the division of the history of
Nyya tradition into four main periods, i.e., proto-Nyya (some methods of the
Nyya dialectics are already in the formation while the padrthas under
discussion are still absent), early Nyya (the padrthas are being in the process
of formation but their canonization as well as the unification of their interpretation is not yet finished), the production of the stras (the abovementioned
problems of the Nyya tradition being resolved but the padrthas themselves
are not as yet categorized) and the period of early commentaries ending with
that of Vtsyyanathe 16 padrthas achieve the main criteria of categories,
i.e., generality, universal validity and "atomicism" (their irreducibility to each
other is implied) and true philosophical contents whichcontrary to popular
beliefhad a strong and specific ontological (not merely epistemological)
character. All the named stages are scrutinized against the background
of parallel developments in other Indian traditions of dialectics (firstly of
the Buddhist origin) and those exegetical (Mlmms) and philosophical
( Vaisesika) traditions which were close to Nyya.
The translator's own commentaries include amplifications concerning this
or that passage of the texts as well as some additional points, firstly, those of
importance for the understanding of the Nyya philosophy's opponents and
disagreements between Vatsyyana and his successors. The book is concluded
with Glossary of some Sanskrit terms, Bibliography and Index of personalities
and texts.

504