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1.

B
[1]

2.

B
[1]

3.

C
[1]

4.

B
[1]

5.

C
[1]

6.

B
[1]

7.

D
[1]

8.

C
[1]

9.

D
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

10.

(a)

Award [1] for each of the following shown on a diagram of the


carbon cycle.
Award [5 max] for points not shown on a diagram.
The following show carbon which is static within the cycle at this
point in time.
carbon dioxide in air/water;
(sugars/carbon compounds in) plants/producers;
(carbon compounds in) animals/consumers;
(carbon trapped in) coal/oil/gas/fossil fuels;
The following should show arrows in direction of carbon flow.
carbon dioxide absorbed by plants/producers and used in
photosynthesis;
carbon dioxide released by (cell) respiration in plants/producers;
plants/producers eaten by animals/primary consumers/herbivores;
primary consumers eaten by secondary consumers;
carbon dioxide released by (cell) respiration in animals/consumers;
plants/animals die and are decomposed by (saprotrophic) bacteria/fungi;
carbon dioxide released by combustion of coal/oil/gas/fossil fuels;
carbon dioxide released by (cell) respiration in bacteria/fungi/
decomposers;
forest fires/combustion releases carbon dioxide from trees/plants;
carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes;

(b)

diagram of food chain showing at least three organisms and two


linkages with arrows showing direction of energy flow;
trophic level is a step/position in the movement/flow of energy
through an ecosystem;
(in a field situation) observe which organisms eat each other;
producer/name from example (first trophic level) does not eat other
organisms/captures energy through photosynthesis;
primary consumer/name from example (second trophic level) feeds
on producers;
secondary consumer/name from example (third trophic level) feeds
on primary consumers;
Since the command term is explain, the answer must be explicit to
gain marking points df. Named examples for producer and
consumers in diagram or explained example must represent
a coherent food chain. Reject chains using general names
such as fish or tree or grass. But, accept sardine or oak.

IB Questionbank Biology

9 max

4 max

(c)

measure production of oxygen;


because oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis;
example of technique for measuring oxygen production (count
bubbles/use sensors/other);
measure uptake of carbon dioxide;
because carbon dioxide is used during photosynthesis;
example of technique for measuring carbon dioxide production
(sensor, aquatic pH shift);
measure biomass of (batches of) plants;
increase in biomass gives (indirect) measure of rate of photosynthesis;
Since the command term is explain, reasons must be given to
receive full marks.

5 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

11.

(a)

(b)

food chains describe the feeding relationships between species;


arrows show (one) path of energy flow in an ecosystem / energy
flow described;
food chain with arrows pointing in the correct direction;
producer first step in chain;
three other named organisms making a realistic food chain;
Accept explicit common names exact enough to identify the food
source e.g. Oak not tree, sparrow not bird, rye grass not just grass, etc.
global warming is an increase in temperature of the atmosphere/
oceans/Earth;
may result in climate change / changes in amount of precipitation /
greater ranges in temperature;
melting ice leads to rising of sea level;
leading to loss of habitat / example of organism that would lose
habitat;
changes in salinity / changes in ocean currents change distribution
of nutrients;
changes in predator-prey relationships (due to ecosystem disruption);
increased success of pest species;
temperate species with bigger range of habitats as ice melts;
increased rate of decomposition of detritus;

IB Questionbank Biology

4 max

5 max

(c)

members of a population of the same species show variation;


some organisms are more likely to survive due to selective
advantage / survival of the fittest;
some organisms have a reproductive advantage;
these variations may be genetically controlled/heritable;
these genes are most likely to be passed on to offspring;
this can change the characteristic of the population;
bacteria can normally be killed with antibiotics;
antibiotics impose a selection pressure;
if a few bacteria have natural resistance to the antibiotic
they will survive;
if the resistance is heritable they will pass it on to their offspring;
they will reproduce/evolve to form bacterial colonies resistant
to the antibiotic;
example of organism selected by use of antibiotic;
(e.g. MRSA bacteria / resistant TB bacteria)

9 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

12.

(a)

166 mg m (Allow answers in the range of 162168 mg m )

(b)

rapid rise and fall between April and August;


peak in May/June;
fluctuates between August/September and December;
low December/January until February/March;
cyclical;

2 max

negative relationship / during period of defoliation, biomass


(of terrestrial invertebrates) is at its lowest;
less leaves means less food/habitats / easier for predators to
see invertebrates;
defoliation occurs in winter/autumn and the cold may kill
invertebrates;

2 max

(aquatic invertebrate flux) decreases because movement to the


forest has occurred (by adult forms) / fewer aquatic invertebrates
left in the stream so fewer are moving;
fluctuation due to movement of different species/different life
cycles/second generation;
decreases because invertebrates left at the beginning of
winter/cold season;
(adult forms) move to utilize (changes in) food supply in forest;

2 max

(c)

(d)

[7]

IB Questionbank Biology

13.

(a)

Fundamental niche:
the potential niche / the niche the organism could occupy under
ideal conditions / the full mode of existence given the adaptations
of the species / OWTTE;
Realized niche:
the actual niche / the niche restricted by competition and
environmental variables / the niche resulting from the limits
placed on the species / OWTTE;
Responses must distinguish between the two types to gain credit.

(b)

(c)

energy transfer along the food chain is less than 100% efficient;
10% energy transfer between trophic levels;
nutrient transfer is less than 100% efficient;
each carnivore needs to consume many prey organisms;
tendency for size of organisms to increase as trophic level increases;

2 max

mercury / DDT / other named example;


biomagnification is the accumulation of chemicals through the
food chain;
chemicals that undergo biomagnification are stored/not broken
down (in the bodies of the organisms that consume them);
chemicals are passed (unaltered) from one trophic level to the next;
chemicals become more concentrated in the bodies of each
(subsequent) trophic level;
organisms higher up the food chain consume larger amounts
of the chemical;

3 max
[7]

IB Questionbank Biology

14.

(a)

example e.g. Cane Toads/Bufo marinus;


effect e.g. predation of native invertebrates;

Other possible examples:


Example

Effect

Salvinia (Floating fern/Giant Salvinia/Kariba


weed)
or
Water Hyacinths

blocked waterways
excessive decomposition
depletes
oxygen and fish stocks

Nile Perch

destroyed native fish species (in


Lake Victoria)

Yellowjackets (German wasps


North America)

nests in buildings and threat of


stings due to aggressive
behaviour

Rabbits (in Australia)

loss of native plant species


erosion due to excessive
herbivory

Accept other suitable examples. Accept common name or systematic


name.
Google to check others.
(b)

UV light causes CFCs to release chlorine;


CFCs cause ozone to form oxygen (by chlorine atoms reacting);
causes a reduction in ozone concentration (allowing more UV to enter);
increases the ozone hole;
particularly effective in the Antarctic spring;
effective in very low concentrations / a small amount of CFC can
destroy a large amount of ozone;

2 max
[4]

15.

(a)

(b)

(i)

Pine Warblers/Dendroica pinus (of Delmarva)

(ii)

2.6 mm (accept answers in the range of 2.5 mm to 2.7 mm)

(iii)

Yellow-throated Warblers have a bigger range / greater


variation (of beak length) in Delmarva than in Midwest
(accept numerical values)
Accept converse.

allows them to eat other foods / changes feeding behaviour;


reduces competition with Pine Warblers;

IB Questionbank Biology

1 max

(c)

allopatric speciation occurs between populations that live in


different areas;
(when populations are geographically isolated) there is no
interbreeding;
natural selection works on each population independently;
competition with the Pine Warbler only occurs in Delmarva /
the Pine Warbler acts as selective pressure on the Yellow-throated
Warbler in Delmarva;
eventually Yellow-throated Warblers in the two areas could
become two species instead of one / OWTTE;
Award [2 max] if no reference to Warbler.

3 max
[7]

16.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

260 pmol mg (accept answers in the range of 255 pmol mg


1
to 265 pmol mg )

Neobisium muscorum;
level of cadmium remains high / does not decrease (when cadmium
is removed);

(i)

Notiophilus biguttatus

(ii)

can excrete/remove/eliminate cadmium (from its tissues);


faster reduction/removal / drops to lowest level after cadmium
exposure;
cadmium levels stop rising sooner/rise slowing by day ten;
is less tolerant/dies when cadmium reaches a certain concentration;
exposed to cadmium for a shorter time/period;

cadmium accumulates along food chain / biomagnification /


bioaccumulation;
heavy metals cause abnormal growth/behaviour/death/failure
to reproduce;
Notiophilus biguttatus has less effect on the food chain (as it
accumulates less);
cadmium harmful/lethal to organisms at/near the end of the food chain;
(death of arthropods) may change soil quality;

2 max

2 max
[8]

IB Questionbank Biology

17.

(a)

(b)

(ecological niche is) mode of existence/role of an organism


within its ecosystem;
(ecological niche includes) its habitat/abiotic factors of the environment;
(ecological niche includes) what the species eats / how the species
obtains food;
(ecological niche includes) interactions with other species;
(ecological niche includes) the set of all ranges of limiting factors
an organism tolerates / OWTTE;

2 max

fundamental niche is the niche for which a species has adaptations


for success/potential mode of existence whereas a realized niche
of a species is its actual mode of existence;
the realized niche is often smaller than the fundamental niche
(of a species);
competition/predation is reason for the differences (between
fundamental and realized niches);

2 max
[4]

IB Questionbank Biology

18.

(a)

correctly named biome;


temperature range;
dominant plant/ecosystem characteristics;
Allow any other appropriate characteristic.

3 max

e.g.:
temperate deciduous forest;
warm/1518C summers and cold/37C winters / significant
annual temperature variation;
broad leaf trees (that lose leaves annually) / significant diversity
of understory plants;
The following provides further examples of biomes that may be
addressed.
Answers do not need to be shown in a table format.
temperature
range

dominant plant / ecosystem


characteristics

desert;

hot (30C+) in day


and cold
(below zero)
at night;

xerophytes / succulent / sparse


low-lying bushes adapted
to water conservation;

savannah;

hot (2030C);

grasslands with widely spaced


trees;

tropical rainforest;

very hot (25


30C);

epiphytes / trees and wide leaf


plants in undergrowth /
huge diversity / tall
mature trees of many
species;

taiga;

cold (below 0
15C);

coniferous/evergreen trees
densely packed (few
species);

named biome

tundra;

(b)

minus
temperatures
for most of
the year;

animal distribution is related to abiotic and biotic (niche)


requirements;
temperature must be within viable range based upon the
adaptations of the animal;
water must be available in species-specific quantities (Gila
lizards require less water than elephants);
breeding sites are required for maintenance of the species;
food supply must be of the right kind for the species (e.g. nuts
for squirrels and leaves for rabbits);
territory is required for some species for breeding/feeding;
dissolved oxygen affects aquatic species as some organisms
can tolerate low levels of oxygen;
salinity affects distribution as some species are more sensitive
than others to salt;
other appropriate answers with justification are acceptable;

IB Questionbank Biology

small and close to ground /


grasses and mosses with
a few small trees
(perennial herbs grow in
summer);

3 max
9

[6]

IB Questionbank Biology

10

19.

B
[1]

20.

D
[1]

21.

A
[1]

22.

C
[1]

23.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

(b)

(c)

both (moderately) acidic / similar acidity / rural (slightly)


more acidic / lower pH/converse
urban areas have overall more (atmospheric) pollution/converse;
levels of each pollutant are much higher concentrations in
urban areas;
qualified by correct example e.g. more solid pollution/more
lead e.g. nitrous oxide is almost eighty times higher in urban areas;
Comparative terms are required to award the mark.

(overall) growth/biomass was greater in urban areas;


greater growth/biomass in urban areas for roots / below ground;
greater growth/biomass for shoots / above ground;
growth/biomass was (more) variable in urban areas;
shoot/above ground growth/biomass always greater than root biomass;
(i)

unlikely to be the cause because differences in pH are small

(ii)

yes because higher growth in areas where there is higher pollution;


might not be cause / correlation rather than cause and effect;
pollutant might have stimulated growth / acted as fertilizer
in urban areas;
(no because) pollutant did not negatively affect growth (as
more pollution in urban areas/area with higher growth);

IB Questionbank Biology

2 max

2 max
1

2 max

11

(d)

(e)

lowest ozone exposures in urban areas / highest ozone exposure


in rural/agricultural areas;
lower ozone exposure in forested than agricultural areas;
highest range in agricultural areas / lowest range in forested areas;
wide range of ozone exposures in each area;
[1 max] if candidates are referring to months/x axis as time.
(strong) negative correlation/lower shoot biomass/less growth
with higher ozone exposure;
ozone exposure is lower in urban areas/other reference to graph;
ozone is toxic/damages plants impacts photosynthesis;
(hypothesis is) higher growth rates (in urban areas) are due to
lower ozone exposure;
(hypothesis is) both factors/ozone and air pollution may have
played a role in growth differences;
Do not accept hypotheses involving pH. Accept converse of above points.

2 max

3 max
[13]

24.

(a)

plants/producers fix carbon (dioxide)/use carbon (dioxide) in


photosynthesis;
sugars/carbon compounds (produced) in plants/producers from
photosynthesis;
(carbon compounds in) plants/producers eaten by animals/primary
consumers/herbivores;
(carbon compounds in) primary consumers eaten by secondary
consumers/ passed along food chain;
carbon compounds/sugars/organic molecules digested and
absorbed by consumers;
carbon dioxide released by cell respiration (in plants/animals/
consumers);
plants/animals die and are decomposed by (saprotrophic)
bacteria/fungi;
carbon dioxide released by cell respiration in bacteria/fungi/
decomposers;
enzymes released to digest/hydrolyse carbon compounds in
organic matter;
forest fires/combustion releases carbon dioxide;
humans burn fossil fuels adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere;
Award any of the above points if clearly drawn in an annotated diagram.

IB Questionbank Biology

8 max

12

(b)

(c)

ribulose bisphosphate/RuBP and carbon dioxide react together;


(this is) carbon fixation/part of light-independent reactions;
catalysed by RuBP carboxylase/Rubisco;
glycerate 3-phosphate/GP produced;
glycerate 3-phosphate/GP reduced/converted to triose phosphate/TP;
+
using NADPH/(NADPH+H ) and ATP;
from the light-dependent reactions;
some triose phosphate used to regenerate RuBP;
some triose phosphate used to synthesize glucose (phosphate)/starch;

5 max

water needed to rehydrate the seed;


gibberellin released / active after water absorbed;
gibberellin needed to produce amylase;
water needed to allow substances inside the seedling to be transported;
oxygen needed for (aerobic) cell respiration;
warmth needed to speed up metabolism/enzyme activity;
warmth indicates that it is a favourable season for germination/spring;
some seeds need a cold period to stimulate germination;
some seeds need fire to stimulate germination;
some seeds need to pass through an animal (gut) to stimulate germination;

5 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

25.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(i)

diatoms / (other) algae

(ii)

trout

nutrients are recycled in a food web and energy enters and


leaves/is not recycled;
nutrients are recycled by saprotrophs/returned to environment and reused;
while energy (enters as light and) is dispersed as heat;

2 max

(the shape of pyramid) shows energy lost from base to top of


pyramid/80 to 90% lost at each trophic level;
(because) energy is used/released through cell respiration/heat/
metabolism/movement (at each trophic level);
not all tissues are eaten i.e. bone/hair/cellulose/excretion/
undigested/die (so energy is not available for next trophic level);

2 max
[6]

26.

(a)

(i)

tundra

IB Questionbank Biology

13

(ii)

(b)

(c)

absence of tall trees/tall plants;


lichens/mosses/sedges/small grasses/annuals;
short growing/flowering season;

edge effect is the contrast between different environments/from


central area of reserve;
small reserves have more edge effect;
as fragmentation increases so does edge (effect);
example of edge effect (e.g. cowbirds that lay eggs in edge will
increase);
example of invasive species;
example of biological control;

1 max

2 max

e.g.
to control the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) (a pest
that was devastating the California citrus industry in the late 1800s);
the vedalia beetle/a predatory insect (Rodolia cardinalis) was
introduced (from Australia);
[6]

27.

r-strategy occurs in unstable environment/where there are ecological disruptions;


resources used to maximize reproducing (once);
for example in coastal rock pools / other example;
pathogens/pest species have r-strategies / other example of r-strategy organism;
in stable/predictable environments K-strategy predominates;
more resources are invested for long-term survival;
for example in forests / other example;
trees / humans / whales / other example of K-strategy organism;
difficult to determine strategy / r- and K-strategies represent two
extremes in a range of strategies;

6 max
[6]

28.

(a)

(b)

tropical rainforest;
because the climate is warm/hot all year;
because of the high level of rainfall/precipitation all year;

species sensitive to certain environmental conditions / species


used to monitor environmental change / species used to determine
environmental conditions

IB Questionbank Biology

14

(c)

name of species to be controlled;


method of biological control with species name of predator/parasite/
pathogen;

e.g. rabbits (introduced into Australia);


controlled by release of myxoma virus / myxomatosis (from
South America);
Allow any other verifiable example. Reject cane toads as a
biological control agent and other unsuccessful cases.
[6]

29.

r-strategy:
many offspring (at a time/per brood);
little care of offspring;
high mortality rate / only a small proportion reach maturity;
small (body) size;
short lifespan / fast maturation / reproduce at a young age;
reproduce only once;
favoured by unstable/changing environment / opportunists / broad niches;
pioneer species;
variable population size;
or
K-strategy:
few offspring (at a time/per brood);
much care of offspring;
low mortality rate / large proportion reach maturity;
large (body) size;
long lifespan / slow maturation / reproduce at advanced age;
reproduce repeatedly;
favoured by stable/consistent environment / broad niches;
climax species;
stable population size;

6 max

Award [3 max] if a candidate states that they are describing one of the
options (r-strategy or K-strategy), but gives only answers from the other option.
[6]

30.

D
[1]

31.

A
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

15

32.

B
[1]

33.

B
[1]

34.

D
[1]

35.

C
[1]

36.

B
[1]

37.

D
[1]

38.

D
[1]

39.

(a)

(b)

grey partridge numbers/pairs reduced;


buzzard numbers increased;
sparrowhawk numbers no clear trend/no overall rise or fall/constant/
stable/fluctuates;
(i)

negative correlation/inverse proportion/bird of prey density


falls as partridge density rises

IB Questionbank Biology

16

(ii)

(c)

(d)

partridges eaten by birds of prey;


fewer partridges present where more birds of prey present / more
partridges present where fewer birds of prey present;
partridges move to areas with fewer birds of prey;
fewer birds of prey enable growth (by reproduction) of
grey partridge population;

2 max

(i)

18%/18.1% (18 needed but no penalty if significant figure error)

(ii)

birds of prey attracted from outside to shooting areas because of


abundant food (grey and released partridges) / birds of prey
living in shooting areas increase in numbers because of abundant food;
non-hunting human involvement (food and shelter) influenced
the correlation between the densities;
more grey partridges shot than killed by birds of prey / many
grey partridges shot in shooting areas;
correlation not only due to birds of prey eating grey partridges/
human involvement;
grey partridges compete with released partridges for food
and shelter (decreasing the density of grey partridges);
3 max

limit/ban shooting of grey partridge;


train shooters to recognize difference between grey partridge and
other species of partridge;
protect/restore habitat of grey partridge;
promote captive breeding of grey partridge (for release into ecosystem);
remove birds of prey/foxes depending on laws;

1 max
[11]

IB Questionbank Biology

17

40.

(a)

At least one characteristic from each group is needed for maximum


credit.
bryophyta have no roots / only have rhizoids;
bryophyta have simple leaves/stems / only a thallus;
bryophyta produce spores in capsule;
byrophyta are nonvascular;
bryophyte exhibit (pronounced) alternation of generations / a
significant gametophyte generation;
filicinophyta have roots, stems and leaves;
filicinophyta (often) have divided/pinnate leaves;
filicinophyta produce spores in sporangia/spores on the undersides of leaves;
filicinophyta exhibit alternation of generations;
filicinophyta have primitive vascular tissue / no true xylem and phloem;
coniferophyta have woody stems;
coniferophyta (often) have narrow leaves/needles/scales;
coniferophyta produce seeds in cones/unenclosed seeds;

(b)

angiospermophyta have flowers;


angiospermophyta have ovules in ovaries;
angiospermophyta produce seeds (with hard coats) in fruits;

9 max

starch is a large molecule;


large molecules/starch cannot be absorbed by the intestine/villi/epithelial
cells;
glucose produced by digestion of starch can be absorbed;
starch/glucose is a useful source of energy;
starch is not used in humans;
glucose is stored as glycogen not starch;
starch is not soluble/could not be transported by blood;

4 max

IB Questionbank Biology

18

(c)

In the table below, information from both boxes on same line is


needed for 1 mark.
Differences [4 max]:
Prokaryotic cells

Eukaryotic cells

no nucleus

nucleus;

naked DNA

DNA associated with


histone/protein;

loop of DNA

strands of DNA;

no mitochondria

mitochondria;

70S/ smaller ribosomes

80S/ larger ribosomes;

no/few internal membranes / no organelles

internal membranes/organelles/
Golgi/ER/lysosomes;

smaller in size (approx. 1-10m)

larger in size (approx. 10-100m);

cell wall (glycoprotein) present

sometimes present/not in animal


cells;

Similarities: Award 1 mark for any combination of two different


items [2 max].
cytoplasm/plasma membrane/contains DNA/contains ribosomes

5 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

41.

(a)

ecosystem is a community and its abiotic environment;


solar energy collected by autotrophs/plants (via photosynthesis);
moves through trophic levels via food;
only 5 to 20% transferred from one trophic level to next / never
100% efficient;
lost as metabolic heat/organic waste;
energy flow can be illustrated by pyramid shape;
organisms absorb nutrients from food/environment;
nutrients occur as complex organic matter in living organisms;
after death, saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) breakdown
complex organic matter;
breakdown products are simpler substances;
absorbed into plants for resynthesis into complex organic matter/recycled;

IB Questionbank Biology

6 max

19

(b)

offspring vary in traits;


variation results from sexual reproduction;
independent assortment of alleles (during meiosis of spermatogenesis/
oogenesis) contributes to variation;
meiosis is the cellular process that produces gametes;
crossing over (during meiosis) increases variation;
fertilization (combination of different genomes) contributes to variation;
more offspring may be produced than the environment can hold;
struggle for existence can occur;
offspring whose traits best adapt them to environment will survive/survival
of fittest;
change in environment will lead to survivors with new/different traits;
correct use of term natural selection/selective pressure;
variation is heritable / over time more offspring born with new trait;
change in gene pool;
when entire population (of a species) exhibits new trait, evolution
has occurred;

8 max

(c)
bryophyta

angiospermophyta

nonvascular/unspecialized tissue/no veins

vascular/specialized
tissue/veins;

small/height up to 7 cm

tall/ height up to 100 m;

exist as organized masses of cells / leafy


appearance

contain water-conducting
cells (tissue)/foodconducting
tissue/support tissue;

reproductive structures / capsules appear on


stalks

have flowers;

microscopic spores

covered seeds/fruits;

sometimes hair-like extensions below growing


surface/rhizoids

roots;
4 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

IB Questionbank Biology

20

42.

(a)

(b)

(c)

arsenic accumulates in leaves;


arsenic concentration (in leaves) increases rapidly in the first
7 weeks;
arsenic (in leaves) increases from 0 to approximately
1
6000 mg kg at 7 weeks;
1
maximum arsenic level (in leaves) is about 7500 mg kg
at end of experiment/valid numerical example;
after week 7 arsenic concentration in plant increases more
slowly/begins to plateau;
arsenic concentration in roots remains relatively unchanged
throughout the experiment;
(Accept range of 710 weeks in all above points)

3 max

(i)

77 weeks; (Allow answers in range 7080 weeks)

(ii)

Chinese brake fern could be used to remove arsenic from soil;


after 20 weeks about 25% of soil arsenic removed by fern;
arsenic concentration increases (rapidly) in fern (tissue) in 20 weeks;
eventually/longer periods may reach toxic levels for plant;
2 max

plants may become toxic for consumers;


arsenic may accumulate in the food chain / biomagnification;

1 max
[7]

43.

(a)

(b)

plant distribution closely linked to levels of abiotic factors in the


environment;
given organism can survive only within a certain temperature range to
which it is adapted;
water is a limiting factor in most terrestrial ecosystems and plants are
classified according to ability to tolerate water shortage;
most plants can only tolerate narrow pH range;
light intensity/quality/wavelength and duration/photoperiod are
important for photosynthesis;
most plants cannot tolerate large fluctuations in salinity/high salinity;
mineral nutrients affect plant fertility/soil structure/water retention;
Accept ONE correct reference to herbivore activity.

3 max

transect used when there is a transition in habitats and populations;


description of use of a line or belt transect;
height variation/light intensity/salinity/various abiotic factors can
be recorded;
along the transect, along with sampling of plant species present;

2 max
[5]

IB Questionbank Biology

21

44.

(a)

Answer needs to be specific giving name of organism, where it was


released and how. Examples must be accidental releases.
e.g. zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha originally from Russia/Caspian)
carried in ships ballast water and introduced into Great Lakes / rats
accidentally introduced to mainland of New Zealand from visiting
ships / Africanized honey bees introduced to Brazil (killer bees)

(b)

inter-specific competition/alien species have characteristics that may


enable them to out-compete native species;
lack of predators may allow alien species to reproduce more rapidly;
alien species may utilize areas or resources that native species cannot;
predation by invasive species can cause loss of biodiversity;
can lead to species extinction, especially of endangered species;
alien species may introduce new diseases;
use of alien species for biological control can be ineffective or negative;

3 max
[4]

45.

tundra is found in the Northern hemisphere only;


at latitudes of around 60;
size of tundra is changing due to global warming;

2 max
[2]

46.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(i)

freshwater (ecosystem)

(ii)

the rate is increasing (exponentially)


Do not accept answers containing only numerical statements.

plants are purposely transported by people to new places for their use;
the ecosystem is changing/warming so new kinds of plants are now able to
survive/compete with native plants;
only a few plants are aquatic so few would be expected in water;
fungal spores/seeds can travel more easily in air;
terrestrial ecosystems provide more suitable habitats;

1 max

accidental transport of organisms (e.g. by vessels/boats);


purposeful importation for commercial reasons;

1 max

IB Questionbank Biology

22

(d)

pros:
may control a pest species (in an ecosystem);
economic/social benefits e.g. reforestation to reduce soil erosion /
other reasonable examples;
cons:
competition reduces survival of native species;
upsets the balance between predators and prey;
leads to extinction of native species / reduces biodiversity;
Accept the above points in a discussion of particular examples.
To award [3 max] responses require at least one pro and one con.

3 max
[7]

47.

(a)

(b)

pH of soil;
water / humidity;
light;
temperature;
salinity;
mineral nutrients;
competition;
altitude;
pollinating agents;
predators / parasites;
slope;

4 max

adds humus to soil;


breaks down rock (through roots, chemicals, rhizoids);
holds soil/prevents erosion;
aerates soil;
provides shade;
reduces water content;

1 max
[5]

48.

(a)

Simpson diversity index

IB Questionbank Biology

23

(b)

name of ecosystem:
e.g. (tropical) rainforest;
ethical reason:
every species has a right to life, regardless of whether it is useful/non
useful to humans;
potential of undiscovered medicines;
ecological reasons:
better use of the rainforest may occur by respecting the existing balance
in concert with the indigenous people;
native species are adapted to local conditions whereas invasive species
are less likely to be in balance;
species in the rainforest are interdependent so loss of species threatens
the rest of the community;
deforestation of rainforests increases soil erosion/silting of rivers/flooding/
CO2 atmospheric levels;
economic reasons:
ecotourism is a potential source of income;
aesthetic reasons:
loss of beauty of the system;
artists are inspired by the images/flowers/animals of rainforests;
heritage/cultural reasons:
maintenance of the rainforest preserves human cultural diversity;
Do not award more than [2 max] for each category of reasons
e.g. not more than [2] for ecological reasons.

5 max
[6]

49.

C
[1]

50.

B
[1]

51.

A
[1]

52.

B
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

24

53.

(a)

(i)

oxygen concentration falls as temperature rises / negative correlation/


inverse relationship;
steady decline below 4.2/4.3/4.4C / vice versa:
rapid decrease between 4.2/4.3/4.4C and 5C;
zero oxygen concentration at/above 9 C;
2 max

(ii)

warmer water can hold less oxygen / lower oxygen solubility as


temperature rises;
lower oxygen concentration of water reaching gills / less oxygen
available from the water to diffuse into the gills;
higher metabolic rate / faster rates of respiration / more oxygen
consumption as temperature rises;

2 max

(b)

not enough energy/ATP/aerobic respiration (for muscle contraction/movement)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(d)

(i)

(ii)

(e)

(i)

rising trend overall;


annual rise and fall / fluctuations;

(CO2 emissions from) increased burning of fossil fuels/deforestation/


other anthropogenic factor;
variation in photosynthesis rates during the year / variations in CO 2
uptake in the oceans;

diffusion in both directions during each year;


diffusion from atmosphere to water during most of the year;
diffusion from water to atmosphere for part of year/autumn/fall/
seasonal;
increasing diffusion from water to atmosphere in later years;

2 max

(no net diffusion because) concentrations will become equal / there


will be no gradient;
water concentration higher than atmospheric concentration as often
as atmospheric concentration higher than water concentration;

1 max

300 ppm (Allow answers in the range 295305 ppm) unit must be
included to earn mark.

3.3C (Allow answers in the range 3.03.3C) unit must be


included to earn mark.
N.B. A maximum of [1] per exam can be deducted for a
missing unit.

positive correlation / higher temperature with higher CO2 concentration

(ii)

(f)

IB Questionbank Biology

25

(g)

oceans may cease to act as sink / store for CO 2;


atmospheric CO2 concentration may then rise more rapidly;
atmospheric CO2 concentration is higher than for at least 400 000 years/
any time in recent (geological) time;
Antarctic temperatures will (probably) rise higher than at any time in
400 000 years/any time in recent (geological) time;
rising (sea water) temperature would reduce oxygen availability in water;
significant changes in habitat/abiotic factors;
populations may not be able to adapt;

3 max
[18]

54.

(a)

(b)

(c)

arsenic accumulates in leaves;


arsenic concentration (in leaves) increases rapidly in the first 7 weeks;
arsenic (in leaves) increases from 0 to approximately
1
6000 mg kg at 7 weeks;
1
maximum arsenic level (in leaves) is about 7500 mg kg at end of
experiment / valid numerical example;
after week 7 arsenic concentration in plant increases more slowly/
begins to plateau;
arsenic concentration in roots remains relatively unchanged throughout
the experiment;
(Accept range of 710 weeks in all of above points)
(i)

77 weeks (Allow answers in range 70 80 weeks)

(ii)

Chinese brake fern could be used to remove arsenic from soil;


after 20 weeks about 25% of soil arsenic removed by fern;
arsenic concentration increases (rapidly) in fern (tissue)
in 20 weeks;
eventually/longer periods may reach toxic levels for plant;

plants may become toxic for consumers;


arsenic may accumulate in the food chain / biomagnification;

3 max
1

2 max

1 max
[7]

55.

(a)

tertiary consumer / fourth trophic level

IB Questionbank Biology

26

(b)

capturemarkreleaserecapture method;
marked unit area;
apply a paint spot/ear tag/leg ring/radio transmitter to the captured rabbits;
sufficient time must elapse to allow mixing of population to occur;
second capture must be from same marked area;
n1 n 2
calculate the Lincoln index / population size = n3 ;
n1 = first capture, n2 = second capture, n3 = number marked in
second capture;

(c)

N = total number of organisms of all species found;


n = number of individuals of a particular species/per species;

4 max

2
[7]

56.

indicator species sensitive to/need specific environmental conditions to survive;


monitor population size of indicator species over time;
biotic index can be calculated;
low overall score when abundance of tolerant species / lack of indicator
species / vice versa;
represent summation of factors/overall assessment of environmental conditions;
time consuming / species not easy to identify (need keys) / species may not be
present for other reasons such as season / another disadvantage;
methodology is simple / minimum equipment needed;
needs a reference study/guide to compare;
example of variable e.g. oxygen level / temperature / heavy metals / sulphur
dioxide in air / other;
example of appropriate indicator species e.g. Tubifex to heavy metals /
Chironomis to low oxygen levels / lichens to sulphur dioxide / other;

6 max
[6]

57.

(a)

(b)

a niche is the place where an organism lives and the roles that it plays in
its habitat;
fundamental niche of a species is the potential mode of existence while
realized niche of a species is the actual mode of existence;
fundamental niche depends on species adaptations while the realized
niche also depends on competition with other species;

2 max

one/few species/lichens/moss at the start;


pioneer community slowly increases in species diversity;
production gradually increases as more soil develops/better conditions/
more diversity;

2 max

IB Questionbank Biology

27

(c)

size;
edge effect;
example of edge effect;
habitat corridor;
example of habitat corridor;
habitat/niche diversity;
human management;

3 max

e.g. size:
large reserves usually promote diversity more effectively than small ones;
edge effect:
cause different ecology of central areas compared to edges;
example of edge effect:
cowbird lays eggs in nests of other birds near edges of forests / fragmentation
of forests increased cowbirds as more edges;
habitat corridor:
permit organisms to move between different parts of a fragmented habitat;
example of habitat corridor:
tunnels under roads;
habitat/niche diversity:
functioning reserve requires a diversity of niches to support the ecosystem
structure;
human management:
banning hunting/lumbering/petroleum exploitation;
To award [1] each marking point requires a complete discussion or definition.
[7]

58.

require international agreement/cooperation;


difficulties of enforcing agreements / to determine maximum sustainable yield /
to obtain and interpret data / monitor populations/stocks;
economic consequences for livelihood of fishermen/associated trades;
total ban on fishing in threatened areas/endangered species/exclusion zones;
limiting size of fish caught / limits on size of net mesh / ban on drift nets /
indiscriminate in species of fish caught;
limiting size to total allowable catch/quotas;
limiting fishing to non-productive periods of fish / closed seasons banning
fishing during breeding season;
reducing fishing days at sea / fixing number and type of vessels authorized to fish;
regulation on pollution of bodies of water;
use of fish farms;
6 max
[6]

IB Questionbank Biology

28

59.

D
[1]

60.

B
[1]

61.

(a)

(b)

fundamental niche is the potential mode of existence whereas realized niche


is the actual mode of existence;
adaption/competition/predation/powers of distribution are important in
determining the realized niche;
named type of habitat; (e.g. land left after lava flow/glacier retreat /
sand dune)
primary succession occurs on bare/lifeless substrate;
organisms move into an area and change its nature/pioneers colonize;
pioneers are simple autotrophs; (e.g. lichens grow first)
break down substrate; (e.g. to form organic soil)
leads to an eventual climax ecosystem; (e.g. forest)
stages in the succession follow a set sequence;
Award [2 max] if no named type of habitat given or if example is
of secondary succession such as after a forest fire.

3 max
[5]

62.

(a)

(b)

X:

tertiary consumers;

Y:

secondary consumers;

Z:

producers;

(interspecific) competition with native species;


does not have natural predators so may survive more;
can be a predator difficult to control;
reproduce faster/more;
may cause the extinction of native species;
most are benign/some may be beneficial (e.g. honeybee introduced
to the Americas from Europe in the 1600s);

3 max
[6]

63.

D
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

29

64.

(a)

x - axis labelled as time/t and y - axis labelled as Both labels needed.

number/N/population size;
Do not acc ept population by itself.
oscillations of plateau
phase not required
exponential/rapid growth phase labelled/highlighted properly; (accept log phase)
transitional/slowing phase labelled/highlighted properly;
plateau/no growth phase labelled/highlighted properly; (accept stationary phase)
carrying capacity/K drawn and labelled as a parallel line to
x-axis at plateau level;
4 max
curve clearly showing the shape of the three phases;

(b)

(c)

Accept examples of the points below, provided that the terms underlined
are clearly identified. Accept only named examples (Latin or common
names) from natural ecosystems only. Do not award marks for general
names such as fish or tree.
food chain shows transfer of nutrients/energy in an ecosystem /
arrows from one trophic level to the next in examples;
between different trophic levels / shown in a correct chain or web;
starting with a producer;
followed by at least two levels of consumers / shown in a correct
chain or web;
food web is the (branched) interaction of multiple food chains /
cross arrows in examples;
using (multiple) producers as a source;
transferring nutrients/energy to consumers from different food chains;
same consumer could be at different trophic levels in a food web;

6 max

Award [2 max] from the following list of greenhouse gases:


water vapour;
carbon dioxide;
methane;
oxides of nitrogen;
all (of these gases) occur naturally;
and human activity has increased the normal level of these gases in
recent years;
incoming shorter wave radiation from the Sun;
is re-radiated as longer wave radiation/infrared;
(mainly) in the form of heat;
captured by greenhouse gases;
which increases the atmospheric/ocean temperature;
at a higher rate than normal / creating a positive imbalance;
which threatens ecosystems/climatic patterns/ocean patterns;
Earths history had many fluctuations in gas levels/global
temperature / some scientists are skeptical about enhanced
greenhouse effect;

8 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

IB Questionbank Biology

30

65.

(a)

(highest HBR for Anopheles gambiae/A. gambiae week) 107/108

(b)

35 (accept answers in the range of 34 to 37)

(c)

both species show relationship between elevated precipitation


and higher HBR
(e.g. between week 0 and week 8 / week 100 and week 108);
there is a lag between the period of precipitation and the increase
in HBR;
sometimes elevated precipitation does not lead to peaks of HBR (e.g.
week 27);
precipitation has a greater effect on Anopheles gambiae/A. gambiae;

3 max

spraying insecticides just before rainy seasons;


draining swamps before (and after) rain;
providing (endangered) population with repellents/mosquito nets
before rainy season;

1 max

(d)

(e)

(f)

temperature / breeding site / food supply / predators / other reasonable answer


Do not accept global warming.
using natural predators of mosquitoes;
using natural pathogens of mosquitoes;
introduction of sterile males;
setting traps baited with mosquito pheromones/hormones;

1 max
[8]

66.

(a)

(b)

much loss of energy / 8090% loss of energy;


low down food chain so efficient;
loss of energy through respiration/heat;
loss of energy through egestion;
less valuable as a food source than primary producers;
converts undigestible material into digestible materials;
2

kJ m yr / kilojoules per meter squared per year

IB Questionbank Biology

3 max

31

(c)

ultraviolet/UV light penetrates tissues;


damages DNA / causes gene mutation;
can lead to uncontrolled cell division/mitosis;
stimulates the production of vitamin D;
stimulates the synthesis of pigments/melanin;
can cause skin cancer / cataracts;
affects photosynthesis;

2 max
[6]

67.

named example (e.g. zoo/botanic garden/seed bank/aquarium/laboratory) /


definition of ex situ;
Do not accept open parks e.g. Safari.
advantages: [3 max]
prevent extinction / help in conservation of species;
possible breeding;
reintroduction into the wild;
correct nutrition constantly;
veterinary care;
educational use / research use;
prevent poaching/picking rare flowers/damage to habitat by man;
disadvantages: [2 max]
difficulty in the reintroduction of the species to the wild;
increases inbreeding / restricted gene pool;
selection of organisms to be kept ex situ;
not their natural habitat / reduces evolution;
does not solve the cause/problem e.g. habitat loss;

6 max
[6]

68.

A
[1]

69.

D
[1]

70.

C
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

32

71.

C
[1]

72.

A
[1]

73.

C
[1]

74.

B
[1]

75.

C
[1]

76.

D
[1]

77.

A
[1]

78.

B
[1]

79.

(a)

(from 19602005) atmospheric CO2 concentration increases/strong


positive trend / increase between 19602005 of 65 ppm/figures to
that effect;
CO2 released by human activities contributes to the increase;
examples of human activities e.g. combustion of fossil fuels / deforestation;
seasonal/annual fluctuations (do not prevent long-term increase);
3 max

IB Questionbank Biology

33

(b)

some human-induced change can be very large/perhaps catastrophic;


those responsible for the change must prove it will cause no harm before
proceeding;
appropriate (environmental/medical etc.) example e.g. companies must
immediately reduce emission of greenhouse gases even though proof
of human impact on global warming is still debated;
is reverse of historical practice / previously those concerned about
change had to prove it will do harm to prevent such changes from
going ahead / paradigm shift;

2 max
[5]

80.

(a)

(b)

species:

group of organisms that can interbreed to produce


fertile offspring;

population:

group of organisms of the same species living in the same


area at the same time;

community:

group of populations living and interacting with each


other in an area;

energy flows up from one trophic level to the next (in a community);
energy is lost at each stage by waste products/feces/not all the organism
is consumed;
most energy is lost through respiration/heat;
each level on the pyramid is about 10%20% of the size of the one
below it / 80%90% energy lost between levels;
labelled diagram of pyramid of energy (indicating trophic levels);

3 max
[6]

81.

(a)

Award [1] for each structure clearly drawn and correctly labelled, up to [4 max].
cell wall a uniformly thick wall;
pili hair-like structures / flagellum at least length of the cell;
May be labelled as the
plasma membrane represented by a continuous single line;
innermost wall line.
ribosomes drawn as small discrete circles/shaded circles;
nucleoid region with DNA not enclosed in membrane;
plasmid circular ring of DNA;
cytoplasm the non-structural material within the cell;
Award [3 max] if one eukaryote structure is shown, [2 max] for
two eukaryote structures, [1 max] for three eukaryote structures
and [0] if four or more eukaryote structures are shown.

IB Questionbank Biology

4 max

34

(b)

light: [2 max]
rate increases with increasing light;
it reaches maximum then plateaus;
as all chloroplast molecules are working at optimal pace;
temperature: [2 max]
rate increases with increasing temperature;
to a maximum/optimum temperature;
but then falls off rapidly;
as enzymes are denatured above the optimal temperature;
carbon dioxide: [2 max]
rate increases with increasing carbon dioxide level;
it reaches maximum then plateaus;
as photosynthesis operating at optimal level;
Award any of the above points if clearly drawn in a diagram.

(c)

6 max

increase in temperature is called global warming;


this is caused by the greenhouse effect;
a natural phenomenon that has occurred over millions of years;
main gas responsible is carbon dioxide;
other gases like methane/nitrous oxide also cause effect;
shortwave radiation from the Sun enters atmosphere;
warms the surface of the Earth;
longwave radiation emitted by the surface of the Earth;
is absorbed by carbon dioxide/greenhouse gases;
human use of fossil fuels has increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide;
rapid rise in temperatures over (approximately) hundred years;
cows/animals/peat bogs release methane;
greenhouse gases emitted by volcanic activity;
8 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

82.

(a)

Appropriate example: [1 max]


impact on specified ecosystem;
e.g. Cane toad introduction to Australia; (Accept rats to New Zealand, etc.)
Check with Google for validity of other examples.
impact on specified ecosystem;
competes with local toads/frogs to displace them;
poisons local mammals;
Allow [1 max] if valid discussion of impact in general terms
without an example.

IB Questionbank Biology

3 max

35

(b)

correctly named biome e.g. temperate deciduous forest;


temperature range / e.g. warm/1518C summers and cold/37C winters /
significant annual temperature variation;
dominant plant/ecosystem characteristics e.g. dominant plants are broad
leaf trees (that lose leaves annually) / significant diversity of
understanding plants;
Biome

Temperature

Vegetation

desert

hot (30C+) in day


and cold
(below zero)
at night

xerophytes / succulent / sparse


low-lying bushes adapted
to water conservation;

savanna

hot (2030C)

grasslands with widely spaced


trees;

tropical rain forest

very hot (2530C)

epiphytes / trees and wide leaf


plants in undergrowth /
huge diversity / tall mature
trees of many species;

temperate deciduous
forest

warm/mild (520C)

trees that lose leaves in winter;

taiga

cold (around zero)

coniferous/evergreen trees
densely packed (few
species);

tundra

minus temps for


most of the
year

small and close to ground / red


leaves / grasslands with a
few small trees (perennial
herbs grow in summer);

Allow [1] for either temperature or vegetation if biome correctly named.

2 max
[5]

83.

(a)

the total dry organic matter of living organisms/ecosystems

(b)

organism/sample is cleaned of any other material (e.g. plant is pulled


free of soil and roots washed);
measure wet mass of organism/sample;
organism/sample is dried in an incubator/drying oven to constant mass;
biomass calculated based on wet mass of sample;

(c)

biomass is largest in lowest trophic level / lowest in highest trophic


levels / decreases from lower to higher trophic levels;
only 1020% organic material/biomass passes up each tropic level;
organic material used for respiration / activity / lost as heat;
Accept suitable examples to illustrate answer.

2 max

3
[6]

IB Questionbank Biology

36

IB Questionbank Biology

37

84.

(a)

gross production:
amount of organic matter/biomass produced by plants / plant respiration
and net production;
net production:
amount of gross production of an ecosystem remaining after subtracting
the amount used in respiration/gross production respiration;

(b)
Biome

Temperatur
e

Moisture

Desert

high
tempe
rature
/
therm
al
amplit
ude in
day
and
cold
at
night

dry / average
rainfall
less
than
25 cm
1
year

Tropical rainforest

hot

damp / wet /
average
rainfall
225 cm
1
year

epiphytes / trees and


wide leaf plants
in
undergrowth /
huge diversity /
tall mature trees
of many
species;

Tundra

cold / 6C
to
12C

dry / average
rainfall
25 cm
1
year

small and close to


ground / red
leaves /
grasslands with
a few small
trees;

Award [1] per biome or per column.

Characteristic of
vegetation
xerophytes /
succulent/
sparse low
lying bushes
adapted to
water
conservation;

3 max
[5]

85.

(a)

(i)

named example and location where it was released


e.g. beaver/castor liberated in Tierra del Fuego
Answers need a named example and a location.

(ii)

reason for release;


impact on environment;

IB Questionbank Biology

38

e.g. for hunting/fur;


but built dams which altered river courses;

IB Questionbank Biology

39

(b)

named example;
definition of biomagnification;
cause;
consequence;
e.g.
name: DDT / pesticide to control mosquitoes of malaria;
definition of biomagnification: chemicals accumulate along the
food chain;
cause: as fat soluble, it accumulates in fatty tissue;
consequence: becoming more concentrated at each trophic level /
increasingly more toxic / ultimately leading to death of organism up in food chain;3 max
[6]

86.

A
[1]

87.

B
[1]

88.

(a)

the total dry mass of organic matter in living organisms/ecosystems

(b)

UV radiation may cause damage to nucleic acids/proteins/lipids;


give rise to increase in skin cancer rates/glaucoma/cataracts/skin ageing;
may negatively affect plant/phytoplankton productivity;
small amount beneficial e.g. vitamin D synthesis;
used to kill microbes/water purification;
used to treat jaundice in newborn infants;

2 max
[3]

IB Questionbank Biology

40

89.

(a)

(b)

biomagnification is a process in which chemical substances become more


concentrated at each trophic level;
certain toxins will accumulate in the body;
fat soluble toxins have a longer half life/will accumulate in body tissues;
examples are: DDT/TBT/organophosphates/mercury/other;
effects of toxins can be magnified up the food chain;
top predators/consumers/carnivores have highest concentrations stored in
their body;
For named example include:
source of toxin e.g. TBT anti-fouling paint used on ships;
how it enters food chain e.g. taken up by filter feeders;
links in food chain;
effect on top consumer;
ecosystem/community affected;

5 max

K-strategists require more resources;


are long-lived;
are large, therefore need large habitats;
slow maturation, therefore require longer protection from predators;
more care for offspring / small number of offspring;
require stable habitat;
usually have stable population size;
perform better in an environment with high levels of competition/
no vacant niches;
examples are: elephants / parrots / whales / Arctic tern / tortoise / other
correct example;

5 max
[10]

90.

(a)

40 mg (carbon) m (allow answers in the range of 39 to 41 mg (carbon) m )

(b)

correct calculations;
correct answer = 367%;

(c)

2 max

warmer temperatures (in summer/spring) cause enzyme activation / converse;


more reproduction of organisms (so more food) / converse;
(more sun) more photosynthesis so more biomass (of autotrophs) (so
more food for organisms);
in summer there are other organisms that feed on them;
ocean water movement could carry nutrients;
seasonal changes in the abundance of food causes difference;
3 max
[6]

IB Questionbank Biology

41

91.

(a)
named biome
desert

temperature
high
temperature/ther
mal amplitude
in day and cold
at night

moisture
dry / average rainfall less
1
than 25 cm year ;

tropical rainforest

hot

damp / wet / average


rainfall 225 cm
1
year ;

tundra

cold / 6C to 12C

dry / average rainfall 25


1
cm year ;

Both temperature and moisture are required for mark to be awarded.


Accept other correct biomes.
(b)

2 max

named example;
definition of biomagnification;
cause;
consequence;
e.g.
name: DDT / pesticide to control mosquitoes of malaria;
definition of biomagnification: chemicals accumulate along
the food chain;
cause: as fat soluble, it accumulates in fatty tissue;
consequence: becoming more concentrated at each trophic level /
increasingly more toxic / ultimately leading to death of organism up in food chain;3 max
[5]

92.

(a)

name;
use;
example 1:
name: zoos;
captive breeding of animals / permits assisted reproductive
methods / use of modern technology;
example 2:
name: botanic gardens;
allows for protected growth of plants / protected from extreme
climatic conditions / provision of all necessary conditions;
Award [1] for name and [1] for its use.
Accept other suitable examples.

IB Questionbank Biology

42

(b)

r-strategies involve many offspring, short life-span / early maturity,


reproducing only once;
K-strategies involve longer life-span, late maturity / likely to involve
parental care, the production of few offspring, and reproducing
more than once;
most organisms have life histories that are intermediate;
in unstable environment r-strategies efficient;
better to produce as many offspring as quickly as possible;
r-strategies favoured when ecological disruption/in primary communities
(in succession);
such as pathogens and pest species;
K-strategies efficient in stable environment / maximizes fitness/in climax
communities;
pays to invest resources in long-term development and long life;
some populations (e.g. Drosophila) switch strategies depending on
environmental conditions;
Award [3 max] if only one strategy is discussed.

5 max
[9]

93.

C
[1]

94.

A
[1]

95.

B
[1]

96.

C
[1]

97.

A
[1]

98.

C
[1]

IB Questionbank Biology

43

99.

(a)

total number of limpets increased

Award [1 max] if arrow direction reversed.


Award [1 max] for a correct food chain from green algae to named
species/limpet to oystercatcher.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

L. strigatella decrease when oystercatchers excluded;


could be due to increase in number of L. digitalis;
increased competition/predation (for L. strigatella);
less food/green algae (for L. strigatella);
less habitat available (for L. strigatella);

3 max

(i)

X at 4th location going anticlockwise from top right

(ii)

Y at 8th, 9th or 11th location going anticlockwise from top right

(overall) decline in limpet population;


in no location has the population increased;
greatest decrease in numbers at most northern/western locations;
in many/some/quantitative value locations the population has not changed;

2 max

more predation of the limpets than before;


less food available;
less habitat available;
more competition from other species;
water/air too warm for their metabolic activities/other specific reason;
water pollution / toxins;

2 max
[12]

100. (a)

(i)

(ii)

ice cover has decreased (slightly);


the data show much variability/fluctuates;

warmer air/atmosphere/water temperatures/global warming


(bringing about more ice melt)

IB Questionbank Biology

44

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

increase in summer ice cover has a positive effect on mass increase;


high proportion of ice cover has little effect / (slightly) negative
effect on chick mass/growth;

changes in (water) temperature/climate change influence fish


populations / food available for chick growth;
changes in habitat affect chick growth / rearing of chicks;

2 max

mass may go down as proportion of ice cover has decreased;


mass may increase as most recent data shown in (bar) graph shows
increasing proportion of ice area;

1 max
[8]

101. (a)

named example of herbivore;


named example of plant;
e.g. aphid
rose

(b)

(c)

kJ m yr / kilojoules per metre squared per year / example of energy


per unit area per time unit (must be metric units)
much loss of energy / 10/20% retained / 80/90% loss of energy;
respiration;
egestion;
less valuable as a food source than primary producers;

2 max
[5]

102. (a)

(b)

named alien species e.g. western mosquitofish / small Indian mongoose /


rosy wolfsnail;
introduced for removal of pests;
competes with native species;
excessive predation on native species that do not have defences;
impacts industry such as tourism/harvesting of natural resources;
Accept other specific examples of effects.

3 max

ultraviolet/UV light penetrates tissues;


damages DNA / causes gene mutation;
can lead to uncontrollable cell division;
can cause skin cancer;

2 max
[5]

103. A
IB Questionbank Biology

45

[1]

104. (a)

x - axis (time) and y - axis (number in population/of individuals) (do not accept

correctly labelled;
growth on y-axis)

S curve correctly drawn;


lag phase;
exponential/log phase;
population growth slowing down / transitional phase / environmental resistance;
plateau phase;
To award marks phases must be labelled not just drawn.
Award [3 max] if no axes shown.
4 max
(b)

(c)

production of sperm/spermatozoa in the testes/seminiferous tubules;


first stage of sperm production requires divisions by mitosis;
cells then undergo a period of growth;
future sperm cells then undergo two meiotic divisions;
cells then differentiate to form sperm cells;
nourished by Sertoli cells
number becomes haploid / chromosome number halved / 46 to
23 chromosomes;

5 max

embryonic/disc shaped structure that nourishes the developing embryo;


starts forming at implantation of the blastocyst/embryo;
embryonic tissue invades/grows into the uterine wall;
fetal capillaries exchange material with maternal blood/lacunae;
allows exchange of food/oxygen/antibodies from mothers blood to fetus;
allows exchange of carbon dioxide/waste products from fetal blood to mother;
connected to the embryo/fetus by an umbilical cord;
placenta takes over hormonal role of ovary;
indication of time this happens / at approximately 12 weeks;
secretes estrogen/progesterone;
hormone secretion maintains pregnancy;
expelled from uterus after childbirth;
9 max

(Plus up to [2] for quality)


[20]

105. (a)

(i)

biomagnification is a process in which chemical substances become


more concentrated at each trophic level

IB Questionbank Biology

46

(ii)

(b)

toxins/substances enter the body in water or food;


heavy metals are water soluble / synthetic organic compounds
are fat soluble;
heavy metals bind to enzymes / synthetic organic
compounds stored in fat;
no removal mechanism for heavy metals / synthetic
organic compounds cannot be metabolized;
example of chemical/mercury (e.g. DDT/organophosphorus/
TBT/PCB);
example of affect on top carnivore in food chain (e.g. thin
egg shells for birds of prey);
Award [1 max] if no named example given.

The description should be limited to moisture, temperature and


characteristics of vegetation.
lush vegetation;
great diversity of animals/plants;
e.g. forests of equatorial Africa;
evergreen;
high insolation;
high precipitation;
high temperature;
increased productivity;
high level of competition;
adaptations of leaves;

2 max

3 max
[6]

106. measures to promote conservation: [3 max]


reduce total allowable catch below maximum sustainable yield/MSY;
limit areas where fishing can take place;
decrease total net size;
increase mesh size to let immature fish through / set minimum landing
sizes for fish;
reduce fishing effort;
reduce/stop subsidies for increasing size of fleet;
methods used to measure conservation: [3 max]
monitor fish catches;
calculate the mass of fish that can be removed annually / maximum
sustainable yield;
required knowledge of birth rate, growth rate of fish and mortality rates;
can be estimated by looking at age structure of landed fish;
can be estimated by catch per fishing effort;

6 max
[6]

IB Questionbank Biology

47

107. C
[1]

108. D
[1]

109. D
[1]

110. A
[1]

111. B
[1]

112. (a)

standard deviation summarizes the spread of values around the mean / 68%
of all values fall within one standard deviation of the mean / gives a measure
of variability of the data / OWTTE
1 max
-1

(b)

November had 113 (+2) ciliates ml sediment (units required)

(c)

production by treated and untreated samples is almost the same;

production by untreated samples is usually slightly higher than treated


samples;
except November, January when the treated samples have a slightly higher
methane production;
(d)

2 max

endosymbionts do not seem to be responsible for methane production;


methane production is almost the same whether the ciliates are alive
(untreated samples) or killed (treated samples);
no apparent correlation between methane production and number of
ciliates;
months when the population of ciliates is highest are not the months
when the methane production is highest / ciliate numbers high in November
when methane production is low / methane production highest in July and
August when ciliate numbers are not high;
2 max

IB Questionbank Biology

48

IB Questionbank Biology

49

(e)

greenhouses gases collect in atmosphere;


layer of gases allows incoming short-wave radiation (from sun) to pass
through to earths surface where it is converted to longer-wave radiation;
long-wave radiation cannot all pass through layer of gases but some
reflected back to earth causing earths surface to become warmer;

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

2 max

first name / Nacella refers to the genus and the second name / concinna
refers to the species

negative correlation / inversely proportional / as temperature increases the


percentage righting in N. concinna decreases

percentage of N. concinna able to right themselves decrease by 50% /


decreases from 95% to less than 50% / less than half able to right
themselves

model suggests two degree rise in temperature which would mean summer
temperatures of 3C;
at this temperature less than 50% of organisms able to carry out basic
behaviour;
decreased survival of species / decreased ability to avoid predation;

2 max
[13]

113. (a)

as light intensity increases rate of photosynthesis increases up to a


point when reaches maximum rate;
as light intensity increases beyond this maximum there is no further
effect on rate;

Credit can be given for a clearly annotated graph showing the


above points.
(b)

(i)

coniferophyta

(ii)

filicinophyta

1
[4]

114. (a)

raw sewage contains organic matter;


increase in N or P / eutrophication / algal bloom;
increase in bacteria / microbes (that feed on dead algae);
increased BOD / reduced dissolved oxygen;
oxygen sensitive organisms in river die / emigrate;
pollution sensitive organisms increase / diversity decreases;

IB Questionbank Biology

50

increased levels of toxins / hormones / heavy metals;


(b)

4 max

anaerobic habitats;
marshes / guts of mammals / oxygen depleted soils;

2
[6]

115. (a)

1991

(b)

as mean temperature goes up, earlier mean laying date

(c)

trend for egg laying being earlier over study period (in figure A);
higher temperatures lead to earlier egg laying;
egg laying correlated with warmer temperature;
data highly variable / evidence is indirect;

(d)

(i)
(ii)

2 max

only one species can occupy a niche within an ecosystem / niches


in an ecosystem will not overlap in the long term

earlier egg laying date means that parents may compete for food / nesting
materials / nesting sites with other species or any example of how change
may cause niche to overlap;
tree swallow may expand range northward to hatch on the same day / tree;
tree swallow may cause a decline in population of species that now
overlaps niche / tree swallow may decline in population because of
overlapping niche or any example which shows the consequence of
overlapping niche;

2 max
[7]

116. (a)

(b)

(biomagnification) is a process in which chemical substances become


more concentrated at each trophic level

example of chemical that was magnified eg DDT / mercury;


source / use of chemical substance eg weed killer / ground water contamination;
example of top heterotroph affected eg birds of prey / human;
consequence of biomagnification eg thin egg shells / birth deformities;

3 max
[4]

117. (a)

correctly named biome eg temperate deciduous forest;


level of precipitation eg moderate precipitation / 75150 cm throughout

IB Questionbank Biology

51

the year;
temperature range eg 1518C / warm summers and 37C / cold winters /
significant annual temperature variation;
dominant plant eg dominant plants are broad leaf trees (that lose leaves
annually) / ecosystem characteristics eg significant diversity of understory
plants;
(b)

3 max

species within an ecosystem are interdependent;


loss of one species affects a network of other species;
organism that expands to fill unoccupied niche might disrupt balance;
species impact abiotic factors;
example of impact on abiotic factor such as: increased erosion / decrease soil
fertility / microclimate changes etc;
human cultures / indigenous populations ability to live sustainably within
ecosystem might be affected;

4 max
[7]

118. C
[1]

119. B
[1]

120. (a)

Award [1] for each of the following clearly drawn and correctly labelled.
clear ruled axes, labelled time on the x- and population size on the y- axis;
exponential phase annotated to indicate rapid population growth because of
abundant resources;
transitional phase annotated to indicate a developing shortage of resources and
increase competition between members of the population;
plateau phase annotated to indicate a population now constrained by resource
availability / natality equals mortality;

(b)

melting of permafrost;
increased detritus decomposition;
expansion of temperate species / reduced range for arctic species;
example of an affected species;

IB Questionbank Biology

52

examples of human activity;


rise in sea levels;
change in climatic patterns;
loss of ice habitat;
more pests / pathogens;
disturbance to food chains / webs / trophic levels;

IB Questionbank Biology

6 max

53

(c)

parents produce more offspring than required to keep numbers constant;


more are produced than the environment can support;
example of an environmental condition;
these offspring show variation;
some are better adapted than others to the environment;
these tend to survive to breed themselves;
characteristics are inheritable;
so the new generation has these characters too;
this leads to changes in the population as a whole;
these changes constitute evolution;

8 max
(Plus up to [2] for quality)
[20]

121. (a)

Award [1] if both correct answers given

1 max

Photoautotroph

Cyanobacteria;
classes: Chroobacteria / Hormogoneae / Gloeobacteria;
orders: Chroococcales / Gloeobacterales / Nostocales /
Oscillatoriales / Pleurocapsales / Stigonematales;
families: Prochloraceae / Prochlorotrichaceae;
genera: Halospirulina / Planktothricoides / Prochlorococcus /
Prochloron / Prochlorothrix;

Chemoautotroph

Methanobacteria / Methanococci / Methanopyri /


Halobacteriaceae / Sulfur-reducing bacteria /
thermoacidophile;

IB Questionbank Biology

54

(b)

5 max
N

D e n itrific a tio n

F ix a tio n
(lig h tn in g )

F e rtiliz e r F a c to ry
B a c te ria in
n o d u le s

N fix in g b a c te ria
N itra te B a c te ria
N O

N O

p la n ts

A n im a ls

D e c a y a n d w a s te

N itra te B a c te ria
N H

+
4

D e c o m p o se rs

Award [1] for any two correctly labelled and connected boxes
[6]

122. (a)

1991

(b)

as mean temperature goes up, earlier mean laying date

(c)

trend for egg laying being earlier over study period (in figure A);
higher temperatures lead to earlier egg laying;
egg laying correlated with warmer temperature;
data highly variable / evidence is indirect;

(d)

(i)
(ii)

2 max

only one species can occupy a niche within an ecosystem / niches


in an ecosystem will not overlap in the long term

earlier egg laying date means that parents may compete for food / nesting
materials / nesting sites with other species or any example of how change
may cause niche to overlap;
tree swallow may expand range northward to hatch on the same day / tree;
tree swallow may cause a decline in population of species that now
overlaps niche / tree swallow may decline in population because of
overlapping niche or any example which shows the consequence of
overlapping niche;

2 max
[7]

IB Questionbank Biology

55

123. (a)

(gross production =) net production + respiration;


(gross production is) the total amount of organic matter produced by
plants in an ecosystem;

(b)

1 max

temperature is high during daytime and low during night time;


solar radiation during day is high / heat loss during night is high;
moisture is less than 500 mm rainfall per annum;
vegetation is sparse;
fauna is specialized;

3 max
[4]

124. (a)

distribution is the range of places that an animal inhabits;


is closely linked to the levels of the abiotic and biotic factors of that
environment;
main abiotic factors are water, temperature;
other factors include breeding sites, food supply and territory;
temperature, extremes of temperatures require special adaptations;
water, some animals are aquatic and some live in deserts;
breeding sites, special sites are needed to ascertain survival of offspring;
food supply, availability of special foods limits range of habitation;
territory, has an effect on the distribution of a species clumped rather
than dispersed;

(b)

5 max

r- strategists are usually small organisms that are found in an unstable


environment;
little advantage in adaptations that permit successful competition as the
environment is likely to change quickly;
are density independent;
environment should have ample supply of energy;
many offspring are produced so habitat should be able to support that;
early maturity so climate should favour this, eg short spring season in the
arctic regions;
short life expectancy so offspring also has a chance of survival;

4 max
[9]

IB Questionbank Biology

56