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A Concise

Etymological
Dictionary
of the

English
Language

WALTER

W.

SKEAT

The

Concise

ranks among

Dictionary
Etymological

the

useful of readers'

most

for it can be relied on to


companions,
and relationships
throw light
the origins
on
of most
Englishwords in ordinary
use, and

of many

rarer

words

instructive.

isespecially
curious or
history

ProfessorSkeat gave

whose

lifetimeof study
to

and his resultsare presented


subject,
and conveniently
that the book
so clearly
be used without difficulty
can
by those
in philology.
who have no special
training
the

By
AN

DICTIONARY

the

same

author

ETYMOLOGICAL
OF

THE

ENGLISH

LANGUAGE
OXFORD

UNIFERSITT

PRESS

NY

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LUilti^JlY

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LliiiUilY

MID-MANIUHAN
6th

42nd

LIBRARIES

^
3

THIS

LIBRARY

St.,

N.Y.,

N.Y.

lOOlS

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

ETYMOLOGICAL

OF

ENGLISH

THE

LANGUAGE

SKEA

GLASGOW

CAPE

TOWN

BOMBAY

NEW

TORONTO

YORK

LUMPUR

HONG

WELLINGTON

LUSAKA

KARACHI

MADRAS

CALCUTTA

KUALA

NAIROBI

KONG

W.

London

MELBOURNE

IBADAN

SALISBURY

House,

Ely

Press,

University

Oxford

LAHORE

TOKYO

ADDIS

ABABA

DACCA

CONCISE

A
i

DICTIONARY

ETYMOLOGICAL
OF

THE

LANGUAGE

ENGLISH

BY

REV.

THE

SKEAT

W.

WALTER

LiTT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Ph.D., F.B.A,


AND

ELRINGTON

BOSWOKTH

ANO

CAMBRIDGE,

AND

NEW

'Ware
The

man

OF

PROFESSOR
FELLOW

ANGLO-SAXON
OF

CORRECTED

to

live co-eval

would
patriarch-pupil

IN

CHRISt's

THE

with
be

the

sun,

learning still.'
Nighi

OXFORD
THE

CLARENDON

OF

IMPRESSION

Young,

AT

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE

PRESS

Thoughts, vil Z6

IMPRESSION
FIRST

OF

THE

IN

PRINTER

BRITAIN

GREAT

UNIVERSITY
BY

1882

IMPRESSION

PRINTED
AT

I967

PRESS,
RIDLER

VIVIAN
TO

THE

UNIVERSITY

OXFORD

Hua.03'

CONTENTS
PAGE

vii

INTRODUCTION
General

Key

to

the

List

of

Abbreviations

Plan

ENGLISH

APPENDIX

xii

OF

DICTIONARY

ETYMOLOGICAL

CONCISE

xi

Dictionary

the

of

THE

LANGUAGE

624

I.

List

II.

Suffixes

III.

Select

List

of

Latin

Select

List

of

Greek

of

630
632

Words

644

Words

647

IV.

Homonyms

V.

List

VI.

Distribution

of

from

SUPPLEMENT

Prefixes

648

Doublets

of

which

Words
they

according
are

derived

to

the

Languages

652
662

PREFACE

TO

Concise

first

as

in

190

become,

The

in
a

practically,

edition

of

have

corrections

thrown

the

New

English

Lateinisches

Heidelberg

Cambridge,

made,

Among

Dec.^

by
and

Worterhuch

19

10.

editions,

and

re-written

by
latter

the

to

the

and

revised,

again

light

new

of

advance

which

Alois

of

new

instance

especially
Dr.

has

works

of
appearance

by

numerous

publication

the

the

may

1906.

was

several

re-arranged

due

chiefly

the

Etymologisches
in

been

words

some

'

Language

book.

new

Dictionary,

etymology.

upon

at

upon

English

through

largely

so

now

been

the

passing

has

1901

been

form,

new

of

after

and,

I9II

OF

Dictionary

1882,

in

to

EDITION

Etymological

published

appeared

THE

Walde,

published

the

INTRODUCTION

The

first edition

of

English

Language'

was

through

several

Each
in

Etymological

published

in

it has

and

1882,

of

Dictionary
since

the

passed

editions.
edition

successive

order

Concise

'

my

that

the

several

contained

might

work

be,

to

corrections

and

brought

extent,

some

additions,
to

up

date.

Meanwhile,
made,

by

adopted,
Such

methods
and

Etymological

in

the

Modern

addition

of

contributed

the

to

much

emendations

of

(as

the

beginning
whilst

to

the

at

words

which

failed
and

day;
end,

made

the
in

appeared

the

time

same

have

into

introducing

hitherto

necessarily

Supplement.

The

the

of

partial

book

the

of

body

is

less

of

from

article,

every
the

relegated

result

science

requirements

nearly

been

all

diligently made,

the

in

improvements

have

when

rewritten

accordingly

have

the

come

with

pace

of

however

Old

Comparative

Brugmann,

has

Dictionary,
keep

the

view

time

of

to

work
a

tinually
con-

edition

new

book.

new

Since

to

making

increasing
than

Hence

Franck's

Darmesteter,

and
as

by

exact

more

points.

Dictionary

such

languages

and

Concise

my

fear)

present

books

been

many

German,

Hatzfeld

by

have

at

of

Godefroy's

Dictionary

clearer

made

been

been

philology;

changes

Dictionary

Dutch,

Indo-germanic

philology.

have

highly important

comparative

have

of

French

other

to

Grammar

advances

have

Indo-germanic

phonetic

analysing

Dictionary

of

study

Kluge's Etymological

as

contributions

important
the

to

of

important

works

French,

writers,

many

exact

more

and

numerous

year

above-mentioned,

1882

English

lexicography.

in

and

1890,

The

Century

An

great

entirely new

Dictionary, of

has

advance
of

edition

which

the

been

Webster

publication

viii

INTRODUCTION

completedin 189 1.

begun in 1889, was

was

In both of these works

my

'

List of Authorities cited ; though it is seldom


appears in the
of considerable difficulty,
where
mentioned
expressly
except in cases
'

name

But the chief


not to risk an
opinionof his own.
preferred
of The
New
event
during this period has been the publication
the unique value of
English Dictionaryon Historical Principles,
and
little understood
which
is even
too
now
respectedby the
generalpublic. The firstpart of this great national work appeared

the writer

in

1884.
chief difference between

The

the second

and

later editions of my

be
and the present one
now
can
EtymologicalDictionary
explained.The former editions were mainlyreproducedfrom
readily

Concise

the first

at
edition,

time

when, from

help could be had from the


fact that they either did not
But in the present

works
exist

the

nature

of the case, little

above-mentioned, owing
or

could

work, I have endeavoured

not
to

be

much

gleanfrom

to

the

utilised.
them

all

importantresults. The work has been collated with the


and with the New EnglishDictionary
throughout,
CenturyDictionary
from A to H (excepting
small portionof G). I have endeavoured
a
rities;
to make
good use of Kluge, Franck, Brugmann, and other authoand have gladlyadopted a largenumber
of corrections. In
I have now
marked
the quantities
of all the vowels
particular,
in Latin words, as this often throws
much
lightupon Romance
certain
phonology. And in many cases where the result is tolerably
I have giventhe primitive
types of Teutonic and even of Indo-germanic
their

most

words.
all former editions,
I

In
to

arrange

endeavoured, by help of cross-references,

derivative words

re-cite and
ex-cite,in-cite,

under

more

resus-cit-ate

were

form.
primitive
all given under

Thus
Cite.

ambitious
experiencehas shewn that this endeavour was more
the
often causingneedless delay and trouble. Hence
than practical,
here
order,viz. an alphabetical
only trulypractical
one, has been
But
adopted,so that the requiredword can now be found at once.
in order to retain the chief advantagesof the old plan,I have prepared
But

two

one
lists,

of Latin and

one

of Greek

words, which

account

will be found in the


These
of derivatives.
large number
Appendix," III, at pp. 632 and 644.
I have much
circumstances by
pleasurein mentioningtwo more
which I have been greatly
assisted and encouraged. Some few years

for

ix

INTRODUCTION

friend the Rev. A. L.

Ma}

hew

good as to go patiently
throughevery word of the Concise EtymologicalDictionary,
making
the
hundreds
of suggestions
for improvement; and finally
sent
me
in which all these suggestions
entered.
were
They have all
copy
of instances
been carefully
considered,and in a very largenumber
have been
fullyadopted. Again, while the revises were
passing
M.
H.
]\Ir.
the
read
over
were
Chadwick, M.A.,
through
by
press, they
Fellow
author
Clare
Studies in Old
of
of
College,Cambridge,
English'publishedby the Cambridge Philological
Societyin 1899;
and his exact
knowledge of Indo-germanic phonology has been
of many
to
suggestive
improvements. I have only to add, in justice
that theyare not responsible
these scholars,
for all the results here
I have held to my
few cases
own
given. In some
preconceived
opinion; perhapsnot alwayswisely. Still it was best that the final
ago, my

so

was

'

form

of each

reader is then

Many

article should be

to

the author's decision ; for the

layany blame.
which, in former editions,appeared only in
been incorporated
with the rest, so that
now
now
explained(inalphabetical
order)amounts

sure

as

articles

Supplementhave
number

left

of words

to

where

he must

the
the
to

than

more

12,750.
Considerable
pains have

taken

been

to

ensure

in

accuracy

the

of
printing

the forms cited ; and I have received much


help from the
exercised by the press-reader.
At the same
time, I shall be

care

thankful
which

note
a
any reader who will kindlysend me
he may
detect
I have myself discovered,for

under

the

to

word

Cemeierythe

Skt.

few belated corrections appear

As

of the
and

allude
frequently

work, I

common.

may

They

ANGLO-SAXON.

by the

note

occurrence

contraction of the

to

the

at

pp.

to be

learnt

error

example,that
for the
Skt. fi!
'

error

an

662-3.

ordinaryvowel-changesin
those which

here

deserve

gi' is

of any

are

by

the

heart at

most

the

course

elementary

once.

vowel-changeis that produced


of an i ox j (whichoften disappears
by a subsequent
we
syllable.Owing to this,
word) in the following
The

most

usual

INTRODUCTION

find that the vowels, as


arranged in row
frequently
changed into the correspondingvowels in row (2).

(i)a,
(2) e,

{0),ea,
eo,
a,
^,
ie{y),
ie[y),
y,

5, u,

ea,

le{y,O.

e, y,

bases

are

eo.

e),le{y).

Merc,

for ^fulljan;
to fill,
kom/ull,
Example :";/5^//"//,

Moreover,

(i) below,

full.

secondaryverbs are often formed from


or past participle
singular,
past tense plural,

and

substantives

in the

past tense
Thus
band and
of a strong verb, rather than from the infinitive mood.
be7id are
from the base seen
in the A. S. band, pt. t. of bindan,to bind ;
seen

whilst bundle

By

the

as

'"

second

Lastly,our
; and

Wessex

modern

has ea, and

Old

bund-

the

as

'

prime grade,'to

band-

weak

of native

'

'

This

for A. S.

eo.

language abounds

similar vowel-

in somewhat

very

and
or
(singular
plural)
lit.
bait,Icel. beita,

form

the

as

few of these appear i7i English. But we


not
must
the frequentformation
of derivatives from the past tenses

changes,but
over

to

words

sometimes

ICELANDIC.

pass

bind-

to

'

pp. bund-en.

in the

appears

grade.'
originbelong rather to the
Mercian) dialect than to the Anglo-Saxon or
Mercian
employs a (mutatedto e)where the A. S.

grade,'and

(or Old

Midland

that which

from

I refer
distinction,

of

way

is derived

'

to

the past
to

cause

of strong
participles

bite/is the causal

of

Thus

verbs.

bita,to bite

; its

explainedby the fact that the pt. t. of bita is beii.


French, it
Again, as regards the Romance
languages,especially
be borne
in mind
that they are also subjectto phonetic laws.
must
These
laws are sufficiently
illustrated in Mr. Paget Toynbee's translation
I may
of Brachet's Historical French
In particular,
Grammar.
may

be

note

that

most

and

that to

honor

For

French
derive

substantives

bounty from

bonitds

(nom.),or

Latin accusatives
honour

Lat.

from

(nom.),is simply impossible.


fuller

information,the reader

EnglishEtymology, First
with

derived from

are

the

native, and

and

the

Second

is referred

to

my

Series ; the former

latter with

the

Principlesof
deals chiefly

foreignelements
English Etymology contains some

language. My Primer of
more
importantfacts,
I subjoina key to the plan of

the

work, and

of

the

of the

listof abbreviations.

INTRODUCTION

KEY

TO

GENERAL

THE

PLAN

OF

DICTIONARY.

THE

"

xi

given in their alphabetical


order; but a few secondaryderivatives are explainedunder some
more
importantform. Thus campaign is given under Camp, and
I.

ca7ino7i

Order

of

under

Words

Words.

are

Caiie.

The
word-list contains nearlyall
selected.
" 2. The Words
primarywords of most frequentoccurrence, with a few others that are
such as imaneled.
remarkablyprominent in literature,
Homonymous
numbered.
forms,such as bay (usedin fivesenses),
are

" 3.

words ; but
seemed

to

omitted

Definitions are

Definitions.

of original
forms
explanations
to

me

be

in the
are

case

added

of

common

wherever

they

necessary.

The
" 4. Language.
languageto which each word belongs is
of letters within marks of
distinctly
marked, in every case, by means
is to be read as
'derived
or
parenthesis.Here the symbol
from.'
Thus
Abbey is (F. L. Gk.
Syriac);i.e. a French word
derived from Latin; the Latin word being,in its turn, from Greek,
whilst the Greek
word is of Syriacorigin.
"

"

"

The

order of derivation is

and
early,

to

The

from

symbol +

earlyto

"

alwaysupward

or

backward, from

late

earlier forms.

is

forms which are merely


employed to distinguish
and confirming
cognate,and are adduced merelyby way of illustrating
the etymology. Thus, bi'ieis a purelyEnglishword, derived from the
Anglo-Saxon bitan. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. bijten,
Icel.

blta,Swed. bita,Dan. bide, G. beissen,and the other Indogermanic forms,viz. 1^21.findere{b3.se


fid-)and Skt. bh'd,to cleave,

merely cognate and illustrative. On this point,there commonly


exists the most
singularconfusion of ideas; and there are many
from
Englishmenwho are accustomed to derive English,of all things,
Modern
High Get-man ! I therefore introduce this symbol + by way
of warning. It has its usual algebraical
value of plus or additional;
are

and

indicates

'

additional information

of cognate forms.'

to

be

obtained

from

the

parison
com-

INTRODUCTION

xu

symbol

The

symbol "

"
'

means

than/ or

referred

who

so

; the

F.=French,

as

baffle the

to

as

Every symbol has

to.

books, in

has reference to certain

sense, and

'

than
primitive

more

symbols,such

sense,

vague

wishes to find the words

'

derived from/

'

The

Languages.

in their usual

used

not

are

than,'or

older

younger

of

" 5. Symbols

'

means

found, as I have ascertained

the

least of which

at

one

enquirer
a special

myselfby looking
the
I have purposely
them
used,as far as was
practicable,
of each symbol is
accessible authorities. The exact sense
most
easily
givenin the listbelow.
be

cited may
all out.

word

In some
" 6. Roots.
cases,
The
root
Indo-germanicroot.

'root.' Thus

read

as

these

roots

hear,to

introduce

such

note

and
;

is from

carry,

as

in Richardson's

Arabic

also Devic's

See

1829.

sian
Per-

Diet.,ed. F,

Anglo-Saxon;
by Bosworth

"

miiller,and
edited

WUlker

" III

of the

be
of

Appendix.

ABBREVIATIONS.

OF

Corn.

Grein

as

in

dial.

Dan.

Toller,Ett-

Sweet's

in Williams'

in Ferrall and

as

Diet.;

Repp

1861.

laries
; in the Vocabu-

by T. Wright and

and

as

"

in the dictionaries

and

Cornish

"

Johnson
1865.
Dan.
Danish
plement
Sup-

to Littre's F. Diet.

A. S.

symbol V^,to
\/BHER.
Some

the

by

is used to
symbol Der., i.e. Derivatives,
related to the primary word.
forms
Thus, under Act, I
derivatives as act-ion,
act-ive,
"c., which cause no difficulty.

Arabic

"

is denoted

its original

to

The

LIST
Arab.

is traced back

illustratedby the listsin

are

7. Derivatives.

"

word

for

"

Danish

dialects ;

as

in

Molbech, 1841.
Du.

Prof.

"

Dutch;
Tauchnitz

Oldest

Dutch

in Calisch

as

Dutch

and

in the
Middle

Diet.

words

from

are
Oudemans,
(1658),or Sewel (1754).
Bavar.
Bavarian
in Schmeller's
Modern
E.
; as
English; as in N. E. D.
Bayerisehes Worterbuch ; 1827(New EnglishDictionary)
; and in
the
1837.
CenturyDictionary.
Bret.
Breton ; as in Legonidec'sBret.
M.E.
Middle English(Englishfrom

EnglishTexts.

Hexham

"

"

"

"

Diet.,ed. 1821.

Brugm. Brugmann, Grundriss der verGrammatik, "c. ; vol. i.


gleichenden
(2nd ed.),1897 ; vol. ii. 1889-90.
C.
Celtic ; used as a generalterm for

the

"

thirteenth

to

the

fifteenth

Old

F.

"

French.

Welsh, Breton,Cornish,
Irish,Gaelic,

are

"c.

from

not

Most

of

the

modern
precisely

Cot.

turies
cen-

in Stratmann's

inclusive);
English Diet., new
1891.
as

"

edition,

forms

cited

French, but

Cotgrave's
Dictionary,

INTRODUCTION

XIV

OTHER
ace.

accusative

"

ABBREVIATIONS.

case.

nom,

nominative

"

case.

adj. adjective.

obs.

adv.

or
orig. original
originally.
pi. plural.
past participle.
pp.
preposition.
prep.

"

adverb.

"

A.V.

"

Authorised

"

Version

of the

"

Bible,1611.
cf.

"

confer, i. e. compare.

"

Ch.

"

Chaucer,

"

obsolete.

"

"

comparative,
conj. conjunction,

pres.

dat.

pron.

comp.

dative

t.

case,

declensional.

prov.

Der.

Derivative,

pt. t.

"

dimin,

"

s. V.

frequent.frequentative,
case.
genitive

sb.

"

gen.
i. e.
"

sub verbo

"

which

under

str.

Some

translation.
or
translated,

"

neuter.

of the

strong verb.

"

superl. superlative.
tr.

masculine.
"

vb.
"

"

neut.

the word.

Shakespeare.

"

sing. singular.

t7r masc"

see.

substantive.

"

infinitivemood,

interj.interjection,
literally.
or

vide

"

lit.
m.

tense.

id est, that is.

"

n.

past

quod

"

Shak.

"

"

inf.

V.

q.

feminine,

"

provincial.

"

"

diminutive.

fem.

f. or

pronoun.

"

decl.
"

participle.

tense.

present

"

prob."probably.

"

"

present

pres. part.

"

longerarticles are

transitive.

trans.

"

vb.

verb.

marked

"

off into sections

by

the

use

of the Greek

clearer,
by
Notes
the

the end

at

of

an

article are

symbol 10". XIV, XV, XVI,

in the

14th,15th,or

introduced
word

lettersp, y.
matters
This is merelyintended to make
from each other.
the various statements
separating

to

shew

i6lh

the

mean

marked

off

by beginningwith

that the word

was

Hyphens
century,respectively.

division
etymological

of

word.

introduced
are

Thus

freely
the

meaning that concedere


be resolved into condivision is
can
and cedere. This etymological
often very differentfrom that usually
adoptedin printedbooks when
words have to be divided ; thus capacious
can
only be divided,etymobecause
as
logically,
; whereas,
cap-ac-i-ous,
cap- is the root-syllable
when
divided according
it becomes
to the pronunciation,
ca-pa-ci-ous.
them.
Theoretical forms are marked by an asterisk preceding
Thus,
under Barrow
the
the
i
s
a
hill,
primitive
(i), Teutonic type "^bergoz,
concede

Teutonic

form
; and

is derived

whence

from

the A. S.

wYidti: Beetle

"^betel
in Old Mercian.

Lat. con-cedere ;

beorg and

(2),the

scended
berg are alike dehave been
bytelmust

the G.

A. S. form

INTRODUCTION

The
the

sound

of

symbols
the

//i in

of

beginning
such

and

The

as

in

co

made

by

Dr.

Thus

the

A.

and

Wessex
Goth.

/h'n,

gk

are

as

For

hai'Ijan,

G.

cognate

with

for

oUk

M.E.

and

in

/ha/;

syml^ol

from

distinct

In

Icelandic,

the

but

M.E.

commonly

middle.

the

in

///.

A.

S.

each

has

and

A.S.

represents

j/

short

long

other

and

aj

at

and
t],

Greek.
the

between

Sweet
S.

in
^

his

to

heileii',
Goth,

but

deds^

deed

G.

is

from
is

that.

from

O.

of

INIerc.

observed.

A.

S.

cognate

with

(Wessex

(as
the

represents
e,

aid

(as

ce

Kentish

and

hflan,

long

carefully

S.

A.

Anglian
S.

S.

mutation

but

A.

A.

been

the

at;

the

to

/leal

has

represents

corresponding
example,

Diet.)

Goth,

of

values

two

S.

A.

invariably

corresponds

sound

e.

a,

written

tS that

and

word,
and

both

are

The

distinction

usual),

Ip

confused.

are

vowels,
or

'S and

symbols

SV

and

to

Goth.

dad),

ADDENDA

the

In

is added

Adieu,

of

course

for

Idiio,

EMENDANDA

following
the

as

Errata

Read

(F.

L.

Gk.

grade.

low

I V

1.

Chicken,

1.

Choose,

5.

11.

G.

hzilse.
1.

Read

3-

kiezen,

Da.

Cost,

vb.

koslen

Curl,

1.

(Du.~F.

Prob.

from

O.

F.

read

Notorious,

read

(F.-L.-Gk.).

witness

Diphthong,

1.

Engage.

G.

For

4.

(^F." L.)

For

read

read

(F,-L.

1.

the

pere^i

1.

crude

For

2.

form

read

deck

1.

Falcon.

Some

Teutonic

be

to

Fusil
Ital.

has

11.
11.

The

jump;

but

^asu,

gray.

4,

Skt.

3.
5.
fasa

perhaps

-nrfpis,

Read

E.

pere

of

A.

O.

F.

Y.piet'e.

""plictum.
For

skragga

Norw.

skragg,

5.

gives

(Ross

skraggen,

creaUire,

way

Shah,

vTQpuv,

illustration.

of

1.

rend
a

poor

scraggy.)
Read

4.

Read

is

not

in

late

the

found

from

gray';

line.

1. 8.

^smidanoz.

pp.

lct\.

Read
For

air

QEL

For

read

prdstr.

Tea.d/dir.
QwEL.

goni.

sasjtis,
not

last

Vernal,

khsdyathiya.

Read

8.

1. 5.

Wheel,
gd:j,

Read

meant'

Read

2.

1.

Smith,

form.

is

1.

Throstle,

l..foclle
very

2,

Gk.

words.

The
this

Gunny,
Hare,

The

by

allied

(i).

M.
"

3.

voucher,

"

"c.

nottis,

equivalent

Shaddock,

o'

'^nas-

seventeenth.

given
not

are

N.B.

falco

take

line.

last

merely

They

weak

exponent-.

origin.

Fern,
are

Read

i.

spelt

for

R^^^d

3-

pp.

1.

skragger.
1.

also
"

are

Read

2.

Scraggy,

stem.

Sxponent,

L.

Norman

Plait,

'lent.)

Orotic,

Read

forms

1.

cf.

Pier,

Gk.

to

(Walde).

torctioin

L.)

"

ax^iv.

"c.

1. .^.
both

Amoy.
to

VMEIGHw,

from,

Nasturtium,

In.

knille.

(F.

For

2.

distinct

read

type.

read
allied

Not
Read

9.

nasturcinm

krtdla
1.

(2),

-L.)

coster.

For

4.

Cypress

and

darken

Chin,

1. 6.

weak

/i/i/st

7-ead

stem

For

list

read

G.

For

For

4.

This

base

For

6.

1. 6.

Mist,

G.

observed.

5.

5,

Indigent,

kiesen.

but

Holly,

Hyson,

kjuklivgr.

Read

5.

1.

afiaOioQai.

Read

not

1.

Hone,

cent.

Audience,

been
serious.

History,
adu-

adilldri.

Allegory.

have
are

errors

rm^(F.-L.)

adaldtidnem,

Read

adiilatus,

the

completeness,

(F.)

For

I.

Adulation.

revision,
of

sake

the

1.

ET

P.

*^asnis.

652.

The

somewhat

faf,

to

are

cf. A.

S.

tentatively.
slight

lists

given

uncertain,
Several

readjustment.

will

in
and

this
are

hereafter

Section

only

VI

given

require

CONCISE

ETYMOLOGICAL

DICTIONARY

OF

THE

ENGLISH

LANGUAGE

ABBEY

A,

indef. art.

A-

(i),

(E.)

Here

A-

'2\

foot;
value

a-

(3),

A. S. and-

AAad.

to

(E.)

d\

Abase.

AAA-

or

(L.)

in

(10), as

L.

"? or

"?x

a-do.

(E.)

Here

"-

A-

(ii\

for M.

Ahoud

in

as

(E.)

a-ware.

E. jj/-,?"-,
A. S. ge- ;
(12), as in a-vast.
vast

see

a-

av-

or

assimilation

onbcFC

; see

L.

For

(E.)

; see

Abaft.

A-

(2) and

(E.)

b-aft,short

a-b-aft

^oxi

From
for

ah,

from

In

F.,

it

Advantage.
For

L.

at

the

E.

Late

part which

M.

Bashful.

E.

abaten."

*abbattere, to beat
to; and batere,

L.
"

See

beat.

Batter.

M.

abbod.^"

a.

(F.

-laaa,

E.

abbift-m.

(F.

abbeye.
"

L.

"

O.

abbdt-

L.

d/3/Sas.

viii. 15.

Gk.

abbdt-

fern
L.
F.

E.

(nom.

Syriac.)

abesse, abaesse.

V.

L. abbdt-issa.
-z'j-ja Gk.

L.

abbesse.~-0.

"Gk.

Rom.

father;

Hence

M.

L. abbdt-

father

abbot, lit. a

abbey.

(2),
Thus

Ital.). L. ad,

abbess.

and

prefix abi-aft,by aft.

by aft, i.e.

S.

A.

See

E.

L.)

"

Late

"

Syriac abba,

M.

Back.
the

(as

re.

in

M.

in

(F.

abbas),an

ad, to,

; and

much)

astonishment,

cause

abbot, abbod, A.S.

"

back.

on

astonish."

Cf. Abbate, for a-hate.


(2).
Abbot.
iL.-Gk.-Syriac.)

Du.

Abbreviate.

see

abaissier,

E. ahaschen, abaisof pres.


stem
esba'iss-,

out, very

ex,
to

abase

bat

down

F.

(F. ^bahir),to

L.

for batuere, to

For

Of.

(2), prefix. (L.)

Aback.

is

Avast.

see

(i), prefix. (L.)


E. of\ see
cognate with
Ab-

"-

Aware.

(Du.)

Ab-

becomes

Here

ahasen,i\om.

M.E.

origin from the interj.


astonishment,
coniffSometimes

with

O.F.

M.

O.

"

Abate.

do;

at

power

bannum,
G.
ban,

imitative

! of

fusrd
For

es-

of

bah

At, Ado.

see

F.

word

Alas.

H.

O.

O.F.
; imitating

(F.)

ba'ir,bahir,

Ex-.

see

ITn-, Abyss.

; see

av-

O.

a-mend

the

lower.

to

chen, abasen.

L.)

Base

part, of esbdir
Here

(F.) See
abyss. (Gk.)

in

9), as
d-

a-

(1).
; and ^in a-las.

(8), as

Here

(L.)

a-vert.

a-mend.

2,'i,m
{i^j,

(5)and

A-

"

G.)

Ban.

see

(F.

Abash.

in

Ab-

see

is for e-mend

and

summons,

"=

from

H.

abandonner."

F.

L. bandnm,

; Low

decree
ban

L.-O.

vb."

liberty; orig.in

at

ad, at

order,

an

Ad-.

; see

A-

by

a-

L.

"

Arise.

see

(6), as

Gk,

Here

(F.-Low

bandon,

biaften.Gen.
beceftan.See A-

Aft.

abandounen,

(of).

AL.

M.E.

commonest

a-

and

M.E.

A. S.

Abandon.

on

Here

Cf.

3377;

(2),By,

For

aft.

Exod.

F.

a-risc.

in

and

Off.

(5), as in achieve, a-stringcnt. (F,


a=Y.
L.
prefix a
L.) Here
; or

L.

"

a-

ofd fine.

Along.

see

(4), as

A. S.

is the

a-long. (E.)

in

as

the

lies to

An.

of; see Of,


afoot. (E.)

in

^ This
prefixa-.

of the

A-

See

a-do7c"n--^ A.S.

A. S.

as

On.

see

(E.)
in

as

"

(as above) ;

suffix.
Gk.

abeie.

(above).

Syriac.)
Late

L.

ABRIDGE

ABBREVIATE

Abbreviate.
ahbreuidre,to

From

(L.)
shorten.

L.

"

See Ab-

dicdre,to

renounce.

L.

habere,to
from

L.

have.

ace.

Cf. Habit.
habilitdtevi.

Der.

ability

F. ; from
L.
Ablution.
(F.-L.)
L.
ab-hUionem, a washing away.
pp. of ab-luere,to wash
away.
pp. of L. ab- abliltus,
L. ab,from; died re, L. ab, from ; Inere,
to wash.

assimilation ; and
(2) and Brief.
Abdicate.
(L.) From

by

to,

pp. of

ab-, for ad,

"

breiiis,short.

ace.

"

"

Abnegate. (L.) From pp. of L. abproclaim. Allied to Dictiou.


L.
abdomen
(stem negdre, to deny. L. ab, from ; negdre, to
(L-)
of
the
Cf. Negation.
lower
belly.
part
abdoinin-),
say no.
Abduction.
(L-) L- abdnctioncvi, Aboard.
(E.) For o^i board ; see AL. ab- (2) and Board.
of abdiictio,
a
ace.
leadingaway.
L. ab,from ; dficere, Abode,
sb. (E.) M. E. abood, delay,
ducere,to lead away.
to

Abdoxuexi.

"

"

"

lead.

to

Cf. Duke.

Abed.
and

(E.)

For

abiding.
on

bed;

see

(2)

A-

Bed.

Aberration.
(L.) From
a wandering from ;
aberrdtio,
L. ab,
L. ab-errdre.

ace.

of L.

from

pp. of

P^ormed

if from

as

A. S.

dbdd,

See Abide.
of dbJdan, to abide.
Abolish.
(F.-L.) F. aboliss-,stem
L. abolere, to
of pres. pt. of abolir.
2nd

stem

"

abolish.

Abominate.
(L.) From
pp. of L.
See Err.
ab-ouiindri,to turn away from that which
L. ab, away;
ouiin-,for
Abet, to incite. (F.-Scand.) O. F. is of ill omen.
F.
to
an
omen.
set
on
abeter,
(Godefroy).
excite,
omen,
to bait (a
a(Lat. ad-); and O. F. beter,
original inhabitants.
Aborigines,
L.
from
Icel.
make
the nations
which,
to
to
set
beita,
(L.)
aborigines,
bear),
on,
"

wander,

err.

"

"

bite,causal of bita,to bite.

to

See Bait,

previousto

Der.

bet,short

for

the

historical

record,drove

out

Siculi (Lewis and

Short). Formed
from the beginning
;
expectation,suspension.from L. ab origijie,
Abeyance,
is the abl. of origo (Vergil,
A. F.
L.)
abeiance, suspension,where origine
(F.
waiting(Roq.)- F. a ; and beaut,pres. pt. iEn. i. 642).
of L.
Abortion.
of O. F. beer (F. baye?-),
to gape,
ace.
(L.) From
expect
and
birth.
L.
L.
t
o
at
an
abortio,
aboi'tus,
;
ad,
baddre,
untimely
anxiously.
gape.
Abhor.
(L.) L. ab'horrere, to shrink pp. of ab'Oriri,to fail. L. ab, away;
L. ab, from ; horrere,
to
from in terror.
orirT,to arise,
begin. Cf. Orient.
Cf. Horrid.
A. F. abnnder,
dread.
Abound.
(F. L.)
to overflow.
Abide
(0, to wait for. (E.) A.S. O. F. abonder.^1^. ab-tinddre,
and bidan,to
L. ab, away;
d-bJda)i ; from d-, prefix,
a
nnda,
wave.
bide.
About.
See A- (4)and Bide.
(E.) M. E. abuten, abouten.
Abide
(2),to suffer for,pay for. (E.) A. S. dbutan, onbfttan ; short for onbeiitan ; where be answers
In Sh. ; corruptedfrom M. E. abyen,to
to E. by,and ntan,
See A- (2),
lit.
redeem.
"A.S.
is
related
to
out.
to
for,
buy
ill,
outward,
up,
]iay
By and Out.
dbycgan,to pay for. See A- (4)and Buy.
lit. cast
(L.) Above.
(E.) M. E. ahoven, abnfen.
Abject, mean,
away.
be
A.
S.
of
L. ab-iectiis,
to
cnst
ab-icere,
; where
dbufan, for on-be-iifan
away, pp.
and
L.
E.
cast
cast.
to
to
answers
ab, away ; iacere,
iifan,upward, is
by,
away.
See A- (2',
extended from Goth, uf,up.
Cf. Jet (1).
(A.S. nfan G. oben. A.S.
Abjure. (L.) L. ab-iurdre, to deny; By, Up.
lit. to swear
from.
L. ab, from ; be-ufan Du. boven.)
away
L. iur-,from nom.
to swear.
ins, Abrade, to scrape off. (L.) L. abiiirdre,
Cf.
law, right.
radere,to scrape off. L. ab, off ; radere,
Jury.
lit.
to
Der. abrasion
Ablative.
(from L. pp.
(L.) L. abldtnms,
scrape.
Bite.

abet,sb.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

L. ab, from ; and


Idtiun abrdsits'^.
taking away.
take
allied
to
to
Abreast.
bear,
tolleix,
tldtiwi),
(E.) Put for on In-cast;
(
;
See Tolerate.
A- (2) and Breast.
to take.
see
Ablaze.
(E.) For on blaze; see AAbridge. (F.-L.) M. E. abreggen.
to
A. F. abngger, O. F. abreger,abregicr,
(2) and Blaze.
"

Able,

powerful,

skilful.

(F.

L.)

"

M. E. able,liable.^O. F. habile,
able,able.
L. habilis,
active.
L.
to
handle,
easy
"

"

shorten.

"

ab-, put
Cf. Brief.

L.

abbrcnidre,

for ad-, to

to

and

shorten.

"

L.

breiiis,short.

Doublet, abbreviate.

ABROACH

ACCLIVITY

Abroach, to set.
for to

set

broach ;

on

(E.and F.)
Asee
(2)

Put

cult, concealed

and

thrust away.
thrust.

Broach.

of

abs-truderc,to
abs, away;
trndere, to

pp.

E.

"

See Intrude.

Abroad.
monious,
Absurd.
(E.) E. absnrdus, inhar(E.) M. \\.ahrood \ put for on.
foolish.
E. ab, from; siirdus,
brood; lit.on broad ; see A- (2)and Broad.
harslu
Cf. Surd.
Abrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. ab- deaf, inaudible,
law.
E.
to
a
ab^
Abundance.
repeal
rogdre,
(F,-E.) F. abondance.
away ;
law.
abundant
E.
ia.
to
See Abound.
a
ask,
rogdre,
propose
of
L.
vb.
F. abuser, to
abruptus,
Abuse,
(F.-E.)
(L.)
Abrupt.
pp.
off. E. ab, off; use
break
J,, abfisus,pp. of ab-ilti,
to
amiss.
to
ab-ruiiipere,
amiss.
E. ab, away
use
(amiss); iitl,
ruinperc, to break.
to use.
Abscess.
(E.)A gatheringof humours
"

"

"

"

"

E.
Abut,
place; lit. a going away.
abscess
(Celsus).
abscessiis,going away;
G.) O.
into

one

F.

off.

cut

"

"

fem.

of L.

abscissiis,

pp. of abscindere.

and

Abscond,
go into hiding. (E.) E.
E. abs,away; condere,
absconders,to hide.
"

hide.

Condere
and

to put.
^//^^,

i. "

589.)

is from

-dere, to

"

to

Skt.

i-y^DHE, to place; Brugm.

See

"

together,
[cuni),

con-

put, allied

Gk.

a-, short for av-, neg. prefix;


(Bvaaos,depth. See A- (9^ ITn- (i).

Acacia,

to

to

"

abscissa,from

Der.

E. and
towards."

(F.

thrust

E. ad, to ; O. F. bonier,botcr,to thrust.


to
abs-cedere,
go
cedere,to go, cede. See A- (5)and Butt (i).
(E.) From E. ab-scindere, Abyss, a bottomless gulf. (E.-Gk.)
E. ab, off; scittdere,
to cut.
Milton. E. abyssns. Gk. d^vaaos,
bottomless."

"

Abscind.
to

to
aboiitcr,

of

E. abscessus,pp.
E. abs^away

"

away.

towards.
]:)roject

to

"

(E. Gk.) E. acacia.


thornyEgyptianacacia.
point,thorn. (-y^AK.) See

tree.

vLKaKia, the

Gk.

cLKis, a

ii. " 52

Brugm.

"

(4).

Academy.
acad^nne.

Do.

Gk.

{".

L.

F.

Gk.)

h. academTa.^ Gk. aKabrjueia,


where
Plato taught,
named
from
"

XIV
cent.
a
adj. (F.-E.)
grove
of ab- the hero Akadevms.
stem
absent,adj. E. absent-,
E. ab-, away;
Accede.
to come
sens, being away.
-se7is,
(E.) E. ac-cedere,
being,occurringalso in prce-sens. Cf. Skt. towards, assent to. E. ac- (forad), to
to come,
cede.
sant, pres. pt. of as, to be ; from VES, to cedere,

Absent,

O. F.

"

"

"

be. Cf. Present, Sooth.


F. absence,E. absentia.

Accelerate.
(E.) From pp. of E.
accelcrdre,to quicken. E. ac- (forad),
unrestrained, complete.to ; celer,quick. Cf. Celerity.
Absolute,
sb.
E.
E.
Accent.
absolutns,
(E.)
(F." E.) F. fi'"r(rr;//,
pp. of ab-soluere,to
E.
tone.
set free. E. ab, from ; solncre,to loosen.
ace.
a
ac(for
ad);
accenttan,
from cancre, to sing.
to set
absolve.
(E.) E. ab-soluere,
canius.,a singing,
free (above). Der.
absohit-ion
from the
Accept. (F. E.) F. accepter. h.
of ac-cipere,
to receive.
acceptdre.frequentative
pp. above.
low.
E. aC' (for ad\ to ; capere,to take.
Absorb.
(L.) E. absorbere,to swal"E.
to sup up.+
Access.
ab, away;
(L.) E. accessus, a coming
sorbere,
absence,

Der.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

pocpidv,to sup up.


(Brugm. ii.
from
Der.
absorpt-ion,
pp. ab-

Gk.

" 801.)

sorpttis.
Abstain.
(F. E.) ". abstenir {O.Y.
refrain from."
as/emr). \^. abs-tinere,to
"

"

E.

abs,from

sb. :

; tenere, to hold.
from E.
F. abstijience,
abstent-ion,from the pp.

Abstemious.
from
refraining

(E.)

E.

strong drink.

tenietnm, strong drink,whence

"

Der.

unto.

E.

"

accede.
come,

"

accessus,

E.

ac-

of

pp.

to
ac-cedere,

(tor ad), to; cedere,to

cede.

Accident.
chance

event

tinence,
abspres. pt. oi

F. accident,a

(F.-E.)

base of
(Cot.). E. accident-,
to haj)pen. E. acac-cidere,
"

"

cadere. to fall. Der.


abstijzentia,
(forad),
F. accidence,E. accidentia.
E.
from
abstemius, Acclaim.
(E.) Formed
to ;

E. abs,from ;

at.
to cry out
clctuidre,
to cry out.
te?7iH-/entus, at ; c/ih/idre,

drunken.

"

E.
Vox

ac-

the

cidence,
ac-

ac-

(foradi,
spelling,

cf. Claim.

From
E. abslractus,pp.
Acclivity. (E.) XVII cent.
E. acaccliuitas
of
draw
E.
E.
aco.
abs,
acclJiiitatcni,
away.
a slope; see
(forad ; and clTu-tis,
sloping,
away ; trahere,to draw.
Abstruse.
(1). (y'KEEI; Brugm. i. " 463.)
(E.) E. abstrusus,diffi-jLean

Abstract.

(E.

of abs-traliere,
to

"

"

ACME

ACCOLADE

Ital.

"

F.

L.)

ed. 1660; lit.an


then
in

dubbing of a knight. Accrue,


in Cotgrave, (F.
L.)
accollade,

the

Accolade,
(F.

the neck,
sword
a

round

embrace

salutation,lighttap with

dubbing

knight.

"

to
of pp. of accollare,
neck (Florio). L. ac-

Ital.

the

about

(forad), to, about

to come

From

"

Accumulate.

fem.
accollata,

embrace

"

the
colliim,

to by way of increase,
k. F. acru, O. F. acreu,
to increase.
pp. oi acrois/re (F. accroitrc),
L. accrescere
; see above.
"

cnmnldre,

From

(L.)

ac-cunmldre, to

amass.

heap

to

L.

"

{ad),to ;
ciimulas,a

from

up,

heap.

neck.

Accurate.
Accommodate.
(L.^ From
(L.) From
pp. of
L. accommodare, to fit,
adapt. L. ac- (for acciirdre, to take painswith.
to ; cfndre, to care
for, from
ad^,to; and cotn"nodus,fit. L. cojn- (
See
mode.
with
and
Cure.
modus, measure,
cu?)i),
;
"

of L.
pp.
L. ac- {ad),

"

cilia,care.

"

"

(F. L.)

Accompany.
pagner,
and

F.

"

Accursed,

accom-

(L.

ad),to ;
coinpaing,companion ; see

to

accompany.

O. F.

ofL.

pp.

ac-

F.

"

"

acursien.
to

curse

Accomplice. _(F.-L.) Put

for^
^z

(E.) Pp. ofM.E.


cursian,
; and
prefix
(4)and Curse.

A-

; see

Accuse.

Company.

cursed.

A. S. a-,

(F. L.) K.". acuser.^l..


lay to one's charge. L. ac"

acc/lsdrc, to

"

; and

law,
causa, caussa,
complice,{ad),
;
complice
'a complice,
L. ace
a cause.
confederate;'Cot.
Accustom.
from complex, confederate,lit.
(F.-L.) K.Y.acustumer
complicem,
interwoven.'
L. comusual.
F. a
to make
[cum)^ together; (F. accotitumcj'),
and %\.tTCiplic',
allied to plicdre,
to weave.
[ixovn.L. ad, to); and A. F. custume,
is the indef. art.

F.

"

to

suit at

"

"

"

Cf. Ply.

See

custom.

Custom.
'
dice.
on

Ace,
Accomplish.
(F.-L. Gk. ?)
O. F. as.
L. as.
of pres. M. E. as.
pliscn.'~0.".acomplis-,stem
[Saidto be the
lor Gk. er?,
to complete. L. ad, to ; Tarentine
d'?,
one.]
part, of acomplir,
headless.
gether Acephalous,
complh'e, to fulfil. L. com(Gk.) Gk.
{cum), toheadless; with sufiix -ous.'~Gk.
dKe(pak-os,
; plere,to fill.
See A- {g).
Accord.
(F. L.) A. F. acorder,io a-, un- ; and K((pa\i],head.
'f.
accorddre.
XVI
Late
L.
L.
cent.
ac(forad), Acerbity. (F.-L.)
agree.
M. E.

(F. L.)
"

the

acom-

one

"

"

"

"

to

"

and

of

cord-^ stem

cor, heart.

Cf.

Accordion,
"

accord, to
to

tune

(as in

musical

From

(Ital. L.)
-ion

acerdile. h.
"

acerdildlem (nom.

ace.

dilas), bitterness.

Concord.
Ital.

instrument.

accord-are,to

instrument

an

clar-ion).Late

with

'

accoster,lit.
L. accostdre

to

go

"

L.

F.

(F.-L.)
side of.'

to the

(same).

costa, rib,side.

"

Late

(forad),to;

ac-

(F. L.) A. F. acounter,


Account,
O. F. a, to ; confer, compter, to
acunter.
L. ad ; and com-putare, to comcount.
pute,
"

"

"

from

com-

{cum),

and

putdre,

to

(F.-L.?)

F.

accoutrer,

formerly also accoustrer, to dress,array.


Etym. quiteuncertain ; perhaps from O. F.
cotistre,coutre, a sacristan who had
of sacred vestments, from
Late L.
L. custos, a. custodian,
keeper.

charge
czistor

Accretion,
of

increase.

(L.)

From

ace.

L. accretio,increase.
L. accretus,pp.
of ac-crescere, to increase.
L. ac- [iovad ;
inchoative
form from
crescere, to
grow,
"

"

cre-dre, to make.

Cf. Create.

aken, vb. ;
drive.)
M. E.

ache, sb.,from A. S. cece, a pain. The verb


survives,speltas the obs. sb.
Achieve.
(F. L.) yi.Y.. acheven.-"

O. F.

"
.

Achromatic,
(9^ and

A-

chef,

lit.to
head.

See

(Gk.)

sharp. (F.-L.;

L.)

or

L. ac-idus,lit.piercing.
y'AK,
acid-id-at-cd
pierce.)iJer. acid-i-ty;
"

E. knoivlechen
E.

acid-us).
XVI

cent.

from the sb. knowleche,


The

see
Knowledge.
kno7vledge;

prefixis due

to

07icndwan), with
the

L. ad,

Cf. Chief.
colourless.

dimin. oi
(from L. acid-ul-us,
(E.)
Acknowledge.
M.

to

come
"

Chromatic.

sour,

F. acide.

to

caput, a head.

to ;

to

achieve

achever,to

head

mod.

M. E.

(E.)

A. S. acan.
(y'AG, to
Spelt ache by confusion with

Acid,

think.

Accoutre.

verb.

ook.

t.

A. F.

See Coast.

vb.

Ache,
%

address.

to

r-

"

suffix

See above.

agree.

Accost,

ace

acer-b-tis,bitter;

L. acere, to
cf. dc-er, sharp,lit. piercing.
be sour.

L. accordare, pt.

"

L.

"

M. E.
the

aiinoiven
same

sense

"

A. S.

hence

is A- '^2).
prefix
top,
Acme, top. (Gk.) Gk. d/f-/x77,
sharpedge. (y'AK, to pierce.)

ADDUCE
F.

"

ADROIT

to direct,
dress;
dresser^

a, to;

Adduce.
(L-)
to, bring forward.
lead, bring.

Adept,

the

see

to
ajoster,

O. F.

I- aJ-dr/caw to lead
L. ad, to; dncere,to

"

put side by side,


arrange.
iiixtd,near ; see Joust.

L.

"

ad^ to

; and

Adjutant,

lit.assistant. (L.) P'rom


of pres. part, of
adintant-em,ace.
to assist,
of ad-itmare,
adiiitdre,
frequent,
L. ad, to ; iimdre,to help. Cf.
to aid.
L.

(L.) L. adeptus,
proficient.
obtained
proficiency
; pp. of
L. ad, to; apisci,
Aid.
to obtain.
to
adipisci,
obtain, perhaps related to aptiis, fit. Administer.
who

one

of

sense

standing

Dress.

has

"

"

istren.'-O.Y

Cf. Apt.

Adequate.
of

adivqiidtus,
pp.
equal to. L. ad, trdre,to serve,
equal,from aquiis, See Minister.

make

adceqiidre,

to

L.

(L.)
to

"

aqiidre, to make

equal.
Adhere.
to.

L.

"

(L.)

ad

farewell.

stick

to
ad-hcerere,

stick.

(F.)

M. E.

dieii.

dieii,
(I commit you) to God.
See Deity.
Deitm, to God.

F.

"

L.

to
to; /uerere,
a*:/,

Adieu,
a

Adipose,

Late

fatty.(L.)

stem
posns, I'atty.L. adip-,

Connection

doubtful.

Adit,

to

access

approach,entrance.
ad- ire, to go to.

Adjacent,

Gk.

with

"

L.

L.

"

a
minister,

servant.

"

prince;

The

Emir.

see

suffix is due
the

almamir-al-bahr,princeof
Admire.
(,F.-L.) F. admirer

adi-

L.

"

from

Arab,

"

dXeupa,fat,is

L. ad, at ;

!^.

admirdri, to

mirdri,to
(L.) L.

wonder

to
sea.

(O. Y.
at."

wonder.

Admit.
to let
ad-7nittere,
adit-iis,to, send to. L. ad, to ; mittere,to send.
L. adit-iim,
supineof Der. admiss-ion ; from pp. admiss-us.
M.E.
Admonish.
amonad, to ; Jre, to go.
(F. L.)

(L.)

mine.
"

M.Y.amin-

M. E.
adAdmiral.
(F.-Arab.)
often amiral.^0.
F. amiral,
miral,more
amirail,also ainire ; cf. Low L. aduiiraldus,a prince,chief. Arab, amir, a

sb., amirer).
adeps,

of

"

fat.

(F.-L.)

aniinistj-er.-'l.. ad-minisminister
to
trdre,
(^to).L. ad, to; minis.

L.

"

"

has taken the


(L.) From base esten ; so that admonish
of
of pres. pt. of L. ad-iacere,
to lie near.
with
place amonest,
changed suffix due
L. ad, near
to verbs in -ish.
I a7)ioneste
to lie.
or
warne
;
; iacere,
{{tm.. Wyclif,I Cor. iv. 14. O.F. amonester.'^
Adjective. (F.-L.) Y. adjcctif
Late L. admonestdre,
formation
from
lit.put near
-ive). h. ad-iectnius,
to.
new
L. adf?ionere,
L. ad'iectns,pp. of ad-icere,
to advise.
L. ad, to; monere,
to put near.
L. ad, to ; iacere,
to advise.
Cf. Monition.
to cast,throw.
lie
O.
F.
to
next
to.
(F.-L.)
A-do, to-do, trouble. (E.) M. E. at
Adjoin,
adjoindre. L. ad-mngere(pp.adiuiictus),
do,to do ; a Northern idiom, whereby at
to jointo.
L. ad, to ; iungei'e,
used as the sign of the infin.mood, as
was
to join.
Adjourn, to put off tillanother day. in Icel.,Swedish,"c. See Do (1).
(F. L.) O. F. ajorner,
Adolescent, growing up. (L.) L.
properlyto draw
to day,to dawn
to
2iCc. of pres. pt.oi ad-olescere,
near
; also,
appoint a adolescent-em,
Late L. adjnnidre, diem
See Adult.
to grow
day for one.
up.
dicere alicui ; Ducange.
L. ad, to; and
to adopt,
Adopt. (L.) L. ad-optdre,
Late h.Jiirnus{liaX.
choose.
L. ad, to ; optdre,
to wish.
a
giorno),
day,from
L. adj.dinrmis, daily. L. dies,a day.
Adore.
(L.) L. ad-orare,to pray to.
L. ad, to ; or are, to pray, from os (gen.
;
Adj udge. (F. L.) M E. adiuge^i
also aiugcn {=^ajugen\^0. F. ajiigcr,
Cf. Oral.
to
dr-is\the mouth.
decide.
!^, adiudicdre,
L. ad,
to award.
Adorn.
(L.) L. ad-omdre, to deck.
to ; itldkdre,to judge, from
base
L. ad, to ; orndre, to adorn.
iiidic-^
q{ index,a judge. See Judge.
downwards.
M. E.
Adown,
(E.)
to.

near

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Adjudicate.

(L.)

From

pp.

of L.

adifidicdre

(above).
Adjure. (L.) L. adiurare,to
to ; in late L., to put to an
oath.
"

to ;

in rare, to

Adjust,
F.

to

swear.

down

or

dat.
A. S. of,off,from; and fi'/?;/,?,
of dUn. a hdl ; see A- (i)and Down
(2).
"

swear

L.

ad,

See Jury.

fit exactly.
(F.-L.)
to

of-dune,lit.from

hill.

From
'

adjuster, adjust,placejustly
; Cot.
L. ad, to ; iiistus,
exact
Just.
see
just,
;
due to misunderF. formation,
^ A new
"

A.S.

adune.

Adrift.
(E.) For on drift; see A,2) and Drift.
dexterous.
Adroit.
(F.-L.) F. ar/;-^//,
F. ^ djvit,rightfully.
F. a (L. ad),to ;
-

"

Late
L.

neut. of
directum, right,
justice,
of
to
dtrectus,
dl-rigere, direct.
pp.

L.

ADULATION
from

L. di-

AFFECT

(for"/w-),
apart,and

legere^ to

warn.

Late L. aduertere,put for L. aduertere.


turn
to, heed ; see above.

"

rule.

to

Adulation,
adulation.

adnlationeni, from

ace.

of

L. aduld/iis,
aduldtio, flattery.
pp.
flatter.
to
adiddri^
"

without

"

Adulterate,

(avis),

avis, an opinion; orig.


cording
compound word, put for a vis,i.e. acto my
opinion. L. ad, according

O.F.

"

has seemed
to ; uisuni, that which
to one, orig.neut. of uTsus, pp. of
to

good
tiidere,

see.

Advise.

Aliment.

see

M. E. auis

(F.-L.)

"/.

"

Adult.
(L.) L. ad liltus
grown
up;
of
L. ad, to ;
to grow
ad-olescere,
pp.
up.
form related to alere,to
"^olescere,
inceptive
nourish ;

Advice.

F.

flattery.(F.-L.)

L.

"

F.-L.")

M. E. rtr/?""",also

corrupt. (I..^ XVI


L. adiilterdtus,
cent.
to
pp. of adiilterare,
L.
dea
an
adulter, adulterer,
corrupt.

without ^.
O. F. aviser,
auisen {avisen),
to be of opinion. O. F. avis (above).
Advocate, ^b. (F." L.) M. F. advocate

baser of money.

'

to

"

"

later form

Cot.

L.

"

aduocdtus,

an

'called upon' to plead."


avoutrie; advocate, one
L. aduocdtus, pp. of ad-tiocdre,
tion
to call to,
adulterie,in imita-

"

of Latin.

'

advocate

an

Adultery. (F. L.)


but

"

"

was

Cf. O.F.

Vi.Y..

avoitterie,call
avoutrie,

L. ad, to ; uocdre, to call.


AdvOVTSOn.
(F.-L.) A. F. avoeson,

from

upon.

"

adulterer,
;
adultery
avoiitre, an
L. adulter (,see above); also advouson,patronage ; hence the right
represented
that avoutrie was
of presentation
so
in sense
to
to a benefice (Roquefort)."
equivalent
L. adiilterzHfn,
of aduocdtio,
Late L. aduocdtionem,ace.
adultery.
which

Adumbrate.

(L.)
shadow

ad-umbrdre,to
umbra,

From
forth.

"

pp. of L.
L. ad, to ;

Late

L. aduocdtus,a patron;
aduocdtus,an advocate.
axe.
(E.) M. E. adse,
cooper's

"

same

as

Adze,

shadow.

Advance,

patronage.
the

L.

(F. L.) adese. A. S. adesa,an adze.


go forward.
XVI
Aerial.
cent.
A mistaken
form ; for M. E.
(L. (ik.) Formed with suffix
from
L.
-a/
ward
forF.
aeri-tis,
to
avancen.
dwellingin the air.
auancen,
avancer,
go
air ; see Air.
before.
F. avaiit, before. L. ab^ L. aer, air. Gk. d.r\p,
or
from ; ante, before.
See Ante-, Van.
Aerolite, a meteoric stone. (Gk.)
to

"

"

"

"

"

Advantage,
taken

form

"

"

profit.
(F.-L.) AmisavantY..avantage.'-Y

for M.

Also

aerolith,which

Gk.

from

age ; formed

before ;

with

suffix -age from

avaiit,

a^po-,

Aeronaut,

is

better form.

"

a stone.
arip, air ; Ki6-os,
balloonist.
a
(F. Gk.)
"

Gk.

d(po-,from

air;
d-qp,
from
a
sailor,
a
aduejitus,
ship.
approach.(L.)
vavs,
i'avT-i]s,
nest,brood of eaglesor
approach. L. aduentus,pp. of ad-zienire, Aery, an eagle's
to approach. L. ad, to; tiaiire, to come.
hawks.
(F. Late L.) F. aire, an airie
F. aeronaute.

above.

see

Advent,

"

L.

"

"

Cf. Venture.

or

Adventure.
with

F.

a-

see

replaced by

L.

ad-.

chance,

F.

"

L.

"

ad-

above.

Adverb.
verb.

nest

(F.-L.)

Used

to

a
qualify

'

of hawkes

Cot.

"

Late L. drea, a

bird of prey ; of uncertain origin.


^ Sometimes
misspelteyry, by confusion
with M. E. ey, an egg ; see IJgg.
JEsthetic, refined. (Gk.) Gk. aloOrj-

(F.-L.) yi.Y..aventure\nest

occurrence.
aventure,
to
tieutura, fem. of aduentftrus,about
happen,fut. part.o1 aduenire, to approach;
a

"

"

of

ceive.
perceptive.Gk. aladiaOai,to per(VAW
Brugm. ii. " 841.)
; see
pain,dulling
anaesthetic, relieving

TiKus,

"

Gk.

and

aladrjTiKos.
nerbuvi,a word, a
Adverse.
(F.-L.) \l.Y.advers{"d.Y.
L. af-=^ad,
avers). h. aduersus,turned towards, also bilis,
easy to be spoken to.
opposed to; pp. of L. aduertere,to turn to ; fdri,to speak.
to (see
below).Der. advers-aiy,
(F.-L.) W.Y. affere.-O.Y.
adversity. Affair.
Advert.
to turn
(L.) L. ad-tiertere,
afaire,a business ; orig.a faire,
afeire,
to do. -L.
ad, to ; facere,
to, regard,heed. L. ad, to; uertere, to i.e. (something)
turn ; see
Verse.
Der. in-advert-ent,
not
to do.
F. adverbe.

L. aduerbiuiu.

"

to ;

L.

"

ad,

sensation.

"

dv-,not

Afar.
(E.) Y ox on far.
Affable.
-l..affd(F.-L.) Y. affable.

verb.

"

"

"

Affect.

regarding.
Advertise.
later advertise.

(F. L.)
-

From

tiss-ant,
pres. pt.

of

M. E.

the base

avertir,to

(L.)

L.

to apply
affectdre,

of
upon) ; frequent,
L. af- ad, to;
to aim
at, treat.
afficere,
inform,facere,to do, act. Der. dis-affect.

avertisen,oneself
of

aver-

to

;henee,to

act

"

AFFEER

Affeer,

AGATE
contirm.

F. fret,the
(F.-L.) af-,for L. a.i-,
; and
prefix
o{ a ship.See Fraught, Freight.
a
thins;freight
Late
I., afforarc^
to
lix
a
^officially).
Affright, to frighten.(E.^ The
and /^r*;////,
matket, double/ is late. From ^L E. afright,
used
price. L, "z/-J"or"7./i;
as a pp., .nffrighted.
A. S. ifvr)it,afyrhf
price.
O- ^ iifi^ift^^,
Affiaiice. v^' ^
from infin. dfyrhian
trust; pp. artrightcd
;
(not
to

assess,

iifcu'fr,to fix the price of

O.K.

"

"

"

"

"

"

ct'.
aricr.to trust
affi-cr,
O. F. a i^L.
aii)^to;
pres. \)t.oi Late

L./FJtr".

E. rf^j'
^^whence
of
stem
anLl/7ja;//-,
fidure,to trust, from

L.

oath.

Affidavit,an
dchdt, 3 p.

s.

L. .if-=.:.;.

to

to

arc.
affront

Late L.

(L )

to ; front-cm,
ace.
o/f}"to plcdi^e. brow.
pt.t. oi iijffdd'c,
for L.fidere,Afloat.
E.^ For
; Late h.flddrc,

L.

af {{ox ad),
from, forehead,

"

of

Afoot.
F. affiUation,Afore.

trust.

Affiliation.
an

.\.S. "/-, intensive; xa\"\fyrhtan,

to

face." Late L.

pledi^e.

usedV-

terrify.
Fright.
\xo\\\fyrhto,
fright
; see
Affront. (F. L.) M. E. afrontcn.
O. F\ afronter,
to confront,
h./fjin/ia,
oppose face to

Cf. Late

trust.

to

"

adoption

as

^,F, L.)
"

son.

Late 1.,.
ace.

"

\\l"i For
vl^O For

float.

en
on

foot.

fore, A.

on

S.

on-

affilidforan.alore.

Afraid.
a son.
filins,
^F.-L. and Teut.) Grig.
F. ajiniii'.
L. affrayed,
i.e. 'frightened.'
Pp. of Affray,
L. q.v.
nearness.
ace. of affitiilas,
cijfy?ntdtcm,
L. of-(for
ad
borderini^ on.
near,
Afresh. (,E.)For on freshor offresh;
aff:nis,
tiomm.

"

L.

af-=ad,

to ;

'

Affinity. (F.

L )

"

"

to.

/Friis,
boundary, end.

near:

Affirm,

vl"- L.")

O. F.

see

Anew.

offcnnett.'Aft, After.

M. E.

"

A. S.

lE.)

behind;
.cftan.

afcrmcr, to fix. L. af/irfudr^.L.


after,after,both prep, and adv.+
backwards;
af- ^for";Ji,to ; Jirmdre,to make lirm, Icel. aptan, behind,aptr, "7//r,
from nr-mus,
Dan. and Swed. efter,
Du. achter,
O. H. G.
strong ; see Firm.
"

"

Affix. (L.) LateL. "7/;^a/"^(^)ucange^,


aftar,prep, and adv. behind, p. Aftan
of L. affigcre
is
extended
from Goth, af, off; see
to
Of.
affijc-us),
frequent,
;,pp.
fasten to.- V..afto fix. After is a comp. form, likeGk. a-noo-rkp
[^ior
axi),
\o\fFgere,
a:.

Afflict,to

harass.

(L.)

XVI

cent.

further off; it

-L.

means

off,fuither off,

more

hence behind.
to strike to the
Der.
ajiiitus.
ab-aft,
pp. of ajilgcre,
q v. ; afterad
L.
to
;
to
ground.
; andy//"tV"', 7i'ard y^sceToward
af-Jor
dash.
So also conflict,
from pp. conflutus
Aftermath, a second crop of mown
;
inflict:and d. J"ro-Jii_ga/e.
; and math
grass. '^E.Herea//trisan adj.
form
of
Afflnence. ^F.-L.) F. affluence. means
a
mowing,' unaccented
L. ariucr.na, abundance.
Cf.
A. S. mcc/i. Allied to Mead, Mow.
L. affluent-on
vacc.\ riowing towards, pres. part, of G. mahd. a mowing ; nachmahd, aftermath.
L. af- (for Aftermost,
hindmost.
to flow to, abound.
afflucrc.
(E.) A. S.
a"/\ to ; flitej-Cy
but
affected
Goth,
to flow.
aftumists;
izftemesi.
Afford.
(E.) Altered from aforth,by afterand 7nost. The Goth, aflu-jnyi.V^. aforthen,
vSee .^t.
form.
P. PL B. vi. ists is a treble superl.
to provide,
A. S. gcfonian,
20 1.
fjrdian,to further, Aga, Agha, a chief officer. ^^Turk.)
Turk. ai;hd,
master.
promote, provide. A. S. ^"r-, prefix;and
for^,forth, forward ; see Forth..
Again. North E." Cf. ^L E. ayein,
and
(F.-L. and Teut.^ A. S. ongcgn
Affray, to frighten.
{ongean^ A.S. on\
XI\" cent.
M. E. affrayen.-'O.
F. effraier,
gegn, of w hich the primarymeaning seems
"sfreci\to frighten.Low L exfnddre,to to have
been
direct,'or
straight.'
break the king'speace, cause
Swed. igen,
an
or
again.
(X. E. D.^i4-L)an.
igien,
aftray
fray; hence, to disturb,frighten. L. ^j"r ;
against. ^NorthE.) The / is added.
and O. H. G./ridii
extended from
{G./riede),
peace. (See Qi. ^L E. uveincs, against;
with adv. suffix -es.
Romania, iS7S.vii.
121.) Der. affray,
sb., M. E. ayein, against,
also spelt
as A. S.
A. S. ongean, against
/rav ; and afraid,q. v.
; the same
above.
the
of
see
+ Icel.
Affreightment, hiring a vessel ongean, ongegn, again;
G.
to
L.
and
An
T
^F.
against.
G.)
ef.'ti;'egen,
convey
gegn,
cargo.
E spelling
of V affrctcment.
written
now
Agate. '^h\- It. L. Gk.^, O.F. agate,
the hiring of a
affr^temcnt.
ship. F. agathe. Ilal. agata, agatha,an agate
oi achates."
now
to hire a ship. F.
(^Florio).L. aehdte/Hface
affreier
affrdler),
"

'

"

"

"

"

-"^

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

AGE

AGREE

from being Agitate. (L.) L. agitdtus,


pp. of
to keepdriving
of
agitdre,
(Sicily).
about,frequent,
Age. (F. L.) O. F. aage, edage. Late agere, to drive ; see Agent.
(..y^AG.")
of ceids (from Aglet, a tag of a lace. (F.-L ) Also
L. cBtdticiwi. L. (rtdti-,%\tva
L.
life,period.
*aui-ids),
+
cemim,
aygulet,Spenser,F. Q. ii.3. 26. F. aiguilage.
Gk.
alwv ; Goth,
aixcs ; Skt. dyus, life. lette,
dimin. oi aiguille,
Late L.
a needle.
ii.
dimin.
of
112.
ac
a
acucula,
tis,
"
Brugm.
needle,pointed
Agent. (L.) XVI cent. L. agent-, thing. Cf. Acme.
(v^AK.)
Gk.

an
dx^TJ^j,
agate ; so

found

near

named

the river Achates

"

"

"

"

"

"

stem of pres. pt. oi agere (pp.actus^,to do,


Skt.
drive,conduct.+Gk. a7etj/; Icel.^/6(3;;
drive.
t
o
a;',
{^/ AG.)
to mass
(L.)
together.
to form into
agglomerdre,

Agglomerate,
From
a

pp. of L.
L. a^-

mass.

of

"

glomus,

the foot, ('2)a


com
on
beside the nail. (E.) The
has
sense
been confused or perverted.From
A. S.
angncrgl,a corn on the foot (see A. S.
Leechdoms, ii. 81, " 34); with which cf.
O. Friesic ogneil,
used
ongneil,
apparently

stem
( ad) ; and glonier-,
ball,clue of thread, in
=

mass,

allied to

Agnail, (1) a

sore

globus, globe; see Globe.


Agglutinate. (L.) From pp. of
to
agglutindre,
glue together. L. agglue.
( ad),to ; glutin-,for glfiteti,
a

similar

From
sense.
a
prefixang-,
signifying
afflicting,
paining,and A. S.
nail (as of iron),hence a hard
a
ncvgl,
a

round-headed

excrescence

tiie flesh ;

Anger

fixed in
wart
Nail.
P Soon
to the nails of
Aggrandise. (F.-L.) M.V. a^^ra;/-misunderstood as referring
and so made
of pres. pt. of aggrandir,to the toes or fingers,
stem
to mean
fl'zV-,
*
F.
beside
the
Also
nail ' ; prob. by comone
a
sore
paring
^).
enlarge.
agrandir(with
"

see

or

and

"

(forL. ad) ;

from
from

and

grandir,to

(wrongly) the Gk.

increase,

L. grandlre,to enlarge,which
L. grandis,
great.

is

whitlow

"napovvx'^a,

(lit.beside the nail',


or by
with

F.

a
sore
angonaille,

fusion
con-

(Cot.).

pp. ofL. ^^^- See N. E. D.


L. agndtus,
graudre, to add to a load. L. ag- {-ad), Agnate, allied. (L.)
to; graudre,to load,{rom grants, heavy. allied ; pp. of agnascT= ad-gnasd. L. ad,
Aggregate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- to ; nasct, earlier form gnasef, to be born.
gregdre,to collect into a flock. L. ag- (for Ago, Agone, gone away, past. (E.)
M. E. ago, agon, agoon, pp. of the verb
ad), to ; greg-, stem ofgrex,a flock.

Aggravate. (L.)

From

"

"

"

Aggress, to attack. (F.-L.) M.F.ag- agon, to pass by, pass away. A. S. dgdn,
L. aggressus, pp. of aggredi,
to
See A- (4)
pp. of dgdn, to pass away.
gresser.
vance.
adand
assail. L. a^- {for
to
Go.
ad), to; gradi,
Agog, in eagerness. (F.) For a-gog,
in
M.
E.
in eagerness,
where
is
aL.)
(F.
activity,
fl^;rz/^;z.
Aggrieve.
"

"

"

"

O. F. a, to ; the prefixAO. F. agrever, to overwhelm.


(2). Adapted from O. F.
L. a"^,to ; graudre, to en gogues (Littre),
or
a
grever, to burden.
gogue (Godefroy),
weigh down, from grauis,heavy,grave. in mirth. Cot. has estre en ses gogues, to
be frolicke,
See Grave
in a veine of mirth.' The
(2).
"

"

'

...

Aghast,

horror-struck.

{"..)Misspeltoriginof
agasted,
pp. of unknown.

for agast,which is short for


M. E. agasten,to terrify
; Ch. C. T. 2341 ;
Leg.of Good Women, Dido, 248. A. S.
torment.
; and giestan,to terrify,
a-, prefix
"

O. F. gogue,

Agony. (F.
"

"

F. agonie. L.
"

contest.

"

Gk.

fun, diversion,is

L,
Gk.) M.E. agonie.
^Gk, dycvvia,
agdnia.
orig.
Gk. dyav,
contest.
dytuv,
"

"

to drive.
p. A. S. giestan is from the base gas(^ AG.)
Goth, gais-in tts-gais-jan,
to terrify,
(y' Agouti, a rodent
"

animal,of the guineapig family.(F. Sp. Brazil.)F. agouti.


Agile. I F.-L.) XVI cent. Y. agile. Sp. ^^"//. Brazil, aguti,acuti.
L. agilis,
nimble; lit. easilydriven
Agraffe, a kind of clasp.(F.-O.H.G.)
about.
L. agere, to drive.
F. agrafe; also agraphe (in Cotgrave),
Agistment, the pasturage of cattle a hook, clasp;agrafer,to clasp. The
by agreement. (F. L.) From the F. vb. verb is from F. a ( L. ad), to; and
P\ a
M. H. G. krapfe,
O. H. G. crapo, chrapfo,
agister,to assigna resting-place.
a couch,
; and O.Y.giste,
( \^.ad),\o
ing, a hook, which is allied to E. cratnp.
lodgverbal sb. from O. F. gesir(F.gesir), Agree,
O. F.
accord. (F.-L.)
to
from L. iacere,to lie.
receive
F.
to lie,
O.
to
favourably.
agreer,
agre^
GHwAIS.)

Brugm. ii. "

802.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

AGRICULTURE

ALBUM

fhvourably.O. F. a ( T^. aJ),according Aja"r. (E." From a char, on char, on


from
I
b. vii.
to ; pf, ST*"^'pleasure,
i^nftft/n,the turn (G. Douglas,tr. of Virgil,
Cl. Grace.
dear, pleasing.
the uun
on
ncut.
ofi::'rr7/uj:,
; cf.A.S.
prol.^.A.S. on "i"rrc,
ricrran. to turn.
See Char
Der. iiis-(7ipy^.
{2).
cyran,
Akimbo, in a bent position.(Scand.)
Agpricultnre. (L-) L- ^^n cuUum,
M. K. ;;." kcnchou-f,Berjni,
culture 01 .n field. L. agrl,gen. of cgcr^
1S3S. Perhaps
and Cxil- from
cultut-a. See Acre
Icel. /" Xvw^% into a crook; with
a field ; and
E. ho7v,i.e. bend, superfluously
added.
ture.
a
a
crook,
plant. (F.-I,.-Gk." Here kcng is the ace. of kcng-r,
Alimony,
V. aipi- twist, kink.
Cf. also Icel. Arnii'ho^fin,
M. v.. apit'vohu.
('p-ftti("itif.'''^\.
=

"

,.

"

"

f'.w';;.'-. 1..
"

Gk.
(j'-grmdnia,
"7r^;vw"v//.

bent

"

dp^iii^y^l.(Lewis and Short. L. Diet.")

Ag^round.
Ague,
'

"

,K.^

or

fever-fit.

on
gr-ound.
Lit.
(F. L.)
"

fern, of agu

acute' .ittack. O. F. agiu,


"

i^F.aii:u^.acute.

i^fever^
:

fern, oi

fitus

Ah!\F.-L.^

M.E.

Ai,

For

^F."
direction.
sloth.

hcaJ,

on

See A-

fl!-

i.e. in

Brazil, ai.

M. E. aidcn.

hastron.

Alack.

{2'^.

"^ From
(Brazil.

(F.-L.^

Aid.

^i"*. ^Very doubtful ; a guess.)


of kin. (E.) " or of kin.
^LE. alaGk.^
Alabaster.
^F.-L.
ha.-tre.'^O. ". alahastre {" aIhdt!-e).'"'L.
alabaster,alahasfriim.^G'k. dXat^aarpov,
Bow

oXd^aaTos.

Ahead.

kcngr, a crook,

a:-O.F.

L. "7V!
forward

crook, from

Acute.

; see

Akin,

acute
{ffbris),

L. arz/Ar

"

a:

into

twist, kink, and


bowed,
hog'inn,
pp. of
lost verb hjf/ga,
See Kink
and
to bow.

F.

O.

oi aJitiiidre.
L. adiutare.. frequent,
^7;'..v''.
to assist. L. ad\ and iuuihf, to help,
pp.
"

"

Said to be derived from .4/ain Eg}-pt. (Pliny.)

town

{"..')Prob.

a! .'acL'!nlas !
be the

cannot

as

same

from
cc.'city.

M.E.

lit. 'lack.'

(It

alas.')
Formed

Alacrity. (L.^
wirh

of
corruption

shame!

by analogy

L. alacritdtem.

of

ace.

L. alacer,brisk.
a/acri/ds. briskness.
Brugm. ii. " ^S^.
^F. Ital. L."!
Ail, V- (E.^ M.E. ^;"". A.S.eglan, Alarm, a call to arms.
Ital. alfarvie,
Goth,
E.
F.rt/rtrw"r.
with
alartnc.
^L
to
agljan.
pain ; cognate
Goth.
for
alle
Late L. ad
to
to
I
troublesome
anne.
A.S.
arms
(allied
eg!e,
illas
ilia
for
ad
Cf.
A.S.
L.
hard\
to
terror,
armas,
orig.
aglus,
ege,
arma,
those arms
!
! to your arms
pain ; see A"we.
alarum.
(F.-Ital.-L.) The same
Aim, to endeavour after. (^F, L.) ^L E.
of (i) A. F. word. Mith an old pronunciation,
in which
confusion
ci^na:.
From
estimate,
the
aim
trilled.
L.
izst{rfii.lrc.
to
;- was
stronglv
csnh-r, from
I\L E. alas.
O. F. alas
Alas
! (F. L.')
at, intend ; and (2 O. F. arsrner, from L.
with
ah
and
F.
helas^.
F.
!
to.
O.
las,
ad-usfir?!arf,
ad-,
prefix
(cf.
a,
comp.

Cf.
/.-T/;/,*-.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

wretched

See Esteem.
Air
i\
F. air.

"

"

M.

F.-L.-Gk.^
L. (ier.

"

Gk.

dr.

E. ah\

Alb,

air.
a-^p.

air v2\ mien, affected manner


; tune.
-L.
F.
-It.
look.
tune.
(F.
-Gk.)
air,

a^bc

Folk-L.

looke,

neut.

pi.acra,

tune

'

treated

Florio.
as

white

"

L. ah ! and

vestment.

O. F. a/7'^, Late

"

lassiis,

(Alliedto Late.)
"

(F.
"

L.

L.^i M. E.

alba,sb.;orig.

oi L. alhus, white.
Albacore, a kind of tunny.
Arab.'
Port, albacor, albacora.

"

fem.

am

fem.

Ital. aria^'

that I

tired,wretched.

(^Port.
"

Said

to

sing.(Diez\ L. dcr.^G\^. drjp(^above). be of Arab, origin.


Port.
Airt, a point of the compass.
(Gael.) Albatross, a largesea-bird.
of
the
also
Gael,
aird, a quarter or point
Gk.) Formerly
algaSpan. Arab.
tross;
albaCf. O Irish ai'd. a point,limit. //vj-r. Port, alcatraz, a cormorant,
compass.
Aisle, the wing of a church. (F. L.'
Span, akatraz, a pelican. Port.
L J/,?,
M. Span.
F. a/VV.
Better spelt
a//V.
a wing. alcatruz. a bucket. Span,ar-.adttz,
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Prob.

Ait.

"

for *.7.v.'(7.
dimin.

of Axis.

See Eyot.
Aitch-bone, the rump-bone.

ahaduz

(Hyb.

L. jfid E.)
Orig.speltnoi/if hone.
C". F. nache. sing,of iiachcs. the buttocks
F.

on
same

water-

(Dozy).

SimilarlyArab, saijqd,a water-carrier,a


in its
pelican,because it carries water
Littre.")
to
:
(Devic
pouch.
supp.

Late L. naticds, ace.


Apaches
Album, lit.that which is white. (L.)
dimin.
of L. tiatcs,the buttocks. L
albiim, a tablet,orig.neut. of albtis,
fuifi^iT,

and E. hone.
of

"

bucket

the
al-qddus,

a
(^Minsheu".

wheel. "Arab

K.

white.

ALIVE

ALBUMEN

of egg. (L.) "L.allm- I algebra,


compntation. Arab, al,the : and
of
white
; also,the reduction
setting,
repairir.g
out),
egg."
in arithmetic;hence.
of fractions to i.^.tegers

white

albumen,
uun

"

\jabr,

(alsoalbum

dui

L. albiis, white.

Alcayde,

judge ;

algebra. Arab,

Cadi.

see

jabara, to

root

"

set, con-

sol :ca:e

O. F.

(F.-Arab.-Gk.^

Alchemy.

kimld.
XzdL^j. al, the; and
fSpan."
Algn^sril, a police-officer.
Gk.
Arab.)
Span, alguazil.^\T^h. al, the;
x'?M*''*" chemistry;
ling, uazTr, a vizier, officer ; see Vizier.
probablyconfused with xypuia, a mingfrom Gk. x^f^iv,
to pour out, mix.
Skt.)
(Heb.
I
AlgTim, sandal-wood.

a.cheinie.

"

alchemy." Late

"

Alcohol.

Med.

L.-

'

Med.L.

Arab.)

In

Chron.

though the ! I Kings X.


alcohol,appliedto pure spirit,
orig.sense

was

fine

ii. 8, ix. lo ; speltalmug,


Heb. alpimmim, or trans1.
"

impalpablepowder. posed almugim


'

: a

borrowed

word.

posed
Sup-

by Max Miiiler Sci. Lang. i. 232) to


al, the ; and kchl or kiihl,a
sandal- wood; where
collyrium,very fine powder of antimony,.be from Skt. valgii-ka.
-ka is a suffixwith.
used to paintthe eyelids
Arab,

"

Alias.

; see Koran.
a vaulted
recess.

Alcoran

Alcove,

^F.

"

Span."

L, alias, otherwise.

L.)

alius, another

I..

"

Alien.

see

in another place.
alibi. (L.) L. alibi,
L. ali-,as in aliits ; and suffix -bi as in
in a
See below,
i-bi. there,u-bi, where.
vault, dome, cupola; hence a vaulted space.
M.E.
a/zV"^.-0.
F.
Alder, a tree. (E.) ^L E. alder,alhr i alien. F.-L.
alien.
L. alienus,strange ; a stranger. L.
[d being excrescent). A. S. alor (aler,
a/r).+Du. els; Icel. blr Hot plr); Swed. Icdius,another, -f Gk. oAAos, another: O.
al; Dan. elle,el; G. erle; O. H. G. erila, Irish aile,W. ailL all; Goth, aljis(stem
earlier elira; Span, aliso (from Gothic,. aljo-\other ; see Else.
Teut. stems
*aluz-,*aliz-,*alis-. Allied
Allgllt(I ',to descend from. (E. ^L E.
F. ^/^(tz;^. Span, alcoba,a recess
Arab, al,the; and qobbah.a
room.

Arab.)

"

"

"

"

"

"

I
'

to

Lith.

Russ.

alksnis,L.

olekJia; and

perhapsto

of all.
prefix,

Alder-,
(Sh.;; here

alder

horseback

*ahnos) ; alihten,to alightfrom


Elm.
dlihtan, the prefixa-

alniis (for
In

aller,O.

is for

Merc.

meaning

to

S.

being=A.

simpleform lihtan also

The
alder-lufest

; A. S.

occurs

a-.

in A.

S.,

relieve of weight,
light,
horse); from liht, light,

make

alra, A. S. ealra^gen. pi. of al, eal,all. alight from a


adj. See Light (3).
See All.
Alderman.
fE., Merc, aldorman^
alight 2 to lightupon. (E.) M.E.
of
a
alihten,with reference to the completion
A. S. ealdorman.'''SitTC. aldor (ealdor),
'

chief;and

matt,

man.

Allied

to

O. Fries.

the action of

to

Cf. Old.
'E.) ^L E. (2/,f. A. S-

nourish.

Ale.
ealu, gen.
Icel.,
Swed., and Dan.
alop(stem *a/"/y.-|bl; Lithuan. a/z^.;; Rubs, oloz't'na.
"

alighting.See

Align ;
Alike, similar. (E.)

eltern, pi. parents;


alder, a parent;
and to L. al-tor,a bringerup, from alere,
G.

see

above.

Aline.

M. E.

alike,alike.

A.S.

like,with
onlJc, like; from /r^,

on-

on,

prep.
Aliment, food.

"

prefix

L.
Y. aliment.
with
formed
food
alimentum,
;
from
-vientum
alere, to nourish.

L.

(F.

"

^F.
suffix
distilling.
F.
M.
E.
Arab.
VAL.
Gk.)
alembyk.
Span.
alimony, money allowed for a wife s
alambique Cot.,. Span, alambique.
her
her separationfrom
Arab, al,the ; and anb'iq
(pronouncedanisupport upon
nourishment,
L,
alimonia.
a
biq a still. Gk. ay^tii^,
cup, goblet; husband, (L.)

Alembic,

vessel for

"

"

"

"

cap of

still. Cf. Limbeck.

"

F. o/^r/^

Alert. fF.-Ital.-L.)
:
and (in Rabelais) a Cherte,
allerte,
the
Ital, allerta, on
the watch.
i.e. on
watch ; from
the phr. stare alVerta, to
stand erect,be on one's guard. Ital. alia
for a la), at the. on
the ; erta, fem. oi
"

"

L.

erio, erect.
ad,to,
he ; erectam, fem.
of ille,
erect ; see
Erect,
Late L.
Algebra.
"

at ;

"

illam, fera. ace.


ace.

of erect us,

L.

"

L.

Late

L.

nourish

Adapted

to

from

see

above.

range in a line. (F.


mcd. F. aligner,to

the phr. d ligne,


range in a line. From
into line, L. ad, to ; linea, a line. See
for
(Aliue is the better spelling
Line.
"

the E. word.)

Aliquot.

X.'

L.

some,
aliquot,

several

L. ali-us,other;
i^hence,
proportionate).
"

and

Arab.)

alere,to

Aline, Align,

merly
for-

qtwt, how

Alive,

many.
in life. ',E.)From

A.S.

on

life.

ALKALI
in

lifeis

life;where

ALLOW

dat. of

Gk.

life;see
///,

Life.

to speak so as to imply
d\\r]yop(iv,
somethingelse ; Galat. iv. 24. Gk. dWo-,
of dWos, other ; and dyopevetv,
stem
to
speak,from dyopd,a placeof assembly; cf.
to assemble.
L. alius;
Gk. dWos
dydpfiv,
"

Alkali, a

salt.

the
(Arab.) Arab. "?/,
which abounds
salt-wort,

ashes of
and ^a//",
in soda.
All.
(E.) M. E.

a/, sing.;alh, pl.-

see

Alien.

S. eal,pi.^"z//"?.
+ Icel.
allr\Swed.a//; Dan. al ; Du. al\ O. H. G.
al ; Goth, alls,pi.allai. Teut. type *a/-

(Ital.-L.)It3.\.alleAllegro, lively.
g70."L,.alacrem, ace. oi alacer,brisk.
Alleluia.
(Heb.) See Hallelujah.
w^2
(L.) From pp. of Late L.
; allied to Irish uile,all,from Idg. Alleviate.
for
used
L. alleudre,
to lighten.
alletiiare,
type *oljos.
all-io
L.
alto
t
o
In
the
lift,
leiidre,
adv.,
ad),
(for
lighten,
;
phr.
utterly.
all,
ix. 53. from leuis,
brake (correctly
all to-hrake)
light.
]vidges
Here the incorrectall-to,for utterly,'
came
Alley, a walk. (F.-L.?) M. E. aley.
O. F. alee,a gallery
sb.
; a participial
1500, in place of the old
up about A.D.
O. Merc,

al,all; A.

'

"

"

linked to to the verb ; cf. ^Al


is tobrosten thilke regioun,'
Chaucer,C. T.
which

idiom

The
mology
etygo ; F. aller. |3.
of aller,much
and longdiscussed,
is
yet settled ; the Prov. equivalent

O. F.

aler,to

is not
See ^o-, prefix.
i.e. quite anar, allied to Ital. andare,to go.
almost.
(E.) A. S. eal-mcest,
the greatestpart,nearlyall ; affected by
Alliance
; see Ally.

2757.

mod.

Alligator. (Span. L.)

See Most.

E. most.

"

alway, always. (E.)


weg, every way,
alles

an

accus.

weis,in every

Allay. (E.)

way,
M. E.

{i) k.S,.ealne

case.
a

gen.

(2)M.

E.

case.

lizard.'
"

Span, el

lagarto,the

Lit.

'

the

lizard,i.e.

the great lizard. L. ille,


he,that; lacerta,
See Lizard.
a lizard.
Alliteration, repetitionof initial
"

aleyen,alaien^the
A. S. dleg-es,
aleg- letters. (L.)

Coined from L. al- (for


ad),
Letter.
to
a letter ; see
to ; and Ittera,
dlecgan,
Allocate, to set aside. (L.) From
laydown, put down, which producedalso
L. alA.S.
to allot.
M. E. aleggen,
to lay or set aside.
pp. of Late L. allocdre,
from
to
and
loctis,
a
locdre,
to
see
to;
place,
{=^ad),
lecgan, lay,place;
a-, prefix
;
fused
conA- (4) and Lay (,1).p. But much
(i).
place. Cf Allow
with M. E.
with other forms,
Allocution, an address. (L.) From
especially
address.
L. al- (forad),
O. F. aleger,L. allociitio,
from
an
aleggen,to alleviate,
f
rom
forms
alleuidre
and
a
old
with
to
locutus,pp.
L.
alegier,
; lociitio,speaking,
;
of loqul,
to speak.
of alloy.See N. E. D.
aleggen. Allodial. (LateL. O.Frankish.)Late
Allege. (F. L. ) M. E. alegen,
from allodium, alodium, a
L. allodidlis,
In form, the word answers
to A. F. alegier,
aligier^O.Y. esligier(see Godefroy); derivative of alodis,a free inheritance
0. F. es-, and ligier.\j. (Lex Salica). It means
from A. F. aentirely(one's)
ls
from O. Frank, alod ; where aland
to contend
exlltigdre,
(Ducange), property,'
;
related to E. all,and od signifies
strife. Latinised
from L. lis (gen.llt-is),
perty
proThis O. Frank, od is
wealth.'
or
as
adlegidre(Ducange),and treated as if
allied to L. allegdre
(F. alleguer)
; hence
cognate with O. H. G. ot, A. S. ead, Icel.
Cf. Goth, audags,blessed.
wealth.
to that of L.
the sense
auhr,
usuallyanswers
L. al- (forad), to ;
to adduce,
Allopathy, a treatment by medicines
allegdre,
effect to that of
base
which
f
rom
to
to dispatch, tell,
producean opposite
leg-,
legdre,
disease. (Gk.) Opposed to homceopathy,
of lex,law.
other ; and
Gk. d\Xo-, for d'AAos,
to
Allegiance, the duty of a subject
q. v.
and Pathos.
Alien
to suffer ; see
his lord. (F.
O. H. G.) M. E. alegeaunce.
Trad-eiu,
Formed
from F. a (==L.ad), to; O. F.
Allot, to assigna portionto. (F.-L.
ligeance,
ligance,
homage, from O. F. lige,and E.) A. F. aloter. A. F. a, from L.
form
see Lot.
ad, to ; and M. E. lot,A. S. /ilot;
liege,liege. See Liege. % The
to
due
Allow
a
to
(F.-L.)
was
(i),
assign,
g
rant.
ligance(^
Godefroy)
supposed
connexion with L. ligdre,
F. allouer,to let out for hire, assignfor
to bind.
to allot.
Allegory. (L.-Gk.) XVI cent. L. an expense. Late L. allocdre,
and
L. al- (forad), to ;
locdre,to place,
a
allegoria.Gk. d\\r)yopia,
description
of one thingunder the image of another.
from locus,
a place.

stem

ed,2

of which is due to
of A.S.
and 3 pres. t. sing,

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

ALTERCATION
L. alter, other.

"

with

al-iiis); Amatory.

L. al- (as in

"

comparative suffix -tero-.

altercation,
M.

AMBITION

altercation.

E.

dispute. (F.

O.Y.

"

L.)

"

altercation.

"

A. S.

alter

"

suffix

(with

-no-).

Although.
Already and
Altitude.

Though.

altittide.

altitftdo,
height.

"

L.

cent-F.
"

L.

Amazon,

said that these

U.Y..

al

Altruism,

regard for

L. ; ivith Gk.

Late

"

from
together,

quitetogether. See Already.

L.

(Ital.
-

Ital.

from

Coined
sitffix.')

; from

Gk.

Obviously

Embassador.
F.

C.)

"

(F.

ambassadeur.

embassy ;

Ital. ambasciata.

(Lex Salica)
;

others.

Gk.

women

the name,
cut off

women

rightbreast to shoot better


the breast.
; and jxa^os,

ambassade, an

Altogether. (E.)

of

invention.

alius, an

liz\. alto.

d-

(Gk.)

a-, not

L. alius, high.

"

A.S.

perplex. See

to

female warrior.

Ambassador,
"

From

^masian,

a/nasen.

Wulfstan's

of a warlike nation
one
apia^iov,
in Scythia."ff
To account
for

high.

alto,high voice. (Ital. L.)

E.

Maze.

the
XIV

(E.-L.)

(E.) M.

1. 23.

137,

p.

and
(prefix);

the Greeks

(E.) lsi."..anhogh;ste

astound.

to

d/iiasian,pp. dmasod;

Horn.

"

reciprocal.L.

"

Amaze,

l,.

"

oi altcrcatid.-'l^. altcrace.
altercdtioneui,
catus, pp. of altercdri,to dispute,
speak in
turns.
Iv. alter,other,another.
L. alterndtns,pp.
alternate.
(L)
of alterndre, to do by turns.
L. alternus,

L. amatorizis,loving.

(L.)

L. amdfor, a lover.
L. amdj-e, to love ;
with suffix -tor-,-tor,of agent.
"

prob. borrowed

Late

"

L. ambascia

'^ambactia
correctly

more

mission,service. L. ambactus,a
emissary; Caesar,de Bell. Gall.
a

Y.

"

"

servant,
vi. 15.

L. word
is borrowed
from
O.
an
another, others, a form of altro, The
altriii,
word
Gaulish (Celtic)
{ambactos ?) a slave,
another,when preceded by a preposition.
driven about, a pp. form
L. alteri huic^ to this lit. one
from
Grig,a dat. case.
other ; datives of alter,other, and
hic, afiibi-,
prefix,about, and the verb ag-,
"

this.

cognate with

Alum.
alum

M. E.

(F. L.)
-

F. alun.

L.

"

alu7n.

O. F.

alumen^ alum.
(E.) See All.

agi?n,I drive

L. agere; cf. O. Irish tjum(Fick,


about, send about.

1894,11.34; Brugm.

Alway, Always.

amaeth, a

Am.
;E.) See Are.
Amain.
(E. For on

ii. "

79.) Cf. W.

husbandman.

Amber.
(F. Span. Arab.) M. E.
F. ambre.
main, in strength^aumbre.
Span, ambar.
'anbar (pronounced'ambar),amwith strength
Arab,
bergris,
(2) and Main, sb.
; see Arich perfume. % The resinous
a
Amalgam. (F. or Late L. Gk. ?) F.
amalgame. Late L. amalgama, a mixture, amber was so called from a resemblance to
-

"

"

"

which is really
of quicksilver
metals.
with
other
ambergris,
quitea different
substance.
be a
to
Origin unknown ; said by some
of
ambergris, i-e. gray amber. Called
corruptionor an alchemist's anagram
The
in Milton,P. R. ii. 344.
malagma, a mollifyingapplication
; perhaps grisamber
with Arab, a/ ( the)prefixed.
F. gris,gray, is from O. H. G. gris,gray ;
"Gk.
emollient.
cf. G. greis,
Gk.
fxaXayfia, an
fiaKaaauv
hoary.
Gk. jxaKaKos, Ambi-, Amb-, prefix.
to soften.
{iov*^a\aK-yiiv),
(L.) L. ambi-,

esp.

"

"

soft.

about

Amanuensis,
by

; with

Properly amarant,

but -anth

is due
flower.

to
"

afxapavTos, unfading,
flower.
Gk.
a-, not ; and

as

"

Greek
Gk.

"

Amass,

to

to

"

stem

about, from

ire,to go.

Ambiguous,

unfading
to
-ozis
fxapaiutiv,
(

(L.) L. ambdrivingabout (with

doubtful.

iguus,doubtful, lit.

sb.

L. -osus) in place of L. -us). L.


; and age7'e, to drive.
L.
L. 1 F. ambition
Ambition.
(F.
=

"

amb-, about

(VMEK.)

F. amasser,
amass.

with

ient-,
going about. (L.) L. ambof pres. part,oi amb- ire,to go

Ambient,

in Milton

as

afnarantus.
or

whence
sides,
L. ambo,
Irish im,

about.

confusion
L.

both
ayjcpl,
on

Related
to
prefixaitiphi'.
both.
Cf. A.S. ymb,
Gk. ajxtpoj,

?uanu,

unfadingflower. (L.

an

aj/0oj,a

fade.

; cf. Gk.

tation.
dicE.

suffix -ensis.

Amaranth,
Gk.)

writes to

L,. dmanuensis."L.

(L.)
hand

who

one

heap up. (F.-L.-Gk.)


heap up. F. a fuasse, mto
"

L. ad, to; massa,

^d^a,a barley-cake.See

Mass

mass.

"

(1).

Gk.

"

"

oi ambitid,a goinground,
esp. used of going round to solicit votes ;
hence,a seekingfor preferment.L. amb-

ambitidnem,

ace.

"

AMITY

AMBLE
sb.

(but

to go about
itum, supineoi ajnb-Jre,

"

"

Amerce,

to

fine. (F.
-

(J.F.)amercier, to fine.

aDibtilance.
Y..ambulant-, stem
of pres. part,of ambtddre, to walk.
ambulation, a walking about. (L.)
L.
L. a^nbtildiio,
From
a walkingabout.

L.) Y

reparation.O.F.

M F.
and F. ame^iitc. "Y^. amcciiitdlem,ace. of
anucnitds.
L. a/ULcnus, pleasant.Cf. L.
love.
t
o
aiiidre,

"

"

"

(above).
(F.-L.^
Amenity, pleasantness.

ambitio

O. F. amende,

pi.

amender

retains the short i of


vcrb\
of"ire , the siin]ile
sujiine
Amble.
(F. 1..) M. E. am/'/cu. O.F.
ambler, to go at an easy pace. L. ambuIdre,to walk.
: Y
aiXtlbulance,a moveable hospital.
that
ilutn, the

note

A. Y. (not

L.)

O, F.

"

"

( L. ad)^

but usually
to
pay, acquit,
thank ; cf. Late L. mercidre,to fix a fine.
Cf. O. Y mercit (F.inerci),
thanks,pardon.
to ;

"

mercier,to
.

L. mercedem, ace.
oijnerces,reward,
ambuldtus, pp. of af?ibiilare.
also
the
food
of
thanks
(Gk.)
indulgence,
gods.
pity,
wages,
Ambrosia,
of 'fine'
L.
Gk. aix^pooia
ened
length(passinginto the sense
; fem. of ajx^puaios,
of inerx, merchandise,traflic.
Gk. d-, mere-, stem
immortal.
form oi dfx^poTos,
"

"

"

for ^pcpoTos Amethyst,


a gem.
(L. Gk.) 1 cune*fj.l3poTus,
X^\i.
Cf.
an
Mortal.
mortal; see
thystus.
dfxfdvoTos,
ameth}st;so
(Gk. ^poros;),
enness.
called because supposedto prevent drunkSkt. a-mrta, immortal.
See Amaranth.
drunken.
Gk.
a
Gk.dfi6'ei;aTos,not
(F.
cupboard.
Ambry, Aumbry,
Prompt. d-,not; and fitOvav,to be drunken,from
L.) M. E. awmebry, awmery,
and

(E. un-) ;

not

..

"

"

"

O. F. awiiaire, pL(6v,strong drink; see Mead.


Parv. ; the b is excrescent.
a
almaire,armaj'ie,
(E.-L.) O.F. amiable,
repository
; properly, Amiable.
also
Late
L.
also
for arms
but
a
friendly
loveable,by confusion with
;
cupboard.
;
aiviable
L.
pository
rea
(from amdbilis). \..ajfiicdbili
armdria, a cupboard; armdrui9/i,
"

"

"

for

arms.

L. arma,

"

Ambulance,

-ation

Ambuscade.

(Span.-Late

Span, emboscada,

friendly.L.

arms.

Amble.
L.) From

see

"

ambush.

an

to

Orig.

as

oblong pieceof linen,


(F. L.) M. E.
variously
by priests.
and
amit.
O. F. amis^
(earlier)
amyse,
a^fiit{huTguy). !..a?nict-us,
a
covering.
"

L.)

L. amictus, pp. of aniicire,


to
throw
around ; iacere,
round.
L. amto
^amb-),

Formerly

"

to
embuscher, e?nbuissier,

embush.'^O.Y.
set

Late

"

in ambush.

Late

"

L.

imboscdre;

"

cast.

as

Ameer,

hood. (O. F."


(2),a pilgrim's

Amice

above.
the

same

as

"

"

See Bush.

(F.

(i),an

worn

"

bush.

(L.)L. amlcdbilis,
friendly
;

above.

Amice

"

ambush.

friend.- L. amdre,

love.

amicable.

Late
set in ambush.
pp. oi emboscar,\.o
Lat. imboscdre,lit. to set in a bush
or
thicket. L. z}?i- (forin)^in ; and Late L.
a
boscuDiy

amicus,

Emir,

Span.?

v.

q.
L.; tvith L.

Teut.

"

?)

'

In

aw?V^gray;'Milton,

O. F. aumiice
P.R. iv.427.
(Y ait7inisse)\
(F.
stiffix.)
Late L. al77iucia. Span,ah/iucio (Pineda;
F'ormed with suffix -ate ( L. -dtus)from
to be the Arab. def. art.
F. amiliorer^
to
better,improve. F. a where al seems
Port,
mur^a). G. miitze,a cap (cf.
( L. ad),in addition ; -meliorer ( Late (cf.
Lowl.
Sc.
L.
L. meliordre),
make
better.
mutch). But G. miitze may be
to
?nelidr-,

Ameliorate.

"

"

"

"

"

"

from

from

melior,better.

Late

L.

in the middle of. (E.)


from M. E. a77iiddes.
A77iids-t is lengthened
due to adding the
it. Heb. ";/z,fW,firm, true.
Heb. d77ian, Again, a7nidde-s was
'
suffix
a77ndde
A.S. 07i 77iiddan,
adv.
to
-s
to confirm ; orig. to be firm.'
the dat. of
where
77iidda)iis
the
middle
in
;
Amenable,
easy to lead. (F. L.)
77iidd,
From
F. amener,
77iidde,
sb.,the middle. A. S. 77iid,
to lead to, bring to."
middle. A77iid" K. S. 07t 77iiddatii^as
L. ad, adj.,
F. d.,to ; mener, to conduct,drive.
to ; Late L. 7nindre,
to conduct, lead about, before). See Mid.
al?o to drive out, chase away ; L. mindri,
Amiss, adv. wrongly. (E. or Scaud.)
Icel.a mis,
i.e. in error.
M. E. 07t 77iisse,
L. mince ^ threats.
to threaten.
in
Icel.
S.
A.
on
amiss.
a
adv.,
M..Y.
ajnendeft."
\
Amend.
; 77iis,
(
(F. L.)
See
lost
older
to
F. amender.
an
L. emendd^-e, to free from
pp.).
wrongly (due

Amen.

Gk.

Gk.

"

so be
verily,

"

"

Amid, Amidst,

\.. amen."

Heb.)
(L.
d/xTyi',
verily.Heb. amen,
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

fapp'lt. L. e, from
"

amends.

(F.

"

mendum,

L.)

Miss

fault.

M. E. arnendes.

15

(i).

a77iisted,
Amity. (F. L.) O. F. a7niste,
"

AMMONIA
amistet.

ANAGRAM

oi^amTace.
*a?nicitatem,

Late L.

theatre with

rpov,

i., amicus, friendly.


ciids,friendship.

arena.

"

L. anidre, to love.

theatre.

"

"

Ammonia,

"

alkali.

an

Ample,

(L.-Gk.L.

sal

full.

the

all round

seats

around;
dfx(pi,

Gk.

(F. L.)

Oidrpov,

L.

ample.

F.

amplus,spacious.
Egyptian.) Suggested by
nioniacuHi,rock-salt. Gk. dfXfxcuviaKovAmputate.
(L.) From
pp. of L
sal ammoniac, rock-salt.
Gk.
L. am-,
to cut off round about.
dfi/xcvvids,
aniptitnre,
am-

"

"

Gk.

Libyan.
"

Ammon

word

Herod,

"

about;
ambi-, round
Libyan Zeus- short for ambalso to lopor prune trees.
; putdre,to cleanse,
Egyptian origin

the

a^najv,

of

ii.43.

moniac
^ It is said that sal amthe temple
firstobtained near

was

of Ammon.

amm.01lite,a
with

fossilshell. (Gk.)Coined
from the name
(Gk. -ittjs)

suffix -ite

Ammon

twisted

ram's

the shell resembles

because

horn

on

the

head

L. putus, clean.

"

Amulet.
(F. L.) F. afuulette.-l..
amzdetum, a talisman hung round the neck.
[Once thought to be of Arabic origin
; but
"

now

the

of the

'

givenup.]

Amuse,

to

to

make

amuse,

divert.
to

F. amuser,

(F. L.)
"

or

muse

think

of,to

a
gaze at;' Cot.-F.
( L. ad), to, at;
O. F. jmiser, to gaze at, stare at,muse
Amm.UUition, store for defence. (F.
; see
L.) From Mid. F. amunzlt'on,a soldier's Muse (i).
oi munition , due to substitutingAn, A, indefinite
is
article. (E.) A
corruption
ramunition
for la munition
(Littre).L. short ioran ; and an is an unaccented form

image

of

JupiterAmmon.

"

"

of A. S. an, one ; see One.


defend.
of
to
munh'e,
An-, A-, neg. prefix.(Gk.)
tus,pp.
of offences. d-, cognate with L. in-,and E.
Amnesty, lit.a forgetting
(F. L. Gk.) F. a?nn"stie.''h. amnesUn-, In-, A- (9).
//a. Gk. dfivrjaTia,
An, if. See And.
forgetfulness,
esp. of

mfmitionem, a defending.L.

ace.

"

mflni-

QV.dv-,
un-

see

"

"

"

Gk. dfivqaros,
forgotten.Gk. d-, Ana-,
wrong.
not ; and fivdoixai,
I remember.
(-y^MEN.) from Gk.
"

"

Among, Amongst.
M. E. form
with added
and

is amonge,

(E.)The
whence

earliest

Ana, Anna,

amonges

prep., among.

A. S. on, in ;

Gk.
baptist.See Baptize.

"

L. amorosus.
L. amor, love.
Amorphous, formless. (Gk.) From

d-,not

On.
sixteenth

"

"

Anabaptist. (Gk.)
Coined

again.

Amount,

on, up,

back, again;

; see

of

rupee.

"

"

Cf. Mingle.
mixture,crowd.
Amorous.
(F. L.) O.Y. amoros\".

Gk.

on

adverbial suffix)
(a common
; (Flind.)Hind, dna, a sixteenth part,esp.
of a rupee.
/.
amongs-t with excrescent
(H. H. Wilson.)

hence

amoureux.

dvd,upon,

cognate with E.

A. S. onmang,
mang,

An-,/r^.r.(Gk.) G\i.dva-,dv-\

and fiopcp-rj,
shape,form.

(F.-L.)

from

who baptizes
dvd,again; and

One

Anachronism,
Gk.

(Gk.)
to
^fiv,

in chronology.
error
dvay^poviapLO'i.'^QV.
dvaxpovi-

refer to

wrong

time.

Gk. di/d,

"

up, back

(wrong); xpo"'os, time.


up
O. F. amonter, to amount
to.
O.F. a
Anaconda, a largeserpent. (Ceylon.)
boa ; at firstapplied
or
mont, towards a mountain
largeheap. Now a S. American
L. ad, to; montem, ace.
of mons,
a
to a largesnake in Ceylon. But wrongly;
mountain.
it was
reallya swift whipsnake
; Cingh.
L. henakandayd. lit. lightningstem.'
F. amour.
Amour.
(F. L.)
oi amor,
love.
ace.
amorem,
Anaemia, bloodlessness. (L. Gk.) A
of
want
Amphi-, /r^Jf. (Gk.) Gk.dfi(pi,onLatmised form of Gk. dvaifxia,
to

mount

to.

"

"

"

"

"

both sides,around;

Amphibious.

see

blood.

Ambi-.
Gk.

Gk.

"

dv-,not

; ai/Jia,blood.

dnipi^ios,Anaesthetic, renderinginsensible to
livinga double life,on land and water. pain. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. dv-,not ;
Gk. dn"pi,
full of perception
both sides ; /Stos,
life.
and aloOrjTiKus,
on
; see Anand
foot
in
JEsthetic.
a
Amphibrach,
prosody.
foot composed of a short
(Gk.) The
Anagram, a changein a word due to
of letters.(F. L.
each side of a long one
Gk. ) F.
on
syllable
{"^-J).transposition
dvdGk. dfKplPpaxvs.
both sides ; anagram?ne.
l^. anag7-ami7ia.-^QV.
Gk. d/xcpi,
on
and
and
0paxvs, short ; see Amphi'^pap.p.a. Gk. dvd,up, here used distribuBrief.
a letter of the alphabet.
tively
; '"^pd^ixa,
to write.
\Gk. ypd(p"iv,
Amphitheatre.
(Gk.) Gk. dixcpieid(Gk.)

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

ANALOGY

Ancient

proportion.(F.-L.-Gk.)

Analogy,
".

ANGEL

L.

analogic.
"

excrescent
ulvoKo'^'m^
Late
dm,
upon,

"

equality of ratios. Gk.


A07-0S, a word,
throufjhout
; -Koyia,from
statement, from Xtyfiv, to speak.
"

M.

/.

L.

"

old.

(0,

Gk.

analogia.

With

Y. ancien.

"

antidnns, old, belonging to

Formed
time.
ante, before.

former
from

(F.-L.)

E. auncien.
with

suffix -dims

ing
a resolvAncient
(Gk.) Gk.dz/dAyo-jy,
'2),a banner,standard-hearer.
with ancient i 1 j ; but
to
F.
J^ ) Confused
into parts,loosening. Gk. ilfaXvetv,
auncient,
m.
undo, resolve. Gk. dvd, back ; and Kv"ii', from O. F. enseigne,
'ensigne,
to loosen. (y'LEU.) Der.
analyse,verb, a standard-bearer ; Cot.; also for O. F. encoined word.
f.,' a banner;' Cot. See Ensign.
seigjie,

Analysis.

'

"

"

'

Ananas,
Braz.)

"

Span,

Span,

anana.

The

plant. (Span. And.


pine-apple

the

Brazil,

"

Peruv.

is

name

nanas

strike.

(). II. G.

also

Formerly

an,

and;

word as the
Havelok, 2861,"c; the same
above.
An if= if if,
But
back, rebounding; because
a reduplication.
if if; Matt. xxiv. 48.
of a dactyl. Gk. dva-naUiv,andif=h\\\.
Gk. dm, back ; and iraietv,
\\.2X.
Andante, slowly,(Ital.)
andante,
moving slowly,pres. pt. of andare, to
XVI
cent.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
go.

iraiOTos, struck
it is the reverse
to

E.)

against.
if. (E.)

over

foot in ody,
prosdvdanapccsliis."GVi.

L.

v^k. )

strike back.

Prob.

nana.

or

A. S. and, end. + O. Fries.


anti, unta. G. tind.
related to L. ante, before,
Gk. dvr'i,
"

anda, ende;

achiipalla.

Anapaest, Anapest,

to

mod.

i^Pineda)
;

ananas

"

Anarchy.

L,. anarc/ii'a. Gk. dvapx'io,Andiron,


". anan/it'e.
a
fire-dog.
(F. L.) Not
without
with iron, but corruptedfrom.
Gk. duapxos,
connected
lack of government.
Gk. di/-,neg. prefix;
ruler.
dpxos, a M. E, anderne,aunderne, aundi7'e. O. F.
a
"

"

"

"

"

"

ruler, from

apx^^v,
Gk.

where

I devote."
dvariOrjfxi,
I
TidTjfu, place,set. Cf.

Anatomy.
tomie.
same

"

as

"

L.

"

Gk.)

'L,.anatonn'a.^Gk.
dissection.
dvaTo^-q,

to cut

fdv,
cut.

rius, andena,
Anecdote.
dote.
Gk.

Theme.

(F.

up.
Cf. Tome.

Gk.

"

"

(F. L.) M.E.

Ancestor.

"

^;w-

anecdota,orig.
pi."
dvettSoTa,neut,
pi, of dv""5oTos,
neut.

unpublished; hence an unpublishedstory,


story in privatelife. Gk. dv-, not; (k,
Gk. dpaT^fj- out ; and Soros,given,allied to SiEcufxi,
I
; rijxv^iv, to
give.
flower. (Gk.) Gk. dv"a
Anemone,
(i) ancestre,

"

lit.winri-flower.
IJOJVT],

Anent,

L. antecessor, nom.,
foregoer; and M. E. (2 anpredecessor,

F.

(F.-L.-Gk.)

\jdXt.L.

ana

". ancestre, from

O.

"

M.E,

E.)

"

wind.
Gk. due/xos,

regarding,with

reference

anentis

anent.

older

A. S.

from
L. aiitewhere
O. F. ancessonr,
the t is excrescent.
onefent,
L. ante, before ; cess-ns,
anefoi,onefcn,near ; later form
cessorevi, ace.
Mence
A. S on, on ; efen,
to go.
ev en,
pp. of cedere,
The
current
even
an
Anchor.
on
ing
spelliL. Gk.)
with,
equalitywith.

onemn.

"

onefn
=

"

Cf.

"

the

false L.

anchora.

form,

"

Anchorite,

Anchoret,
(F.

"

(^ANQ.)

a bend.
d-yKUJv,

Late L.

"

Gk

having
Coined

recluse.

See Even.

liquidmercury

no

Gk.

from

G.

d-, not;

in

barometer
it.

^Gk.)

wet;
vrjpd-s,

(I5-0S,
form, kind.

(Cot ;

F. auachorete

in eben

Aneroid, dry, appliedto

"

cf. Gk.

( for

nehen,near

L. ancora
A. S. ancor.
(wronglyanchora)
Gk. dfKvpa,an anchor, lit.a bent liook ;

to.

form

cessour,

imitates

fire-dog.

the
dvaropLia,

up

um,

F.

F. landier,put for Vandier


; mod.
t is the def. art. Cf. Late L. ande-

andier

Gk.

"

dvd, up

Gk.

be first.

curse.

"

accursed.

or

rule,to

(L.-Gk.) L.
a
avdOefxa,
thingdevoted

Anathema,
anal/ienia.

to

Aneurysm,

tumour

due

to

tion.
dilata-

a
L. anachoreta.-'GV.. dvaxooprjTTjs,
widening.
(Gk.J Gk. dvfvpvafjLa,
dvaGk
Gk. dv-, for dvd, up; and ivpivnv,to
who
retires from the world.
Also aneurism.
retire. Gk. dvd, back ; and
to
widen, from (vpvs, wide.

Late

"

one

"

Xojpfiv,
XOJpeiv,
room.

"

"

withdraw, from
(VCiHE, GHO.)

to

Anchovy,
Span,anchova

fish.

x^P^^^

nioiue.

(Span.
-

Basque ?; and

cf. Basque anchoa.anchtia.


Perhaps' dried fish ; bom

anchovy.

Basqueantztia, dry.

John

"

L.

iii.7

(Rushworth).

From

Of

New.

AngeL

'

an

A.'^.of(E.) yS..".of-neive.

Anew.

space,

0.".
angele.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
Gk. dyyeXo^,a messenger.

angelia.

Cf. Gk.

"

dyyapos, a mounted

courier, from

ANGER
Persian.

O.

arch-angel,
q.

Der.

The

angel-ist,
q. v.

ANNUL

A.

"

with

was

from L. angelus.
engel,directly
(.Scand.) M. E. anger,
Anger.

often

of vexation, trouble.
Icel.
Swed.
Dan.
gret.
grief;
anger,
anger, re-

with

the

angr,

sense

+ L.

O. Fries, ankel; also A.S. ancleo7v,


Fiies. onklef).-\Swed.
and
ankel; Icel. okkla (for

cloive.

ev-

v.,

form

S.

longersuffix (cf.O.

Dan.
onkla-^ankiila

angor,
See below.

(VANGH.)

Angina,

Skt.

G. enkel.

small

coin ;

Ana.

see

Annals.
(F." L.) F. annales,pi.sb.
pain. (L.) L. angifta, L. attndles,pi.adj.,for libri annales,

acute

"

quinsy,lit.choking. L. a;z^^;r, to choke. yearly books, chronicles ; from


',F. L.) M.E.
yearly. L. anims, a year.
Angle (i),a corner.
".
\..
a
n
angle.
angjclus, angle. Anneal, to temper by heat.
angle.
Cf. Gk. d7"uAos,bent.
(2j F.
L.) Two distinct words

anndlis,

"

"

"

"

( (i) E.;

"

have been

"

Angle (2),a hook,


fish-hook

angel,a

haps
Per-

a finger,
aiiguli,
aiiga,

limb.

anguish. Anna,
strangling,

and

; Du.

allied to

"

fish-hook. (E.) A. S.

dimin,

of anga,

confused.

1. M.

E.

anelen,

kindle,heat,melt, burn.

inflame,

to

A. S.

on^lan, to
and tllan,to
prefix,

onga,

cf. Icel.

a prickle,burn, kindle; from


aJigi,
on,
Skt.
fire. 2. M.E. anelen,
hook,
dyKvpa,
ahka{s), burn. Cf. A. S. ieled,
a hook.+Dan.
angel \ G. angel, dimin. of to enamel glass. Prefix a- (perhaps F".h,
fish-hook. Allied
L. ad) ; and O. F. neeler,nieler,
O. H. G. ango, a prickle,
to enamel,
Der.
to Anchor.
angle,verb, to fish.
orig.to paintin black on gold or silver."
M.E.
L. nigelhis,
to blacken.
(F. L.)
anguisc, Late L. nigellare,
Anguish.
F.
O.
F.
angoisse. L. blackish ; from niger,black.
angoise.
anguisse;
L. an(F. L.) F. annexer.
poverty, perplexity.Annex.
angustia,narrowness,

;
prickle
sting,

Gk.

bent

"

-=

"

"

"

"

"

L.

"

angiistus,

Aniline,

angere,

to

"

"

"

Arab.

"

with suffix -ine,from


a"z7.

dye-stuff.F.
"

Span,

"

jan-

afiil.

"

the
blue ; JiTli,
Animal.
(L.) L.

indigo-plant.
creature.
animal, a living
"L.
anima, breath,life. (-^AN.)
to
censure.
(L.) L.
animadvert,
the mind

to, hence,
anini-, for animus, the

to turn
anijuadtiertere,

criticise.

mind
and

memorial.'

"

L.

to
anima, breath); ad, to
(allied
ticrtere,to turn (seeVei-se).

turn

Annotate,
From
on.

"

For

turning
anniuersdriiis,reanno-),

and

year

ucrsus,

make

to

notes

(for ad), to,

mark, from

of

pp.

(^eeVerse).

of L. annotdre, to

pp.
L. an-

sary
'anniver-

an^ti- ffrom

"

annus,

"

(L.)
L.

"

L.

to nothing.
nihil,nothing.

and

yearly. L.
from

annihildli(S,\)^.

reduce

Anniversary.

uertere, to

L.

(L.)

annihildre,to
(forad), to ;

Arab.

mla,

to

Annihilate.
of

"

where al
an-Jiil\ for al-nil,
from
is the def. art.,and nil is borrowed
Skt.
Pers. nil,blue, or the indigo-plant.

azure.

"

nexus,
pp. of atinectere,to knit or bind to.
L. an'for ad),to ; and nectere, to bind.

furnishes

dyes. (F. Span.

Skt.)Formed,

"

anil,

L.

which

substance

of

number

Pers.

"

(VANGH.)

choke.

narrow.

nota,

Announce.

mark.

(F.

L. annuntidre, to

notdre,

on;

F.

announce.

ad), to; mmtidre,

notes
to

See Note.

L. )

"

(L.)

on.

make

annoncer.

L.

"

an-

"

from
bring tidings,

to

See Nuncio.
animate.
(L.) L. animdtus, pp. of nuniius, a messenger.
animdre, io endue with life. L. aniina, Annoy, to vex. (F\ L.) M. E. anoien,
anuien.
life. Der. iji-animate,re-animate.
O. F. anoier,anuier,to annoy.
F.
L.) F. animosite. O. F. anoi, anui (F.ennui), vexation. Cf.
animosity.
of animosiids, Span, enojo.O. Venetian
L. animositdtem.
ace.
inodio,vexation.
vehemence.
in the
L. animosus, vehement, full
L. in odio,lit.in hatred, common
in
L.
lit.
I
had
of mind
L.
odio
Late
in
or
hahui,
animus, mind,
phr.
courage.
odio
I
L.
in
with
cf.
was
hatred,
;
annoyed
courage, passion.
M.E.
Anise, a herb. (F.-L.-Gk.)
by (Cicero). L. in, in;
esse, to be hated
Y. anis Cot.). L. anisiim
; odio, abl. oi odium, hatred.
anese, anys.
also anetlnim.
Gk. duicxov,
nuel.
orig. Annual, yearly. (F. L.") M. E. anavqaov,
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

anise.
dvrjOov,

Anker,

"

liquid

measure.

Du.

(Du. LateL.)
"

Late
L. anceria,
anker, tlie same.
the same.
+ Swed. ankare ; G. anker; from
the

L. anmis,

Ankle.

A.

D.

1304.
annuitds.
"

(E.)

M.E.

ancle;

also

an-

L.

"

Annul.

"

anjiudlis,
yearly.
"

year.

annuity. (A. F.

"

same.

F. a7tmiel.

Late

\.. annus,

(L.)

L.) KY.annuite;

"

L. annuitdfem,
L.

ace.

of

year.

annulldre,to bring to

ANTICIPATE

ANNULAR

nothing. L.

(forad), to

an-

"

Null.
;
Annular, like

F. antelop.-.\.^\.Q
L.
F. Q. i. 6. 26.-0.
Gk. dvQoKoir-,
the stem
ajttalopus.-''La\.Q

mtlhis, no

,"

see

one

adj.; irom
spellingdniilus

dimin.

of

rounding,

Anodyne,
XVI

drug

L.

dm(s,

of

used by
dvBuKoxl/,

to

some
signify

unknown

"

of Antioch
Of

quadruped.

origin.
feelers of insects.

a^itennce, pi.ot antenna,


of a sail.

allaypain. (L.
L. anodynus, a

to

Eustathius

uncertain

Antennae,

(Lewis).

Late

cent.

laris,
annu-

ring,earlier

circular form

Gk.)

ring.(L.) L,

annulus,

L.)

L.

properlythe yard

but
pain. Gk. ovu)hvvo%^free Antepenultima, the Last syllable
drug relieving
word.
L.
in
two
a
and
ante, before;
from pain. Gk. dv-, not ;
uduvr],
(L.)
panultivia,fem. adj.,last but one, from
pain.
Anoint.
(F. L.) M.E. anoint, used pcen-e,almost,ultima,last.
"

"

"

as

pp.

anointed.

"

enoindre, to anoint.
L.
oindre,to smear.

"

Anterior.

O. F. enoint, pp. of
O. F.
en,
upon;

Anthem.

to anoint.

from
Gk.

"

to ufios,

one

Gk.

rule.

"

; and

dv-,not

and

the

uneven.
dvw/.iaKos,

anoon

A. S.

onan.

E. anon,
'
an, lit. in

M.

on

Gk.

moment.'

Another.

(E.)

For

ovo/xa,

Answer,
reply;a
reply.

weak

A. S. and
speak in

reply.(E.)

to

verb. "A.

answer,

S. andswaru,

A. S. and-, against,in reply;


The
A. S.
swerian, to speak,to swear.
"

and'

G. ant- (in ant-worten)


and Swear.
see AntiAnt.
(E.) M. E. amte, short
=

A. S. mnette,

emmet,

an

ant.

"

Gk.

dv-ri;

a young
dvOos,

collection

choice

of

(Gk.j Lit. a collection of flowers.


poims.
Gk. dv6o\oyia,
of flowers."
a gathering
Gk.
apdoXoyo?, flower-gathering.Gk.
"

"

flower ; and

Xeyfiv,

to

cull.

Anthracite,
(Gk.)
"

Gk.

kind

Lit.

of

stem
dvOpaK-,
'

of

coal.

hard

resemblingcoals.
dvOpaKiT-q^,

Gk.

men-eaters.'

coal.
dvOpa^,
caimil als.

Anthropophagi,

for ameie.

Doublet,

sprout.

or

dvOo-,for dvOos,a

bloom

to
dvOeiv,

anthology,

other.

swerian, andszvarian, to

of
the summit
of the stamen
ing.
bloomGk. dvO-qpus,
From

(Gk.)

Gk.

"

otlier,one

an

flower.

bud

name.

fem.

as

"

"

dv-,neg. prefix
; and

considered
dvTicpoji'a,

sing.,but reallyneut. pi. of dvTi(f"avos,


soundingin response to ; from the alternate
singingof the half-choirs. Gk. dvri,over
voice,sound.
; (pcuv-q,
against

Anther,

A. S. on, on, in ; an, one.


nameless.
(Gk.) Gk.
Anonymous,
nameless; with -ous added."
dvwvvyL-o'i,
one

"

Gk.

"

related

same.

Anon, immediately.(E.)
; also

(L. Gk.) Formerly antem.


L. antiphona,
an
them.
anantefn.'^'La.X.e

S.

viation
deA.
avciJixa^.ia,

ofxaXus,even,

L. anterior,former,
adj.from ante,

(L.)

front, compar.

before.

ungere,

upon;

m,

"

See Unguent.
(Gk.) Gk.
Anomaly.

in

more

(Gk.'

dv9pwno(pdyos,

Gk.

"

and
a
man;
man-eating. Gk. dvOpajwos,
to
eat.
("y^BHAGw ; Brugm. i.
Antagonist, an opponent. (L. Gk.) (pay^iv,
Late L. antagdnista.'-'QV.
"
641.^
dvTayojviaTT]S,
an
;
Anti-, Ant-, prejix,against.(Gk.)
opponent. Gk. dvr-,for avri,against
allied to
L. ante,
Gk.
I struggle,
from dyuiu,a
and dyoov'K^oiuai,
dvTi, against
;
allied
before.
over
Cf. Skt. a}iti,
eontest.
against,
(VAG.^
In
End.
end
to ajita,
anti-cipate,
%
Antarctic.
; see
(L. Gk,^ 'L.antardicus.
is for L. ante.
Gk. dvTapKTiKos,
southern, oppositeto the prefix
arctic- Gk. dr/r-,for avri,oppositeto;
Antic, fanciful,odd ; as sb. a trick.
and dpKTLKos.
arctic. See Arctic.
(Ital.
-L.) Orig. an adj. Adopted in
Ital. antico, with the
cent, from
before. (L.) L. ajite, the XVI
Ante-, prefix,
eiJimct, q.

v.

"

"

"

"

"

before.

Allied to Anti-, q. v.
Antecedent.
(L.) L.

sense

of

'

'

grotesque

antecedent-,L. antlquus, old.

old.
; lit. antique,

"

See Antique.

Gk.) O. F.
of ]5res. pait. of antecedere,to go
Antichrist.
(F. L.
'L.
Antichnstus
Antecrist.
(Vulgate).
L ante, before; cedere,to go.
Gk. dvTixpi(TTOs
(i John ii. 18). Gk.
Antediluvian, before the flood. (L.)
Christ.
L. ante, before ; dihnnum.
deluge, a dvTJ,against; xp'^^'^^^j
the pp. of L.
From
wash
L.
dilnere, to
Anticipate. (L.)
washing away.
L. anti-,
beforehand.take
to
to
wash.
L.
anticipdre,
dl-,apart; luere,
away.
Gk.) In Spenser,before ; and capere,to take.
stem

before,

"

"

"

"

"

"

Antelope. (F.-L.

"

19

ANTICLIMAX

A-nticlimax.

APHORISM

(Gk.)

From

and

Anti-

Antidote.
"

doTov,

fold up, but from M.H.G.


vahen, as
Cf. L. incils,
an
anvil, from /",
cfidere,to strike ; and note the
on, and
A. S. gloss: Cudo, percutio,anfilte ;'

to

above.

Climax.

L.

"

of doTus,

F. antidote.
Gk. uvri-

"

remedy ;

Gk.

against; doruv,

remedy.

(F.-L.-Gk.)

a remedy.
antidottim,

uvti,

thing given

as

with

metal.

(LateL.) Late
known.
(XI cent.) Origin un-

L. antimonitan.

217. 5.

Anxious.

neut.

I give.
gi^en,from di5cjfj.i,

Antimony,

'

Voc.

Antipathy.

(Gk.)
'

strongly)against.'
"

Gk.

From

Any.

(E.)

with

from

avn-na-

een,

choke,

to

angere,

one;

cenig,
any; from an,
-ig (E. -y).+ Du. eenig,
G. eijtiger,
from eiu, one.

ddpeiv,to

Anthem.
(Gk.) See Antlsee

Gk.

L.

aorta."

the great artery 'rising'


from
dopTT},
heart"
Gk.
ddpeoOai, to rise up;
raise.

Apace. (E. ajtd F.)

and

Phrase.

Late

(L.-Gk.)

the

"

Antiphrasis.

L. anxi-us, distressed ;
L.

A. S.

suffix

suffering
(feelingSee One.
Gk.
Aorta.
avri, against
;

phona, an

"

vaOfTv,to suffer. See Pathos.


Antiphon. (L. Gk.) Late L. ""//anthem

-ous.

distress.

one,

lit.
e^ia, antipathy,

(L.)

suffix

For

pace, i.e.

(good) pace ; where a is put for


ott
Antipodes. (Gk.) Gk. d?/r/7roSes,pl.,
(cf.a-foot)
Pace, M. E.
; see A- (2).
with feet oppositeto ours, from nom.
men
pas, is from F. pas (L. passus). See
Gk. avri^ opposite
to ; and
Pace.
sing.avTiTTovs.
TToC?. foot,cognate with Foot.
F. d part,
Apart, aside. (F.-L.)
at

"

Antique,

old. (F.-L.) ". antique." apart, alone,singly;Cot.


L. ad partem
with
lit.to the one
antiqiius, also antuiis, formed
or
side,apart. L. ad,
part
suffix -Tens from atite,
before ; as posticusis to ; partem, ace. oi pars, a
part.
from post, behind.
Doublet, antic.
apartment, a separate room.
(F."
Ital. L.)
V (ippariement. Ital. apparAntiseptic, counteracting putrefaction.
lit.sepa(Gk.) Gk. avTi, against; and tamento,2Siapartment, a partition,
ration.
Ital. appartare, to separate.
putrefying,
(TrjiTTiKos,
otjitt-os, rotten, from
Ital. a parte, apart. L. ad partem; see
"jr]TTeiv,to rot.
"

L.

"

"

"

"

"

"

Antistrophe.
and

(Gk.)

From

Anti-

above.

Apathy.

Strophe.

Antithesis.

(Gk.)

From

Anti-

and

Thesis.

Antitype.

(Gk.)

From

Anti-

aap

Antler.

(F.) M. E. auntekre, for


auntolier (?). O. F. antoillier, said
to
have been once
in use
(Littre;.In this
the O. F. word
case
is supposed to be
Late
L.
to
a
"^antoculdrefii,
equivalent
ace,
i.e. the branch
(of the horn) in front of
cf. G. aztgen-sprosse,
browa
eyes;
antler {lit.eye-sprout). See Romania, iv.
349.

From

ante, before, and

the
ocztlus,

eye.

Anus,
(L.)

L.

the lower

orifice of the

bowels.

From

Gk.

d-, not

dTra^em,
to
-naQdlv,

M.

E. ape ; A. S. a/a.+Du.
api ; Swed.
apa ; G. affe
\
(from E.) ; O. Bohem.
op.

Icel.

Irish apa

Aperient.

I he

"

Ape. (E.)

and

Type.

(Gk.)

of teeling.Gk.
suffer. See Pathos.
want

XVII

(L.)

Lit.

cent.

'

stem of pres. pt.


opening,'"L. aperient-,
of aperire, to open. Perhapsfrom ap-, old

form

of ab, from, away,


in zverti, to move

zver-

whence
i. "

Lith.

and

-uer-

(to

to
at-ivcrti,

and

open.

L,\ih.

fro),

Brugm.

36 T.

Apex. (L ) L. apex, summit.


Aph-, prefix.(Gk.; See Apo-.
Aphseresis, the taking away

of

beginningof
Anvil.
'L.^X^'L,.
a word.
(E.^ 'W.Y.. anvelt.anfeld,an'
(L.-Gk.)
aphciresis."
for
Gk d(/)-,
felt.A. S. anjilte,
a taking
onjilti.K.'S. an, on, Gk. dipaipeais,
away.
and a verb '^ficltan
on, upon:
a
taking,from aipeiv,
(seebelow), dnu, away; a'lpeai^,
causal of *fealtan,
See Heresy.
to infix,redupl.verb
to take.
with
O.
H.
G.
orbit
M.
H.
G.
cognate
*fahan,
Aphelion, the pointin a planet's
vahen, whence G.falz,a groove.
farthest from the sun.
^ Some
(Gk.) Coined from
derive it from on
and fealdan, to fold ; Gk. d(p-,
for dm'i,
from ; ijXios,
the sun.
definition. (Gk.) Gk.
however, the O. H. G. anafalz,an anvil, Aphorism,
a
is not derived from ana^ on, z.i\Afaldan. dcpopia
definition.
to
Gk. dfopi^eiv,
a
pos
letter

anus.

or

syllablefrom

the

"

"

"

APPEAR

APPROPRIATE

to ; and *pelld)-e,
to speak,allied
(foracT)^
to A. S. spell,
a tale.

Appoint. (F.-L.) I.I.Y..apoijiten."


O. F. apointer,to prepare, arrange, settle.
Late L. appunctdre, to repair,appoint,

visible. (F. L.
Appear, to become
M. E. aperen. O. F. aper-, tonic stem
(as settle a dispute; Ducange. \..ap(forad)\
in pres. subj. apere) of O. F. apareir,Late L. punctdre, to mark
by a point,from
L. appdrere. L. ap- Late L. puncta, a prick,fem. of ptmctus^
aparoir,to appear.
"

"

"

"

"

"

in pp. ; see Point.


Der. disappoint.
(for ad), to, forth ; pdrere, to come
sight,aho spdt pa7'rere. Cf. Apparition.
Apportion. (F.-L.) F. apporlioner,
M. E. apesen, to portionout to.
F. ap- (putfor a before
L.)
(F.
Appease.
to ; portion,
apaisen. A. F. apeser, apeiser,O. F. /, in imitation of L. ap- ad
to bring to a
Portion.
a portion
; see
apescr Y. apaiser),
peace."
O.F.
a
pels,a pais, to a peace. "L. ad
Appose. (F. L.) F. apposer ; formed
See Peace.
to representL. apporiere,
the analogyof
on
pdcem, to a peace.
F. appellant, composer, exposer, and other presumed representatives
Appellant. (F.-L.)
of compounds of L. ponere ;
pres. pt. of appeller,O. F. apeler,to
but reallyformed
F. poser (Irom L.
appeal ; see Appeal.
on
"

"

"

Append,

to attach. (F. L.) Formerly pausdre). See Pose.


suitable ;
apenden,to pertainto. O. F.
Apposite. (L.) L. appositus,
for
L.
to
L. ap- (for
apendre, depend on.
appendere,
pp. of apponere, to put near.
L. appendere,
L. ap- ad), to; poftere,to put. See Position.
to hang to or
upon.
(forad), to ; pendere,to hang.
Appraise. (F.-L.) M.E. apraisen,
addition.
(L.) L. to value. O. Y. ^apreiser
appendix, an
(cf.O. F. apretier in Roquefort).
to suspend upon.
O. F. a-, prefix
appendix."Y., appendere,
;
L. ap- (forad), to ; pendere,to weigh.
value, price.
Preiser,to value,ixom. p7'eis,
M. E. aperL. ad, at ; pretitim,
a price.
Appertain.
(F.-L.)
tenen."O
F. apartenir (F. appartenir), appreciate.
(L.) From
pp. of L.
to belong to.
L. "z/- (forct/),to ; per- appretidre,to value
at a price. L. aptinere,to belong. See Pertain.
TiX; pretium,a price.
(forad
0.".
(F. L.) Y apprehendre
appetit.- Apprehend.
Appetite. :F.-L.)
L.
lit.
assault
L.
appetitus, an
appetite;
(Cot.).
apprehendere,
orig.to lay hold
upon.' L. appetere,to attack. L. a/- ^for of. L. ap- (for ad), to. 2X\ prehendere,
"

also iVI.E.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

ad), to

"

"

petcre,to seek, attack.

Applaud.

to

L. applandere, to
(L.)
to
"/- (forad),at ; plaiidere,

See

grasp.

Prahensile.

apprentice. F.-L.) O.Y.aprentiSy

of aprentif (see Godefroy, s. v.


nf)m.
applaud. L.
applaud, clap (hands). Der, applause,aprentic). The O. F. aprentis,
aprentif,
from pp. applaiisiis.
nom.,
represent Late L. ^ app7-enditTvus
and *apprenditwum, ace, from a Late L.
Apple. (F.) 'Si.Y..appel.K.'^.ceppel,
of
L.
used
as
a
(Bpl.'\-Y)\x.
appel; Icel. epli\Swed. dple \ '^apprenditiis,
pp.
Dan. alfle ; G.ap/el; Insh a /dial; Gael.
apprendcre,to learn,short for L. apprehendere, to lay hold of (above\
ubhal; W. ^z/a:/
; Russ. iabloko; Lithuan.
Some
connect
obolys. Origin unknown.
apprise, to inform. (F.-L.) From
it with
Abella
in Campania ; cf. Verg. the M. E. sb. aprise,information,teaching.
/En. vii. 740.
O. F.
aprise, instruction. O. F.
Apply. (F.-L.) yi.^.aplyen.^O.Y. appris,apris,pp. oi aprendre,to learn."
L. apprendere(above).
to join to, turn
or
aplier.'-l^.
applicdre,
to
apply to. L. ap- for ad), to ; plicdre,
Approach. (F. L.) yi.Y.,approchen,
to approach.
Der.
fold, twine.
cation aprochen. O. F. api'ochier,
appli-ance
; also appliL. appropidre,
to
to draw
near
(^Exod.iii.
(F.application^.
Appoggiatura, a grace-note or passing 5). L. ap- (forad), to ; prope, rear.
essential
tone prefixed,
as
a support, to
an
tion.
Approbation. (F.-L.) Y. approbaof a melody. (^Ital.L. and GV.^^
L. ace. appi'obationem,
note
approval.
to approve.
Ital. appoggiatura,lit. a support. Ital. L. approbdtus,
pp. oiapprobdre,
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Ital. ap- (for


appoggiare,to lean upon,
ad), to, upon ; poggio,a place to stand or
"

lean on, "c.

"

L. ad, to;

podium,

place, a balcony,from
See

Pe"w.

Gk.

an

vated
ele-

-nubiov.

See

Approve.

Appropriate.
appropridre,to
'for

(L.)

make

From

one's

one's
ad), to; propj'ius,

Proper.

pp.

own.

own.

"

of L.
L. "/See

APPROVE

ARCH

As if from L. *aqiieus,
adj.,
( F.
L.) O. F. approver.
aqueous.
used.
L. aqtia, water.
not
L. ap- Sox ad
a form
to api-rove.
approhdi-e,
as
good. Aquiline, like an engle.(F." L.) F.
to; probare,to test, try, esteem
Der. approval; dis-approve.
aquilin; hence nez aquilin, a nose like
of
L.
From
an
adj.from
eagle;'Qo\..^Y. aquiliJius,
^L)
Approximate.
pp.
Cf
L.
an
draw
to.
to
JEagle.
near
eagle.
aquila,
apapproxifudre,
F.-Ital.-Arab.) XVII
I for ad), to ; proximiis,
very near, superl. Arabesque.
Arabian like ; also
F. .irabesquc,
cent.
adj.from prope, nenr.

Approve.

L.

"

"

'

"

belongs

"

apartcnance), that which

(O
to.

full of flourishes,
Pke fine Arabian work.
^Y. -ish."
Ital. Arabesco \ where
-esco

(F.-L.) A.Y.apur-

Appurtenance.
ieiiamice

O. Y.

"

'

Arab.

apartcnir, belong
to

to.

arab, Arabia.

L.
Arable.
(F. L.) F. arable.
ardbilis,that can be ploughed. L. arare,

See Appertain.

Gk.
Arab.
from Port.
also apricock,

Apricot. (F.-Port.

"

"

"

"

to plough. (-y/AR.) See Ear


(3").
Formerly
L. arbiter,
Arbiter.
Also
abricot.
F.
(L.) In Milton.
directly.
albricoqtie
abricot, the abricot,or apricockplum ; a witness,judge,umpire.
L.
Arab, al barqiiq,
Cot.
Port, albricoqtie.
arbitrary. (L.) In Milton.

L.)

"

"

'

'

"

"

where

ol is the def. art.

Mid.

Gk.

irpaiKuThe
Kiov
; pi. vpamoKia.
(Dioscorides)
pi.vpaiKOKia was borrowed from L. /n?"

arbitrdrius,
orig.like the
umpire. L. arbitrdre,to
"

L. arbiter

"

of

decision
act

as

an

umpire.

(above).

arbitrate.
(L.) From
pp. of L.
to
act
as
form of pra^cox^ precocious,
arbitrdre,
(above).
umpire
early
Arboreous, belongingto trees. (L.)
ripe (Pliny;Martial, 13. 46). L. pne,
from arbor,a tree ; with
beforehand ; and coqtiere, to cook, ripen. L. arbore-us,adj.

pi. of prcecoqutis,

apricots,

neut.

coqua,
another

"

word

reached

us

April. (L.)
named

bower. (F. L.) The word


reallydue to M. E. herbere,
O. F. herbier, L. heralso erbere,from
also an orchard."
bdrium, a herb-garrien,

Arbour,

"

L.

Aperient.

(F. L.") Formerlynapron.'^


O. h naperon, a largecloth ; augmentative
form of O. F. nape, a cloth (F. nappe).
L. niappa, a napkin, cloth (withchange of

Apron.

"

to

seems

because the earth then opens


to
fruit. L. aperire, to open ;

produce new
see

suffix -ons.

and Cook.
^ Thus the
in a very indirect manner.
L. Aprilis
; said to be so

See Precocious

"

be

due

The

herb.

herba,grass,

was

specialsense

with

confusion

to

L.

arbor, a

tree.

Arc.

"-

in

to

in

as

n,

F.

naite,

mat).

See

Map.

(F. L.)
-

L. arcuvi,

XIV

cent.

F.

arc.

oiarcus,a bow, arch, arc.

ace.

(F. Ital. L.) F. arcade.


arched place; fem. of
Ital. areata, an
arch.
Ital. arco, a bow,
oi
to
arc are,
pp.
arcade.

"

"

"

Apse. (L. Gk.)


"

end

of

Now

used

of

recess

"

L.

(above).
; formerlyapse,
orbit.
of a planet's
Arcana.
a turning-point
(L.) L. arcana, thingskept
apsis,
L. arcere, to keep.
L. apsis,
Gk.
a
bow, turn.
secret,secrets.
pi.apsides,
felloe of a wheel,
Arch
a
axpis,
(i),a vault,"c. (F.-L.) O. F.
tying,fastening,
Gk. aTrrefi/,to tie,
bind. arche, a chest,box (L. area, see Ark) ;
curve, bow, arch.
fit.
XIV
L.
cent.
(L.)
aptus, also, by confusion, an arch,owing to the
Apt,
of
of Med. Lat. area
with the sense
used as pp. of apisci,
to reach,get, but
use
reallypp. of O. Lat. apere, to fit or join L. arcus, a bow, arch. See Arc.
Arch
(2),roguish,
waggish. (L. Gk.)
together.
^Q arch a leer;' Tatler, no.
193. The
(L.) L. aqudticus,
ing
pertainAq.1iatic.
E.
in
the
New
L.
to water.
Dictionaryprove
examples
aqua, water.
aq_ua-fortiS. L. aqua fortis,
strong that it is nothing but the prefixArch-,
used separately
which see below
chief (for
water.
Cf.
The most
arch act
and peculiarly.
L. aquarium, a wateraquarium.
at

the

church

"

ace.

aixuni

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

vessel.

L. aqua,

"

aquarius.
bearer.

"

water.

L.

"

L. aqua,

aqudrius,

water-

water.

a
ac(_ueduct. L. aqiKzductus,
"

...

duit
con-

from aqua, gen. of w^im, water, and


duct ; see Duct.

ductus,a

in Shak. Rich. III. iv. 3. 2 ; 'An


heretic,
\TII. iii. 2. 102.
arch one;' Hen.
an
arch fellow,a
Also ' Byends
a very

downright hypocrite'
; Bunyan'sPilgrim's
Progress. A. S. arce-, O. F. arche-, L.
Gk.
archi-,
2.^

apx*"

See
(prefix).

below.

ARCH-

ARGENT

Arch-, prefix,chief. (L.-Gk.)


form

arch- is due

The

an
bisceop,

in arche-diacre,an
archdeacon.
borrowed
from L. archiform was

This

as

Lat.

See

beam.

Archives,
properlyan

Gk.

are

pi.,publicrecords ;
is a placewhere
kept. (F. L. Gk.) F.
s.

archive

"

"

but
cords
rear-

Cot.
L. archmiuu,
be first,
archnun.
Gk. apx^iov, a publicbuilding,
to rule ; cf. Gk.
deacon, residence
archof magistrates.
Gk.
beginning.Der. arch-bishop,
dpxh, a
"c. ; but, in arch-angel,the ch
beginning,a magistracy.

Gk.

apx^t-v, to

apxn,

"

"

"

hard

remained

languages,

in the Romance
of the following
a.

(as k
account

on

Arctic.
O. F.

(F.- L.-Gk.)

artique;F.

arcticus.
the constellation of
Gk. dpKTos,a bear.

"

ancient,which
apxo^^os,

Gk.

is
the suffix

from

L.

with

Cognate

"

urstis

the beginning
a-pxh^
-logy, Der. ant-arctic.
; and
Gk. -Xoyla,
due to \6yos,discourse,from
Ardent.
(F.-L.)
ardaunt.

O. F.

M.E.dtr/z'y^.-

"^\..
antique.

Cf. Ital. arcangelo,


Gk. dpKTiKus,
near
Span,arcangel.
the Bear, northern.
archaeology..Gk.) Gk. apx^-ioXo-ila.
"

of trabs,

trabem, ace.

Trave.

an
dpx'-^''''''"''''07ro?,
archbishop.chif,pi. archives;

in

as

apx"--i
"

and
principal,

A. S. arce-, as in arceand to O. F. arche-,


archbishop,
to

XIV

Ursine.

see

cent.

M.E.

speak.
pres. part, of
of
ardre, to burn. L. ardent-em, ace.
(Gk.) Gk. dpxaik us, a.ntiqne,
old.
Gk. dpxr],pres. pt. oiardere,
to burn.
primitive.Gk. dpxaios,
ardour.
a beginning.
(F. L.) O.F. ardour,ardor,
ing,
archaism.
(Gk.) Gk. dpxacapos,an heat. L. ardorem. ace. of ardor,a burnfervour.
Gk.
L.
burn.
t
o
to
ardere,
dpxaiC^iv,
antiquatedphrase.
old
Arduous.
speak antiquatedly.Gk.
dpxai^os,
(L.) L. ardu-tis, steep,
difficult,
Irish aj'd,
high; with suffix -^wi-.-|^above).
Archer.
high ; Gk. 6p96s,upright.
(F.-L.) M. E. archer.
A.P\
bow-man.
a
archer; O. F. archier,
Are, pres. pi.of the verb substantive.
\(y"iv, to

"

ardant

archaic.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Late

"

L.

arctis,

arcdrius, a

bow-man

(E.)

from

bow.

O.

Northumbrian

atvn,

O.

Merc.

from A. S.(Wessex)
earun,
distinguished
sint,sind,sindon. Cf. Icel. er-u, theyare.
as

the

Archetype,

original
type. (F.
*a
archetype,
principallFrom the Idg. V^S, to be ; from whence
L. archetypuvi,
the originalalso are Skt. s-anti,Gk. ^Xo-'iv,
L. s-unt,
type ; Cot.
G. s-ind,Icel. e7'-u (for*"?5-z"),
a
model; neut.
they are.
pattern. Gk. dpxf^Tvirov,
O. Northumb.
of upxirviTos,
am.
stamped as a model. Gk.
am, O. Merc, eam,
S.
A.
Goth.
Gk.
as-mi,
eoJH.-J^^kt.
^l-p^i,
dpxi--prefix(see Archi-) ; rvvos,
apxiL.

F.

Gk.)

"

'

"

"

"

=^

i-m, Icel. e-j7i

type.

Archi-, prefix,chief. (L. Gk.)


"

archi-. for Gk. apx''

archimandrite.

viandrTta,
a

an

or

Late

abbot.
Gk.
"

same.

chief

(L.-Gk.) l^.archiof monks,


principal

Gk.

Cf. also
is. A. S. is -J-Icel.
es, later er.
and G. is-t,Skt. as-ti,
L.
Gk. ka-r'i.,

closure, es-t.
en-

See also Be, "Was.


(L.) XVI cent.

Area.

monastery. See

Arch-.

open

L. area,

an

space.

chief sea, i.e. Aegean


Areca, a genus of
Ital. arcipelago,
Tnodifi(:^d Canarese.) Port, a/rra.

archipelago,

palms. (Port."

(Ital. Gk.)

Canarese rt;d?^z,
being substituted for

sea.

to

O. Northumb.

Goth,

the
dpxH^avSpiTr^s,

fold,afterwards

; "c.

arQ O. Merc. "?ar5 ;


A.S. eart (with/ due to -/ in sceal-t,
shalt,
"c.). Icel. est,ert.

Arch-.

see

dpxi-;chief;fmvSpa, an

"

art.

L.

"

archipelago. Gk.
"

adike, areca-nut

dpxi-, chief; and

{W. H. Wilson). Accented


the firstsyllable.
on
Arefaction
(below).
; see Arid

the cerebral d

TT"\ayos, sea.

architect.
/ecle.
tecf on.

(F.-L.

"

Gk. )

L,. architecttis,
the same

"

"

Gk.

dpxirinTwv,a

F. archias

archi-

"

architrave.

Arena.

chief builder

artificer. Gk. "px^-, chief (seeArchi-)


a carpenter,builder.
reKTdJV,
or

"

(L.)

L.

arena,

sand

the

fought.
gladiators
space in which
harena
; cf. '^2Lhvi\Q
fasena,sand.
Orig.
sanded

Gk.)
Argent. (F. L.) White; in heraldry.
F. argent. "1-.. argentutn, silver;from
Ital. architrave,
entablature
the part of an
restingits brightness Cf. Gk. dpyvpos, silver,
Skt. arjuna{s),
white. (y'ARG, to shine.)
the column.
A barbarous
on
immediately
i.
Gk.
from
chief,
""
dpxi-%prefix,
Brugm.
compound ;
529, 604. See below.
In

Milton.

"

F.

(F.-ital-

ajrhil/

ave.

L. and

"

"

"

34

ARGILLACEOUS

ARRACK

Argillaceous, clayey.(L.) L. ar- armada, an armed fleet ; fem. of armado,


L. anndre, to arm
adj from argilia,clay, esp. pp. of armar, to aim.
gilldceus,
white clay. Cf. Gk. ap-yus, white.
(above). Doublet, army.
armadillo, an animal. (Span. L.';
Argonaut. (L. Gk.) 'L..argonaut a.
"

"

Gk.

"

"

ap^QvavTT]';^

sailed in the

who

one

Span, armadillo

of Jason's
shipArgo. Gk. dp7w, the name
swift,from 0^70?, swift); and
ship (lit.
"

vavT-qs,

sailor ;

Argosy,

tian.)
(Dalma-

Formerlyspeltarguze and ragusy


N.
and
Q. 6 S. iv. 490 ; Arber's Eng.
(see
was
a
Garner, ii. 67). The orig.sense
of a
ship of Ragusa,'which is the name

"

L. arma,

"

port in Dahnatia.

Ragusa
XVI
cent. E. as Aragouse.
Argue. (F- L.) M. E.

appears
arguen.

"

L.

O. E, argue?'. ^'Laie
of
gutari),Irequent.

in

doublet

of

armour.

solstice. L.

-stitium,for

arma,

"

and

arms;

from
(throughatonic position),
of
stand.
to
(Cf.
stdre,
supine

Solstice.)
M.

(F. L.)

arm.OUr.

E. armour,
armetire.^'L.

"

F. arniure,
L.
l^.dridtts,
mdti'ira,armour.

arar-

anndtus, pp. of
Doublet,
a/'W^7;r,toarm. L.ar/;/a,arms.

cent,

L. drere,to be dry.
arefaction.
(L.) XVI

equip.

"

mtire.'-O.

Arid, dry.(L.) XVII

aiindmcnttimy

armi-, for

argument, lit.to make


clear.

L.

mado,
ar-

above.

as

(F. L.) Y armistice.'^


coined
the
on
*ar;nistitiujti,

L.

statnm,

argiiere, to prove by
clear;cf. argilius,

arm

analogy oi sol-stitium,i.e.
-statium

arguiare (L. ar-

to

of

L. aruidre,to arm,

armistice.
Mod.

Dimin.

arms.

arm.ature,

'

shell.

(L)

equipment.

an

one,'

of its haul
pp. of armar,

arm.ameilt.

NauticaL

see

merchant-vessel.

because

lit 'the littlearmed

"

dry.
"

"

cent.

Coined

arinattire.

s. pi.
(F. L) M. E.
weapons.
O. F. armcs, pi. L. arma,
neut.
in the right pi, arms, lit.' fittings.'
.-v^AR,to fit.)
Aright. (E.) For on right,
way.
arm.y. iF. L.) O.Y. ari7iee,i"cci.oi
L
S.
M.
E.
A.
arisen.
to arm.
Aj^ise.
armdta, fem.
(E.)
pp. of armer,
L. arma,
drJsan.
A. S. a-, prefix;
risan, to rise. of pp. of armdre, to arm.

from

to

make
drefaccre,\.o

L.

dry.
"

L. ^r^-;r,

to make.
dry ; aw(S.facere,

be

arms,

armes.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

See Rise.

arms.

Modified

Aristocracy. (Gk.)

Aroint

from

thee

known.
Origin un-

! begone !

The usual reference


by the
dpioTOKparia,
government
nobles
Gk.
f
or
does
'best'
not
or
men.
dpioro-,
Ray
help us.
smell.
b
est
and
be
to
sweet
a
dpiaTos, ;
strong, Arom.a,
Kpaniv,
Gk.

to

ryntyein

"

from

govern,

The

Kparvs, strong.

form

Late

from
the base
dp-LGTosis a superlative
cratic
excellence. Der. aristodp- seen in dp-er^y.
;

aristocrat,for

whence

'

aristocratic

person.'
F.

"

(F.-L.-Gk.)

; Cot.
arithmetique

In

Sh

fem.
to

stem

M.

L. arithmetica.

"

Arouse.

GV.

(L. Gk.)
a
spice,
"

npwpa.

Der.

prep, and

adv.

a7-ou7id; for

E.

(2)and

and

"

from
aro7)iat-ic,
dpcufxar-.

Around,
A-

the science of numbers;


Gk. dpiOixrjTiKr],

"

Gk.

aroma.

herb.

sweet

L.)

Arithmetic.

L.

on

;E. andF."
round;

the

see

Round.

(E.^'W^Scand )

From

A-

(4)

Rouse

dpLOfxrjTLKus,
adj.,from dpi9ij.i-fiv,
Arquebus, a kind of gim. (F.-Du.
gun,'
ing.
Gk. dpiOpivs,
F. arquebnse, an
number, reckonharquebuse,or hand-

of

'

number.

"

dialectal
Jia/kibuse,
Cot. ; Walloon
Du.
haeckbusse,
Mid.
Du.
of
box
variation
floating
hence
a
a
;
Ark, chest,
large
vessel. (L.) A. S. arc.-^L. area, a
haakbus, lit. ' a gun with a hook.' This
refers to the hook whereby it wa.-; attached
chest,box ; cf. L. arcere, to keep.
Du. haeck,
Arm
to a point of support. Mid.
(i),part of the body. (E.) M.E.
Dii. Imsse,
Mid.
and
hook
A
S.
Du. haak, a
arm.
arm
;
ear77i.-{-T)\\.
; Icel.ai'f/ir;
See
Goth,
handa
and
G.
Du.
barrel,
Dan., Swcd.,
gv.n.
arms;
bus, a
"

arm\

L.

the

armus,

shoulder.

"

Arm.
L.)

See

shoulder

Russ.

524.
furnish with weapons.
L. ar7?idre,to
ariner.

(2),to
F.

with

"

arms.

armada,

"

Hackbut.

ravio,

Brugm. i. "

L arma,
arms.
fleet. (Span.-L.)

(F.
nish
fur-

Span.
25

ardent
an
spirit.(Arab.)
Arrack,
essence, distilled
sweat, juice,
'ai-aq,
spirit. Arab, root 'araqa,to sweat.
% Sometimes shortened to Rack ; cf. Span.
Arab,

"

raque, arrack.

ARTILLERY

ARRAIGN
"

arezsm'er,

with, cite,arraign. O
reisner, reisoner,to

F.

"

res

to, discourse

speak

to

L.

ace.

"

Reason.

see

"

forms,atarazanal,atarazana, where
lojiger
the a- answers
to Arab,
al, def. article.
Cf. Ital. darsena,a wet
dock.
Arab, ddr
of
house
construction,
a
ac-cind^ah,
place

O. F.

from

senal,
(Span. Arab.) Span, ar-

magazine, dockyard, arsenal;

(L. ad), to;

reason,

raison,reason, advice,from

on,

rationem

Arsenal.

M.'E.arainen.-^

(F. L.)

Arraign.
O. F.

O. H. G.) for making things,


L. and
dock-yard. Arab, ddr,
(F
O. F. arengier,a house ; al, the ; and pnd'ah, art, trade,
E. arayngen, arengen.
O. F. a (L. ad), to ; construction.
to put into a rank.
Arab.
Arsenic.
Pers.)
(L. Gk.
rangier, rengier. to range, from O. F.
Late
Y^-arseniaim."See
rank.
Rank.
arsenic;
Gk.dpo'fi/i/foi',
rang, ren^, a

Arrange.

"

M.

"

"

"

bad.
Arrant, knavish,notoriously

L.)

"

be

This

mere

word

is

now

(F. seemingto

ascertained

to

parson
(cf.

for

variant of en-ant

erraunt
person). Chaucer has theef
thief,C T. 1 71 73; and see Piers

had
different

mean

"

"

male

mists
alcheprinciple(the
fancythat metals were of

strange

from
\ F"ut reallyborrowed
sexes
Arab. az-zernJkh ; where az is for al,the,
is from
def. art., and zernlkh, orpiment,
Pers. zernT, orpiment,
yellowarsenic (from

arrant
,

man,
Plow-

See Errant.
Arras, tapestry, (F.) So named from
Arras, in Artois,north of France.
Array, verb. (F. L. and O. Low G.)
C. vii. 307.

gold). See Devic,

zar,

incendiarism.

arson,

"

p. 4,

incendiarism,

Arson,

O. F.

(F. L.)
"

Late

"

L.

ar-

ace.

O. F. arrai
siottem, a burning. L. ars-tis, pp. of
arraier,to array.
See Ardent,
to burn.
ad
L.
ardere,
ararroi,preparation.
(becoming
Art (i),2 p. s. pres. of verb, (E.) See
before r),to, for ; O. Low
G. and O. Fries.
rede
(cf.Goth, garaid-s),
ready, A. S. Are.
art.~
nede,ready; so that to array is to get Art
(2),skin. (F.-L.) M.E.
oi ars, skill.
O. F. "3:;'/. L. artem, ace.
ready.' See Ready.
properly
Arrears, sb. pi. vF. L.) From M. E. Artery. (L, Gk.) L.a;-/i^r/a,
O. F. arere
(F. the wind-pipe;also,an artery. Gk. dpr?;arere, adv., in the rear.
behind.
Late L. ad retro,backp'la,
arriere),
wind-pipe,
artery.
behind.
v"'ard. L. ad, to; r"?/r"?,
^ What
Artesian, adj. :F.) Artesian zvells^jo.
from F. Artisien,adj.formed from
M. E. named
call arrears
to
we
now
answers
M.
E.
formed
from
a
arere
A7-tois,
provincein the north of France,
arerages, s. pi.
O.

F.

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

with

where

F. suffix -age.

Arrest,

to

stop.

(F. L.)
"

O. F.

"

(withoutthe

which

ar,

"

(Diez),which

is

Arrogate. (L.) From pp. of L. arrogdre, to ask,adopt,attribute to, add to.


Der.
L. ar- (forad), to ; rogdre, to ask.

borrowed

Italian,

arrogant, from the pres. pt.


Arrow.
(E.) M..\L. areweTurwe.

knuckle, article in grammar

and

earh

Icel. or,
(rare).+

allied to
Teut.
From
;

Goth,

"

modern

small
article.

corrupt form

item, part of speech.


L. articnhis,
a joint,

"

'
; lit.

small

limb.
oi arttis, a joint,
tinct
disL.
articulate.
artictddttis,
(L.)
with
to
of
artictddre,
supj^ly
; pp.
a
joints,divide by joints. L. artictilus,

joint.'Dimin.

A.S.
an

from

Article, a
(F, L.) F.

"

orvar

the

"

arriv-al.

^gen.

to

answers

def. art. al, the)the forms carciocco,


choke.
artiCf. Span, alcachofa,
an
carcioffo.
Arab, al kharshuf,
or
an
harshaf,
artichoke,
^ Not Arab, ar'dl shatikl

"

arwe,

use.

Arab.

?)"
Late
Arrive.
(F. L.) F. rtrrzz'^r.
L. arrJpdre, adrlpdre,
to shore,
to come
land.
L. ad, to ; I'tpa,
shore,bank. Der.
"

earlyin

were
-

(F. arreter),to stay. O. F. " ( L.


ad), to ; L. restdre, to stay, remain, from
;r-, back, and stare, to stand ; see Rest
ter

these wells

Artichoke.
(Ital, Arab.) Ital.articiocco,a corrupt form ; Florio also gives
also
the spellings
archiciocco,
archicioffo\

ares-

arrow

arhwazna,

base ar/nv- ; cognate


bow.
joint(above).
it is said, Artifice.
(F.-L.) In Milton. -F.
arrow-root.
(E.")So called,
craft;
!^, artificitun,
a
trade, handithe tubers of the Marania
were
because
artifice.
oi
skill,"L,
stem
hence
antidote
"r/z-,
used
ars,
an
as
againstpoisoned
an

arrow.

with L. arc-US,

"

"

arrows.

(E.") ^\.Y^.
Arse.
+Gk. oppos, the rump.

A. S "?r^.
Idg.type ^orsos.

ars.ers.

26

Der.
iox facer
art; and -Jic-,
e, to make,
a skilled workman.
artific-cr,
artillery. (F.-L.) O.Y.artillerie,

ARTISAN

equipment of

ASPECT

machines

in-

of war,

Ashes.

ariiller,to equip. Late L. *artilIdre, to make


machines; a verb inferred

The ])1.
of ask, which is
E. asc/ie,axe, sing.; the
ern
pi.is commonly aschen. axen, but in NorthE. It is asches, askes.
A. S. cesce, pi.

from tliesb. ariilidior,


of machines
a maker
Extended
from arti-,
stem
oiars,wct. We

ascan,
Swed.

also find artillidtor,answeringto

azgon ;

war,

O. F.

"

older

an

(E.)

little used.

cross-bows, "c., in earlytimes."


cludinij;

M.

cexan,

-^Yyw..asch ; leel. and


aske; Goth, azgo^ pi.

ascan.

aska; Dan.
G.

Teut.

asche.

fice
*ariiculdior\also Late L. ariiculum, arti*azgdn-.
Ashlar,
; artinila,art.

*askdn-,

stems

Ashler,

of
a
facingmade
(i'. L.) It consists of
F. artisan.
workman."
thin slabs of stone
\i2i\.artigiano,2i
for facinga building
Late L. ^artitiamis,
not found, but formed
formerlyappliedto a square hewn stone
from L. artittis,cunning, artful. L. arti-, and, probably,so called because it took
of ars, art.
the place of the wooden
beams
used for
stem
O. F. aiseler (Livre
As, coiij.(E.) M. E, as, ah. alse,also, the same
purpose.
from
al so. As is a contraction of also. (Proved des Rois), extended
(J. F. aiselle,
See Also.
aisiele,a little board, dimin. of ais, a
by Sir F. Madden.)
Asafoetida, Assafoetida, a gum. plank. L. axilla, dimin. of L, axis an
(Med. L. Pers. and L.) From Pers. dzd, axis,also,a board, a plank.
mastic ; the L. foetida,
fetid,refers to its Ashore.
(F.) '^ox onshore.
offensive smell.
See Fetid.
Aside.
(E.) Y ox on side.
Gk.
A. S.
mineral.
Ask.
aa
(E.) M. E. asken, axien.
Asbestos,
(Gk.)
to
combustible.
dscian, dhsian. dcsian ; the last answers
a^icros, unquenchable; because it is indska ;
"Gk.
d-, neg. prefix;and
prov. E. ax. + Du. eischen ; Swed.
o^ivvvm, I Dan. cBske ; G. heischen, O. H. G. eiscon.
-c/SeaTos,quenchable,from
See
Brugm. i. " 6^^,. Teut. types *aiskdn,^aiskojan.Cf. Russ.
quench,extinguish.
l^iXh.jeskijfi,
to seek ; Skt. ichchhd,
L.
Ascend.
to climb
^L.)
ascende^-e,
iskate,

artisan,

workman.

Ital.

(F.

"

"

L.) scjuaredstones,

"

"

"

"

"

"

See
scandere, to climb.
ascens-ion,from pp. ascensus.
O. F.
From
F.
Ascertain.
L.)

up.

"

L.

ad,

to;

"

acertainer,aceitener,
(with s inserted). F. ^
"

certain,certain.

make

to

L.

;
See Certain.
=

wish, desire,esh, to search.

Askance,

Der.

Scan.

by

a-scance

who

certain

ad, to); and

the

as

F.
'

scansa7'e,

obliquely.(Friesic).Spelt
grave,
Wyat ; ascanche by Palsen
gives de trailers,
lorgnant,
equivalent.Hardly from Ital.
to go
a-slopeor a-sconce, or
Sir T.

Florio. Rather from


given a-skew, to go sidelin;'
(Gk.) Gk. daKTjTiKos,
side
to one
exercise,industrious; appliedto hermits, ! Friesic aa Skands, obliquely,
who
in reli (Outzen);from skd7i,obhque. Cf. E. "'ries.
exercised themselves
strictly

Ascetic.

to

gious devotion.

"

Gk.

one
daKTjTrfs,

sch

who

scJuins,
obliquely;Low
71, oblique,

G.

schiiin,
oblique(whence Dan.
aatcdv,
practisesan art, an
O.
Teut. au.
Fries,
the
a
exercise
to
paa
to
skons).
mortify
work,
; also,
Low
ascetic.
,0.
G.) For 07t
as
AskeVT,
an
body,
awry.
askew,
givesM Du. scheef,
Ascititious, incidental. (L.) Coined, skew ; Hexham
athlete.

"

schi'ins; Du.

Gk.

'

'

if from
from asciius, pp.
L. *ascTtTcitis,
awry ; see
Aslant.
oi asciscere,
adsciscere to receive,learn.
ox
L. ad, to; sciscere,to learn, inceptive Asleep.

as

Skew.

"

of scire,to know.
Ascribe.
(L.) L.
to

one's account.

to
scrthere,
a

Aslope. (E.)
Asp, Aspic, a

ascrlbere,to write
"

L.

a-

to
(forad'),

slant.
sleep; Acts

on

slope.

on

For

serpent. {Y

'^'L.
F. aspe, aspic.

write.

(E.) M. E. asch. A. S. cesc.


and Swed.
Icel.
askr ; Dan.
4-Du. esch;
*askiz.
Cf.
ask ; G. esche.
Teut.
type

Ash,

on

For

xiii.

36.

form
down

cScand.)
(E.) For

tree.

aspidem,ace.

L.

of

Gk.)
aspis.

da-nii

(gen.dGtiihos,an asp.
(L. Gk.
Asparagns, a vegetable.
dairdpayos.
P"rs. ?) L. asparagus. "Gk.
Supposed to be of Pers. origin; cf. Zend
cparegha, a shoot, a prong ; Lithuan.
"

Gk.

iasene,Lith. usis,ash.
Ashamed.
(E.) A. S. dscamod, pp. of
A. S. d-, extremely spurgas, a shoot
dscainian, to put to shame.
(Fick,I'rellwitz).
L.
from
to
us, look.
shame,
Aspect. (L.) L. aspect
; scamian,
scamii,
L.
look.
ato
of
the
S.
shame,
for
A.
with
Or
aspicere,
ofscafjwd,
p.
aspectus, pp.
same
sense
Jor ad), to, at ; specere,to look.
(withprefixof-,off,very).
Russ.

"

"

"

Aspen, Asp,

(E.)

tree.

ASSOCIATE

ASP

ASPEN,

M.

leap,attack,from saltus,

E. asp, ad, to ; sa/tus, a

T. 2923 ; aspen is an adj.


(likepp. of salire,to leap. See Assail.
is used for aspen-tree; cf. Ch.
Assay, s. ; the same as Essay, q. v.
A. S. cBspe,ceps -i^V"Vi. esp \
Assemble.
C. T. 7249.
(F. L.) O.Y. assembler.
Icel.osp,Dan. and Swed. asp ; G. espe,dspe.
Late L. assimuldre, to collect (different
from L. assimuldre,to feign). L. as- (for
Cf. Lithuan. apuszis
; Russ. osina.

Chaucer, C.
golden),and

"

"

"

(F. L.) F. asperite.L.


ace.
aspcritdtevL,
roughness.
oiasperitds,
L. asper,rough.
(L.)
Asperse, to cast calumny upon.

Asperity.

ad), to

"

Assent.

"

L.

Prom

of

aspersHS, pp.

besprinkle.L.

aspergere, to

of asserere,

Gk.

'.Gk.)

Asphodel.
of

plant
q.

Gk.

lilykind.

the

Assess,

aa(}mXda"pa\Tos,
word.
foreign

assesser.

a
da(p6d"Xos.

Der.

add

to

(forad),to

as-

Tov, asphalt,bitumen.

"

"

scatter.

Asphalt. (Gk.)

assentir.-~\..

O.Y.

(F. L.)

L. as- (for
assentire, to assent, agree to.
ad), to ; senttre, to feel,
perceive.
L. assertus, pp.
Assert.
(L.) From

(forad) ; spargere,to

as-

"

siiinil,
together.

"

to

fix

Late

L.

assess

to

who
daffodil,

who

one

"

L.

to

assessdre,to
cf. L.

sit

as

F.
sessor,
as-

sb. assessor,

one

tant,
assis; orig.a judge's
L. assesstis,
by him.

adjustedta.xes

V.

claim,assert.
join,connect.
tax.
(F.-L.) O.

to,

; serere,

sit

"

See Assize
to sit near.
( i).
(Gk.) Gk.
pp. of assidere,
Assets, sufficient effects of a deceased
aipv^ia,a stoppingof the pulse; cf.
without
assets),
pulsation.Gk. d-, not ; debtor. (F. L.) O.Y .assez{'^xoVi..
cr"/)iwTo?,
from a(pv^fLV,
to puland acpv^is,
the pulse,
sate sufficient (topay with); properlyan adv.,
but, in E., mistaken to be a pi.sb. L. ad
pulsation.
; cf. acpvy/xos,
Aspire. (F. L.) F. ^j/zm-, to breathe, satis,up to what is enough.
lit.to breathe
L. aspirdre,
Asseverate.
(L.)L, asseuerdtns, pp.
covet, aspireto.
oi asseiierdie,to speak in earnest.
L. a^-L. a- (forad), to; spirdre, to
towards.
earnest.
to
breathe.
Der.
to
v.
(forad),
seiie?ns,
aspir-ate,
pronounce
Assiduous.
with a full breathing.
(L.) L. assidu-us,sitting
\\.Y..
h..'$).
down
to ; with suffix
a
ssa.
Ass.
a
sse.
to,
L.)
applyingclosely
(C
L,. assidere,
L. as- (for
to sit near.
also -ous.
L. asinus ; whence
Irish assan.
suffocation.

Asphyxia,

a-

a-

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Icel. asni.
Hence
W. asyn, Swed.
asna,
Irish
also (orfrom L. dimin. aselhis)
came
Goih.
and
Dan.
G.
Du.
esel,
ezel,
asal,
asilus. Prob. of Semitic origin
; cf. Arab.
at an,

ad), at,

(F. L.)
"

near

to
sedere,

Assign. (F.-L.)
assigndre,to

See Sit.

sit.

O.Y.

assign,mark

assigner.l..
"

out

to.

L.

"

as-

to mark, from signum,


ad^,to ; signdre,
(for

dthon, a she-ass.

Heb.

Assail.

"

"

"

"

O. F.
M. E. asailen.
Late L. assalire ; L.
"

mark, sign.
Assimilate.

(L.) Frompp.

ofL.

atj-

simildre,to make like to. L. as- (forad),


like. See Similai'.
to ; similis,
assillre. L. ad, to ; salTre,to leap,rush
Assist.
forth. See Salient.
(F. L.) F. assister. L. asassist. L. asof
t
o
the
offence
trees
sistere,
grubbingup
step to, approach,
Assart,
to place,
the coverts of a forest. (F. [ioT ad\ lo; sistere,
stand,from
and destroying
L.) From A. F. assarte)-. F. essarter,to stdre,to stand.
to
asaillir,

attack.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Assize (I ), session of a court of justice.


ground of shrubs. L. ex,
M. E. assise.^O.Y.
Late
L.
assise,an
out, thoroughly
sartdre, frequent,(F. L.)
;
of
also
an
of L. sarrire, sarJre, to grub up weeds.
a
tax,
impost.
assembly judges;
fem.
of
F.
to sit
O.
murderer.
asseoir,
secret
a
(F.
Probably
pp.
Assassin,
Arab.) V. assassin. Y^com hxoXi.hashdshin,near, assist a judge. L. assidere,to sit
of
Assess.
the name
near
; see Assiduous,
pi.,eaters of hashish,'
sion.
dimenof
or
Old Man
assize (2\ a fixed quantity
sect in the 13th century ; the
O.
F.
a
roused his followers' spirits
the Mountain
assise,
( F.
tax,
impost;
L.)
also used in the
and sent them
the Late L. asslsa was
by help of this preparation,
of provisions.
of a fixed allowance
saders.
crusense
to stab his enemies, esp. the leading
Another
word
the above.
The
as
Arab,
same
hashish, an
intoxicating
grub

up,

clear

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

nabis
preparationfrom the dried leaves of Canindica,a kind of hemp. Cf. Arab.
hashiy,dry.
Assault.
L.) O. F. assalt. L.
I F.
"

form

is Size,

q.

v.

Associate.
(L.) From pp. of L. ^.rsocidre,to join to. L as- (forad-'),to ;
socidre,to join, associate. L. socius,a
"

"

28

ATTORNEY

ATLAS

Atlas.
(Gk.)
demi-god who was

Named

after Atlas, the

attain.

said to bear the world


his shoulders ; his figure
used often to
on
the title-page
Gk.
of atlases.
appear on
"ArXas
(gen.'ArXauros), prob. 'the sus'

bearer,from

or

atlantic, an

y'TEL,

named
of Africa.

ocean,

Atlas, in the N.W.


of "ArXas
'ArAarTi-, stem

with

Atmosphere.
air

round

dTjxo-,stem

Lit. 'a

(Gk.)

From

from
the earth.' Coined
of ar^os,
vapour, air ; and

^//^ 0/roses,
correctly,

i.e.perfume. Arab.

'itr,
perfume. Arab,

root

'atara,to

L.)

O.Y.

L.

ad),to

"

"

smell

sweetly.

Atoll, a

of coral islands

group

ring. (Maldive Islands.)


'

expressionfrom
where

above.

see

attaint, to convict. (F.-L.) From


M. E. atteynt,ateynt, convicted, whence
the verb has been evolved ; orig.pp. of

Sphere.
a

(forad), to; tangere, to

at-

suffix O. F. ateindre (above). ^ Confused


with
L. attinctiis; wiience E. taitzt.
sphere Attar of BoseS.
(Arab.) Also, less

-KOS.

of

bear,
after Mt.

to

(Gk.)

L.

attainder.
(F." L.) From the O.F.
tively
ateindre,verb, to convict; used substan-

"

tainer

"

touch.

the form

prob. connected

the

Maldive

We

forming Attemper.

derive the
islands
.

"

te^nperer,to

"

temper.

atemprer
; temprer,
temperdre, to

L.

"

"

L.

(Cot).

L. attentdre, to attempt."
(forad), to; tentdre, to try; see

undertake,

to

Y.atof?te

"

(2

See Temper.
apportion,regulate,
qualify.
(F. L.) O.F. atempter,
Attempt.

of the word is atohi. It is


with the Singhalese
prep.

dtul, inside.' (Yule.)


Atom.
(F.-L.-Gk.)

(F.

O.F.

modify.

to

at-

"

ble
L. a(omus.'-Gk.
sb.,an indivisidrofios,
Tempt.
allied to drofxos,
indivisible.
Attend.
adj.,
(F. L.) O.F, atendre, to
particle;
Gk. a-, not ; to/j.-,^-gradeofrefx-,
attendere
L.
wait.
as
(pp. attentus), to
L. at- (for
in Tf/x-uen', to cut, divide.
stretch towards, give heed to.
seen
stretch.
Der.
reconcile.
ion
attentto
at
to
to
set
(E.) ad),to; tendere,
Atone,
one,
the
the
Chron.
Made
from
words
and
and
2
ai
attent,
adj.,
one,
(from
pp.);
up
"

"

"

"

"

frequentuse of the phrase "/ vi. 40, vii. 15.


in Middle
e.
Attenuate.
(L. From pp. of L. atreconciled)
(i.
English. Al at on^a,\l agreed; Rob. of tenudre,to make thin. L. "/- (for"z^),to;
Glouc. p. 113.
Tyndallhas afonemaker, temc-is,thin. See Thin.
to be witness
i.e. reconciler,
ment,
Attest.
Works, p. 158. Der. atone(L.)L. a.'testdrl,
due

oon,

the

to

at

one

"

i. e.
the

word

authors;

at-one-ment

we

actuallyfind

to.

in old
onement, reconciliation,
see

"

L.

at-

Attic,

iii,7. 69.
Hall,Satires,

Atrocity. (F. L.)

"

witness,from

F. atrocite^
Cot.

It

'-

{=ad), to; testdri, to


L. testis,
a witness.

small upper
the whole

(L. Gk.)

room.

of

orig.meant

be

"

parapet wall,

the upper facadeof an edifice.


L. atrocitdtem. d.cc. oi atrocitds,
cruelty." terminating
from the Attic order of architecture;
L. at rod-, from atrox, cruel.
Named
of see
ed, 1 706. L. y4//z"^.r. Gk,
want
Phillips,
Atrophy. (.Gk.) Gk. dTpo(pia,
Cf. F. attiqtie,
nourishment
or
Kttiko^, Attic,Athenian.
food,hunger,wastingaway
"

"

'

of the

body,atrophy. Gk.
"

d-, not;

and

an

attic;

Attic.
Attiqiie,

to nourish.
Attire. iF, -Teut.?) U.F.atir,atyr,
Tpe"peiv(pt.t. T"-Tpo(p-a),
Attach.
(F.-Teut.?) O.F. attacker,sb. ; atiren, a'yren, verb. O.F. atirier,
-O.
Y. a ( L. ad,
O F. a, for L. ad, to ; to adorn (Roquefort),
to attach, fasten.
with the prefix);
and O. F. tire,iiere,a row,
file;
and (perhaps)
Low
G. word
a
Cf.
Cf. so that atirier is properlyto arrange.'
of E. tack, a nail. See Tack.
sense
"

"

'

attaker,to attach ; Bret, tac/ia,to


fasten,from tack, a tack, nail ; and see

O. Prov. iiera,a

Picard

'

row

Bartsch.

See Tier.

(Ital. L.) Orig.a painter's


from
Der.
attach-ment.
Detach, Attack.
term,
Italy. Ital.attitudine,aptness,
of
ace,
attack.
?) F.atta- skill,attitude. L. aplitudinein,
(F.-Ital.-Teut.
aptitude.L. aptus,apt.
qiier. Ital. attaccai-e,to fasten,attach : aptitado,
M. E. attoume.
attaccare
battaglia.' to ioyne battell,'Attorney. (F. L)
Attitude.

"

"

"

"

"

O. F. atorne
Florio. Cognate with F. attacker ; so that
[i,e, atorni\,lit.' one appointed
constituted ; pp. oi atorner, to
attack is a doublet of attack.
or
Attain.
(F. L.) M. E. ateinen.-' direct,prepare, constitute. F. a ( L. ad),
L. torof ateindre, to ; O. F. torner, to turn, from
O. F. ateign-,pres. stem
See
Turn.
ndre.
to
ataindre, to reach to. L. attins:ere,
"

'

"

"

"

30

ATTRACT
From

( L)

Attract.

AUSTRAL

of ultra here, to nttract.


to ; trahere, to draw.

L. attractiis,
pp.
L. at- \=^ad

"

increase.

an

L. a//^fV-"?,
to increase. See

"

Auction.

Augur.

(L.^lM.E.

augur.

f^L,. augur,

diviner by
a sooch-sayer ; said to
a
mean
Attribute.
(L.) Yxovs\attribiltns:.\,Y'
the flight
and cries of birds. Hence
a supto assign. L. at- (^-ad),
of L. attribitere,
posed
from auis,a
Tribute.
to assign
to ; tribuere,
etymology (not certain)
; see
allied to garrfre,to
L. ace. attrlbird,and -gur, telling,
Attrition.
(L.) From
L.
L.
shout.
Cf.
a bird-catcher.
away.
or
a
wearing
rubbing
au-ceps,
iionem,
L.
attrltus,pp. oi attercre,to rub away,
August. (L.) L. augustus, venerable;
E. august, venerable, and August,
See Trite.
whence
at ; terere,to rub.
at- ( =^rtr/),
"

"

"

Attune,
and
and

L.

to

Gk.)

"

E. Tune,

bring to
q.

like tune.

L. at-

From

after Augustus Caesar.


month
named
Cf. Skt. djas,
strength.Brugm. i. " 213.
Auk, a sea-bird. (Scand.) Swed. ^//^a;

(L. jthe

ad), to;

v.

Dan. alke ; I eel.alka,dlka,an auk.


Auburn.
F.-L.) 'M.Y.. abome, auA. F.
yellow. Aunt.
(F.-L.) M. E aunte.
burne, on"^. citron-coloured or light
0. F. ante
(mod. F. t-ante).'^'L.
O. F. a/borne,auborne, blond (Godelroy).aunie;
L.
Late
alburnns, whitish, light-ainita,a father'ssister. Cf. G. avime, nurse.
Ital. albiirno
Aureate.
Torriano
coloured.
(L.) Late L. auredtzis,gilt,
explains
-

"

"

golden; in placeot L. augilded,pp. of aurdre, to gild. L.


Der.
aurgold ; O. L. atisum.
aurutn,
L. albus,white.
elia, a gold-colouredchrysalis
; aur-e(Pliny).Auction.
(L.) L. auctidnem, ace. of ol a, aur-e-ole,the halo of golden glory
sale
gold-producing,
; auriferous,
auctio,a
by auction, lit.'an increase,'in paintings
bidder.
because the sale is to the highest
fromy^rr^,to bear.
See
to increase.
L. aiictus, pp. of aiige!-e,
Auricula, a plant,(L.) L. auricula,
'
hair
that whitish colour of women's
called an aburn colour.' Cf. L. alburnum,
the
sap-wood or inner bark of trees

by

iVom

aureus,

rdtus,

"

"

the lobe

Eke.

'

Audacious.
(F. L.) F. audadeux,
^auddciosiis.
L.
not
bold, audacious.
found ; extended
from L. auddci-, from
L. audere, to dare.
audax, bold.
F. audience, 'an
Audience.
(F. L.
"

ear

used

to

the

mean

primrose;

see

below.

told in the ear, secret. (L.)


in the phr.auriculdz-is
auriculdris,
L. aui'iconfession.
auricular
confessio,
cula, the lobe of the ear ; double dimin.

auricular,

"

Late L.

"

"

"

"

of the

bear's ear,'a kind of

See Ear.
from auri-s,the ear.
the dawn.
of pres. ])t. Aurora,
(L.) L. aurora,
^ausdsa.'\-QiV.
oiaudire,to hear. For ^aiiisdire ; cf. Cik. the dawn ; from prehistoric
/Eolic aucDj, Ion, r\ws, dawn, from prehistoric
alaOfdOai, to perceive,for dfia$eo9ai.
^avcQis. See East.
Brugm. i. " 240.
that
a
listening.
Auscultation,
(L.) L.
audible. (L.")Late L. aiidlbilis,
'

audience

or

iiearing
; Cot

L. audientia

"

hearing. L. audient-, stem

"

of
auscultatio, a
to
the pp. of auscultdre,
L. %z/j--,base of auris, the ear.

L. audire, to hear.
L. auditus, a
audit.
(L.) From
hearing. L. audire, to hear ; whence also

ace.
aiiscultdtionevi,

audi-tor.

See Ear.

can

be heard.-

"

Auger.

(E.) Yox na^tger. ME.

from
listening;
listen.

"

Auspice, favour,patronage. (F. L.)

izatie-

"

thingsby the flight


auspice,
boring
of birds,an omen,
lit.navegood fortune. L. aufor the purof a spicium,
a watchingof birds
nave
pose
Short for *atiispicium.
of augury.
a piercer,
(i) and L. aui-, for auis, a biid ; and spicere,

tool for

gar i^^navegar),nattger, a
holes^
A. S. iiafogdr,
an
auger,
holes
in the
tor
piercer, boring
"

wheel.

token

of

"

A. S. nafu,a nave
; gar,
Nave
which
see
gores;
Gore
(3).-f-I^u. avegaar (for navegaar) ; specere.to spy, look into.
M. E.
Gk.)
Austere.
\c"i. nafarr; Dan. 7iaver; Swtd. na/vare
(F. L.
L. austerus,
O. F.
austere.
austere.
O. H. G. nabager.
Gk. avcrrripos,making the
Aught. I E ) M. E. aht, aght,aught. harsh, severe.
to
Gk.
dry.
A. S. d/zt,
earlier dwiht ; from a, ever, and
avuv,
tongue dry, harsh.
"

"

that

"

"

"

"

wiht,
whit.'

creature,
S( e Whit.

wight,whit

; lit.'e'er

See Sere.

Austral.
(F.-L,; orL.) We find F.
Cot. -L. Austrdhs,
australe,'southerly;'
southerly.L. Auster, the South wind.

(F.-L.) Y. augment cr.-Augment.


L,.augfnentJre, to enlarge. L. augmentum,

"

"

31

AUTHENTIC

Authentic.

AVERAGE

(F.-L.-Gk.)

M.E.auhelping,assisting.L. auxilhcm, help.,"


later L. augere, to increase.
auteiiticpie,
bird.
a finch-likeE. Indian
azifhentiais,Avadavat,
auihentique (Cot,). L.
written with the authors
own
original,
(Arab, and Pers.) Formerly amadavat
hand.
Gk. avOevriKos,vouched
ranted.
(^N.E. D.); or amtidavad,N. and Q. 6
for,warauteiitik.
tentike^

"

O. F.

"

"

"

"Gk.
who

does

a.ho avTo-evTTjs, one


avdivTTis,
hand, a
thingswith his own

see
'self-worker';

p.

Auto-,

Gk.

F.

from

so7is

M. J*:, atttottr, and z^i2?7-,


tonic stem
be
of
"L.
th
sounded
to
once
use.
(with
th in thin), O. F. aufor
strong.

/, but

now

as

Ahined-

of O. F. valoir (valer),
ad, to; nalere, to be

alitor ; later author


as

cityoi

I. )

the

"

evrijs

is prob. allied to L.
(for*(T"VTT]s)
responsible.
(gen.soTitis),
guilty,

Author.

S. ii.198. Named

rtM(^,whence
they were
imported. Arab.
Ahmed, a proper name
; Pers. dhdd,a city.
auaileii (
Avail.
(F.-L.) M.E.
availen). Compounded of O.F.
a,
to;

"

Avalanche.

L. atictoreiii^
oi auctor,"n
ace.
i^Bartsch).
lit. increaser, grower.' L.
originator,

Y. avalanche,
valley.F.
Cf. Aiiction.
avaler,to swallow ; but the old sense was
augere, to increase.
AutO-y prefix.(Gk.) Gk. avro-, stem 'to let fall down.' F. aval, downward,
of avTi)S, self. Der.
lit. 'to the valley.'"
F. a ( L. ad), to;
a
aiiio-biography,
"

the

'

"

descent

(F.-L.)

of

into

snow

"

"

graphy) val,vale,from L. uallem,ace. of uallis,


a
biography written by oneself (see Bio; autograph,
somethingin one's valley.
from
Gk. -ypdcpeii',
own
Avarice.
to
handwriting,
(F. L.) M. E. auarice
write (see Graphic).
F. avarice. ^Y,. audi'itia,
for
u
(with
z/).L.
audrus, greedy; cf. L.
greediness.
autocracy. (Gk.) Adapted (with
suffix -cy for Gk. -rtia)from Gk. avroauidus,greedy. L. auere, to wish, desire.
"

"

"

absolute power.

KpaTfia,

Gk.

"

self;

avro-,

from

(in compounds), power,

-KpcLTua

KparUiv,

rule.
to
Gk.
with
E.
Hard.
cognate

icparvs,

"

strong

hou
short
Uu. //ci",
form of houd, imper.of hoziden,
to hold
and
fast
Fast).
Hold)
(see
vast,
;
!^see

Avast, stop, hold

vast, houd
;

fast.

(,Du.)Du.

vast, hold fast.

"

Avatar.
(Skt.) Skt. avatdra, descent ;
of avr6p.aTos, hence, the descent of a Hindu
deity in
Skt. ava, down; and tri,
Gk.
for avros, self; incarnate form.
self-moviiig.
avro-,
and
Skt. Diatns, to pass over, pass.
-/xaTos, cognate with
A. F.
thought,considered, known, pp. oi vian,
Avaunt,
begone! (F.-L.)

automaton,

(G.)

Gk.

machine.
self-moving

avTopuxTov,

neut.

"

think.

to

"

(VMEN.)

autonomy,

avant, forward

; O.F.

avaunt

See

vance.
Ad-

(Gk.)
self-government.

Gk.

avTovopia,independence.Gk. avroAve, hail. (L.) Short for Aue Alaria,


laws.
Gk.
hail, Mary i^Luke i. 28). L. aite, hail!
free,
living
by one's own
avTu-, self; and pu/xos, law, from vefiofiai, imper.sing,oi auere, to fare well.
"

voixos,

I sway,

"

"

Avenge.

I'ffxeiv,to distribute.

autopsy, personalinspection.(Gk.)
Gk.

avenge.

"

(F

F.
from

"
.

L. )

O. F

(L. ad),

to ;

to
avengier,
vengier,to

L. ziindicdre,to lay claim


avenge,
Gk. avTo-, self; oif/is,
sight(see Optic). to, also,to avenge. See "Vindicata.
Auto-da-fe.
Lit. ' decree
U'ort.-L.^
Aventail, the moulh-piece of a visor.
of faith ; ' a judgment of the Inquisition,
(K. L.) A. F. avcntaille ; O.F. esventail,
air-hole. O.F. esventer, to expose to air.
also,the execution of such judgment,when
with
a seeing
avToxpia,

one's

own

eyes.

"

"

"

"

the

decree

sentence

or

is read

to

the

L. ex, out

tientus, wind.

See Ventail.

victims "Port,
Avenue.
auto, action,decree; da,
(F. L.) Y.avemu,advenue,
short for de a, of the ;/e,
faith. [The Span, access
; hence an approachto a house (esp.
form
is auto
de fe, without
the article one shaded by trees)
; fem. oiavenu, pp. of
/a
Port. ".] L. actum,
L. ad, to ; uenire^
to.
of actus, F. avenir,to come
ncc.
deed
to
fem.
of
h
e
dc,
come.
act,
ille, ;
;
prep. ; ilia,
oi fides,
faith.
Aver.
ace.
fidein,
(F. L.) A. F. and O. F. averer.
Late
L.
Autumn.
(F." L.) M.E.
auerdre, aditerdre,to affirm to
atitumpne.
"

"

"

"

"

"

O.F. autoinptie. L. autunmus, auctumautumn.


Perhaps allied to azigere,

be true.

increase.)

Formerly

"

nus,
to

Auxiliary.

(1-0

L.

"

L. ad, to; uerus,

Average,

aztxilidrhis,extra
S'-s

true.

equalisedestimate. (F.)
duty, tax, impost ; then, an
an

charge on

goods, the

incidence

of

AVERT

AWKWARD

such a charge,the general estimate


apportionment of loss of goods.

ledge,recognise. L. ad,

or

to ;

"

call.

"c.

M.E.

^Another

uocdre,

to

bind

to

avowen,

Formed, with suffix -age, from F. avar-ic, with a vow, to vow, is obsolete ; see Vow.
usually 'damage' (cf.Span, averia, Doublet, avouch (above\
Await.
(F. L. a7idO. H. G.) O. F.
haberia, the custom
paid for goods that
Port,
and
Ital.
to
wait for. O.F.
a
are
awaitier,
agaiiicr,
(Pineda),
exported'
L.
avaria, averia). A
avaria, Late
( L. ad)f for; waitier, to wait, from
O. H. G. wahten, to watch, from the sb.
Mediterranean
maritime term, orig.signifying
duty chargedon goods (G. P. Marsh, wahia ^G. ivachf),a watching. See "Wait.
inN. E. D.). Origin unknown;
M.E.
Awaken.
fE.)
perhaps Awake,
from Ital. avere,
havere, goods, chattels awakien, awaken ; and azvaknen, owakeA. S.
i". avoir),a sb. use oi havere, haver {!.. nen ; both orig.intransitive. Two
now

'

"

'

'

conlused ; dwacian.
wk. vb.;
^^ith wk. pres. t., but

habere),to possess.
^ Or from Arab.
of which is
'avdr,damage, the relationship

verbs

obscure.

strong pt.

Avert.

(L.)

L. J i^

ab),oft,away;

"

L. a-tiertere,to turn

nertere,

to

are

and

ojiwacnaji,

t. onwoc,
is
either
Aprefix

away.

(2)

See

(4).

A-

or

"Waken.

"Wake,

turn.

The

onwacen.

pp.

Award, vb. (F. L. and O. Low G.)


O. F.
K. F. awarder;
place M. K. awarden.^
for birds; neut. of adj.
to examine, adjudge.
auidrius,belonging eswarder,esgarder,
O. F. es- ( L. ex), out ; O. F. warder, to
oi auis, a bird.
to birds.
L. aui-,stem
F.
ward, guard,from O. Low G., as in O. Sax.
F.
(
aviditi,
g
ness,
reediL.)
Avidity.
of
zvardon
L.
ace.
auiditdte/ii,
(cf.G. warten), to watch,guard.
eagerness.
L. anidiis,greedy, See Ward,
Guard.
aiiiditds,eagerness.
desirous.
Aware.
L. auere, to crave.
(E.) A corruptionof M. E.
L.
iwar.
From
duocdaware
Avocation.
(common) ; from A. S.
(L.)
y7var,
A.S.
of
a calling
aware.
tidnem, ace. oi diiocdtio,
gewcer,
ge-, a common
away
the attention,hence
the sense
not altering
ment
amusea
prefix,
; wcer,
diversion,
ware^
Der.

averse, from

Aviary. (L.)

L. pp. diierstis.
L. atiidruwt, a

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

used
of wary;
in the sense
see
"Wary.
i.e. on
L. diiocdlus,
(E.) For on
way,
pp. oid-uocdre, Away.
one's way, so as to depart. A.S. onweg,
L. d {~ab), from, away;
to call away.
See "Way.
uocdre. to call. See Vocation.
away.
M.
Awe.
shun.
E.
to
(F.-L.)
(Scand.) M. E. aie, aghe,axve.
Avoid,
afterwards

employment.
"

"

{ avoiden),to empty, empty out, [Also eie, eghe, eye; all orig.dissyllabic.
get rid of; later,to keep away from, shun. The latter set are from A. S. ege, awe.j
O. F. esvuidier,
to empty
out, get quit Icel. agi,awe, fear; Dan. ave.'\-K.S. ege\
Goth,
of. O.F.
agis, fear, anguish; Irish eagaly
es-, prefix(L. ex, out); and
O. F. vuit, vuide (F. vide),empty, void.
fear,terror; Gk. o-xos, anguish,affliction.
atioiden

"

"

"

See Void.

(VAGH.)

Avoirdupois.
avoir

de

(F.

"

pois (Anglo-F.

of

L.)

Formerly

aveir

de

goods
weight,i.e. heavy
avoir, goods, orig. to have

"

'

'

O. Y.
to

pois,A. F.

de,

peis,weight.
"

F.
of

'in

which

weighed out, neut. of pensus, pp.


dere, to weigh. ^ The F. pois
misspelt
/^n/^. See Poise.
Avouch.

avouchen.
M.E.
(F.-L.'
O. F. avochier,to call upon as guarantor
(Godefroy).L. aduocdre, to call to or

ward,

E.

(a witness)

(F.

"

to

L.)
"

to call

L. ad, to;
declare

confess, to

M.E.

avozven.

"

as

as

in

a7vk-

M.E.
he

ankwart

couth

him

hackhanded
stroke,
suffix -xvai-d xs
The

p.
for-ivard.on-ward,

"c

The

from

A. S.
to

tracted
hafoc. Icel. ofngr,often conbfgu,adj.,turningthe wrong
"

back
foremost,
contrary, y. Here
for
is
off,
from, away; and -tig- is
ofa/-,
suffix.
Cf.
H.
G. ap-uh,M. H. G. ebO.
a
openly.
ich, turned away, perverse; from apa
and the suffix -h. S.
Med. L. G. ab, off, away,

twcdre, |way,

patron

or

avouer,\

O.Y.

L. aduocdre, to call upon


on

'

Cf. Vouch.

avow,
avoer.

"

ajvkwart

is M. E. auk, awk, contrary, perverse,


prefix
this is a contraction of Icel. qfttgwrong;
in Widegren], like hazok
afvug,
[Swed.

"

call.

ta'^he
gave him
is Wallace, iii.175.

of penis now

"

to

manner.'

backhanded

L. habere.

have; de, of; peiistim. that

summon

'

peis), Orig.an

articles.

azu-ftd.
clumsy. (Scand. a"^ E. )
or
adv.,signifyingtransversely,'
Dev.

Awkward,

client,to acknow-

i Thus

the

sense

of aivk is

'

turned

'

away

AWL
from

Icel.
dVo.

BABE
with

af-^cognate

of,off, old edd. of Shak.,"c.


Originuncertam;
perhapsa variant of Yea.
in India.
Awl.
(K.) Auk in Shak. ; M. E. alle,al, Ayah, a native waiting-maid,
(Port. L.) Port, aia, a nurse, governess
Wyclif,Exod. xxi. 6. A. S. (zl,al\ Exod.
xxi. 6 ; Levit. xxv.
air; O, H. G. (fem.of aio, a tutor). Prob. from L. aula,
lo.-J-Icel.
ala,G. ahle ; Du. aal. Teut. types "^aloz,a grandmother. L. anus, a grandfather.
*ald.
(^Scand.) M.E. ary.
% IJistinct from M. E. aule, flesh- Aye, adv., ever.
hook, A. S. awel, grappling-hook.(Phil. Icel. ei, ever. 4- A. S. a, ever, also dwa ;
Goth,
Soc. Trair;. 1906; p. 261.)
aiw, ever, case- forms from Teut.
^aiwoz
Awn.
(Scand.)M.E."^"(f( 13thcent.),
(Goth, aiws), an age, which is
Gl.
allied
L. cetmm,
Gk. alwv,an age.
S.
to
A.
Cf.
awne.
pi.cegnan, Corp.
awene,
Gk.

E.

"

"

"

chaff, a husk

Icel. ogn,

"

Dan.

Gk.

avne,

chaff; Swed.

only in pi. agnar,


agn,
husks.+ Goth, ahana ; O. H. G. agana,
chaff. Cf. Gk.
pi. axvai, chaff; O. L.

ever.
a

kind of lemur.

F.
aye-aye,
l^"om the native name

straw.

agna,

aWi,dd,

Aye-Aye,

said to be named

(F.
-

gascar.)
MadaLittre.

to

supp.

ai-ay in Madagascar
from

its cry.

qSxq^q.%
Azimuth.
(Arab.) Azimuthal
(O.F. ?) In Sir T. Herbert's
Travels, ed. 1665,p. 8; the proper sense
are
great circles on the spherethat pass
azimuth
sail or tarpauling
to be
is
seems
a
spread throughthe zenith. Properly,
off
sun's
above a ship's
the
to
Arab,
a
deck, to keep
as-samut,
pi. form, answering
heat.' Perhapsfrom O. F. auvatt, auvant,
of the horizon ;
ways, or points(or quarters)
mod.
F. auvent,
the way, or point (or
a
pent-houseof cloth from al samt, sing.,
Cot.
Cf. Prov.
before a shop-window;'
Arab,
ah
the;
quarter)of the horizon.

Awning.

'

'

"

Late

and samt, a way, quarter,direction ; whence


antcvanna,
auvanna,
avanna.
Perhaps from L. ante^ before ; also E. zenith. See Zenith.
sb. ).
tianniis, a fan (fern.
Azote, nitrogen. (F. Gk.) So called
twist
animal
life. F.
the
destructive
For
because
on
to
on
(E.)
;
ii:7rv^,
%v"y,
anvan,

L.

"

"

azote. '-'G^. d-, negative prefix;^wtikvs,


Barbour, Bruce, iv. 705. See Wry.
life,idnv, to
Axe, Ax. (E.) M. E. ax, ex. A. S. cbx. preservinglife,from ('cu-77,
older forms acus, (BCUs.-\-V"m.
aaks; Icel. live.
oxi; Swed. jfxa; Dan. oxe ; Goth.
Pers.)M. E.
Azure, blue. (F. Arab.
ox,
akwizi ; O. H. G. acchtis\G. axt ; L. ascia asur,
^0.".
rupted
cora
azure.
azure;
azur,
form, standingfor lazur,which was
(iffor *acsid);Gk. a^Lvrj.
Gk. d^lcunamistaken
for tazur, as if the initial /
Axiom.
(Gk.) XM cent.
L. lazur,
worth, quality
(gen. d"ta;/iaTos),
; in science, indicated the def. article ; Low
"

"

"

an
"

as

I deem worthy.
assumption. Gk. d^iuoj,
d^ios,worthy, worth, lit. weighing
"

'

Gk.

as.'

much

"

Gk.

to
dyeiv,

drive ; also,to

wheel, cart.
Du.

(VAG,

to

axle.

called from

axis,axle- the lapis lazuli


an
axle, ed. Yule).
aks/ia, an

drive.) See below.


(Scand.) M.E.axe/.
of

sense

Icei. bxull, axis ; whence


axle-tree ; Swed.
and
Dan.
a

dimin.

in L, axis:
Der.

see

of the form

Axis.

where
axle-tree,

Cf

W.

tj-ee

is

wood.

Ay! interj.(E.) M. E.
interjection.
^ The phr.ay
O. F.

aymi,

alas for

Span, ay di me,

Ay, Aye,

Gk.

me

oi]xoi.

yea, yes.

[A.S. has
shoulder.] Baa,

an
bxiil-tre,
axel, axle.

"

is

"

of

the mines

L. axzs,
Skt.

eax/,but only with the

p. It

Arab.

"

colour.

was

found

So

Lajwurd, where
(Marco Polo,

Cf also A. S. eax,
axle ;
an
ac/ise ; Russ. os' ; Lith. aszzs.

; G.

as

stone, also called lapis


Idzivard (seeDevic). Pers.

azure-coloured

lazuli.

a blue
Idjuward,lapislazuli,

weigh.

(VAG.)
Axis, axle. (L.)
tree. + Gk.
d^Mv;

an

Cf

bleat.

(E.)

In Shak.

an

tive
imita-

Babble.
(E.) M. E. babelen,to prate,
quentativ
appearing mumble, chatter. The suffix 'le is freword
the
to
means
echel,axle.
keep on
;
block of sayingba,ba,^
imitative
of
a
a child's
syllables
Dan.
to
bahbelen;
speak.
-|-Du.
attempts
'

ey ! A
me

to

word.

natural

is French

bable
;

Ital. ahime,

See Ah.

(E.?) Spelt /

Babe.
baban.

in

Icel. babbla ; G.

bappeln;

and cf F.

babiller.

CE.)

M.

E.

bab, earliest form

Probablydue to infantile utterance;

cf Babble.

BABIROUSSA

BABIRUSA,

BAIRN

is a great
Babirnsa, Babiroussa, a kind of Hen. Vni, an. 5. To baffull
to
reproach among the Scottes ; it means
hog. (Malay.) Malay bdbl riisa.
lit. deer-hog/
Sc. bauchle
or
hog like a deer ; from disgrace,vilify.Cf. Lowland
ful
deer,and bdbl,hog.
(XV cent, bachle),to vilify.
rusa,
OrigindoubtBaboon.
to deceive, mock
(F. or Low L.) O. F. babiiin,
; but cf. F. beffler,
also find M. E. babion, (Cot.),
F. babouin ; we
to baffle,
bafotier
(Cot.baffoiier,
L. babewymis,
revile,
to
disgrace); allied to Ital. beffare,
babian, babewiiie ; Low
baboon
a
scoff;
(a.D. 1295). Origin uncertain. llout,scoffe (Florio),from bcffa,
F. baffcr,
Cf. O. F. babou, a grimace (Godefroy\ Norman
to
slap in the face ;
Cf.
of
Prov.
the
from
the
motion
Prob.
bafa,a scoff. Prob. from M. H. G.
lips.
to scold ; cf. G. bdffeit,
Du. baffen,
Babble.
heffen,
Bacchanal.
(L. Gk.) L. Bacchdndlis, to bark, yelp; of imitative origin,like
Du. paf^ a pop, a box on the ear.
a worshipperof Bacchus, god of wine."
Gk. Bd/fxo?,
Bag. (Scand.) M E. bagge. Icel. baggi,
god of wine.
Not
Bachelor.
(F, L.) '\s'{.Y..bachele}'." O. Svved. bagge.a bag, pack, bundle.
O. F. bachelcr.
but found elsewhere in Teutonic.
Y.^X^ L. *bacca/dris,
(^Gael.
bagis
only found as baccaldrius, a holder of a from E.)
"

'

wild

'

'

'

"

"

"

"

bagatelle,

or
estate, called in Late L.
Remoter
originunknown, and
disputed. Hardly from Late L.

small

farm

haccaldria.

"

a trifle,
a game.
a trifle.
bagatelle,

F.

Teut.)

Ital.

(F,

Ital. bagat-

"

dimin. of Parmesan
lella,a trifle,
bagaia,
Lombard
little property ; from
a
baga,
Back.
Bag,
(E.) M. E. bak. A.S. bcec-ifa wine-skin, of Teut. origin
; see
Icel. bak; O. Sax. bak\ O. Fries, bek. baggage
(i).
'M. E. bakDer.
a-back, q. v. ; back-bite,
baggage (i\ luggage. (F.- Scand.)
M E. baggage,bagage. O. Y .bagage,
biten (P. PI. B. ii. 80) ; back-ward, M. E.
lection
a colmuch

bacca, for L.

uacca.

cow.

"

bacwa-rd

of bundles.

{Cmsor Mundi, 2042).

backgammon,

game.
Butler's Hudibras, pt. iii.c. 2.

The

baggage

Li

(E.)

O. Y.

"

bundle.

bague,a

w^orthless

(2),a

(F.

woman.

in a
as Baggage
i^i),
Scand.) The same
influenced
the pieces,
when
F.
is back-game,'because
sense.
by
depraved
Perhaps
See gammon
taken, are put back.
(2). bagasse,'a. baggage, quean,'Cot.; Ital.
O. F. bagascia,a baggage-wench ; Florio.
Bacon.
(F. Teut.) M. E. bacon.
H. G. bacho,
L. baco-^O.
Bail (i), security; as verb, to secure.
bacon; Low
O. F. bail,s, custody; from
M. H. G. bache,buttock,ham, a flitch of (F.
L.)
law
M.
Du.
Cf. G. bache, a wild sow
a
bacon,
term, to secure, to keep in
bailler,
;
bdiuldie.
L.
to
bak, a pig; M. Dan. bakke,a pig.
custody.
carry a child
from
L.
Bad.
about, to take charge of a child.
(E.) M.".. badde. Formed
A. S. bceddel,
bditdns,a porter, carrier.
; and
s,, a hermaphrodite
effeminate
F.
bailiff. (F.-L.) M. E-ZiazYz/.-O.
allied to A. S. bcedling,
an
Cot.
of
Late L. bdjulTvum,ace.
man.
baillif.
bdiuldre
E.
L.
"c.
M.
a
bage;Prompt. bdjnlivus, custodian,
Badge. (Unknown.)
Parv.
L. bagia,bagea, signum,in- (above).
Low
(F. L. ; and E.) From
signequoddam ; Ducange ; apparently, bailiwick.
Latin version of the E. word.
a
Origin M. E. baili,short for bailif(above); and
M. E. ruuik,A. S. luic, a district ; hence,
unknown,
badger. (Unknown.) Spelt bageard districtof a bailiff; later,office of the
sense

"

'

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

'

in Sir T. More
Dr.
a

Murray shews

for the bj-ock.


badger animal with

nickname

that

same.

Bail
Bail

badgeor stripe.See

bucket.

(2),a

See Bale

(3).

(3),at cricket. (F.-L.?) O.Y.bail,


stake ; Godefroyadds that
iron-pointed

above.

Badinage,

'

'

an
jestingtalk. (F. Prov,
of Vervins
and
badinage. Y badiner,to jest." in the arrondissements
of
horizontal
F.
bail
F. badin,adj.,
bader
is
the
a
Prov.
name
Avesnes,
jesting.
(
stakes.*
fixed upon
two
hence, to be silly." piece of wood
bayer'),\\\..\.o
gape;
Late L. baddre, to gape;
from
L.
of
imitative
a
stick.
baculiun,
Perhaps
prob,
of openingthe (Doubtful.)
from ba,expressive
origin,
mouth.
Cf. Babble.
Bairn, a child. (E.) M. E. bam. A.S.
A
beam.
+ Icel,,Swed., Dan., and Goth.
Bafae, to foil,disgrace.(F.?-G.?)
Lit.
is born ;
barn.
that which
TeutScotch word, as explained
in Hall's Chron.

L,)

"

"

'

"

"

'

BALLAST

BAIT

type *harnom,

grade of
See Bear

Bait,
to

to
'

bite

sb.,from

neut.

feed. (Scand.) Lit.


bait is an enticement
'

'

to
to

Icel. bezta,to
M. E. batten,beiten.
to bite,causal of bita,to bite ; Swed.
"

to

pasture ; Swed.

bete,Dan.

?) It
Balderdash, poor stuff. (Scand.
a
jumbled mixture of
formerly meant
liquors.Cf. Dan. balder, noise, clatter ;
and daske, to slap,
make
flap.Hence it appears
have
meant
a confused
bite.' (like
to
slap-dash)
noise ; secondarily
a
make
hodge-podge(Hallibeta, well); and generally,
certain.
(Unany mixture.
2nd

bar,

suffix -no-.

bear ; with

ber-an,to
(i).

bait.

bed, a

a
girdle.(F.-M. H. G.'^baldric
O.
F.
(not recorded),older
L.) L.)
Baize, coarse
'
L.
of
O.
F.
baldrei ; Low
form
of
the
baldret,
F.
for baj/es,
An
error
baj'e,
pi.
O. F. bat, bay- baldringus. }\\.H. G. baldci-ich,
a girdle;
cloth called bayes ; Cot.
from O. H. G. balz,a belt. L.
the orig. extended
coloured.
L. badins, bay. From

Baldric,

Sea Bite.

stuff. (F.

woollen

"

'

"

"

"

"

Span, bayo, bay, bayeta, balteus,a belt. See Belt.


Bale (i),a package; see Ball (2).
See Bay (i)baize; "c.
A.S.
S.
M.
E.
baken.
A.
bacan,
Bale(2^, evih ^E.) W.Y^.bale.
Bake.
(E.)
O. S.
beahc, balu, evil. + O. Fries, and
pt. t. boc, pp. bacen. + Icel. and Swed.
H.
G.
Icel.
O.
backen
baka ; Dan. bage; Du. bakken ; G.
bbl, misfortune;
; bahi;
of
destruction.
Teut.
*bahuom,
neut.
to roast.
cf. Gk. ./'wyeiT/,
balo,
(V BHOG.)
evil
Goth,
cf.
'^balwoz,
balwazuesei,
a
adj.
;
Bakshish, Backsheesh,
present,
Cf.

colour.

Der. bale-ftil.
gratuity.(Pars.) Pers. bakhshish, wickedness.
bakhshjdan, to give ; Bale (3),to empty water out of a ship.
; from
gratuity
to
It means
cent.
baksh,a share,portion. Cf. Zend, baksh, (F.-Teut.) XVII
i.
of
Skt.
divide.
means
a
e.
bails,
to
by
to distribute;
ship
empty
bhaj,
F. bailie,a bucket.
Cf. Du.
buckets.
M. E. balance
Balance.
(F. L.)
small
a

'

ballance.

"

"

"

F. balance,
ballances ;

pairof weighisor

balie,a tub

Swed.

bailie. G.

balja,Dan.

Lat. '^bacida (Diez),


dimin. from Du. bak,INI.Du. back,a trough.
Balk
(E.)
(I), a beam, ridgeof land.
A. S. bah a, a ridge,heap ;
i\L E. balke.
laid in heaps,
BalaS-ruby, a varietyof ruby, of a which explains balked
Hen.
1
IV, i. i. 69.-f-O. Sax. balko, a
(F.
pale rose-red or orange colour.
L.
Low
Arab.
Pers.) Formerly balais. beam ; Du. balk,a beam, bar ; Swed. balk,
Teut. stem
; G. balken.
F. balais ; Med. L. balascus,balascius.
a beam, partition
Cf. Phalanx.
bar.
a
Arab,
balakhsh, a ruby (Devic). Pers. '^balkon-,
hinder.
from Badakhbalk
(E.)
(2\ baulk, to
badakhshi, a ruby; named
'

L.
Cf. Ital. bilancia.
Cot.
bilancem, ace. of bilanx, havingtwo scales.
L. bi-,for bis,double,twice ; and lanx,
scale of a balance.
a dish, platter,
"

a
balje,

tub.

"

Late

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

shan, N. of the river Amoo

Balcony.

M. E. balken.
man's
balcone,
way.

(Oxus).

(Ital. Teut.)
"

Ital.

To

put

balk

bar

or

in

Ball
(i), a spheiicalbody. (F.
stage. O. H. G. balcho,a
See Balk(i). O. H. G.) M. E. bal, balle. F. balle.
a beam.
^(z//^^,
(C.) M. E. balled',the orig. M. H. G. balle,O. H. G. ballo (G. ball\

palcom,orig.

"

"

beam. + 0. Sax.

Bald.

in ' "^aA/- a ball,sphere.


+ Icel. btdlr.
streak on
a
bale
package. (F. O. H.G.)
(O,
M. E. bale. Y. bale,a ball,also a pack,
its face ; cf. prov. E. ball, a white-faced
F.
The same
as
Gael, and Irish bal,ball,
a
horse.
spot, as of merchandise ; Cot.
package.
a ball ; hence,a round
mark, speckle(properlya white spot or balle,
Ball (2),a dance. (F.-Late L.) F.
streak) Bret, bal, a white streak on an

shining,white,' as
white
a
a stag with
/iz^^^
stag,'
sense

was

'

"

"

"

Late L. ballare,
bal.
to dance.
F. bailer,
in a
bali, whiteness
to dance.
to dance. + Gk. fiaWi^dv,
white.
Cf. Gk. (pdXios,
bald-headed
ballad.
(F. Prov.- Late L.) M. E.
ipa\nKp6i,
; Lith. baltas,'whi\.e.
balade; F. ballade. -Viov.
Baldachin
{pronouncedb;iold akin or balade.-O.Y.
Late L.
an
a
over
altar,throne, balada, a song for dancingto.
bseldakin),
canopy
dance.
to
F. baldaquin; ballare,
"c. (F. or Ital. Arab.)
Ital. haldacchino,a canopy,
Ballast, aload to steadyaship.(Scand.
tester, orig
O. Low
made
at
or
G.) Three forms are found :
or
Bagdad.
hangings
tapestry
Ital, Baldacco, Bagdad. Arab. Baghdad, (i)O. Dan. barlast, i.e. bare load, mere
G.
weight, Swed. barlast ; (2) O. Low
animal's

face; W.

"

"

horse's forehead.

"

"

"

"

Bagdad.

.^6

BARBAROUS

BANGLE

Bangle,

of bracelet,

kind

(Hind.)

hangri, a bracelet,
bangle. (,H.H.

Hind,

M. H. G.

Banshee,

Wilson.)

Banian
Banish.

Banyan.

see

(F. -O.

M.

H.

"

"

proclaim; see Bandit.


of Balusters
Banisters; a corruption
musical
ment.
instruBanjo, a six-stringed

nire, to

Ital.

Gk.)

"

beans h ith,

bank

of

spirit
supposedto

death.

(C.)

Gael.

a
banshee, from Gael. bea7i,
Irish
O.
woman
a
ban-side,
; sith, fairy
;
fairies (Windisch,s. v. side),
from O. Ir.

ben

E. qtiean),a woman,
side,fairies.
(Java.)A fowl from Bantam^

Bantam.
in

Java.
corruption Banter,

negro

female

families

warn

E. hanisG.)
of pies. part, of
shen.
O. F. banis-,stem
banir, banni?',to proscribe.Low L. bajt-

of

a bench,table; see
batic,

(2).

(Unknown.)
raillery.

Bantling, an infant. (G.?) Prob.


instrument,usually considered as band-ling,one wrapped in
dimin.
three strings.Gk.
-navZovpa,the swaddling bands ; with double
suffix -l-ing;but really
an
adaptationof
Perhapsof Fgypt. orig.

bandore, bandora,

"

musical

pandora, a
with

pando7-e.\i2\.

or

"

same.

Bank

(0^

the
(Scand.) G. bdnkling(vfith.

of earth.

mound

as

sense

same

bank-

form
of a

child; from bank, a


"^banke,orig. art),an illegitimate
bench ; i.e.
a child begottenon
a bench,'
of Icel. bakki,ridge,
eminence, bank
river ; cf. Dan.
bakke,Swed. backe, not in the marriage-bed(Mahn). Cf.

bank

; whence

M.

banke.

E.

'

F. banque,a
also Norman
*bankon-.
Cf. O. Sax.
stem

Teut.

bank.
and Du.

"bank

(seeBench).
for money.
(,2),

Banyan,

F.
bench.

(F. Teut.)
"

(2).

bank

A. S. bene,

banch,

H. G.

bank, O

bench

Scand.

O,

"

used

merchants
them ; see

'

or

See above.

So

for
market-place
bannyans,'as we termed
as

Herbert, Travels,ed.

Sir T.
"

"

'F.

bankrupt.

"

for the tree.

name

Indian
Port. ^(2;//a;/,
an
51, 123.
merchant.
Skt. bawij,
a merchant.
Baobab, a tree. (African.) The native

"

table.

native

called because

table or
banque, a money-changer's
M. Du. banck, M. H. G. banc, a bench, 1665,pp.

(Port. Skt.) An

tree.

English,not

Ital.

"

Teut.

"

and

ruptcy,
bankbanqueroute,

in

Senegal(Adanson).
(F.-L.-Gk.)
Formerly baptise\ i\I.E. baptisen.^O.F.
baptiser.l^. baptizdre.iJik. fiairTi^eiv;
Gk.
from liaTTTtLv,
to dip. Der.
failure. M. H. G. banc, a bench
baptist,
Gk.
of
fem.
Pdirnaand
L.
a
baptism,
dipper;
(see above) ;
rtiptus, ^aTTTicTTjs,
rupta,
a dipping.
fxa, jSaTTTicrfios,
pp. of rimipere,to break.
M. E. banei-e.
Banner.
Bar, a rail. (F. Late L.) M. E. barre.
(F. Teut.)
Modified

L.)

from

F.

name

Baptise, Baptize.

of the relation of
Ital. banca
the word to L. rnptus, broken.
changer's
rotta,a broken bank, due to the money-

by

knowledge

"

"

"

"

"

"

O. F. banere (supp. to Godefroy, s. v.


bamere), also bajiiere. l^ov^'Y^.'^banddj'ia
Low
a banner.
(Ducange givesbanderia),
"

"

"

L.

bannum,

bandum,
Teut.

standard.

source
(Langobardic)
'

ba7tdwa,a sign,token.
ba^idum

20.

Skt. bhanati

allied to

Prob.

Ban

;' Cot.

See Beard.
barfish. (F.-L.) M.E.
L. ba)-belle. O. F. barbel.
F. barbeau.
bellus, dimin. of barbzis,a barbel. L.

see

"

"

"

barba,

orig-a knight who

"

in Uhlenbeck.

banneret,

"

"

barbel,

Geslis

de

"

arrow

Uexillum, quod

Paulus,
appellant;'

Langob. i.

From

cf. Goth.

O. F. barf-e. Late L. barra,a bar.


Barb
(i),hook on an arrow.
(F. L.)
O. F.
F. barbe.
L. barba,a beard. Hence
barbed
or
Jleschebarbelee, ' a bearded
"

had

beard-like

beard.

Named

from

four

the mouth.
barbour.'"
M.E.

appendagesnear

barber.
banner.
own
(F.-L.)
(F. Teut.)
O. F. baneret [F. banneret) ; A. F. barbonr, with suffix -our=-V.vX. ace.
barber.
F. barbier, a
-dtorem
lit.' bannered.' O. F. banere (above); with
; cf. O.
L. barba,
F. barbe, a beard ; from
suffix -et =L. pp. -dtns.
men

his

under

W..Y..baneret.

"

"

"

"

Bannock,
bannach,a

cake.

cake.

?)

Gael.

beard
-

country.

q.v.

Barbarous.

Y.ban-

(F.- Ital.-Teut.)

q7ief. licA. banchetto


also a bench ; dimin.
"

L.

^2),a horse. (F. Barbary.) F.


Perhaps from l..pdfti- Barb
from the
bread.
ixom pdjii-s,
barbe, a Barbary horse ; named

citim,a thing baked ;


Banns, pk of Ban,

Banquet.

(C."

(Torriano), feast:
oi banco,a bench."
a

with

suffix

(L.-Gk.)
-CMJ-.

lit.stammering;

38

"

Gk.

name

L. barbar-us

PapSapns,foreign,
givenby Greeks

BARBED
to

BARRATOR

the strange sound


of foreignfor storing. .\.S. am
Cf. L. ballms,stammering. Icognate with Icel. rann

is for

express

languages.

see

*ran{n)j

Kansack.
M. E. bemie.

Barm
accoutred, aimed ; said of
(i),yeast. ;E.)
rectly), iA. .S. beorma.
Swed.
"^"l.ow G. bann\
(K." Scand. ?) Also (more corbarded.
bdrma
G.
bdrvie.
F, bardd, barbed
Teut stem
as
"^berinon- ;
a I
;
F. barde, horse-armour."
horse,'Cot.
1 perhapsallied to Ferment.
Icel. barii, a brim, edge ; also, a beak i Barm
(2),the lap. (F.^ M. E. barm.
armed
A. S. bcarin,
or
a
lap,bosom. +0. Sax.,Swed.,
prow of a warship (cf.hartii,

Sarbed,

horses.

'

"

"

it may

shield)
; whence
to

horses

have

bar)?i ; Iccl. barvir; Goth, barms.


Teut. type *bari/ioz ; from bar-,2nd grade
of ber-an,to bear : see Bear
(^i).

ajjpliedl)an.

(Diez).

Barbel, Barber;

see

Barb

(i).

Bertierry,

Barberry,

Barn.

shrub.

(E.^

See Barley.

L. barbaris^a barberry-tree
Barnacle
(1),a kind of goose. (F."
unknown
origin. Flence Med. L, Diniin. from F. bernaquevCot.)
; of
;
'
Med. L. bernaca.
F. berbcris,
aucis
Bemacce, aues
Sp. berberis,and even

(Med.L.)
also M.
mod.

been

From

barbdrJs.

Arab.

should

be

Med.

or
bet-bery

with

"f[The

spellingpalustnbussimiles

barbary;

r,o

Cambrensis.

Ducange.
Cf

Port,

Used

by
bernaca,

berttacha; Span. /;^r;//"r/a


vNeuman). ^See
Max
Miiller,Lectures,2nd Series.)
of a
barnacle
(2),a sort ot ?hell-fish. (F.
Med. L.) The
outlet I
same
Barnacle
as
(1).

berry.

Barbican.

Giraldus

nexion
con-

'

ls\.^. barbican. '^^.

iF.)

barbacane,a barbican or outwork


castle ; also,a loop-hole
; also,an
for water.
Prob. from Eastern bab-khanah,ISee N. E. D. ; and Max
Lect.'on
Miiller,
gate-bouse
^Yule).
jScience of Language,ed. 7, ii. 583.
Bard.
(C.) W.
Barnacles, spectacles,
bardd, Irish and
orig.irons put
"

Gael,

bard,

poet. Cf. Gk.

the noses
to : on
({"pa((iv,
j(F.) The

speak.
Bare.

(E.)

M.E.

A.S.

bar.

Icel. berr ; G. bar, baar.


*bazoz ; cf. Lith. basas, O.
barefooted

Iand

bar. -^

due to

of horses to keep them quiet.


of 'spectacles'
is late,
humorous
allusion. M. E. ber-

sense
a

'

bernakill.
Bcrnak
for hors,
Chamus'
L. camtts):Prompt.
Slav, bosii, beniakill,
(i.e.
Parv.
\Ve find bernac in A. F. (in an
M. E. barEng. MS.) ; Wright'sVocab. i. 100, 1. 3.
Teut.

type nak, dimin.

"

Bargain.

(F. Late L.)


O.
to
sb.
F.
Originunknown.
bargaignierbargenir,
gay n,
chafier. Late
L. barcdnidre, to change
ing
Barometer, an instrument for measurthe weightof the air. (Gk.) Gk. ^apo-,
about.
Remoter
originunknown.
for iSapos,
weight; and pLtrpov, a measure
Barge. (F.-LateL.-C?) }A.Y..barge.
;
F. /;ar^^.Late
L. barga, variant of see Metre.
barca ; see Bark
(i).
Baron, a title. (F.-Late L.) M.E.
baron.
L.
'"Y. baron; older lorm
bark
(i),barque. (F.-Late
ber,nom.
C. ?) Bark
of F. barque, (Prov.bar^,the sufhx -on marking the ace.
is an E. spelling
L. barca, a sort of ship case
Cf. Ital. barone,Sp varon.
a little ship. Late
(Diez
or largeboat, a lighter.
Perhapsof Celtic Port. z'flTi^fi?.Late L. bare, ace. -oneni, a
origin(Thurneysen).O. Irish bare (fem. man, a male.
Originunknown.
-

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

c-stem), a bark.
Barouche, a carriage.G. Ital. L.'.
rind
t
he
of
G.
a
Bark
tree.
baroccio,biroccio,
a
K-'^,
(vScand.) barutsche.'-WA.
^ar"". Swed.
M.E.
L. bicar.
bark; chariot,
bark; Dan.
orig.a two-wheeled
Icel. borkr.
-occio
Teut. type ^barkuz.
rotus, two- wheeled ; with suthx
a chariot
Bark
(3),to yelpas a dog. (E.) M. E. assimilated to that of carr-occio,
:

"

"

berken.

"

"

A.S.
A.
berkja, S.

Cf. Icel.
beorcan,to bark.
to
bark.
borciati,
Perhaps
of imitative origin.
Barley. (E.i M.E.^^ar/Z.-A.S.^^r/zV.

bi-,double ; and roia. a wheel.


(F. Ital.) F. baraque.
for soldiers ; cf. Sp.
Ital. baracca,
a tent

Diez'.

"

"

L.

Barracks.
"

"

barraca.
Prob. connected with Late L.
Cf. A. S. bere,
barley Lowl. Sc. bear^ ; and barra,a bar, pale.
for lie,
like. Cf. also Goth, barizeins, Barrator, one
incites to quarrels
who
-lie,
made

of

corn.
barley; l^.far,

bam.
contr.

A. S.

^\.".. berne.
A.S.bern.
of bcr-ern (Luke iii. 17)."

(E.'
form

bere,barley;

and

em,

am,

place

and lawsuits.
baratour ; from
"

.'.9

F.

(F.) Formerly barratour,

M. E. barat. deceit,
strife.
barat, cheating,deceit,guile,al.^o
'

barter,'
Cotgrave. Allied

to

Barter.

BARREL

^ Influenced by

Icel.

BASK
base.

F. bas,m., basse,
fern. Late L. baslow ; the same
word
L. Bassus,
as
to have
meant
proper name, which seems
rather than merely ' low.'
stout, fat,'

a
bardlta,a fight,

turmoil.

"

"

sus,

Barrel.
(F.) M. E. barel. O. F. (and
F.) baril. Perhapsfrom Late L. barra,a
bar, pale ; from the staves of it.
Barren.
(F.) M. E. barain.^K.Y.
-

'

Base

foundation.

(2),a

-M. E. bas.

F. base.

L.

(F.
"

Gk.)

"

L. basis.
Gk.
base.
pedestal,

Gk. ^aais,
base ;Sa-,
barain^ -e ; O. F. brehaing^ fern, bre- a step, a
sterile. to go (as in liaivuv,to go) ; with suffix
baraigne; F. brehaigne,
haiiigne,
Of unknown
"atfrom
a going,
(for-Tt-);
origin.
cf.Skt.^a-/'/(.r),
Barricade.
(F. Span.) F. (^ar;-/- gam, to go. See Come.
":-^7t/^.
lowest floor of a building.
Span, barricada,a barricade,lit. Basement,
made witli barrels fullof earth.
one
Span. (F.-Ital." L.) Appears in F. as sotibasse"

"

"

"

"

"

"

barrel.

barrica,a

bar ;

barra,a

Perhaps

from

the
Span. j?ieni,
from

Barrel.

see

Barrier.

(F.) M.E. baj-rere.-'O.Y.


rier
[Godeiroy,s. v. basseiii\\F. bare.^Y
barrcr,to bar up. F. barre,a

barrere

"

from

of

building
; formed

Ital. bassare,to lower.


Ital. basso^Xov^.'^
Late L. bassus; see Base
(i).
"

See Bar.

bar.

basement

hoxxowed
sons, under, a-nd-bassejuent,
Ital. bassaviento,
lit.an abasement."

Basenet, Basnet;

barrister.

A barbarous
Bashaw
word ; formed with suffix -isfcr ( Low
L.
Bashful.
from the sb. bar.
-istdruis)
Spelman gives see Abash.
the Low
and base.
L. form as barrasterms.

(Low L.)

see

; the old form


{Y. ajid E.)

Prob.

Basinet.
of Pasha.
For

abash-ful;

by confusion

with abase

Barrow

a burial-mound.
O.F.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
Basil(i),aplant.
(i),
(E.) For
basile (Supp. to Godefroy); short
for
(like parsott for person, "c.\
M. E. bergh,berw, a hill,mound.
basilic; cf. F. basilic, lierb basiil ; Cot.
O.
Merc. berg\A. S. beorg,
L. basilicum,
neut. of basilicus,
a mountain,
beorh,
royal.
mound.
O.
G.
Gr.
iSaoiKiKot'.
basil ; neut. of PaaiKiKos,
4hill,
berg,
Sax., Du.,
Teut. type "^bergoz,
Cf. O. Irish b7'i,royal. Gk. (3aai\(vs,
a hill.
a king.
a mountain
basilica,a largehall. (L.- Gk.) L.
; Skt. brhant,large.
fern, of basilicus,
M.E.
Barrow
basilica,
(2) a wheel-barrow.
(E.~)
royal.

berro'cu

'

'

"

"

"

barewe.^K.S.

bar-,2nd grade o{ ber-an^ basilisk,a fabled serpent. (L.-Gk.)


lit. royal;
(iaaiXiaKus,
bear, carry. Cf. M. H. G. rade-ber,L,. basiliscus.^Gk.
also a lizard or serpent,named
from rad, wheel.
from a spot
wheel-barrow,
the head like a crown
on
Barter, to traffic. (F.) yi.Y..bartryn.
(Pliny,viii. 21).
O. Y .bareter. barater,to cheat,
beguile, Gk. l3aaiX(vs,a king.
also to barter ; Col.
O. F. bai-at,
ing,
cheatBasil (2),the hide of a sheep tanned.
also a barter;' Cot.
p. Of doubtful {F. Span. Arab.) A. F. baseyne(Liber
origin; perhapsCeltic (Littre).Cf. Bret. Albus, 225). F. basane, M. F. bassane.-'
Irish brath,W.
dressed sheep-skin.Arab.
brad, Span.bada7ia,3.
barad,treachery,
Gael. "5'rrt'//^,
treachery,
advantageby unfair bitdnah, the [inner]liningof a garment,
Irish bradach, Gael,
means
bradach, for which basil-leather was used. Cf. Arab.
;
hatn, the inside.
thievish,
roguish; W. bradti,to plot.
O.
M.E.
a
Basin.
m
anor.
Barton,
court-yard,
(F. Late L.'
(E.)
bacin,
to

'

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

Northumb.

bei-e-tiln(Matt. iii.12).

bere,barley;
and

Barley

Barytes,

n.nd tiin,an

"

A. S.

enclosure ;

TGk.)
chemistry.

from its weight. Gk. /SapurT/j,


weight.
Gk. (3apvs,
heavy. See Gr ive (2).
tone
barytone. (Ital."
Gk.) Better bari;

musical

Ital. baritono,a
heavy,deep ; and

for

deep voice.

baritone.

"

Gk.

"

term

O.Y.
bacin,bacJiin; Y bassin.-L.
bachinns, bacchinus, a basin

(Due). Supposed to be from Late L.


bacca,water-vessel (Isidore).Cf. \)w..bak,

Named

"

"

Late

see

Town.

in

basin.

bowl,

trough.

basinet, basenet, basnet,


helmet.
vi.

"

^apv-s.

(F. LateL.)
"

In

Spenser;

O.F.
bacinet,dimin.
31.
basin ; from its shape.
I.

"

of

light
F.

Q.
bacin,

Basis. ^L. Gk.) 1..basis. "QV.^aais;


Also
basalt
Base
Basalt.
es.
see
(L.)
(2).
kind of marble in ./Ethiopia.Bask.
a hard
salies,
(Scand.) M. E. baske,to bathe
An African word (Pliny).
oneself,Palsgrave; and cf. bathe hire,to
Prestes
low. (F. L.) M. E. bass. bask herself,Ch. C. T. Nonnes
Base
l,i),
ruuos,

tone

see

Tone.
L. ba-

"

40

"

BATTER

BASKET

F, bastion. ""~\\.?^\..
Icel. *batiask (laterhaQast), Bastion.
(F. Ital.)
Cf. also bastione,
for baSa sik, to bathe oneself.
part cf a fortif:c;.tion. Ital.basSvved. dial. a( basa sig i solen,to bask in tire,to build ; allied to O. F. bastir,to
build.
See Bastile.
fishes basking in the sun
the sun, badjisk,

Tale, 447.

"

"

"

See

(Wedgwood).

Bat

Formed

Bathe.

A.S.

like Busk.

Vl.Y.. batle.-

(I),a cudgel. E.)


batt

(Eng. Suidien, xi. 65). Cf.

Irish

with double
bata,bat,a staff. Der. bat-let,
(F.?) M. E. basket. Mod.
Norman
F.
basquette(Moisy). Origin dimin. suffix -l-et.
Bat
unknown.
(2),a winged mammal.
(Scand.)
taken the place of M. E. bakke.'"
Bat
has
Basnet
; see Basinet.
only in covc\\).aflai-bakke
Bass
(0, the lowest part, in music. Dan. bakke, now
Cf.
Swed.
O.
Base
word
natl-backa,
The
as
evenmg-bat.
same
(1)
;
(F. L.)
find
we
of Ital. basso, 'night-l)at'
but so spelt in imitation
(Hire); for which

Basket.

"

Swed.

base.

dial, natt-batta

(Rietz\

Batch.

(K) A batch is r.s much as is


(2),Barse, a fish, (E.^
leaked
at
of
hence, a quantity. M.E.
loss
bace
once;
r).
barse; also base,
(with
A. S. bacafi,to
a
G.
baars
bacche,
A.S. beers,
bars,
baking
; from
a perch.
-fDu.
\
bake.
See Bake.
from its prickles.
barsch,a perch. Named
Bate
From
(i), to beat down, diminish.
*bars-,2nd grade of Teut. root
whence
also Bristle, q. v.
Cf. Skt. (F. L.) Short for Abate, by loss of a.
*^"?;-j-,
Bate
(2),strife. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^/^;
bhrshtt,pointed.
of
of Debate,
form
a
in the sense
instrument.
base
dipt
(F. L.)
Bassoon, a
F. basse, strife. % So sXsofejuefor de-fence.
F. basson, augmentativefrom
Bath.
See
base (in music), fem. of bas,base.
(E.) M.I-.. baj".A.S. ^"f(J.+
M.

Bass

E.

"

"

Icel.

Base

,0.
Bast.
(E.")M. E. bast

tree.

A. S.

a limebast-tre,

bcEst,inner bark of a limemade.+I^el-" Swed.,

bast is
tree ; whence
Dan., G. bast. Often

bad; O. H.G.
bad; Swed., Dan.,
The
neuter.
w.
Du.,G./'a^/.Teut. */""-/""

orig.sense
O. H. G.

was

warmth

place of

bdjan (G. bdhen",to

cf.

foment.

bathe.
(E.) A.S./'a9ea", to bathe.speltbass.
A.
S.
And see Bask.
a bath.
child.
bced,
(F.)
illegitimate
Bastard,
Bathos.
M.E.
(Gk.) Lit. depth,sinking.
bastard,appliedto Will. I.-O. F.
'
Gk. ^dOos,depth ; cf. PaOvs, deep.
the same
as Jilsde bast, lit. the
bastard,
of
bed.
of a pack-saddle,'
not
a
son
[The Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. (F.) F.
baston. "1. ate L. bastonem,
bast
baton, O.F,
occurs
a
illegitimate,
ibore,
expression
in Rob. of Gloiic. p. 516.] O.F.
bast,a ace. of basto,a cudgel. Origin doubtful ;
to
pack-saddle(F. bat); with suffix -ard, from connecled by Diez with Gk, idaard^eiv,
an

"

"

O. H. G.

hart,hard,

in proper

Baste

first used
then

and

names

beat.

(i), to

as

suffix

generally.
(Scand.?) The
Cf.

form bas-it occurs


as
a
pp. in 1553.
Swed. basa,to strike,
beat, whip.

Baste

H.G.)
M.

H.

orig.to

G.

slightly.(F.

sew

"

M.

bastir, F.
tailor's term."

basten.-id.Y.

a
slightly;
to
(for*bastjan),

batir,X.osew

bind ;
See
G. bast,bast.

besten

tie with bast.

"

fortress.

building. O. F.
"

build.

bataillon.

"

bat-i,s., improvement, E.
and

O.F.

(F.)
to
(F. bdti)-),

; perhapsallied to

Baton.

(Span.) Fiom Span,bastonada,a beating. Span,baston,a stick."


Bastinado.

"

Late L. bastonem,

ace.

; see

Baton.

Cf.

\2^.

batten down

Better,
q. v.,
Du.
baten, to

also

of
merelyanother spelling

(i
bat-er-en ; with
L.
F. battre.
"

to

batter e,

to beat.
battiiere,
batter
(2 a
.

"

O.F.

(F.

beat.

Bi^ton.

(F.-L.)

M.E.

suffix
frequentative

"

and milk.

To

is to fasten with battens. JSatten

bastille, Batter

bastir

Originuncertain

Boot

; baat, profit.
yieldprofit
rod. (F.)
Batten
(2),a wooden

is

Bast.

Bastile,

"

"

(3), to
M.E.

L.)F.

Ital.

"

'

'

cd. 1570.

Baste

(F.

Ital. batItal. battaglione,


battalion.
a
below.
battle
Battle
a
see
taglia,
;
Batten
(i)"to giow fat; to fatten,
"

meat.
(Scand.) Orig. intransitive. Icel. /^a/;/^,
known.)
(Unpour fat over
Cf.
linire; Levins, to grow
71? /'ai-/^,
better, improve, recover.
Icel.
bettered
Goth,
;
ga-batnan, to be

(2),to
InSh.

support.
Battalion.

-er-.

of

eggs, flour,
E. batour,bature.
beating. F, battre, 10

compound of

L.)

bature, a

popular form

M.

"

BEADLE

BATTERY

(above). So called

beat

kind

(2),a

Bay

beaten

because

of laurel ;

a
properly,

M. E. bay, a berry
berr)-tree.(F.-L.)
up.
F.
a berry. L. bdca, a berry.
bale,
batfene,
Y.batene,
(F.
L.)
battery.
F. baitre,
to beat.
Bay (3),inlet of the sea. (F.-L.) F.
battery; Cot.
'beating,
bataile.
bale, an inlet. Late L. baia, a harbour
battle. (F.-L.) 'is\.Y..bataille
battalion.
a
(Isidore),p. Confused with bay, a recess
O. F. bataille,
(2 ;
(i ; a fight,
Late L,
wall.
O.F.
in
into
a
neut.
baee,a gap.
Folk-L. /;a//"7/?"3;,
(turned
pi.
L. battudlia, baddta,fem. of pp. oibaddre, to gape.
fem. sing.),fights;Late
a
battualis,fighting.Late
Bay (4),to bark as a dog. (F. L.)
neut
ph of acij.
M. E. bayen. O. F. baier,to yelp (Godefroy).
L. battuere, to beat.
Cf.
Ital.
'to
M.
baiare,
barke,'Florio.
battledoor.
(,Prov,-L.) Y..batylsound.
From
the
Prov.
batedor.
Parv.
Span.
doiire.Prompt.
also
which
was
(F. L.) Yoxat
Bay (,5S in phr.a/'/^^j.
batidor,a washing-beetle,
of the E. word.
at first the sense
[The abay. F. abois,abbots ; etre atix ahois,to
be at bay, lit, to be at the baying ot the
due to confusion
corruptionto battledoor was
-Prov.
with
dogs.' PI, of F, aboi,the bark of a dog ;
battle,vb. to fight.]
verbal
sb, from
F, aboyer,O. F. abater,to
to
F.
t
he
as
batt7'e,
bat7'e,
Span, batir, same
yelp,bay,-O. F. a (forL,ad) ; and baier
beat ; with sufhx -dor,which in Prov. and
^above").
Span. L. suffix -torem, ace. form from
from Bay
the agent.
(3,sect, |3)
Bay-window;
iiom.
-tor^expressing
"

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

(F.) M. E, batelment,
bateilfrom O.F.
batilment ^'bateilUinent,
from
formed
battle,
to fortify
6a/"?7/"?,
/e"?r,
;
to
but confused with O. F. bastiller,
fight,
build.
to
of
O.
F.
derivative
bastir,
fortify,
Battlement.

See Battle

and

and

Window.

Bayonet.

named

firstmade

F. bdion-

cent.

knife ; Cot,

used.

or

Bazaar.

Bastile.

XVII

(F.)

Probably
bayonette,
from
Bayojine (France),where

nette ;

(Pers.) Pers. bazar,

ket.
mar-

thing.
(i),a fool's mace ; (2)a playcious
(L,-Gk.-Heb.\ A pre(F.) (I) M. E. babyII,bable,babel, Bdellium.
Gk. )S5e\L. bdellium.
substance,
E.
M.
babeL
C.
i.
A.
Gower,
(2)
224;
Heh. bedolakh (Gen.ii. 12).
O. F. battheL Kiov.
Tudor
From
E. bauble.
babel, a. child's plaything (Godefroy. Be-, prefix,(E.) A.S. be-, prefix;
Perhaps connected with M. Ttal. babbola, ofien causative,as in be-mimb, to make
Note
also be-head,to depriveof
a toy (Florio)
; and with L. babulus, a fool. numb.
Bauble

"

"

"

the head

Cf. E. Babble.

Bavin,
bavin, a

faggot.(F.)
soon
faggot; hence, as adj.,

and

burnt out,

Be,

dled
kin-

Beach.

the later form

(E.?)

A.S.

XVI

Orig.

cent.

the same
as
shingle,'
a sandbank
E.
a
bache,
also,
valley
;
prov,
A. S. bcpx,
a valley; Kemble,
near
a river.
Cod, Dipl,iii.386.

baiide-

E,, and

Prob,

'

(foundonly in

exist.

(VBHEU.)

or
procuress,
goprocurer
between.
(F. O. H. G.) The full M. E
form
A. iii. 40
is bawdstrot,P. Plowm.
(another MS, has bawde).'^0. F. *balde-

strot

set upon, set


with mire ; "c.
(E.) yi.Y.been.

cover

"

O. F. baffe,
a
faggot, bundle
Roquefort). Remoter originunknown.

Ba'wd,

to

round

to
be-set,

bean,to be.-f-W.bod, to be ; Russ. buite ;


(Godefroy, L. fore (pt.t. fid) ; Gk. ^v^w ; Skt. bhU.

IV. iii.2. 61.

Hen.

(Wilts.)be-mire, to

Prov. E.

A. S.
brideBeacon.
to Lat. proniiba,
a
trot),equivalent
(E.) W. E. beken.
G.
H.
O.
bokan
Sax.
been.
O,
"O.
H.
G.
"\woman.
bald, bold, gay, livelyheacn,
;
bouhhan.
Teut.
neut.
M.
H.
G.
and
with
E.
*bauknom,
bold)',
type
(cognate
Bead.
strotzen, vb. (E. strut).
(E.) Orig. a prayer ; hence
Bawl.
(Scand.) Icel. baula, to low as a perforatedball, for counting prayers.
'

'

cow

Swed.

bellow

bola,to

see

A.S. bed,
prayer, a lead,
biddan
S.
A.
( '^bidjan,
gebed,a prayer.
bitte ; Goth.
bede ; G.
to
pray. 4" Du.
M

Bull,

Bellow.

Bay
M.

E.

bede,a

"

reddish

(i),
bay. O.
"

broAvn.

^az.

F.

"

L.

L.)
badius,bay(F.

"

hida.

bayard.
the

prayer.

Beadle.

coloured.
from

E.

(F.

colour

"

L.)

also, any

suffix -ard is Teutonic

; see

bay horse;
horse.
Bastard.

The

IO.
'

F,
H,

See Bid

G.

(i).

(F.-Tcut.)

bedel,F. bedeau,a

or
olaimer,'

O.

'

yi.Y.

beadle

messenger.' M,
b, H. G.
"

butil.

bedel.lit.'pro-

H. G. biitel,

but; weak

BEAGLE

BEDRID,

^ade

Beau,

A. S.

O. F. beL
from ben-

of biotan,G. bieten ; coj^natewith


beodan, to bid. Cf. A. S. bydel,a
See Bid
beadle, irom beodan.
(2).
Beagle, a dog. (Unknown.) M. E.
begle,
Squireof Low Degree, L 771.
Beak.
(F.-C.) ^l.E. bec.^F. beeLate L. beccns, of Gaulish origin. Cf.
Irish bacc,\V. bach, a crook,a hook.
M.E.
Beaker.
(.Scand. L. Gk.)
bikarr, a cup. + O.
biker,byker.'^lccl.

"

F. beau

Brugm. ii. " 67.

beauty. (F.-L.)

M. E. beute.
A. F.
'L. bellitdteju,
L. bellus,
fair
-

O.V.
beltet.
betite,
beatiie,
of bellitds,
fnirness.
ace.
"

"

(above). Der.

beker; G. becher ; Ital.

bikeri\ Du.

Sax.

(F. L.)

Y.. belhis,fair.
For *ben-lus ;
variant of bon-,as
(asin ben-e),

in bon-us. good.

"

"

dressyman.

a
"

BEDRIDDEN

beatde-ous.
beauti-ftil,
Beaver
1),an animal.
(E.) M. E.
bever.
A. S. befer,
4- Du. bever ;
beofor.
Icel. bjdrr; Dan.
bcever ; Swed.
bdfver\

from Late L. bicd- G. biber; Russ. bobr' ; Lilh. bebriis ; L.


(3.I'erhaps
wine-cup. Gk. ^ikos,an earthen fiber. Skt. babhrus (1)bro\\n ; (2)a large
ichneumon.
Teut. type '^bebruz ; Idg.type
wine-vessel ; a word of Eastern origin.
deriv. of bhru-,
Beam
.1),a piece of timber. (E.) *bhcbhrtis,reduplicated
beem,
A. S. beam, a tree. + Du.
M.E.
brown, tawny. Brugm. i. " 566. See

bicchiere.

rium,

boo?n
tree

"

; Goth,

Beam
with

Beam

column

beam,

beam,

Brovpn.

Beaver

bagms.
tified
iden[Usually

(2),a ray. (E.)

a
signify

nende

Cf. also Icel. badtnr, a

baiim.

G.

the

used to
(i\ specially
light;cf. A. S. byrof fire.']
But A. S.
pillar
of

beam

in sunne-beani, a sunbeam)
Teut. type *bazi-?noz.
a

as

(2),Bever,

lower part of

helmet.
(F.) Altered by confusion with
beaver-hat.
M. E. baviere.
O. F. bavi^re,
of
child's
bib
a
; also,the bever (beaver)
"

helmet.

foam,

"

F. baver, to slaver. F. /;az/(?,


slaver.
ment
Perhaps from the move"

"

of the lips
t.laver.
to
answers
; cf. Bret, baboitz,
diate
(3 Bever, a short immeprob.cognate with Gk. (pav-ois,light,(pdos Beaver
beuer {
phorus.
also t/jcD?,
(for(pafos),
repast. iF. L.) M.E.
light. See Phos,

"

A. F. beivre,
a drink
bever).'"

; substantival

Bean.
bcivre,to drink." L.
(E.) M. E. bejte. A. S. bean. use of O. F. bev7-e,
drink.
O.
H.
to
bibere,
Du.
Icel.
boon;
baun;
+
Q.pona,
bona (G. bohne). Teut. type '^baund,f.
Becalm, to make calm. See Be- and
beren.
Calm.
Bear
(1),to carry. (E.) M.E.
Because.
A. S. beran.'iflc^.hera ; O. H. G. bera7i ;
L.) See Cause.
(E. a""/F.
Gk.
CiO'Cq..
Bechance.
bairan \ also 'L.ferre\
(E. and F.
L.) See
(pepav ;
"

"

Skt. b/ir ; O. Ir. berim,\ bear


to

take, carry

Pers.

; Russ.

burdan,

to

brate,

Beck

bear.

Der. upbear.
(VBHER.)
Bear
(2),an animal. ;E.) M. E. bere.
O. H. G.
bera '\bjdrii)\
A. S. bera.-\-\cft\.

bero,pero, G. bar;
beras, brown

Du.

beer.

Chance.

E.
beckon

Beck

Cf. I"ith. bek.

a
TQxxt.iypt^beron-.
(Kluge").

feeard. E.)

(i),to nod, give a sign. (E.)


as
bek-yn,the same
bek-nyn,to
(Prompt.Parv.). See Beckon.

M.

\2), a
lceX.

"

stream.

bekkr; Swed.
Teut.

stream.

(Scand.) M.E.
back; Dan. bcek;

type

"^bakkiz.

Also

Du. beek,a
A.^'. beard. Teut. type '^bakiz ; whence
"^Dw.baard ; G. bart. Teut. type '^bardoz. beck ; G. bach.
Allied to Russ. boroda ; Lith. barzda ; L.
Beckon.
(E.) M. E. beknen. A. S.
beacnian
to make
(also biectian),
becnan,
barba, beard; from Idg.type *-bhardhd.
See
Beacon.
S.
A.
beste.~O.Y.
M.E.
Beast.
beacn,a sign.
signs.
(F.-L.)
U.'E.berd.

"

beste

(F. bete'

"

Become.

1^. bestia,
a beast.

E. beten. A. S. beatan.
lE.)
+ Icel. bauta ; O. H. G. pozan, M. H. G.
bozen.
Teut. type *bautan-.

Beat.

bi-kwiman

A. S.

(E.)

arrive,happen,

M.

Be-

Bed.
(E.) M.
Beatify. (F.-L.) F. beatifer.-^l..
for
Du.
L.
make
bed; Goth,
to
bedti-,
+
happy.
bedtificdre,
"

to

coming.
be-qnem,suitable,be-

cf. G.

From

becuman,

out, befall. + Goth.

turn

and

Come.
A. S. bed,bedd.
Teut.
badi ; G. bett.

E. bed.

bedtus.pp. of bedre,to bless,make happy ; type ^badjom,n.


for facere,to make.
and -fie-,
bedrid, bedridden.
(E.) M.E.
beatitude.
(F.-L.) F. beatitude. bedrede (Ch. C. T. 73; i); bedreden (P.
lit.
bedti- PL B. viii.85 ). A. S. bedrida,bedreda,
L. bedtitiidinem,
from nom.
ace.
bedrider
who
ride
a
f
or
on
L.
a
one
can
beaius,
only
bedti-,
iudo, blessedness.
;
and
bed
horse.
A.
S.
a
a
not
bed,
blessed ; with suffix -tudo.
on
bed,
;
"

'

'

"

"

43

BEDSTEAD

*rid-a, one

who

BEHOOF

rides,from

the

weak

bedstead.
bed, a

station ;

bed ;
Stead.

see

either
M.

(E.)

A. S.

bedstede.^

E.

and

to

(Low L.
Teut.)
form
of
{bedelhis),

M.

From

Latinised

E. bedel ;

E.

beetle. In
a
bitil,
gradeof bitan,

bit-,weak

bite.

Fall,

see

"c.

"c.

Daub,

Bedell.

M.

from

case

stand, Befall, Befool, Before

stede, a

Bedabble, Bedaub,
Bedazzle,
See
Bedizen.
Bedew,
Bedim,
Dabble,

from

sharp,or

grade of rldan,to ride.

the

O. F.

Beg. (F.) M. E. beggen.A. F. begger,


Langtoft,i, 248 ; used as equiv.to beBritton, I. 22. " 15. Formed,
gtcigne}',
from

the sb.

beggar;

see

Beget, Begin;
Beggar. (F.)

and

Beadle.

see

below.
Gin

Get,

M.

(i).

E.

beggare\ cf.
M. E. bedlevi, Begger^2i Beguinor Beghard,Rom. Rose,
Bedlam.
(Palestine.)
corruptionof Bethlehem, in Palestine. 7256 (F. text, Begiiin).'-0.".
begard,beNow
Late L. Beghardus.
applied to the hospitalof St. Mary gart, Flemish beggaert,
of

see

Bethlehem, for

Bedouin.

lunatics.

Formed,

with

suffix -ard

(G. -hart),from

See Beguine.
(F. Arab.) 0.". bedouin, Begue, a man's name.
a wanderingArab
pi, Arab, bada; orig.
Begone, Beguile ; see Go, Guile.
votees.
dewin,
pi.of Arab, badauny.,wandering in Beguine, one of a class of religious
"

"

the desert.

"

Arab,

Bedridden,

badw,

desert.

(F.) Chieflyused in the fern. ; F.


Low L. beghJna,one of a religious
bdguine,
; see Bed.
bee. A. S. ^"?"7,
earlier order,firstestablished at Liege,about A. D.
Cf. G.
H. G. hia.
after Lambert
Le Begue,
1207. Named
also
; Ir. bea-ch.
Perhaps priestof Liege (12thc.); whence
Le Begue means
bhi, to fear ; O. H. G. Beguin,Beghard,masc.
a

Bedstead

Bee.
(E.) M.K.
bio.-^Dx\.bij\ O.
bie-ne ; Lith. bi-tle
'
flutterer' ; cf Skt.

bi-ben, to tremble.

'

Beech.

(E.) A S. boece,
bece,a beech ;
becen,adj.,beechen ; both derivatives (by
mutation) from the older form boc. See

the verb begui,


to stammer,
in the dialect of Namur
allied
to
;
Picard bigiier,
F. begayer.

Begum,

in the E. Indies,a

highestrank.

Book.

Beef.
O. F.

M.E.

(F.-L.)

beef.^K.Y.be/;

boef(F. bceiif\.\a.
"

bos,an ox.-j-Gk.ii'"m,
ox;
W.

stammerer,'from

binv, Skt. go, A. S.

en,

bouem,

Ir. bo, Gael,


a

cow

queen,

bey, bey, governor.

Behalf,
M.

E.

the

Pers. begum,
Turk, beg,

"

See Bey.

interest. (E.)

phrase
guard. behalf,on my

of the
yeoman
'
eater of beef; hence,
an

ladyof

"

bo,

Cow.

see

beef-eater, a

Formerly in

behalue
my
side ; substituted

on

the

on

my
for the

A. S. phr.on {mJji) healfe,


an
the side of
on
Cf. A. S. hldf-ceta,
confusion
with
be
a loaf-eater,
(me^i,by
healfe{me),
A. S. be,
From
a servant.
sense.
*(|The usual derivation (from used in the same
Mr. Steevens' imaginarybeaufetier,
later by ; and healf,
sb.,side. See Half.
is historically
baseless.
Behave.
speltbuffetier)
(E.) I.e. to ^,?-//^w oneself,

(Hyb.)

Lit.

of

ace.

(Pers. Turk.)
lady of rank.

'

attendant.

Beer.
Du.

and

(E.^ M. E. bere. A. S. beor. +


G. b/er ; Icel. bjorr.

Beestings
Beet.

see

M.E.

(L.)

control oneself ; from have with prefix


be-,the same as prep. by.
behaviour.
(E.; with F. suffix^
Formed
abnormally from the verb to
or

Biestings.
^^/^.

K.Si.bete.^

L.

behave ; confused with ". sb. avoir, (i)


beta,beet (Pliny).
Cf. Lowl. Sc. havings,
Beetle
(i\ an insect. (E.) Prov. E. wealth, (2)ability.
lit. biting
bittle. A. S. bitela,
one.'
A. S. (I' wealth, (2)behaviour.
bit-,weak gradeof bltan,to bite ; with adj. Behead.
(E.) From Be- and Head.
suffix -ol ; cf. wac-ol, wakeful.
See Bite.
Behemoth.
(Heb.- Egypt.) Heb.
Beetle
(2),a largemallet. (E.) M. E. behefjwth,said to be pi. of behemah, a
betel.
A. S. bytel{
beast ; but probablyof Egypt,origin.
O. Wes.
""bietel,
'

O. Merc.

H'etel); cf. Low


a beater
baut-iloz,
ty^t*

G. botel.
'

'

to

beat ;

Beetle
the

see

Behest, Behind, Behold.

Teut.

ivom*baut-an-, Hest, Hind,

Hold

(i).

Behoof, advantage.(E.)

Beat.

(E.) See
M.Y^.to

bi-

houe, for the advantageof. A. S. behof,


(3\ to overhang. (E.) From
E. adj. bitel-brouwed, beetle- advantage.
+ 0. Fries, bihof,Du. behoef,

M.
'
browed
P. Plowm.
A. v.
;
doubtful ; either from
sense

Swed. behof;Dan.
Grig, advantage; G. behuf',
109.
The
be is A. S. be^
M. E. bitel,behov,need.
prefix
{3.
44

BESEECH

BEND
band

bend,a

Teut.

==

seems
^bandiz)
; from band, hengivi

See Bind.
2nd stem oihind-an,to bind.
So also Icel. benda,to bend a bow ; allied
to band, a cord.

to have

the Arab, name,


of Java.

substituted for

been

cense
jdwi, lit.frankin(Furthercorruptedto gziin
lubdn

benjamin.)
an
(E.)
1,2),
obliqueband, in heraldry. Bequeath.
(F. G.) O. F. bende, also bande, a assert, bequeath. A.
band ; see Cotgrave. Tlie same
word
as
cwedan, to say, assert.
bend

"

"

A.S.

bccwedan

to

S. be-, prefix
; and
See Quoth.

biBand
(2).
bequest. (E.) M. E. biqueste,
; see
A.'S. quiste.Formed, with added -te (cf.
M. E.
M. E. bemthe.
*becwiss
A. S. *biczviss,
A. S. be-, by; reqzieste),
from
beneodan, prep, below.
queath,
adv.
from
the
base
neo5due
to
sb.
jieoSan,
beczuedan,to bebelow,
(not found),
in neod-era,nether ; with adv. suffix -an.
assert, say. The
components of
F.

band

bande,a

Beneath.

of

men

(E.)

"

and
this form occur
; viz. be-, bi-,prefix,
cwlss (in ge-czvis),
a
saying. Czviss is
formed
of benedictio,from Teut. *kzuessiz,
L. benedictioneni,
ace.
Idg.*g{w)ettis,
L.
of
bencsuffix
f
rom
base
a
benedictus,
*g(7v)et-,
blessing.
-//-)
(with
Idg.
pp.
A. S.
L. bene,well ; whence
to speakwell,bless.
cwedan, to say (Sievers,
dJcere,
Cf. G.

nied-en,nied-er

Benediction.

Nether.
tion.
benedic-

see

_(F.-L.)F.

"

"

"

and

to speak(seeDiction).
dicere,
benison.
(F. L.) M^Y.. beneysun.
"

O. F. beneison.

"

L.

"

Benefactor.

Gr. "

L.

(L.)

becwiss is thus

and

regular

becweban,to bequeath.
A.S.
to
Bereave.
bereafian,
(E.)

benedictiotiem.

ace.

232);

deriv. of

a
benefactor,

dispossess
; see Beave.
Ital.
factor, Bergamot
(i),an essence. (Ital.)
called
the
a
essence
bergamot.
bergai7iotta,
Ital. Beigamo, a town
in Lombardy.
benefice.
(F. L.) M. E. benefice.
of pear.
F. benefice
a kind
(F."
(Cot.)."Late L. bc7ieficium,Bergamot
(2),
Ital."Turk.)
F.
estate ; L. beneficiuin,
a
a
bergamotte(Cot.)."
grant of an
lent
L. bene, well ; Ital. bej'gamott-a
well-doing,a kindness.
(pi.-^), a kind of excelTorriano.
do.
of
to
out
come
Turky
andy^^r^r^,
;
pears,
benefit.
(F.-L.) Modified (badly^ Turk, beg arniudi, 'prince's
pear.'
from
M. E. benfet. O. F. bienfet(F. Turk, beg,prince
; armud, pear.
ferred
cona kindness
bienfait).-'!^.
benefactum,
Berry. (E.) '^l.Y.berie. K.S.berie,
of pp. of bcnefacere,
bar
to do
-|-Du. bes,bezie Icel. ber; Swed.
; neut.
well ; and
be7ie,
good.
to do.
doer,from facere,

doer

of

"

L.

"

"

"

'

"

'

"

"

-^

',

well,be kind.
Benevolence.

(F. L.)
"

bcsr;

Dan.
from

lence
Y. benevo-

base

basi. All
Goth.
'
Lit. edible fruit; cf.

bee re;

G.

bas-.

Dor.
Skt. bhas, to
eat.
goose-bey-ry
uolentem, kind, lit. well- "c.
"L.
bene, well; and uolentem, Berth.
(E.) Formerly ' convenient
wishing.
From
I
sea-room.'
of
from
wish
A 'suitable position.'
ace.
uolens,wishing,
uolo,
in
to
A.S.
(see Voluntary).
byr- (as ge-byr-ian, suit)with
G.
See
suffix
-th. Cf. Du. beurt,a turn ; Low
Night.
E.)
Benighted.
Benign. (F. L.) O. F. benigne(F. bort,good position.
ls\.Y..beril.
benin). L,. benignus,kind ; short for "^be- Beryl. (L.-Gk.-Skt.)
for
of
benl.-~.l^.
'L.
variant
F.
O.
firjpvKberyllus.'^Gk.
nigeJius. beni-, ^benns,
beryl."
bonus, good ; and -genus, born (as in Aos ; cf. Arab, billaur, crystal,
orig.
indigenus)^from genere, old form of Skt. vai^iirya (Prakritveliiriyd),
beryl,brought from Vidura in S. India
gignere,to beget.
tion.
Benedicsee
(Yule ; Bohtlingk).
Benison, blessing
;

kindness.(Cot.).L. beneiiolentia,
"

L.

bene

ace.

"

"

"

Bezant,

Besant,

Bent-grass. (E.)
beonet,for earlier

M. E. bent.

A. S.

*bin2it,
gold
bent-grass(in represent
G. binnz, G. binse, O. F. besant, an
a

'

Cot.

Benzoin,
Ital.

From
a

Be-

and Numb.

resinous substance.
'

"

'

"

"

"

Intended

to

Byzantium."
gold coin ;
'

"~G\i. Bv^avnov, the


L. Byzantiu7n.
of

Beseech.

(F,

coin of
ancient

Constantinople.
(E.) M. E. besechen. From
form
and
sechen.Southern
be-, prefix;
to Northern
seken,to seek.
corresponding
name

Arab.) F. benjoin.gum benzoin


Ital. benbenjamin ; Cot.
gum
zoino,bengivi(Torriano). The Ital. lo

or

in
gold circle,

heraldry. (F.-L.-Gk.)

place-names.-{-O.H.
bent-grass.
Benumb.

See Seek.

46

BESEEM

BEZONIAN

Beshrew,

Beset,

Beseem,

Besiege;

side, In Sh.
Be-

O.F.
Sonn.
121.
*bivel,*btwely
only found in mod. F. biveau,and in F.
buveau, a kind of scjuire
rule],
'carpenter's
and compasse
desum, having moveable
branches,
'

"c.

Besom,

[E.^. M.E.

broom.

A. S.

besme.

hezcni\G.
besvia.'\^V"\\.

Tent, type *bes7non-,

Best;

besen.

Bestead
Bestial.

; from

Sot, Speak.

see

stead.
F. bestial.

(F.-L.)
L.

I.,

-^

bestia,a

boivre,to

Bestrew,

Bet,

Origin unknown.

potation;

(F.

wager.
the sense

bet, sb.

'Sca.nd.)See

Bewray,

TaJse.

Bethink, Betide, Betimes,


"c.

Think,

disclose.

to

Wild,

(E.) Properly

to
beivraien,
biwj-eyen,
A. S. be-,prefix
(see Be-) ; and
to
accuse
(for older *zurogian^
mutation
from
with
to
0
Betoken
e). Cf. Icel.
to
rcEgja
(forTjrcegja),slander,Swed. rdja,

E.

M.

(Port." to accuse.
speciesof pepper.
Betel,
disclose.
bete/e.'-'MalayaMalayalim.) Port, betel,
leaf (Yule). "w" egan,
lim veiXila,i.e. vent
ila,mere
see

Bewilder,
Ware,

"Wail,

see

Witch.

drink

bevy (Florio)
;

Beware,

'

kE. and

Betake.

bevre,to

(Toiriano).

"

Der.

See Abet.

"

F. bevre,
"O.
L. bibere,to drink.
to O. F.
L.) It answers

drink ; from O. P\
(above). Cf. Ital. beva,a

ed. 1706. Bewitch;


explainedin Phillips,

abet is

"

bevee,a

see

(F. Scand.) Short for also,a drink


back,'
to maintain,or
Bewail,

to

(3).
bevrage

Beaver
O.F.

see

(F.-L.)

drink.

bevy.
Bestride

Ike.

abet,in

(Supp.to Godefroy),drink.

beast.

See Beast.

Bestow,

'

beverage.

and

Be-

"

and the other


compasse
callit a (5"?^'"j//
Cot.
Cf.
;

straight;
Span. ha/Vid.

Bever,

beast-like.
besttdlis,

stow,

branch

one

some

Better.

see

the

or

m.

Bespeak

Besot,

as

"

Sit, Sbrew,

Seem,

see

to accuse
;
Betray. (F. L. ; 7vith E. prefix.^to discover ; O. Fries, biwrogia,
G.
Goth,
and
O.
F.
t)
accuse
air
to
[V
From
riigen,to
;
wrohjan.
be-, prefix
;
p. These are causal verbs,from
trahir),to deliver up, from L. tradere. censure,
"

prefixbe-

The

with

due

was

to

confusion

the

Betroth..

Bey,

See Troth.

(E.)

wroh-

base

seen

accusation, Icel. rog,

See Tradition.

bewray.

governor.

in Goth, ivrdhs,
slander.
(Turk.) Turk, beg

(pron.nearlyas bay),a lord,prince.


the
formed
Tcut.
base
Beyond. (E.i W.E.beyonde. A.S.
in Goth.
Tent. comp.
as
stem
beyond. A. S. be-,for be or bi,
'^batizon-,
begeondan,
by ; and geond,prep, across, beyond, from
batiza,better,A. S. betera (with mutation
Cf. Goth,
from a to e),M. E. better. The A. S. bet, geon,
jaindre,thither,
yon.
See
there
M. E. bet,is adverbial and comparative.Jaind,
; from Jains,that, yon.

(E.)
'^bat,good, was

Best.

Better,

From

1.

the

"

2.

the

From

base

same

Goth.

formed

was

Yon.

Bezel, the part of a ring in which the


beter,best; Icel. betri, stone is set. (F.) Also spelt basil; it
a
beztr ; Dan
battre, also means
slopingedge. O. F^. bisel
bedre, bedst ; Swed.
F. biseau,^ bezel,basil,
bast ; G. besser, best. Der.
; mod.
(from the (Roquefort)
the
base") batten, boot (2\
slant, sloped edge. Cf. Span, bisel,
snme
Perof
a
looking-glass.
Between.
fE.) K.*^. betweonan,ht- slantingedge
batista,best,A.S.
best.

betst

for

M. K.
bet-ist),

Du.
Similarly

"

A. S. be,by ; i haps from L. bis,double.


of
Bezique, a game at cards. (F. Pers.)
tweonnm,
pi. tweone, double,allied
I F. besigue (with g) ; also besy (Littre).
Here
to twd, two ; see Two.
tweomwi
Pers. bdzichah, sport,a
firstform
to Goth, fweihnaim, ^, The
(alsotwtnuni) answers
Pers. bdzi, play.
the
second
dat. pi.of tiveihnai,
each.' Cf. L. game
'two
:
tween

earlier betzueonuf?i.

"

dat.

"

"

bini.

betwixt.
which

play. [A guess.]
(F. Span.- Arab.
Pers.) O. F. bezoar,F. "?'/3"'an/. Span.
Pers. pdd-zahr,
Arab, bddizahr.
bezoar.

jPers.
t

was

(E."

(M.

afterwards

E.

betwix;

added

"

to

A. S.

betwix, betwux, betweox,bet'veohs,


rently
appa-

bdzidan,to

Bezoar,

stone.

"

"

"

"

"

its
from
bezoar ; lit. * counter-poison,'
A. ?^.beiwth,between.
Pers.
From
A. S. be by ; and ^twih, answering supposed virtue.
pad, expelling
;
and zahr, poison.
each.
in Goth, tweiknai, two
to tweihSee above.
Bezoniau, a beggarly fellow. (F.)
extended

from

"

Bevel, sloping;to slope,slant.

{Y^

In

Hen.

IV.

v.

3.

118.

Formerly

BIGOT

Bl-

i)y adding E. -ian to


disogm, spelt bisonpie,in Cotgiave,

bisonian
F.

made

of which

the forms

those of Bid

taken

have

the

placeof

(2).

bisonian.' Or from
*a filihe knave
Bide, to await,wait. (E.) M. E. biden.
need, want
Ital. bisogno,
bisogni, A. S. bidan. 4- Du. beiden ; Icel. bi^a ;
; whence
Swed.
bida ; Dan.
bie ; Goth,
such as come
beidan ;
pi. ' new-levied soiildiers,
.

needy to the wars*; Torriano (not in


Florio). Oiiginunknown.
( L.) L. bi-,for *dtn-,twice.
Bi-, prefix.
.

type ^bidan-.

Teut.

O. H. G. bitajt.

L. duo, two.

"

So

ti-,Skt. dvi.

also Gk.

See Two.

(L.)
years.
if from bienni-nm, a space of
two
years ; the true J,.,word is bienndlis.
L. bi- two ; and anndlis,lasting
a year,
Formed

as

"

Bias.

(F.

F.

L.)

"

slant, yearly. L.

biais,a

slope;hence, inclination to

also

So

annus.

"

Cf.

side.

one

s-biescio,oblique. Origin
s-biesco,

Ital.

Biennial, lastingtwo

tri-ettnial,

from

tri-

more

from qnadricorrectly
qiiadri-ennial,

three; quadi'-ennial

(forires),

iour ; quinquiquinqui-(forquinqne),live ;

to
(forqnadrus),belonging

unknown.

Bib.

M.

chin; from
bibere, to

cloth under

(L.)

E.

(Luke vii. 34) ;

L. bibens

"

L.

7vine-bibber

Hence

dec-ennial,from
from

centum,

dec-em,

Bier,

y^.V^-bible."

frame

ten

hundred

a thousand,
vVulg.). from viille,

tivmin

(F.-L.-Gk.)

Bible.

drink.

bibben,to

drink.

child's ennial, from

;
;

"c.

which

on

cent-ennial,
mill-ennial,
corpse

is

M.E.
beo'e,bcere. A. S.
biblia,fem. sing.; for borne. (E.)
collection
b^r, ber. A. S. b(^r-,
3rd stem oiberan, to
L. biblia,neut. pl.-Gk. (ii0\ia,
little book, carry. + Du. baar ; O. H. G. bdra (G.
of writings,
pi. of l3ifi\iov,
Icel. barar, fem. pi.;
Gk.
book.
bahj-e)
/3i;y3Aos,
dimin. of ^i/3Ao?,
a
; allied to
Gk.
book.
(pipirpov.
a
;
l^.feretrum
Egyptianpapyrus ; hence,
bibliography. Gk.) Gk. Pi0\io-, Biestings, Beestings, the first
milk given by a cow
after calving. (E.)
to write.
for ^i(i\iov; and ypdipnv,
thick milk.
A. S. bysting,
byst (for* blest),
bibliomania.
(Gk.) Gk. pifi\io-,

F.

Fate

bible.

L.

"

"

From
A. S. beost,first milk after calving.
hence
-|-Du, biesi; G. biest-milch.
Bice.
(F.) Properly grayish ;
blue."
F.
bleiv byce, grayish
bis,dusky. Bifurcated, two-pronged. (L.) Late
to part in
L. bifurcatus.
unknown.
Cf. Ital. bigio,
pp. of bifiircdri,
Origin
gray.
directions.
bi -furciis,twoL.
skirmish.
(Uncertain.) two
to

for ^iliXiov; and

Mania.

'

'

Bicker,

Cf. M.
with

O. F.

"

skirmish.
biker,a fight
; bikeren, to
E. beken,to peck ; biken, to thrust

M.E.

pointedweapon.
bequer,to strike

to

(see

hack, bikke,

(G.
picka.xe

bicke)

Bicycle. (Hybrid.) In
from

Bi-

and

Not

E.

use

since 186S.

Cycle.

big;

A. S.

also

bigg,

Cf. prov. E.

Prob.

of Scand.

Cf. Norw.
a strong man.
btigge,
Bigamy, a double marriage. (F. L.
L. bigamia;
and Gk.) F. biga/nie.'~'L^^Q

origin.

"

Coined

M.

Big. (Scand.?)
rich

(Hampole).
becca,a pick-axe.bug. big,bog, boastful.

with

A. S.
Beak'
; or from
Cf. Du. bikken. to notch a miil-stone ; also
from
E. Fries, bikkcni
hack, gnaw,
to

bikken,

fork.

Apparentlyfrom
the beak

bi-{s\double; /urea, a

from

pronged;

clumsy compound

(see Bi-),

and

Gk.

marriage.

It

should

from

L.

double
/'/-,

ydfios,

from
-yafxia.
rather

have

been

lete
digamy (Gk. Siyafxia).
(E.) Nearly obsopray.
in
and
in
Biggen, a night-cap.(F.) M. F.
preserved
bidding-prayer,
;
to bid beads (prayprayers). M. E. bidden.
beguin, a biggin for a child ; Cot.
from the caps worn
;
by beguines
G. bitten; Named
A. S. biddan
'\-V"w.Unddcn\
see
Teut.
Icsl. bi(ija\Goth,
Beguine.
type
bidjan.
allied to L. fldo,I trust ; Gk.
Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (E.)
*bidjan-,
in wc^teres
E. big/it.A. S. by/it,
as
M.
I
ireidoj,prevailupon ; fromy'BHEIDH.
of water
see
Grein)."
See Hrugm. i. " 589 ; ii." 890.
byht,a bight(bay")
Bid v2),to command.
(E.) M. E. beden. A.S. bug-,weak grade of bugan, to bow,
A. S beodan,
to command.
+ Du. bieden, bend ; with mutation of u to^.-{-G.bucht.

Bid

(i)jto

'

"

"

offer ; Icel. bjoda ; G. bieten ; Goth.


I enquire; Skt.
; Gk. ncvOofxai,
Teut.
understand.
to
b/ed/i,
type *be!idan-.

to

ana-biudan

^VBHEUDH.)

Confused

with

Bid(i),

Teut. type *bichtiz. See Bow


Bigot, an obstinate devotee

(F.)

F.

'

bigot,

fellow;'

an

Cot.

1).
to

creed.

tious
hypocrite,supersti-

Applied by

the

BIJOU

BIRCH

of
Normans
term
a
as
Billow, a wave.
(Scand.)Icel. bylgja,
Of unknown
origin.a billuw ; Swcd. bblja;Dan. bblge.-\-Vi.
H. G. bulge, a billow,a bag. Lit. ' a
older word
than beguine,with
It is an
swell'
have
somewhat
been
to inflate,
which
it seems
to
or
surge ; cf. Icel. belgja,
Icel. bylgjahas mutation
The
out.
confused at a later period.
puff

French

the

to

reproachi^Wace).

Y. bijou.of u \o y, and, like M. 11. G. bulg-e,


trinket. (F. C?)
is frou)
of
from
Bret,
with
swell
with
stem
to
a
a
bizoii,
3rd
bclgan,
^^^Ig-,
ring
Perhaps
from
stone,
biz, a finger.anger.
a
finger-ring,
M. E. biune.
bisoti i^thesame), from
Cf. Corn,
A. S. binn,
bis, Bin. (E.)
Lu. ii. 7 +Du.
ben, G. bennef
bes,a finger;W. byson,ring,from bys, a manger;

Bijou, a

"

sort of basket.
cf.
Gaulish Lat.
(Scand.)
whortle-berry.

finger.

Perhapsof

Bilberry,

hen, a

bollebar,a bilberry
; where beer is E.
berry. In M. Dan., b'ollehad the sense of
Dan.

Cebic

betma, body of

r
origin

cart

W.

cart.

Binary, twofold. (L.) L bindj-ius,


i.e. boss (Kalkar).Cf. Norw.
fold."
consistingof two things. L. binus,twobtigle,
L. bi-,double ; see Bi-.
tumour.
% North Enir.
bola,a swelling,
Bind.
Blaeberry.
(E.) M. E. binden. A. S. binblea-berry blue-berry
; see
Dan.

"

both

see

Berry.

-berry takes

cases,

the E. form

and

G. binden ; Icel. and


Dan. binde ; Goth, bindan ;
Bilbo, a sword ; BilboeS, fetters. Skt. bandh, to bind. (^BHENDH.)
Bilboa
from
or
Eing, a heap of corn ; obs. (Scand.) In
(Span.) Both named
Swed. binge,
Poems.
Icel. bingr,
for iron and
Jiilbao in Spain, famous
Surrey's
M.
H.
G.
a
steel.
bige,a heap ot corn ;
heap.+
Ital. bica. 9\ l)istinct from bin,
Bile vi),secretion from the liver. (F. whence
In

dan. 4- Du.
Swed. binda

"

F. bile.

L.'i

"

"

l..bilis.

L.

thoughperhapsconfused

bJlis is for

Binnacle,

wiih it.

for

ship's
compass.
singular
corruption ot the
box

cf. W.
ed. 4. ii.i 75 ;.
Bret, besti,bile (Fick,

btisil.

bili-ous.

bittacle,
by confusion with bin,
bitlacle (i.e.
a
(2). a chest. Port, bitacola,
Cf.
biilge,binnacle)
; Vieyra.
Span, bitacora,
the same.
The Port, bitacola
ship'sF. habitacle,

*bislis,Ijrugm.i. " 877

Bile

I(Port.

Der.

boil.

(E.)
A

Bilge. (F." C.)

See Boil
variant of

the bottom

orig.meant

of

stands

See

sword.
Bill (i),
a chopper,

(E.)

M. E.

i.e.
of a

(Bailey).L.
of

Binomial,

(F. L.)
"

see

billet (0, a

of bille,
a

or

the stick wherewitli

at

billyards
;

-ard

'

Cot.

from
(G. -hai't)

above.

Billion

see

bi-,two

noinin-,

name.

biology. (Gk.)
Gk.

Science of life; from


coursing,
-Koyia, a dis-

life ; and
lor (3ios,
jSto-,

billard ,
from A070J, a discourse.
of bipes,
stem
touch the ball
Biped. (L.) L. biped-,
foot.
two-looted
from
two
with suffi.K
Formed
bi-,
;
; pes,
as
a log,stick,
tE.) M. E. birche.
bille,
Birch, a tree.
A.S. birce,f.+G. birke,f."Teut. *birk.

(L ) F
.

L.

L.

; with

names

and
allied to Quick.

Originunknown.

log,stump.

billiards

From

(L.)

terms.

binomi-2is,equiv.to
two

(L.)

count
(Gk.) A written aclife;
lite; from ^/o-,for /3/os,
The
sb. /3to? is
to write.
ypdipfiu,

of

L.

"

eyes.

ocul-us,
eye

Biography.

A. F. bil-

(F.-L.)

note.

dimin. of
billeta,
billetta,
Bill (3 above.
a writing
billa,
; see
Billet (2^, a log of wood.
(F.) F.
wood.
Dimin.
billet
of
a
billetle,
billot,

/(?//^. Late

-dlis.

for nonien,

(2).

Bull

two

each ;

adj.having
binoviinis,

papal bull, suffix

'

dwell; frequent,

having two
L.

Late

From

"

L. bulla,a

having

Lat. bin-i,two
with suffix -dris.

A. F. bille. Late L. billa,a writing


; the
dimin. is billeta,
biillela,
shewingthat billa
"c. ;

syllable

have.

From

Bill

corruptionof

habere,to

Binocular,

bird's beak.
a
^E.) M. E.
S. bile (Teut.type ""biliz?).Allied

;I).
account.
Bill (.3),a writing,

to
habitdre,

"

bill (0,

first

L. habitdculuin, a littledwelling,
the ' frame of timber in the steerage
shipwhere the compass stands
"

A.S.
bill.,
sword, axe.
bil,sword, axe.
+ O. Sax. bil,O. H. G. bilL n. ; (cf.G.
n.
bille,
axe, f.). Teut. type '^biljom,

is

the
'^habitacola,

for

beinglost.

Bulge.

to

"

bilge-water
(N. E. D.)-

hull ; whence

bile. A

L.)

"

older word

,2),a

which

'

billard,a

we

Million.

jon-.
49

p.

Also

A.S.

berc,beorc. '\-Dv..
c

BIRD

BIZARRE

Swed.
Dan. birk
berk ; Icel. hjork,
hjork,
Cf.
f.
(cf.North E. birk)."\"\\V.""berkd,
also O. Slav, hreza, Russ. bereza ; Lith.
of birch.
berias. Also Skt. bhilrja,
a kind

M.

E. bite (2syll.).
A. S. bita,a morsel.
A. S. bit-,
weak
grade of bitan, to

From

bite.+Du. beef; Icel. hiti; Swed.


bit;
Dan. "^z^."Teut.type '^biton-,
m.
a curb for a horse.
Bird.
"bit (2),
(E.) M. E. brid (the r being
(E.) M. E.
bitt. A. S. bite,
a bite,
m.
a biting.
" Teut.
shifted)
; A. S. bridd, a. bird, esp. the
a
a curb.-f-Du.
bite; cf. bitol,
type *bitiz,
young of birds.

Biretta,

clerical cap.

Ital. beretta

Gk.)

(Ital.L.
; cf. Late
(Torriano)

gebit; Icel. bitill (dimin.)


; Swed. bett ;
Dan. ^/^; G.gebiss.
A. S.
Bitch.
(E.) yi.Y..biche,bicche.
^%o
^/a".?.-|-Icel.
bikkja;
gt-ey-baka.

"

"

L. birretiijH,
orig.a scarlet cap. Late L.
See Bureau.
Birth.
(Scand.) M..Y.. burthe,birthe.
"

birrus, burrus,reddish.
Icel. burdr,
O.
byrd, f. (
Cf.

m,

Swed.

Icel.

gebyrd,f. ; O. H. G.

Bite.
K.^. bltan.
(E.) yi.Y..biten.
bita ;
+ Du. bijten
; Icel. bita ; Swed,
Dan. bide ; G. beissen. Teut. type *bitan-.

bord, Dan.

byrd, "). +

giburt

A. S.

gebiirt)
; Allied

( G.

to

to cleave
h.jfindere
(pt.
X.ftdi's,

gabanrths^f."Teut. *bHrdiz-^Idg.Skt. bhid,to cleave. (yBHEID.)


f. nourishment).All
^bhrtis (Skt.bhrtis,
bitter. (E.) W.Y.. biter. K.^. biter,
the weak
weak grade
from
grade of V'BHER, to bitor,lit. ' biting.'A. S. bit-,
of bitan, to bite.-f-Du.
See Bear
bear.
bitter;Icel. bitr ;
(i).
Biscuit, a kind of cake. (F. L.) F. Swed., Dan., G. bitter.
F. bis {L. bis), Bittern, a bird. (F.-Late
lit.twice cooked.
L.) The
biscuit,
M. E. botor, bitoure.
F.
twice ; and ctcii,
cooked, from L. coctum, n is added.
Goth,

"

"

"

"

of coctus,pp. of coqiiere, to cook.


Prob.
Cot.
butor, 'a bittor [bittern];'
from its cry; cf. L. butire,btibere,
L. bi-,short for named
Bisect.
(L.) From
bis,twice; and sect-iini,
supineof secdre, to cry like a bittern ; whence also L. butio,
'
said to mean
to cut.
bittern,'
though the same
word
S.
L.
A.
i.e.
buzzard.
as
biiteo,
biscop.
Bishop. (L. Gk.)
ace.

a
(Scand.?) The
bishop; lit. Bitts, naval term.
episcopus.Gk. kviaKoTro^,
'
bitts are
two
overseer.' Gk. "vi,upon;
deck to
on
OKoitus, one
posts
strong
fastened.
Prob.
that watches, from okott-, ^-gradeof OKtrr-, which
cables are
from
"

"

Icel. biti,
a
bit,mouthful (see Bit (i));
also,a cross-beam in a house ; a thwart
bitts
in a ship. [F.bites,
Bisimith, a metal. (G.) G. bismuth; (L. transtruin)
have
been
also spelttvismut, -wissmut,-wissi/iiiih. (see Cot.), Span, bitas,may
borrowed
from E.] Cf. also A. S. kiting,
Originunknown.
Bison, a quadruped. (L. Teut.) L. a cable for holdinga ship,from biltan,
bison (Plinyi ; Late Gk. ^lacuv. Not a L. to restrain,
(in form) to
curb, equivalent
Also Swed, beting,
borrowed
from
Teutonic ; Icel. beita ; see Bait.
word, but
bittO. H. G.
a bitt-bolt,
wisunt, G. wisent, a bison ; a bitt,whence betingbult,
as

oKfiT-TOfjiai, I

in

overlook.

spy,

See

Species.

"

pin; Dan. beding: used also on land for


a
horses,as in .Swed. betingbult^
tethering
from beta,to pasture,bait.
leap-year.peg for tethering,
(L.) L. bitumen, mineral
(L.) Late L. bissextllis annus, bissextile Bitumen.
L.
Cf.
a
n
so
bissextus,
day;
intercalary
pitch.
Brugm. i. " 663.
year.
called because the intercalated day (forBi- and
merly Bivalve.
(P\ L.) From
A. S.

weosend, a wild

ox

Icel. ziTstindr.

See O. H. G. -tvisunt in Schade.


for
Bissextile, a name
"

"

called the sixth of Valve.


Feb. 24) was
there being thus
the calends of March;
Bivouac.
(F. G.) F. bivouac,orig.
additional
Swis?, G. beiivacht,
L. bis, bivac
two
an
name.
days with the same
watch
cf.
twice ; sextus,sixth,
from sex, six.
at night (Stalder)
bei-geben,
;
"

"

"

Bissou, purblind.(E.)

In Sh.
O. Northumb.
bisen, blind
ix. 28). Originunknown.
bisen.

Bistre,

dark

brown.

M. E.

to

(I'l.Cf.

G.

bei, in addition
wake.

to

G. beiw ache.
odd.
(F.

Bizarre,

F.

"

(i),a mouthful, i-mall

"

ivacht,a

See "Wake

zarre,
Span.) Y. bi' valiant.'
; orig.
strange,capricious
valiant,gallant.Perhaps
Span."5'/3"7-r"",
Basque origin
; cf. Basque bizarra,a
a man
piece. (E.) beard. Cf. Span,hombre de bigote,

(F.-G.?)

brown.
a dark
bistre,
Perhapsfrom prov.
G. bicster,
dark, gloomy, also bistre (Fliiof
gel).

Bit

add.

(Matt, watch, from wachen,

50

"

BLAB
of

;
spirit

where

BLAZON

e
bigot

means

blanch,

tache.'
mous-

white.

Nasalised

form

from

O. H. G.

blah,shining;cf. Gk. (pXoy-eos,


blahhe, flaming,
to shine.
shining,from "p\(y-(iv,

M. E.
to telltales. (E.)
tell-tale; blaberen,to babble.
Cf. Dan.
G.
blabbre,to babble ; Dan. dial, blaffre,
Of
imitative
to
babble,
prate.
plappern,

Blab,

a soft noise
; cf.Gael. /"/ab,
origin

babbler ;

a
blabara/i,

ket
jwhite colour. M. E. blanket. A. F. blandimin. from blanc,white;
(F.blanchet),
"

I see
plabair,

stammerer,

blabli- j

above.

Blare,
M. E.

dach, babbling,
garrulous.
Black.
(E.) Vi."..blak.

\f.-O.H.G.) Orig.ofa

blanket.

K.^.blac,

make

to

blarett.

Cf.

loud

Du.

noise.

(E.)

blaren,Low

G.

blerblarren,to bleat; M. H.G.


bleren,
{(^.pldrren^,
blubber.
to bleat,
7-en
Prob.
imitative,like bleat;but cf Blaze (2).

bl(2c [which editors have


often confused
with
blceCybright,shining].Cf. Icel.
blakkr. dark ; also A. S. bIcBC,
Low
G. blak,\ Blason
; see Blazon.
Dan. ! Blaspheme,
O.H. G. blach, Icel. blek,Swed. bleck,
to speakinjuriously.
(L.
with
all meaning ' ink.' Connexion
L. blasphemdre.Gk. P\a"T(pT]Gk.)
blczk,
Du. blaken, to scorch, is doubtful.
Gk. /BKdacpijfxos,
fxeiv, to speakill of
adj.,
'

"

"

"

blackguard,

for *l3\afi"s-,
reproach.(E. speakingevil. Gk. /3AaCT-,
i.e. hurtful (cf ^\d/3-i].
I
gitard.A name
hurt); and (prjfxi,
and kitchen
Bnigm. i. " 744.
given to scullions,
turnspits,
say : see Fame.
done
menials, from the dirtywork
by
Blast, a blowing. (E.) M.E. blast.
them.
See Trench,Select Glossary.
A.S. bli^st,
a. blowing; cf. Icel. bldstr,
a
bladdre.
A.
S.
M.
E.
blast
of a trumpet ; O. H. G. blast.
Bladder.
breath,
(E.)
bladdre^ blMre^ a blister,bladder (lit.Formed with Idg.suffix to- from the old
bla6raX\
blowing out).+Du. blaaj- [Icel.
; base of Blaze
(2).
Teut. type
O. H. G. bldiara (G. blatter).
Blatant, noisy,
roaring.(E.) Spenser
Teut. stem
has '"blatant beast'; F. Q. vi. 12 (head*bl^drdn-,wk. fern. From
ing)
id. vi. i. 7. Prob.
*bla-,to blow (seeBlow
(i)); with suffix
; also blattant,
afid

of

term

"

Jh'rom black and

F.)

-d}-dn similar to Gk. -Tpd ^cf.


Cf Lowl. Sc. blad, to abuse ;
^ pot). imitative.
x^'^P^"
noise ; G. platz,
a crash.
Blade, a leaf,flat of a sword. (E.) blatter,a rattling
M.E.
blade.
A. S. bleed,a leaf.+Icel. Blay, a bleak (fish
'.
(E.) A.S. blage.

blad,Swed., Dan., Du. blad,a leaf,blade; + I)u. blei; G. hleihe.


G. blatt. Teut. type *bla-doni,
Blaze
neut., with
(i),a flame. (E.) M. E, blase.
sense

'blown,' i.e. 'flourishing;'


pp.

of

(with suffix

A. S.

a
blcEse,
flame, in

bdl

comp.

blcese,

f. a torch ;" Teut.


Idg. -to-)from a brightlight;blcese,
See Blow
Cf M. H. G. bias,
V-BHLO.
a torch ;
(2).
type * blason.
Blaeberry, Bleaberry, a bilberry.also G. bldsse,Icel. blest,a blaze or
North
E. blae, white mark
on
a
horse, Swed. bids, the
(Scand.and E.) From
livid,dark ; and berry. The form blae is same.
from Icel. bld-r,
livid ; see under Blue.
Blaze
(2),to proclaim,noise abroad.
Blain, a pustule.(E.) M. E. blein. (Scand.) Mark i. 45. M. E. blasen.
boil. + Du. blein ; Dan.
Icel. bldsa,
A. S. blegcn,
to blow, blow a trumpet, sound
a

form

-do-

=-"

'

'

"

bles,n.

Blame,

an

-Gk.)

vb.
O. F.

M.E.

(F.-L.
L.
blasmer, to blame.
also to blame.
to speak ill,
blasphevidre,
blamen.

"

"

alarm

Swed.

blasa, to sound

Du. blazett,
to
blcBse,
blasen.
Also Goth,

blow

Blanch
Bland.

confused

(2),the
vL.^

"

"

"

L.

X.

656.-F.

blanc.~0.

i. 5.

21

proclamation.

; Shak.

(2)below.
ings.
Blazon
(2),to j^ourtrayarmorial bearM.
E.
a
blasoun,
(F.)
blason,
shield;
whence
blazon,verb, to describe a shield.
F. blason,a. coat of arms, orig.
shield
a
(Brachet). Cf. Span, blason, heraldry,
"

Milton,P.

with

A corSon. 106.
ruption
from Blaze
(2), M.E.
blasen,to
proclaim; due to confusion w ith Blazon

Hamlet,

Blencli.
as
same
L. blandus, mild.
blandish, to flatter. (F.-L.) M. E.
blandisen.
of pres.
O. F. blafidis-,
stem
flatter.
of
L.
to
blandlri,to
blandir,
part
L. blafidtis,
bland.
caress.
In
Blank, white. (F. O. H. G.)

G.

nf-blesan, puffup.

"

below.

Blank

""Teut. type *bl"s-an-,to blow; whence

A.S. bl"st,E. blast. Much


Gk. ^\ao(pi]fi"iv
Blaspheme.
; see
blazon.
Blanch
i).to whiten. (F.-O. H.G.)
F. blanc, Blazon
From
F. blanchir, to whiten.
(i),Blason,
see

trumpet
to

"

white

; Dan.

H. G.
51

BLEABERRY

BLISS

blazonry,glory,hacer blason,to blazon, A. S. and Goth, blandan, str. redupl.


vb.,
O. H. G. blantan, to mix.
blasonar,to blazon, brag,boast; suggesting
with G.
a
(very doubtful)connexion
Bless, to consecrate, "c.
(E.) The
have been
to consecrate
blasen,to blow the trumpet, as done by orig.sense
may
heralds,to proclaima victor's fame ; see
by blood,'i.e. either by sacrifice or by the
be
Blaze
of blood, as the word
can
(2)above. (SeeScheler.)Or if the sprinkling
*

orig.sense

was

brightmark

it is allied to Blaze

Bleaberry

see

on

traced back to blood. M. E. blessen,


shield, clearly
O. Northumb.
A. S. bletsian,
bledsia,bloed-

(i).
Blaeberry.

sia
'

Bleach.
(E.) Orig. to whiten ; M. E.
blechen,Ancren Riwle, p. 324, 1. i. A. S.
'

can
34, xxvi. 26), which
from
blod,b]ood,withthe usual
explained
from 0 to oe or e.
Teut. type
vowel-change

(Matt. xxv.

be

A. S, bide,shinmg, bright,pale. *blddisdn. Cf. bleed. (Suggested


by Sweet ;
See
below. + Icel. bleikja
bleak
Anglia,iii.156.)
; Du.
bleeken ; G. hleicheti; "Teut. *blaikjan-. Blight. (E.) XVII
cent. Of unknown
from
S. ^blihf,
A.
O. Merc.
M.
E.
bleak (1)5o^ig.pale.(Scand.)
origin; perhaps
Icel.
blek ; ^bleht,
bleik. Icel. bleikr,pale; Swed.
to
a
blettr,
exactlyanswering
bleek ; (i. spot, stain.
S. bide ; Du.
Dan.
bleg.-^K.

bWecan.

"

"

bleieh. Teut. type ^blaikoz. From


*blaik-, Blind.
blind;
(E.) A. S. blind.-\-V"\\.
strong grade of Teut. *bleikati- (A. S. Icel. bluidr ; Svv.,Dan., G. blind \",TtXii.
blican),to shine.
type '^blindoz 'Jdg.base *bhlendh-). Cf.

(2),a fish. (Scand.) From

bleak

its Lith. blesii-s (3 pr. s.

Blear-eyed, having watery, inflamed,


dim

or

(E.)
eyes.
with
Low
G.

Cognate
an
eyed ; cf. blarr-oge,
from

M. E.
eye wet

(E.) M. E. blind(Tyndale); corruptionof


where
the d is
blindfelden
(Palsgrave),
The
word
is
true
excrescent.
blindfellen^

bleer-eyed.
folden, verb

blearblarr-oged,
with

; which

blarren,to howl, weep

to become
blendzia-s),

of the sun).
blindfold, vb.

dim

palecolour.

tears,

to

seems

be allied to E. blare.
Bleat.
(E.) M. E. blete7t. A. S. bh%-

to

fell

106.

"

'

strike

blind,Ancren Riwle, p.
blind,blind; 3.n6.fellan,to

or

A.S.

stvike ;

see

Fell.

Blindman's

buff; see Buff.


blaten ; O. H. G. pldzan. Cf. Russ.
Blink, to wink, to glance.(E.) M. E.
to weep.
blenken,to shine,to glance; whence mod.
jate,to bleat ; 'L.Jlere,
blister.
small
bubble
E. blink,by change of en
or
to in, as in
a
Bleb, Blob,
Allied to A. S. blane,white
(E.) Cf. M. E. blober,a bubble on water ; many words.
tan, bletan, to

bleat

as

sheep.
+

'

Du.
ble-

a white horse"),
blubber,a bubble.
By comparingblabber,(as in blanc-a,
cognate with
blanc ;
with bubble^
O. H. G. blaneh, M. H. G.
see
blubber,
havingmuch the same

meaning,we
are
a

see

that they Blank.


Cf. Du., G. blinken, Swed.
probability
of forming blinka. Dan. blinke,all late forms; and
A. S. blican,
to shine.
lips.

the

imitative,from
bubble with the

the action

A.S.b/eBleed.
Bliss. (E.) See Blithe.
(E.) U.Y.. bkden.
"^l.Y..blester,
Blister.
dan, formed (by mutation of o to e) from
(F.-Teut.)
A. S. bldd,blood. " Teut. type '^blodjan-,
blister.
to
(Not found before 1300.) O. F.
lose blood "Icel. blc2)a.
blestre, tumeur,' Godefroy. Of Teut.
stain.
M.
blea
E.
to
(F.)
origin; cf. Icel. bldstr (dat. bliestri),
Blemish,
misshen.
allied to E. Blast.
also a swelling,
O. F. bleinis-,
of pres. part. blast,
stem
of blemir,
F'rom the notion of blowing out.
blesmir,to wound, stain,make
Blithe.
pale. O. F. bleme, blesme,wan, pale. Of
(E.) M. E. blithe. A. S.
unknown
blide,sweet, happy.+ O. Sax. blidi,bright,
origin.
Blench, to shrink from. (E.) M. E. glad; Du. blij'de,
blij
; lce\. blTdr; Swed.,
A.S. blencan, Dan.
blenchen, to avoid, elude.
blid; O. H. G. blTdi,glad; Goth.
to deceive ; as if from a Teut. type *blankmerciful,kind.
bleit/is,
M. E. blis. A. S. blis,
bliss. (E.)
jan-,causal of '^blinkan-,to blink. But
"

'"

"

"

proofis wanting.

Blend,

to

mix

bliss ; contr. from A. S. blFds,happiness,


blitheness.
A. S. blide (above).+
O. Sax. blJzza,blidsea,happiness.Teut.

together. (Scand.)lit.

M.

"

E. blenden. Due to blend-,


base of the
with 5-"/, the suffix being
indie,
Icel.
blanda
of
^Swed.
blanda, stem '^blTdsid,
pres.
Dan.
as in L. laeti-tia.
blande),to blend ; cognate with -tidf

52

BLUNT

BOHEA

'a gun on a rest.' Apparentlyfrom


plantdre,to plant(seePlant); and
Du. bus, a gun, orig.a box, barrel;see
Du. word
Box
(i}. But the corresponding
is donderhtts,
i.e. thunder-gun.

i. e.
L.

Blunt,

(Scand.?)

dull.

^l.Y..

short for aborde,used by Palsgrave.F.


aborder, ' to approach,accost, abboord,
or
F. a, to (L. ad) ;
lay aboord ; Cot.
bord^ edge, brim, side of a ship,from
Icel. borQ,Du. boord,side of a ship. See
blunt, Board
(i).

blont,dull, dulled.
Origin unknown;
perhaps allied to Icel. hhinda, Dan.
doze ; see Blunder.
blimde, to sleep,
stain.
to
stain
a
:
(Scand.?)
Slur,
Properly to dim ; metaphorically,to
deceive.' We
find: 'A (^/zrr^,
deceptio
;
'

to

fallere ;
blh-7'e,

'

Levins

"

'

Boast.
(F.) M. E. bost. [W. bost,
bost,Irish and Gael, bosd, are all

Corn,

borrowed
from
E.] From
boast, Prob. from Norw.

A. F. bost^a
bausta, to act

violence,
baust,boastfully
(Ross). Cf.
busen,to be boisterous.
Boat.
(E.) M, E, boot. A, S, bat.

with

E. Fries,

(1570). Of
dial, blura,

Cf. Icel.i^^/r ; Swed. ^a/; Du. boot; Russ.


origin.
bot' ; W. bad; Gael, bdta,a boat.
close the eyes ; Swed.
blink,partially
p.The
from A. S. ; and
plira,Swed. dial, blira,to blink ; blirra Icel. word is borrowed
fojraugtt, to quiver(be dim) before the the other forms either from E. or Icel.
caused
m,
by heat ; Teut. type *baztoz,
eyes, said of a haze
Bavarian plerr,a mist before the eyes.
boat-swain.
(E.) Lit. 'boat-lad;'
uncertain

Cf

Swed.

to

Blurt,

impulsively. (E.)

Icel. sveinn, a lad (

A. S.

szvdn).
Perhapsimitative.
cf.
Bobbin, a wooden pin on which thread
is wound
noise,to blare. Of imitative origin.
; round
tape. (F,) Formerly
Blush.
(E.) W.IL bhischen,blusshen, bobin. Y. bobine,*a quilfor a spinning
used to translate wheele, a skane ; Cot.
to glow. A. S. blyscau,
Orig.unknown.
L. rtifildre,
to shine (Mone, Quellen,
Bode, to foreshew. (E.) M, E. boden,
355) ;
cf. dblysiaii,
bodian.
A. S. bodian,
to announce.
A. S.
to blush ; from A. S.
dblisian,
lit. 'a fire-blaze.'-JFrom
Du.
boda,a messenger ; bod, a message.
blys in bcel-blys,
blozen,to blush,from bios,a blush ; Dan.
bod-,weak grade of beodan, to command,
See Bid
to flame,glow, from bins,a torch ; announce.
blusse,
(2 '1.
Swed. blossa,to blaze,from bloss,
of
a torch.
Bodice, stays. (E.) A corruption
From
bodies (pi.of body),which
Teut. root *bleus,
the old
to glow.
was
less
spelling.(Cf.F. corset, from corps^
Bluster, to be boisterous. (E.) Doubtassociated in idea with blast (Icel. Bodkin,
orig. a small dagger. (?)
bldstr,Swed. blast).Cf. E. Fries, blils- M. E. boydekin,Ch.
Originunknown.
the
be
of
frame
of
animal.
to
an
iern,
wind) ; Body,
(E.)
tempestuous (esp.
M.
blow
E,
A.
H, G. potach.
to
S.
bluster,bliiser,
a
bodi;
breeze; bliisen^
bodtg.-{-0.
wind.
Boor,
Boer ; the same
as
strongly
; bliise,
Boa, a large snake. (L.) L. boa
Bogf. (C.) Irish bogach,a bog,from
(Pliny)
bog,soft;cf. Irish bogai?n,I shake; a bog
; perhapsallied to bos,an ox ; from
Lowl.

Sc.

to

utter

to make
a
blirt,
M. E. bleren,to

Bob,

noise in weeping;
make
loud
a

jerk. (E.)

to

"

'

"

its size.

being

(E.)
Boar,
A. S. bdr.-\-Dn. beer;
an

animal.

Isl.lL.boi'e,
boor.
M. H. G.

ber.

Teut.

m.
tvpe *bairoz,
Board
(I). (E.)

"

soft

quagmire.

So

also

Gael.

bogan,a quagmire;bog,soft,moist; bog^


soften,also

to

to

agitate. Cf.

O.

Irish

bocc,soft.
m.-E.

bord.

Boggard, Boggart,

A.S.

bord, board, side of a ship,shield. 4- Du.


boord ; Icel. bo?-d,
plank,side of a ship; G.
stool.
bord; Goth, -baurd \n fotubaurd,a footCf. Irish,Gael., W., and
Corn.
(from E.). Teut. type
bord, a board
side of a ship
*bordom,n. % The sense
on
explainsstar-board,lai'-board,
board,
'

'

with

Bug
as

spectre, (C, ;

l*'rom bog, variant of


stiffix.)
(i);with suffix -ard, -art {".-ard
".

in bast-ard). See below.

Boggle,

to

start

aside,swerve

for fear.

I'rob. coined from prov. E. boggle,


(C?)
bogle,a spectre. Cf. \V. bwg, a goblin;

a
scarecrow
;
^yg^l-,
bwgwl, a threat,
board, to have meals as bygylu,to threaten; bwgwth, to scare.
See Bug
a lodger
(0.
; from board, a table.
Iboard (2),to go on board a ship,to
Bohea, a kind of tea. (Chinese,) So
accost.
tain
(F. Teut.) The sb. board x?, E., named from the Bohea hills;the moun-

over-boa7'd.

Der.

"

but the

verb,formerly
speltborde,bord,is
54

called

Boti-y(orWti-i)is

situated in

BOOBY

BOIL
the provinceof Fokien
S. E. coast of China.

Fukiati,on

or

Latinised
L. boltts (not L. bohis),
a
of Gk. /SoiAoj,
a clod,lump.

the

form

(F.or Span.
Boil (i),to bubble up. (F.-L.) O. F.
Bomb, a shell for cannon.
F. bombe ; Span.boi?iba. L.
to
'^'L. btilltre,
L.
Gk.)
to boil (F. bouillir).
boillir,
bubble up, boil. L. bulla,a bubble; see
bombus, a humming noise. Gk. PofifioSf
the
See Boom
F.
to
Cf.
Norman
same.
Bull
boillir,
(1).
(2).
boil.
bombard.
(F. L. Gk .) Th e verb
Boil (2),a small tumour.
(E.) Prov. is from E. bovibaid,a great gun ; Sh. F.
from
F.
E. bile ; proh. nffected by boil{i). M. E. botubarde, a cannon
; extended
bombe
Der.
Bomb.
F.
A.
S.
see
-|-Dn.
bonibard-ier,
;
byl,a boil, swelling.
byle.
"

"

"

"

"

"

bombardier

(Cot.).
cotton wadding; hence
orig.
padding, aflectcd language. (F. L.-

to
Cf. Goth, ufhauljan,
beule
Icel.
tion).
mutaa
beyla,
(with
hump
;
See Bowl
(2).
Boisterous.
(F.") Lengthened from

bull',G.

Bombast,

puffup

"

Gk.)

O. F. bombace (with added t),


wadding. Late L. bonibdcem,ace.

From

M.

Boistous
Ch. ; lit.'noisy.'
K. boistoiis,
suffix
with
F.
O.
formed,
-ous^ from
Norw.
to act with violence ; like
baicst-a,

cotton

is

of

Norw.
See
bmtst,boastfully
; baiiSjblustering.

Cf

Boast.

of silk and worsted.


(P\ L. Gk.) F.
bomboffibasin. l.^ie L. boiiibdcimim. 'L,.
from
byciniis,
silken;
adj.
bombyx^ silk;

L.

cloister from

Cf.

claiistrum.

bold, bald; AS.


ballr; Du. boud ;
beald,bald,balJ".-\-\ct\.
O. H.G.
bald', cf. Goth, balthaba,adv.,
M.E.

(E.)

bombyx.

ipd\-ay^, log,trunk.
a

swollen.

Boiled,

to talk fzistian.*
bombazine, bombasine,

The
swell.

Cf.

E.

Cf. A. S.

(E.) See

bolned, word
bolnen,

bulna, Icel.

Scand.)
bondage,servitude ; the

A. F.

and

to bind.

of

fabric

(i).

Band
servitude.

beingdue

sense

(i\
(Scand.) Earlier

bulne, Swed.

M.

from
from
inchoative
with
forms
to
swell,
bclgna,
flate).
wk. grade of belgThus
(cf.Icel. belgja,to in"

Dan.

Gk.

"

above.

see

tree,

Gk.

"

Bondage,

Cf. Balk

M. E. bolleu, pp., and


latter is the pp. of M.E.

are

"

silkworm.

orig.a

"

M.E.

of

bole."Icel. bolr. bulr,the trunk


Swed.
bal \ Dan.
bul.
stem;

to

'

Bond.

boldly. Teut. type *balJ)oz.


Bole, stem of a tree. (Scand.)

pp.

for L.

"

Bold.

forms

"

bombax, cotton ;
silk,cotton
Bofifiv^,

But

to

it

bondman,
borrowed

{V

with

confusion

from

the verb

the condition

orig.meant
called

"

in A. S. bonda, a
Icel. bondi, a husbandman.

And
bondi^bilandi, a tiller;
Icel. biia,to till,
prepare, cognate
A. S. bfian,to dwell,and G. bauen.
is allied in sense
A. S. bonda
and

originto E. boor,q. v.
Billow.
Bone.
(E.) M.E. boon; A.S. ban.
Bolster.
(E.) A. S. bolster,with suffix + Du. been ; Icel, bein ; Swed. ben; Dan.
its round shape. been ; O. PI. G. bein.
From
T(ut, type ^bainom,
"ster as in holster.
bulstcr \ Icel. bolstr \ O.
bonfire.
-^Tiw. bolster,
(E.) Orig. a bone-fire.
to
bclgan (pp. bolgeti),

See Bellows,

swell with anger.

bolstar (G. polster). Teut.


*bul-stroz;from Teut. *lml,weak
H.

G.

of

See

*beul,to puffup.

Boil

type

'

ossium

Bane-Jire,ignis

grade Anglicanum,
(2). (See the Northern

A.

Catholicon

1483; where

d.

form

'

oi bone.

Cf

d'os,a bonfire.
pin of iron,an arrow.
Bonito, a kind of tunny.
boll
Arab.
bolt.-^Dxx.
bout,formerly
Span, bonito.
; Arab.)

Franck.)
Bolt (1)5^stout

bane

is

Picard/w
(Span."

A. S.
baytiJth,
E)an. bolt;G. bolz,bolzen. Root unknown.
a bonito.
Bolt ' 2),Bonlt, to sift meal.
Bonnet.
(F.
(F.) Y. bonnet; O. F. bonet
L.
of a stuff of which
Gk.)
Spelt boiilte \\\ Palsgrave." (a. D. 1047),the name
O. F. btilier;mod. F. blnter; oldest form
made.
bonnets
or
were
Origin
caps
buleter,a corruptionof ^biireter.to sift unknown.
cloth; cf M. Ital. btirat- Bonny, fair. (F. L.) From F. bonne^
through coarse
tare, to boult (Florio). O. F. and F. fair,fem. of bon, good. L. bonus, good;

(E.)

"

"

"

"

bare,coarse

woollen

bura, burra,
Gk.

red

coarse

burrus, reddish.

"

cloth.

"

Late

cloth.

"

Lat.

O. L. duonus.

Lat.

Bonze,

priest. (Fort. Japanese.)


man.
bonzo, a religic)us
lzip.
L.)
a
bobo^
(Span.
Booby.
Span,
blockhead, booby (relatedto F. baube^

irvppos, reddish."
fire.
See
and Fire.
Bureau
TTvp,

Bolus,

"

Gk.

largepill.(L.-Gk.)

Port, bonzo.

"

"

"

Late
65

BOOK
L.

stammering).
hence, stupid.

BOTANY

balbiis,stammering ;

M.

Du. bate, Du. buit; cf. Icel. byti,


bytte,Swed. byte,exchange,barter,
Book.
(E.) M. E. book; A. .S.boc,a
booty,spoil; G. bente,spoil.
beech-tree.
The
book ; also, a
merly
Fororig. Borage.
(F^- Span.-Arab.)
books
were
piecesof writingscratched
bourage. F. bourrache.
Span.
board. -f-Du.boek ; Icel. bok; borraja. Kxzh.
abu rashh, lit.'father of
on
a beechen
Swed. bok; Dan. bog; G. buck ; all in the sweat ; because it is a sudorific.
of * book
sense
(Low L. Arab.
; Goth, boka,a letter,
pi. Borax.
Pers.) Low
Arab, burdq.
bokos,
writings,p.With A.S. boc,beech,cf. L. borax ; also boracutn.
Pers. bilrah,
L. fdgns,a beech,Gk. (prjyos,a tree with
borax (Vullers).
edible fruit.
L.
Border, an edge. (F. -Low
Boom,
(E.) M. E. bom- Teut.) M. E. bordure, bordetire. O.Y.
(i),to hum,
bordeure (Span,bordadiird),
in A. S.-f-Du.bo??ime}t,
found
an
vieii; not
edging.
sound like Low
L. borddtura,edging. Low
L. borto boom, to give out a hollow
imitative word ; dd?'e (Ital.bordare, Span, bordar, F".
An
an
empty barrel.
Gk. Pu/xPos,a humming.
like L. bojnbiis,
border),to edge. Low L. bordus (F.
Teut. (O. Low
Boom
G.) bord,side; see
(2\ a pole. (,Du.) Du. boom ; /'^rc/j.
"

Dan.
also

'

'

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of Beam.
(i\
missile weapon.
a wooden
the native Australian
l^rom
(Australian.)
form

the Du.

Board.

Bore

Boom.erail^,

(i),to

borien,A.S.
bora; Swed.

M.

perforate.
(E.)

E.

boren;
borian.'\-T)w..

Icel.
(^^rr^:; Dan. ^^r^; G. bohren.
name.
to bore ; Gk.
to
Boon
"f)apd"iv,
(i),a petition.(Scand.) M. E. Also l^./ordre,
Icel. bou ; Dan. and Svved./w;, plough. Brugm. i. " 510.
bone,Ch.
(y'BHER,
"

+ A. S. boen, ben (whence bene


petition.
of 'favour'
Wordsworth). The sense

a
in

from

arose

a
(2),to worry. (E.) Possibly
metaph.use of the verb above ; Hen. VIII,

(2;.

i. I. 128.

"

boon

"

bomts.

Bore

"

peasant. (Du.)

(3),a tidal surge


Perhaps from

(Scand.?)

See Bonny.

Boor,

cut.)
bore

(2),good. (F. L.) In the phr.


companion.' F. bon, good. L.

Boon
*

with Boon

coniusion

to

peasant, lit. 'tiller of

the

Du.

billow

caused by wind
billow,swell in the sea.

boei;a

soil.'

Du.

"

in
Icel.

; Norw.

river.

bdra,
baara,

a
a

to till.+ A. S. bfian,to dwell in,


botrcuen,
(L. Gk.)
Boreas, the north wind.
L.
Boreas. "^Gk.
whence gebfir,
a
Bopias,Boppds,the N.
s., peasant (onlypreserved
in neigh-bour).So also G. bauen, to till,wind.
whence
bauer,a peasant; Icel. biia,Goth.
Borough. (E.) M. E. burgh,borgh.;
related also boriue.
A. S. burh, burg (gen. and
bauan, to dwell. Teut. stem '^bii-,
dat. byrig),
fort.
to Be.
a
" 90.)
Perhaps from Teut.
(Streitberg,
"

Boot

to
profit.
(E.) M. E. burg-,weak grade of '^bergan-,
(i),advantage,
tect
prowhence
boetc
A.S.
Goth,
t
o
bot, profit.
-f-Du.
bah'gan, hide,keep ;
;
;
Icel. bot (cf.
+ l^u. bu7'g; Icel. borg;
bati),
advantage,cure; Dan. see Barrow.
Swed.
and Dan.
ment
bod,Swed. bot,remedy ; G. busse, atoneborg; G. burg; Goth.
bota. Teut. type *bdta,f. baurgs. See below.
Brugm. i. " 566 ; ii.
; Goth.
From
bot-,strong grade of bat-; see " 160.
Better.
Der.
borrow.
boot-less,
(E.) M. E. borwen ; A. S.
profitless.
l
it.
to
Boot (2),
a coveringfor the foot.
give a pledge. A. S. borg,
(F.) borgian,
weak
M. E. bote. O. F. bote{Y. botte)
a
: cf. Span., bo7'h,
grade
pledge. A.S. /^^;'^-,
of beorgan,to keep, protect ; see
row
BarPort.,Late L. bota. Origin unknown.

bote,boot.

"

"

Booth.
Dan.

(Scand.)

both

{cL Icel.
boe, Swed.

*buj)d,f.
a

bdd,

house.

Booty.
butin.

E. bothe.

"

"

bo, Icel. bua, to


-|-G. bude, a stall.

Boor.
W.

M.

Dan. bod \ Swed.


(Kalkar),
bHd,2i dwelling,booth).

Y.

and

M.
Dan.

dwell ; see
Teut. type

Cf. also Irish both, a hut,


bnttas.
residence ; Lith. btita,
See Build.
(F.

"

LowG.)

butm,

'a

M. E. bosom.

(E.)

A. S.

boezem; G. biisen.
bdst"i.'^\X\.
knob.
a
(F.-O.H.G.)
Boss,

M. E.
O. F. boce (F. bosse)
; cf. Ital.
Ital. bozzare, to
bozza, a swelling
; M.
rough-hew, to bungle. Prob. from O. H.
G
bozan, to beat ; a bump being the

boce,bos.

"

Formerlyspelt effect of

booty, prey;'

Borough.

Bosom.

bod

56

Cf.

blow.

Botany.

Cot.

(F.

"

botch,beat.

Gk.)

F.

botam'que,

BOURD

BOTARGO

orig.an adj. Gk. PoraviKos, belonging 6o/i ; of which the orig.sense was
arm.' + Icel. bogr,Swed.
Gk.
to
bog, Dan.
plants. Gk. /Sotclvt],
grass.

'an

"

r,

,-

bov,

"

"

a
grazing the shoulder of
l36aK"Lv,to pasture; cf. /Soto;/,

of
(shoulder)

animal.

animal,hence

an

the bow

ship; G. bttg;Gk. Tr^x^'^r

Teut.
of the roe of the the fore-arm ; Skt. bdhns,the arm.
M.Ital. botargo,type *bdgi"z;
Idg. type *bhdghus. See
Bow
and Torriano.
(4). Bnigm. i. " 184.
butarkha, botargo; givenby Devic.
Bought, a bend, turn, fold. (Low G.)

SotargO,

cake made

(Ital.Arab.
Florio
; see
pi.botarghe
sea-mullet.
Arab,

'

"

"

G. bj4gt,
F. Q. i. I. 15.
Low
be composed of bzi,Coptic In Spenser.
Dan. btfg/. Cf.
def. article,and Gk. rapixos, dried fish a bend; Du. ^^^/,bocht',
And
E. form is Bight.
G. btic/i/. The
des Savants,Jan.1848, p. 45).
(Journ.

Supposed to
Botch

patch. (E.) Origin see

(i), to
Similar

unknown.

strike,beat, also
to beat.
botsen,
Botch
(2), a

to

patchup

Bout.

Boulder,

butsen, to

Du.

is M.

largestone.

obscure; cf. Swed.

cf. Du.

large rollingstone;

(E.?) Etym.
bul/ersUen,a

dial.

calltd

so

from

its

Swed.
with a crash.
down
stream
G.) rolling
and
roar
M. \i. boche.
O. North F. boche ; Picard
to
thunder,
s^een, a
bu//ra,
;
Danish has bnldre,to roar, bulder,
boche ; O. F. boce (Y .bosse),
see
stone.
a swelling;

swelling. (F.

"

"

"

Boss.

Both.
/'azM.

M.E.
Icel. bddir, both, dual

(Scand.)

"

bdpe, Scot.
Dan.

adj.;

crash.

Boult, to
Bounce,

sift meal

jump

to

(2).

Bolt

; see

quickly. (E )

up

Cf. Low
G. btinbada.'\-G.beide. And cf. M. E. bunsen, to beat.
Gk. -(/w \ sen, to beat,knock at a door; Du. bonzeti,
A. S. bd,boih ; Lat. -bo in affibo;
Iccl. to bounce, throw, from Du. bons,a bounce,
both.
in dfx-(pa;
; Skt. -b/ia in u-b/ia,
-Ozr is for Set'r,
they, the; so that bo-f/i thump; G. bumps, bounce; Icel. bops.
'
words ; cf. Goth, ba^oskipa,
two
was
bump ! Prob. imitative.
orig.

baade\ Swed.

the ships(Luke v. 7).


Bother, vb. and sb. (E.) In Swift. Cf.
confusion ; M.E.
pother;prov. E./z^^^/^r,
bestir
oneself.
known.
to
Originunpiitheren,
both

small

BotS,
bats.

Bottle
Late

L.

Late
Late L.
Butt

Lowl.

Sc.

"

"

form
cuntr.
guy); Late Lat. bodina
limit.
of
Celtic
a
bound,
Perhaps
bon^id),
|
91. Der. bonnd-ary.
origin ; Thurneysen,
hav.
Bound
(F."
(3),readyto go. (Scand.) In
for Spain,'"c.
botY. botel,
the
ship is bound

a
btitis,
biittis,
cask,a butt;
(2).

Bottle
(2),a bundle of
O. H. G. )
M. E. botel. O.
elle,a small bundle, dimin.

(i), to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.)


bound; but orig.to resound.
bondir,\.Q
L. bombitdre,to resound. "L.
bombns,
sound.
Gk. {So/jPos,
the same.
a humming
re-bound (F. rebondir).
Der.
Bound
(2), a boundary. (F. C?)
M. E. botmde, Ch. ; with excrescent
d, as
A. F. bounde, bunde; O. F.
in soun-d.
bonne,a boundary; also speltbodne (Bur"

origin.

hollow
vessel.
(F."
M.
E.
F. bouteille.
botel.
Gk.)
of
Lat. biiticula,
double
dimin.

(0.

(E.)

worms.

Of unknown

Bound

F.

see

'

of

botte,

Formed,

with

d,

excrescent

from

M. E.

bundle, as of hay. O. H. G. bozo,a bundle


boun, ready, Ch. C. T. 11807. ^'^^\.
of straw or flax ; allied to O. H. G. bozan, buinn, prepared
to till,
; pp. of bila,
prepare.
the
to beat (see Beat); perhaps from
A. S. buan ; ?ee Boor.
-f~

"

th^^ old pp. of Bind.


(E.)
Bounden,
M. E. botiiDi,
bothovi. As in ' bounden duty.'
bodem ; Icel.botn ; Swed.
A. S.
Bounty, orig. goodness. (F. L."^
L. ace.
O. F. bontet.
M. E. bountee.
botten;Dan. bund; G.boden; 'Lal.ftaidtis;
Gk. Trv6fj,T)v
Skt. Inidhna,depth, bonitdtem, from
bonitds, goodness. L.
; Vedic

beatingof
Bottom.

flax.

(E.)

botvi.-^-ijxx.

"

"

"

"

Allied to Irish bonn, sole of the bonus, good. See Bonny.


foot; Gael, bonn, sole,bottom; \^ bon, Bouquet.
(F. LateL.) Y. bouquet;
base, stock. See Fundament.
Brugm. O. F. bosquet,
orig.' a littlewood,' dimin.
i. "" 103, 704.
of O. F. bos (F. bois , a wood.
Late L.
of
F.
ace.
Boudoir.
a
boscus,
a
busciun,
buscus,
botidoir,
boscum,
(F.)
private
wood ; of unknown
for a lady; lit.a placeto sulk in.
room
origin. Cf. Bush.
F. bonder.,
to sulk.
Cf. E. pout.
Eourd, a jest; to jest. (F.) M. E.

ground.

"

"

"

Bough. (E.)

M. E.

botigh.A.

S.

bog, bourdc, sb. ; bourden,


57

v.

"

F.

bourde, a

BRACELET

BOURN
game

boiirder,to

origin. (Not
Bourn

(0?

Of

play.

M. E.

unknown

in

Diez.)
boundary. (F.)

as
^

In

Sh.

boHe.

A.S.

bolla; from

its round

O. H. G.
bol,ball ; Icel. bolli,
(G. belle). From Teut. *bul-,
to swell ; cf. Goth.
grade of * be ill-,

form. + Du.
bolla,bowl

F. borne, a bound ; for O. F. bodne, weak


variant of O. F. bonne, a boundary ; see
to puffup.
uf-baulj'an,
"

Bourn
M. L.

See Boil (2).


(Scand.) N'ot so called
it keeps a sail bowed (forit rather

Bow-line.

(2).

Bound

(2),Burn,
bourne.

(E.)

stream.

because

but because
burna, a fountain, keeps it straight),
bow.
Norw.
and
stream, well.+Icel.
brunnr; Swed. brunn ; the ship's
Dan. brand; G. brunnen
Goth,
from
brunna,
Una, bow-line,
bog,bow
;
A.S.

fastened to
Swed.
bog-

"

of

well.
from
Du.
boeg,bow.
spring,
boeglijn,
cf. bow-sprit.
See
Bouse, Bouze, Boose, to drink pronunciation,
deeply. (Du.) h,i.Y..bousen {lih.
I'^oo).and Line.
a

M.

Du.

Bow-window;

to drink
^bfisen,later buyzett,
biise
Du.
(Latinisedas biisa
deeply.
a
by Erasmus),buyse, large cup, also a
duit,
con; Du. bids,a
tap, a conduit (Kilian)
pipe. Cf O. F. buse, a conduit ;

M. E.

G. bausen, to bouse.

in.

"

M.

"

Box

(i),the name
box; A.S.

box.

(4)

(L.

tree.

Gk.)

"

\.2X. btixus, the


the box-tree.
box-tree.
Gk. ttv^os,
box (2),a chest or case to put things
"

"

(L.
buxum,

round, occasion.

of

the

Bow

(i).

Bow

see

ship;

For

M.

Gk.)

E. box ; A. S. box.

L.

of box-wood;
(Low
anything made
Lat.
the box-tree.
box.
as
a
hence,
G.) The same
buxus,
Bought (above); prob.
influenced by about.
box
theatre
at
a
a
a
shooting-Zicx;
;
(Hence
box or
Bow
(i),to bend. (E.) M. E. bowen, a Christmas
present; "c.) Cf.
+ Du. buigen; Pyx.
bogen,biigen.A. S. 3/7^a".
O. H. G. biogan; Goth, bitigan; Teut.
Box
(3),to fightwith fists; a blow.
Cf.
Skt.
M. E. box, sb.,
The
verb is from
or
type *beugajt- *biigan-.
bhuj, (E.)
blow.
Cf.
Silt bokke,
to bend ; Lat. fiigere,
N.
Fries,
to take to
a
bakke,
flight,
give way ; Gk. ipiv-^divto flee. Brugm. i. a blow (Outsen); M. H. G. biic,a blow;
Du. beuketi,
G, pochen,to beat.
"" 658,701.
the
bow
Box
(4),in phr. to box the compass.'
(2), a bend. (E.) From
verb.
of
uses
Apparentlyone of the numerous
vb. formed
from
box
bow (3),a weapon
to shoot with. (E.) the
See
1^2).
M. E. bowe.
N. E. D.
A, S. boga,a bow ; because
it is bent or bowed. JlfXyxx.
boog;Icel. hogi; Boy. (E.) M. E. boi,boy. Preserved
Swed.
bage; Dan. bite ; O. H. G. bogo; in E. Friesic boi,boy,a boy (Koolman) ;
G. bogen. From
A. S. bog-; cf. bog-en,pp. allied to M. Du. boeve, a boy, Du. boef,

Bout,

turn, a

"

of

bend.

biigan to

bow-window.
semi-circular

(E.^

form ; not

the

same

window
as

of

knave,

Bavarian

-f-Icel. boH,

knave

but, a boy.
bueb,biia,

G.

bube.

Cf. A. S.

bay- Bofa,personalname.

7vindow.

Boycott,

to

combine

Bow

with others in

with
to have dealings
(4), the 'shoulder' of a ship.
(Scand.) From Icel. bogr,shoulder; see From the treatment accorded
bow of a ship.
eott, of Lough Mask
House,
Bough. +Du. boeg,

any
to
co.

fusing
re-

(E.)
Capt.Boyland,
Mayo, Ireone.

in Dec. 1880.
Bowel.
(F.-L.) M. E. ^^"^/.-0. F.
Cf. Du.
boel; (mod.F. boyau). Lat. ace. botellum, Brabble, to quarrel.(E.)
intestine ; brabbelen,to stammer, confound ; whence
a
L., an
sausage ; in Late
dimin. of botnlus,a sausage.
See
brabbeltaal,foolish talk.
Blab,
"

Bower,
(E.)
A.S.

"

an

abode, chamber, arbour.


A. S. bur, a chamber.

Babble.

dwell. +
buur, Swed.

From

bfian,

chamber:

to

Dan.

bilr; O. H. G. bilr.
n.,

*buroz,m.
(i^

Bowl

L.)
bubble

Bowl

Brace, orig.a

M. E. bour.

;
a

Teut.

Boor.

see

round

wooden

Icel. biir, a
bur; O. Sax.

firm
of

hold.

(F.

"

embracing.
"

L.)
O. F.

two
arms
(Bartsch); hence a
with extended
of 5 feet,formed
and
Lat.
arms
(Cot.^;
hence, a grasp.
brdchia, pi.of brdchiiim,the arm. + Irish
brae, W. braich,the arm
; Gk. Ppaxiojv.
measure

"

"

boiile. l^. bulla,a


iM. E. boule.^F.
; hence, a round
thing,a ball.
"

(2), a

notion

brace, the

types *burom,
Cf. Booth.
ball. (F.

the

bracelet.

drinking-vessel.(E.)

dimin. of O. F.

58

F. bracelet;
(F.
L.)
armlet (Bartsch).
an
bracel,
"

BRAND

BRACH

brdchiuin, bracat,malt liquor. W. brag,malt ; Irish


and Gael, braich,malt, fermented
grain.
Gael,
brach.
ferment.
Cf.
to
of
kind
(F."
a
hunting-dog.
Brach,
K.Y
Brahmin.
M. E. brache, pi. braches.
Brahman,
(Skt.) Skt.
G.)
K.
Skt.
of
O.
a
brdh77ia\\a, brahman, holy man.
brachez, pi. of bracket, dimin.
also
lit.
'a
bracco
brahmayi,
0.li.G.
devotion,
brae
(G.
prayer;
(F. braque).
armlet.

L. brdchidle,an

"

"

L.

"

arm,

an

"

"

'

greatness of the soul ; cf. brhant, great.


to be great.)
braken.
E.
fern.
M.
rVBHERGH,
(E.)
Bracken,
Braid
( i ) to weave.
A. S. braccan, pi.; Kemble, C. I), v. 277.
(E.) M.E. breiden.
brack),a dog that hunts by the

scent.

"

Cf. Swed.

bregne^fern

braken, Dan.

; cf.

Icel. biirkni,fern.

(F. C?)
corbel, "c.
ed.
in
a
s
Minsheu,
bragget,
Formerlyspelt

Bracket,

"

A. S. bj-egdan,
bredan,to
braid. + Icel. bregiia,
to

about, change, start,

bragd.a

sudden

braid

(2\

brandish,weave,
brandish, turn
braid,"c. ; whence

movement.

full of

deceit. (E.) In
All's Well, iv. 2. 73, braid is short for
front part of a pair of breeches,as
piece,'braided,
i.e. full of braids or tricks. M.E.
F. braguette,' a codformerlymade.
A. S. brcegd,
Cot. (the front part of a pair of braid,trick,deceit.
deceit;
from
A.
S.
2nd
also
allied
to
the
grade
brcpgd,
oibregdan,
Span,bragueta
breeches)
;
draw out, weave,
in architecture,
mould
knit,braid.
meant
a projecting

1627.

named

So

from

the resemblance

to

the

"

"

bracket

of

Dimin.

corbel.

or

Brail,

O. F.

kind

of

or
ligature
fastening.

Cot. ; from
of mortaise,'
(F. C. ?) O. F. braid,a cincture ; orig.for
F. braie,breeches.
also
breeches; so
Span, bragueta fastening
up breeches.
bragiies,
L. brdccE,breeches.
is the dimin. of Span bragas,breeches."
Brain.
L. brdc(2,
(E.) Vi.'E.brayve.
K.^.h'CEgn,
breeches; said to be of Celtic
*a kind
bragtce,

"

"

"

the brain. + Du. brei^i.


brcegen,
V)origin. See Breeches.
the top of the head.
(Du.) Du. brak, briny, iipiXP^^s,

(or Teutonic
Brackish.
nauseous

older

wrack,

form

Brake

brackish

(i),a

machine

for

C"

Gk.

breaking

for various mechanical


hemp ;
(Hexham) ;
Low
contrivances.
approve.
disyi.lL. brake.
Du.
G.)
to
(O.
ivraken,
blame,
wreck,
reject,
Low
G. brake.,a flax-brake; M. Du.
"Du.
wrak^ orig.2nd grade of
'
'
See
Hexham
to beat flax ;
a brake
to wreak
braecke,
7vrekeit,
;
; orig.to drive.
allied to

M.

Du.

ivracke, a

name

"

Du. brak,2nd gradeoi bj-eken,


[So also wrong, sour, is allied Du. braak.
break
Break.
See
see
to
to
to wringen,
Franck.]
;
wring.
bush.
thin
Brake
Lat.
a
Bract.
(2),
bractea,
(E.) M.E. bi-ake.
plate
(L.)
G. brake, willow-bush
leaf of metal.
or
+ Low
(Bremen);
Brad.
(Scand.) M. E. brod. Icel. also stumps of broken trees, roughgrowth.
to break.
broddr,a spike; Swed. brodd,Dan. brodde, From A. S. brecan,(pt.t. brcec),
Wreck.

"

"

frost-nail.+A.

vS.brord, a
type *brozdoz. Cf. O. Irish
W, braih,a sting.
a

brow

Brae,

(Scand.) M.
brd, brow

of

spike. Teut. % In the


b'Ot,Ir. bjvd, Bracken.

geUy
from

Cf.

to

boast.

fein,'modified

from

blackberry
; Swed.
brom-bdr,Dan.

-Icel.
E. bra, ^r"? (North).
hence, brow of a hill ; see

sound

'

A.S.
Bramble.
lE.) U.^E^.h-embiL
hill,steep bank, slope. bremel,brenibel. Allied to Du. braatn,a
brom-

Here Du.
a blackberry.
bcer,G. broinbeere,
H.G.
brdina
answer
braam, G. broni i^O.

Brow.

Brag*, to

of

sense

(Scand.) M. E. brag- to

loudly, to

M. Dan.
brage,to
A. S. gebrcec,a

vaunt.

A. S. brom
see
Broom) ; of which A.S.
bre7Ji-el[ioxTtw.t*br^jmloZj
is the diminutive).

Prob.

crack, to brag.
breaking,crash, Bran.

(F.) M.E. bran. -^O.Y. bran,


Cf. W.
noise ; Icel. brak, a creaking,braka, to bren.
bran, Irish bran,^ husks,
creak ; cognate
L. fragor, noise. chaff(from
with
E.); Bret, brenn,bran.
Also
Late
(late)M. F. bragner,' to flaunt, Branch.
(F. L.) F. branche.
brag,'Cot. ; M. F. bragard,' gay, gallant,L. branca, the paw of an animal.
find
E. braggart. We
whence
braggard,'
Brand, a burning pieceof wood, scar
"

"

also W. bragal,to vociferate (from E.) ; of fire,


a sword.
(E.) ]\L E. brand,A. S.
Bret, braga,
brand, a burning,a sword : from brann,
to brag (fromF.). Cf. Bray.
2nd stem
of Teui. *brennan-, to burn ; see
Vi.Y..bragot.-'\".
Bragget. (W.)
allied
Irish
Icel. brandr,a fire-brand,
swordkind
of
mead
Burn.
to
a
+
bragot,
;
59

BRANDISH

BREACH

(fromits flashing)
; Swed.

blade

and

fire; M. H. G.
brand, fire-brand,

Dan.

(F.-Teut.?)

brant, brictaske, a

brand, sword.

(F. Scand.)M.'E.braun-

brandish.

O. F.

"

"

Icel. brandr

above.
brajid-

Brand,

see

brandy.

ment;
outwork, battlebertresca. Ital. bertesca,

cf. Prov.

"

difficultword

"

"

bretasche,bretasce,

parapet, battlement.

wooden
a small
bretesche,

dzsen.
F. brandtss-anf,
pres. pt.oidrandir, the same.
brandish
from G.
sword.
A. F. bra fid, a
to
a
sword.

M.E.

prob.formed

brett, plank.
a

Bravado.
(Span.) See Brave.
Brave.
(F. Ital.) F. ^mz^^, brave,
'

(Du.) Formerly
brandy. Du.
luine,
brafidy-tvine
; whence
M. Du. brandivijn,
brande-wijn,
brandy;

gay, fine,proud,braggard,valiant;'Cot.
Ital. b) avo ; the same
as
Span, and

lit. 'burnt'

Vrov.brau.
Vox\..bra7)o\

"

wine
(i.e.distilled)

Kilian,because
branden, to burn

(or,
easilyburns). Du.

it

to

ace.

wijn, wine

Sranks, a punishmentfor
See Jamieson. Hence
were

scolds.

bravada,

borrowed

brangas (O. Gael, bj-ancas),a sort


; Gael, brang, Irish brancas, a
pillory

halter.

North

"

que, Norman
'

branques,pi. of

F.

of

cheeke

also, the

Diet.

bran-

bit,'Cot.

See

(E.)

the fire. See Brand.

from

new

Short for brand-new

'

Brasier

of redness

Span.
Span.

as

villain.
sb.,a cut-throat,
liA.bravo,
(Ital.)

well done!
brave ; used in the voc.

bravo!

masc.

case

M.E.

(i), to quarrel.(E.?)

brawlen.

Cf.

Perhaps E.

brallen,

Du.

brag, boast; Dan. bralle,to prate,


chatter; G. prahlen,to brag.
Brawl
(2),a sort of dance. (F. Scand.
O. H. G.)
L. L.L. iii.
A French hraivl,'
or
F. bi'ansle,a totter,
braiul
swing,
9.
"

'

'

"

'

blackness.

or

from

Minsheu's

to

Brant-fox, Brant-goose orbrentThe prefix


is Scand.,as in Swed.
gOOSe.
goose.
a
brandriif,
brant-fox,
hrandgas,a brentThe
is
burnt,'with
orig.sense
the notion

'

"

Brawl

Bran-new.

bravado

bravo, brave

Branch.
i.e.

'

F.

(Span.) Altered

Span, bravo,brave.
bravo, a daringvillain. (Ital.) Ital.

branche,branch,

of F.

form

from

(F.'j bravado.

Gael,
of

are
explanations
satisfactory
;
to
brav, O. Swed. bj-af,
appear

be borrowed

Burn.

Etym. unknown;

of the

the Bret,

see

"

none

"

; and

"

dance ; Cot.
F. bransler,to reel ; mod.
O. F. brandeler
F. bj-anler. Allied
to
(Littre),brandiller,to shake
(Cot.),

or

"

a pan to hold coals.


". braise,
live
F. brasier.
Swed. brasa,fire (below).
forms of F. braridir,
coals.
to brandish.
frequent,
Brass.
(E.) M.E. bras. A. S. brces. See Brandish.
Perhaps allied to the verb seen in Icel. Brawn, muscle. (F. O. H. G.) M. E.
,

Brazier,

(F. Scand.)

"

"

"

harden

fire;

brase,to braun, muscle, boars flesh. O. F. braon,


cf.
fire.
Swed.
Der.
brasa,
braz-en, a slice of flesh ; cf. Prov. bradon, the same.
fry;
O. H. G. brdton, ace.
A. S. brcescn.
of brato, a slice
braze
(i\ to harden. (E.) K. Lear, of flesh for roasting. O. H. G. brdtau
brasa, to

by

Dan.

"

"

"

i.

I.

It

II.

harden

to

means

like brass; '^G.braten),


to roast. -fA. S. br"dan.

below.

see

braze

(E.)
113;

In
from

Bray
(2), to
Chapman,

also

'

Homer, Od. xv.


Aero, ic brasige
;

G.)

Break.

see

Bray
-which

"

"

'

p. 215.
the pieceof

to bruise,pound. (F.
(,1),

M. E. brayen. O. F. bi-eier (F. broyer)."


O. Sax. brekan
(G. brechcn),to break;

(2),to

make

roaringnoise.

A. F. braier; F. braif-e (Med.


Lat. bragtre).Of Celtic origin;cf. Gael.
(F.
upper part of the arm.
brassa^'d (^\\Xx")\
F. brassart (Cot.),
to crackle
bi'aigh,
bragh,a burst,explosion,

Brassart,
the
protected
L.)

brass.

tr. of

brass,sb.

Gram.
.(^Ifric,

with

ornament

brassal.

armour

(F.

"

C.)

"

Formed

suffix -ard

with

(Thurneysen)
; and

cf. \^.frag-or, noise.

Braze
; see Brass.
Brat
(C.) Brazier
(1),a
; see Brasier.
It also meant
a
(E.) M. E. breche,a fracture
rag, clout,or pinafore." Breach.
Gael, and Irish brai,a cloak,rag ; O. Irish
A. S. brcce,as in hlaf-gebrece,
a pieceof
woollen
cloak
W.
bread
a
a
brice,
brethyn,
breaking);
brat, rough
;
(more commonly
cloth.
O. Fries, breke.'" K.S.
brecan,to break.
(W. brat is from E.)
brat.' ^ M. E. breche is also partlyfrom O. F.
Brat (2),
a beggar's
a child ; esp.
from

F. bras, arm.

L. brachitwi,arm.
cloak, rough mantle.
"

"

'

Perhaps a rag,'the same


Brattice, a fence of
'

as

Brat

boards

in

breche

(i).
a

mine.

to

60

a fiacture.
(F.bj'cche^^,

break.

"

G. brechen.

BROCADE

BRIDGE

O. H. G.
clif).M. E. brenn-en, to burn, and stoon,
brudgom ; G. braufiga?n,
stone.
brimSo also Icel. brennisteinn,
stone.
brtitigomo.
vSee Burn.
Bridge. (E.) M. E. brigge,briigge.
streaked.
A. S. bryeg.-^-Iceh
Brinded,
bryggja; Swed. brygga; Brindled,
Icel.
in
bj-Ucke.
bi'ondottr,
as
G.
Dan. biygge,a pier; Du. brzcg
brvnd-,
(Scand.)
;
Icel. brandr, a
f. Allied to Icel. brii, brinded, said of a cow.
Teut. type '^brugjd,
brijtded
Thus
brand, flame, sword.
Dan.
bro, a bridge,pavement; O. Swed.
branded.
a paved way.
b7'o,
Brine.
Bridle.
(E.) M. E. brine. A. S. bryne
(E.) M. E. bridel. A. S.
Du.
brldel. + Du.
breidel\ O. H. G. bridel, (for brine), brine,salt liquor.-^M.
brittil (v^^hence
A. S. bridel brijne; Du. brij'n,
F. bride".
pickle.

Dan.

"

"

A. S. bringan, also
(E.)
brigdils,Bring.
representsan earlier *brigdel(cf.
S.
A.
t.
b7'dhte.-\-V)-\x.
brengen; G.
a bridle,O. E. Texts, p. 44, 1. 127).brengan, pt.

briggan (writtenfor
bregd-an,to pull,twitch (with change of bringen; Goth,
e to i). See Braid.
bringan),pt. t. brdhta.
(^rz"^. Dan.
:" M.E.
Brief (i ) short. (F. L.) M. E. bref. Brink.
(Scand.
F. bref.'"\^.
breuis,short. +Gk. )3/)axv?,brink, verge ; Swed. brink, descent or
a
bj'inka),
short.
slopeof a hill ; Icel. brekka (for
crest of a hill ; allied to Icel. bringa,
brief (2% a writ,"c. (F.-L.) F.^slope,
"

"

The
a brief; Cot.
brief,
above ; from its beingin a

Brig, Brigade

same

bref a

".

in

brusque, 'brisk,
Ital.
Cot.
harsh;'
lively,
quicke,rash,
Lowl.

brigand,0.

Sc. (1560). F.
"

"

brusco,tart,harsh ; see Brusque.


briganle,
to strive
Brisket.
(F.) O. F. brischet (Brachet),
orig.pres. part, of brigare,

robber.
;

"

Ital.

ber
robintriguer,

an

brechet),also bruschet (Ducange);


brichet, the brisket, or breast-piece,'

trouble.
quarrel,
briga,strife,

after. Ital.
"

brig
brigade.

'

troop.

"

of

brnchet,' the craw-bone

; short for brigantine.

crew,

V.

s.

Orig.uncertain.

bird ; ' Cot.

Guernsey briequet(for '^brHskct).'"T)zn.


; cf. Norw.
orig.b?iisk, Icel. hrjosk,gristle
to strive,
as
bijoskutt,
gristly.
fight,
brigai'e,

Y.bngade,3.
(F.-I_tal.)

Ital. brigata,
a troop ;

fem. of pp. of
above.

Bristle.

brigandine,

kind

of

(F.

armour.

of armour,
a kind
Ital.)F. brigandine,
worn
by brigands. F. brigand,a robber
"

"

above.

see

slope,orig.the breast.
(F.-Ital.) ^Y^tMbruisk

grassy

Brisk.

Brigand.

see

(F.-ltal.)

Brigand.

F.

as

short form.

M. E. bristle,
berstle,

(E.)

birstle ; dimin. of A. S. byrst,


a
bristle.+
borstel: Icel. burst; Swed.
Du.
borst;
weak grade
Teut. *burs-,
G. borste. From
cf. Skt.
of *bers ^ld.g.'^bhers,
to bristle;

havinga thousand points.


ship. (F.- sahasra-bhrshti,
Burr.
See
brigantine.
Ital.)Brig
Brittle.
kind of ship. Ital.
F. hriganfin,
a
(E.) M. E. h-itel,brotel,
Teut. *brutiloz,
Ital. brigante,brutel. For A. S. *b7ytel=
a
bj'igantino,
pirate-ship.
from brut-,weak
See Brigand.
a robber.
grade of A. S. breotan,
Cf. Icel.
fragile.'
Bright. (E.) M. E. bright. A. S. to break. It means
break.
Dan.
to
G.
M.
H.
Swed.
berht.
Icel.
bryde,
+
brjota,
beorht,
bryta,
bjartr
;

brigantine, brig,
is

merely short

for

"

"

"

'

M.E.
setten on
(F. L.)
a-broach,tap liquor.F.
a
niettre en
broche, to tap, by piercing
Brill, a fish. (E.) Originunknown.
iiarrel.
F.
to
broche,
bi'ocher,
pierce;
Brilliant, shining. (F.-L.-Gk.Cot. ; see Brooch.
Skt.) F. brillant,
pres. part, of briller, a broach,spit,'
cf. Ital. brillare,
to glitter;
to
(E.) M. E, brood. A. S. brad.
sparkle. Broad.
and
The orig.sense
breed; Icel. breidr; Swed.
to sparkleas a beryl. -I-Du.
was

bairhts,shining. Teut. type Broach.


broche^Xo
'^berhtoz,
shining.Cf. Gk. (popKos,white.

berht ; Goth,

"

set

"

"

'

L.

"

a beryl
beryllus,
;

Brim.

(E.)

M. E.

see

Dan.

Beryl.

brim.

(Not

S.)

Cf.

briiiiston,
bremstoon, also

brenstoon

braids ; G. breit.
"

Icel. barmr, brim ; Swed.


M.
brain, border, edge; Dan. bramme\
Du. breme\ G. gebrdme,border.
Brimstone,
sulphur. (E.) M. E.
A.

bred ; Goth,

broeado,
Brocade.
(Span. L.) Spa.n.
brocade; orig.embroidered, the pp. of a
verb *brocar (not used) answering to F.
with
brocher, 'to broach, also,to stitch

in

great stitches ;

'

Cot.

"

(Wy- brocca,L. broccus;see


62

F. broche.
Broocb.

"

Late L.

BROTHEL

BROCCOLI

Ital. broccoli,Named
from its ill odour.
Formed, with
suffix -ine,from Gk. l3p(Vfj.-os,
stink.
a
i^^ut.
Bronchial.
(Gk.) Gk.
like teeth.
pi.,the ramifications of the windpipe."
brocctis,
projecting,
brocliure, a pamphlet.(F. L.) F. Gk. ^pofx'^^^the windpipe;cf. ^poYxos,a

broccoli.

(Ital. L.)
"

Dimiii.
a sprout.
sprouts; pi.of /5r"?f^"?/(7,
of brocco,a skewer, a shoot,stalk. L.

hphx^^y

"

"

brochure, few leaves stitched together.


F. hrocher,to stitch ; see Brocade.
Brock, a badger. (C.) A. S broc
a

bronch-itis ; from

gill.Der.

"

;3po7xo9.

Y. bronze.
of bronze
llal. bronzo ; bj'onzino, made
L. Brun(z ds).^ L. ("S BriindusTnufn.
Brindisi (inItaly)
bronze
(iusiiivi,
; where

Bronze.

"

(F.-Ital.-L.)

"

W., Corn., and Bret, broch; Irish,Gael.,


from
Manx
broc, a badger. Named
mirrors were
cf.
his white-streaked
Gael,
brocach,
face;
Gk.
as
a
speckled,
grayish, badger;
"^op"os, Brooch.
"

and

(Cf.E.

white,gray.

gray, a
deer two
F. brocart,the same

Brocket,
(F. L.)
"

because

he has but

xxxiii.9).
(Iliny,
Named
from the
L.)
(F.
a pin,
pin which fastens it. M. E. broche,
F. broche, a spit,
point."
]ieg, brooch.
Late L. brocca,a. pointedstick ; broca,a
like teeth.
spike; L, broccus,projecting,

badger.)

red

old.

years
;

made

"

"

called

so

"

tine to his horn."


tine of a stag's Brood.

ore

F. broche,a spit,also, a
horn ; see Brooch.

(E.)
'hi

;
(rare)

A. S. brod
E. brod.
heora
brod'
they

M.

bredaS

shoes, leggings. (C. nourish their brood ; Allfric'sHom. ii. 10.


Brogues,
shoe ; M.Irish
+ Du. broed; (Jx.bruL Teut. stem *brd-d-.
E.) Gael, and Irish ZtJj-,
in G,
shoe.
A. S. broc,breeches;or Iccl. 1 from a verbal base '^bro-,
/^r^rr,
preserved
coarse

"

"

brok.

brii-hen,to scald (orig.to heat), Du.


to brood, hatch ; from the idea of
broe-ien,

See Breeches.

Broided, braided. (E.)


broided took the place of

The

wk.

the

str.

pp.

'

heat

'

pp.
itself due to confusion of
broide7i,
woven,
browden with broider (below). Brozvden

'

or

Brook

(E.)

representsA. S. brogden,pp. of bregdan, can,

warmth.'

Der.

breed.

(i),to endure, put

M.

to

E.
use,

broken,brouken.

enjoy;

which

was

up

with.

A. S. bruthe orig.

+ L)u. gebruiken,Icel. brfika,G.


cf. L.
with
to
to
adorn
needlework.
use;
brauchen, Goth, brtikjan,
Broider,
See
to
Tim.
in
Fruit
ii.
broidered
I
(Vl^HREUG.)
enjoy.
(as
(F.) [In
yrz^z,
9,
edd.") is an
for broided; see
error
some
Hrugm. i. " iii.
stream.
Brook
a small
(E.) M. E.
(2),
above.] Used as the equivalentof F.
*
brook.
A.S.
Z-zw.
is
Du.
C
ot.
Tiie
oi
broek,G. bruch,
+
broder, to imbroyder,'
See Braid.

to braid.

sense.

'

due

confusion

to

with

brouder,also brosder

broided.

(Supp.

to

O. "

"

marsh.

brook-lime,

Godefroy)

plant. (E.)

M.

E.

embroidered
brusdus,brosdtis,
brok-lemke,brok-leviok. From A. S. broc,
work
origin; a brook, and hleomoc, brook-lime.
(Ducange). Of unknown
whence
A. S.
Broom.
(E.) M. E. brome, broom.
perhaps from Teut. *brozd-,
Icel.
Brad.
A.
S.
brom, the plant broom ; hence, a
brord,
broddr,a spike; see
bretn ;
made
from twigs of it.-f-Du.
E.
liesom
to
M.
Broil
(I),
fry,grill. (F.)
cf. Late

broilen.

L.

"

A. F.

broiller

(Bozon), O.

F.

from

M. H.G.

to
briiejen,

scald ;

G. braam, broom.
Teut. type *bi'a:Allied to Bramble,
q. v.
BrOSe, a later form oi bf'owis oxbrewis;

Low

to boil,roast (T-loquefort).
bruiller,
Origin
to roast; perunknown; cf. O.F. briiir,
haps
see

moz.

see

Broil

F.

tumult.

brouiller,O.

(F.)
(2),
jumble, confuse,confound. Cf. Ital.
confusion
disturb, broglio,
to
brogliare,
known.
(whence E. ir/i-broglio).
Origin una

to

Broker.

(F.

"

agent, witness

an

brocour,an

L.)
of

"

"

M.

E.

"

'

'

L. broccdtor,one
Late
Late L. brocca,
i.e. spike;

from
A. S.

chemical element.

(E.)

(Gk.)

A.S
Teut.

brod.

broQ;
/^r^/.+Icel.
type

n. ;
*broJ)om,

b)-o-,
bru-,weak grade of breu-,as
Lit. ' brewed.'
breoivan,to brew.

(E.; confusedwith

Brothel.

E.

brothel, a

in

F."

lewd

person,
of
vile ; whence
become
breoQan, to perish,
Hence
also dhroQen, degenerate,base.
brothel house, a house for vile
made
was
"

A. S.

from

63

bro^-en, pp.

i. i. 256),afterwards
brothel.
2. Orig. distinct
M. E. bordel,
which was
used,how-

people(Much Ado,
contracted

Brooch.

Broxninei

H. G.

Teut.) 1. M.
brocour, base wretch.

A. F.
transaction.
broacher
or

agent ; orig.a

seller of wine.
who broaches.
see

Brewis.

Broth.

Brood.

to

BROTHER
ever, in much

the

BUCKRAM

same

sense.

O.F.

"

del, a Imt, o:ig. of boards. "Du.

board;
}"lank,

see

bor-

jtwigs

bord^ a

Brougham,
name.)

Board.

kind of

Dale

brush.

Low

"

(F. Ital.)
"

brtisque.\\.a\.brusco,sharp,tart, sour,
certain.
appliedto fruits and wine. Origin un"

''/'/(^M^r-;

stem

Brute.

carriage.(Personal

1839.

Y brosse,
brushwood
b7-oce,

Brusque, rough in manner.


F.

to

Y.

(F.-L.)

brut,itm.brjite.

brietus,
stupid.

(L.-Gk.)

Bryony.
Gk.

Brougham.
Brow.
(E.) M..Y.. b7'oive. K.S. bnl.
+ lcel. bri'in,eyebrow; Lith. bruwis \
brove; Gk. bcppvs
\ Ters.abnJ;

L.

"

after

Named

the firstLord

Russ.
b/inl.

O. F.

L. brttscm,3.
thicket. Derived
by Diez from O. H. G.
bursta, G. borste,a bristle ; but perhaps
Celtic (Thurneysen).

Brother.
(E.) M, E. brother. A. S.
bra )or. -if
\^\x.breeder ; \c^\. brdbir\ Goth.
and
Dan.
hroihar; Swed.
broder; G.
Ir. bratJiair \ W.
bruder\ Gael, and
braivd; Russ. bj-at' \ Lat. fraler; Gk.
Hkt. b/irdtr. Teut.
(l"pdri]p;
Idg. stem '^blirdter-.

"

I also, later,a

L.

PpvcjVTj,
tipvojvia,
bryony.
"

teem, grow

brydnia."
Gk.

(iphdv,

luxuriantly.
(E.) Cf. Swed. bubbla, Dan.

Bubble.
boble,a bubble ; also Du. bobbel,a bubble,
Of imitative origin.
bobbelen,to bubble.
Buccanier.
(F. West Indian.) F.
boucanier,a pirate. F. boucaner, to broil
frame.
F. bouca?t,
sort of wooden
on
a

Skt.

Brugm. i. " 554.

A. S.
Brown.
(E.) 'M.E. brozm.
/w?;z.+ Du.
bruin; Icel, bnlnn; Swed.
hrun\ Yioxi.brumi;G.bratin;hith.brunas.
Cf. Gk. (ppvvos,
wooden
a
a
toad; Skt. ba-bhrii{s),
frame, used by hunters for
smoking and drying flesh. The word
tawny.
of a
Browse.
(F.-M. H. G.) For broiist\boucan is said to be a F. spelling
lit. 'to feed on
shoots.'
M.
F.
and
a
to
mean
word,
Tupi (Brazilian)
young
"

"

"

'

"

broiister
shoots.

"

frame
(F. brotiler),nibble off young
M. F. brotist (F. bjviit),
a sprig, Buck
to

on

is smoke-dried.'
r\^2^Q deer, goat.

which

(0"

meat
^

(E.)

M. fL G. broz,a bud ; Bavar.


M. E. btikke. A. S. buc,male deer,biicca,
shoot,bud.
brass,a bud. From the weak grade a he-goat.
+Du.
brossf,
bok, Icel. bukkr, Swed.
of O. H. G. briozan,to break, also, to bock,a he-goat
; Dan. buk, a he-goat,
ram,
break into bud ; which
is cognate with
buck ; G. bock ; also W. bwch, Gael, boc,
See Brittle.
Irish boc. Brugm. i. " 800.
A. S. breotan.
Bruin.
(Du.) In Reynard the Fox, Buck (2),to steep clothes in lye. (E.)
the bear is called bruin, i.e. brown.
Du.
M. E. bouken.
As if from A. S. *bucian,
See Brown.
Prob. from A. S. bile,
not found.
bruin, brown.
a pitcher
Bruise.
(E.; partly F.) A. S. {to)- (prov. E. bouk, a pail,tub) ; but M. E.
of ' steep in
sense
brysan, to bruise. Influenced by O. F. bouken has the specific
like M. H. G. buchen, Swed.
briser,to break, perhapsof Celtic lye,'
bruiser,
byka,
biiken (whence
origin;cf. Gael, bris,to break, Irish bris- Dan. byge.Low G. biiken,
F. buer).
ivi,I break.
ui, from A. S. Ital. bticare,
(The spelling
in S. Eng. Legendary,295. 58.)
bucket.
(E.) A. F. boket (Bozon).
y, occurs
L. ?) V. bruit, Formed
v^-ithA. F. dimin. suffix -et from
{V
Bruit, a rumour.
noise.
F. bruire, to make
noise. A. S. biic,a pitcher. Cf. Gael, bucaid,
a
a
Scheler derives F. bruire from L. rugire,
Irish buicead,
a bucket
(from E. ^
to roar, with prefixed
b. F. bniit
M.
E. bokel. O. F.
Late
Buckle.
L.)
(F.
"

"

"

"

L.

clamour
the
a
brugitus,
(Ducange); cf. L. bucle (F. boiicle),
Late
rugitus, a roaring.Partlyimitative ; cf. ring,a buckle.

boss of a shield,
a
L. bucula, the boss
of a shield ; buccula,beaver of a helm, boss
of a shield, buckle.
Lat. buccula, the
"

G.

to
briillen,

Brunette.

roar.

(F. G.)
-

of bi-unet,brownish.
brown ; see Brown.

Brunt.
(E )
{dunt), a blow;
bi~unt,i.e.
the

'

F. brunette, fem.
IL G.
brun,

"

cheek, dimin. o'ibucca, the cheek.


bokeler.M.E.
buckler.
(l^'.-L.)
O.F.
bucler (F. bouclier),
shield; so
a
named
from the boss on it; see above.

M.

imitative; zi. dint

influenced
burnt,'as if the

by
'

North

hot

'

E.

part of

fight.

Brush.

Buckram,
Ital.)

?) W.Y.brusche,
brush-wood, which is the
orig.brush being made of

(F.-Teut.

brush ; also
older sense, the

Prob.

"

coarse

boke7-am.^0.

cloth.

(F."

Y. boquerant
kind of cloth ; Low
{Y. bougran^,
a coarse
L. boquerannusor
(in Italy)bfichij'dnus
(forItal. buchirano),late Ital. bucherame.

64

M.E.

BULGE

BUCKWHEAT

Originuncertain
(Tartary).

Bokhara

perhapsfrom

strike,

to
buffen,

buffet

orig.to

the

on

cheek; see Buffet


(1).
buffoon.
a
buffoon,
(F.) F. bouffon,

(E.) Lit. beech-wheat;


of its seeds to the jester,
one
the resemblance
whomakesgrimaces. \'.bouffer,
The form buck is to puff.
mast of the beech-tree.
from
a side-board. (F.) F. buffet,
Buffet (2).
A. S. hoc, as in buck-mast^ beechside-board.
So also Du. boekweit,buckwheat
mast.
a
Origin unknown.
;
See Beech.
G. buchweizen.
Bug (0, a spectre.(C.) In Sh.-W.
spectre; Gael, and Ir.
Bucolic, pastoral.
(L. Gk.) L. bf/co- b7ig,a hobgoblin,
/zcus. Gk.
bocan,a spectre.
+Lithuan. batigti
s^tcrri^c,
^cvKoKiKos. pastoral.Gk.
allied to Skt. bhuj,
from bugtt,
Gk. /SoC-s,
an
to terrify,
IBovKoKos,a cowherd.
ox;
Buckwheat.

from

"

"

"

"

"

to turn
aside; see Bow
(i). Brugm. i.
Bud.
M.E.boc/de,budde,a.hud;
"
701(E.?)
Cf.
Not found in A. S.
budden, to bud.
Bug (2),an insect. (C?) Said to be so
of terror,exciting
because an object
named
to bud, sprout.
Du. bot,a bud ; boiten^

and KfWeiv, to drive.

Bug
(1). But cf. A. S.
(0? to stir.(F. L.) V bouger, disgust;see
to
stir ; answering to Ital. biilicare,
scearn-budda,dung-beetle
(Voc), prov. E.
Boil
bubble up (DiezV L. bullTre; see
s horn-bug (Kent).
(i)above. Cf. Span, bullb',(i)to boil, Bug-bear. (C. aud E.) A supposed
s]i(ctre in the shape of a bear; see
(2)to stir.
Budge (2), a kind of fur. (F.?) Bug (i).

Budge

"

to

"

Perhapsrelated
young

O. F. bochet,bouchet,a

bag. (F. C.)


bouge, a bag. L.

leathern

dimin.
boiigette,

of

"

"

Irish

".
a leathern bag (Gaulish).
biilga,
bole,a sack.
bolg,
"

Buff

(i),the

colour

skin.
L.

wild ox;
horn, is short

Bugle (0" a
Bugle,
bugleis
a

Budget,
1'.

to

kid.

ox.

"

L.

wild

ox.

dimin. oi bos,an

horn.
for

O. F.

"

(F. L.)
"

bugle-horn:
bugle a wild
^

buculuni,a

ace.

ox

young

; double

ox.

of
ornament.
kind
a
to
likened
black
dressed
Little
of
buffalo- ^F. L.)
pipes,
^
black
little
buflalo.
horns.
home;'
F. buffle,
a
a
Bugle,

(2),

Bugle
"

(F.-L.-Gk.)
See above.
Cockeram.
Buffalo,
biifahis
; see
in
Blindman's
buff.
a
Buff
(3)"
plant.(F.) F. bugle;
(2),
(F.) Bugle
Cot. ; cf. Span,and Late L. bugula. Cf. L.
a game
Formerlyblindinaii-buff,
; in which
one
(perhaps)
bugle.
bugillo,
(who was
boys used to buffet
game
Lit.
the back, without
being Bugloss, aplant.(F, L.-Gk.)
blinded) on
F.
F.
if
From
O.
F.
bu'^losse.^-L,.
hfiglossa;
ox-tongue.'
caught, possible.
biife,
Gk.
G. buff,also btlglossus.
tongue
a
buffet,blow ; cf. Low
(iov-yhojaaa,oxbuffe,
the
of
the
leaves."
from
blow
See
Buffet
a
shape
;
(i).
puf,
(Liibben.
ox
Buffalo.
(Port, or Ital. L. -Gk.) Gk. jiov-s,
; 'yXcuaa-a,
tongue.
buldeft.
Late
Port, bufalo,
Ital. buffalo,
(E.) M.E.
orig.a kind of Build.
A. S. bold,a house,
A. S. byldan,to build.
wild ox.
L. bilfalus,
a.ho bilbalus. Gk.
fiov^aKos,a buffalo ; a kind of deer or variant of botl, a dwelling,n,==']'eut.
from bu-, related to bu-an, to
*-btc-J)lom,
antelope.(Not a true Gk. word.)
to
Cf. A, S. bytlian,
Buffer
(i),and (2); see Buffet (i). dwell ; see Bower.
from botl (above).[Cf.O. Swed.
Buffet
(i),a blow; to strike. (F.) build,
M. E. boffet,
a
blow, esp. on the bylja,to build (Ihre).O. Swed. bol,
buffet,
cheek.
O. F. bufet,
a
a blow, dimin. of btife,
house, dwelling; Icel. bol, a house,
the cheek ; cf. bufer,
Dan.
a blow,esp. on
bol,a small larm.l
buffer,
F. bulbe.~\..
to puff
Bulb.
out the cheeks, also to buffet;mod.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
Gk. ^oAjSoy,a bulbous
allied btilbus,a bulb.
F. bouffer.
Prob. of imitative origin,
io fouffer,
Buff (2),Puff.
to puff;see
root, onion.
buffer (i),
a foolish fellow. (F.) Orig,
(Pers.) Pers.
Bulbul, a nightingale.
"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

stammerer;

buffen,
to

out

hence, a foolish fellow. M.E.

stammer.

the cheeks

"

O. F.

bufer, puff

to puffor
(hence,

talking).
buffer (2),a cushion, to

(F,)

Lit. 'a

bulbul,

to

blow

in

the
resembling

from
striker;'

cussion.
con-

M.E.

melodious
voice,
Of
imitative
nightingale.
with

origin.

Bulge,
deaden

bird

from
O, F.

65

to

swell out.

(F. C.)
-

Formed

bulge,a wallet, pouch."


boulge [botige a bag. L. bulga.

M.E.

"

BULK

BUNDLE

bag (Gaulish).See Budget.

Or

Bole.

Doublet,

bilge.

ref. to

bidl may

bull. Cf.

'

mean

witti
large,'

"c. (Britten).
bull-daisy,

(i),size. (Scand.) M. E. bolke, Bulwark.


(Scand.) Dan. bulvcBvk,
Icel. bfdki, a heap; O. Swed.
Swed. bolverk (Ihre)
; cf. Du. bolwerk,G.
boll-werk (whence F. boulevard). ComDan.
pounded
bulk, a lump. Cf. Swed.

Bulk

heap.

"

bolk ;

of Dan. bul, Swed. bol,trunk of


of a
tree, log,Icel. bulr, bolr, the stem
In Sh.
M. Du.
bidcke, thorax (Kilian).
tree; and Dan. vcerk,Swed. verk,a work.
(Prob.confused with Du. buik. Icel. bukr, Lit. 'log-work,' or 'bole-work'; see
the trunk ; Swed. biik,
G. bauch, Bole.
Dan. btig,

bulna,
Bulk

swell.

to

(2),the

trunk

body. (Du.)

of the

"

belly.)
Bum-bailiff, under-bailiff. (E. and
stall
of
a
a
(3),
shop. (Scand.) F.) A slang term. Todd quotes passages
that it arose
Cf. Dan. dial. to shew
from
the pursuer
Perhaps related to Balk.
bulk,a half-wall ; Icel. bdlkr, a beam, also, catchingat a man
by the hinder part of
the

Bulk

a beam,
partition
; Line, bulker,

hutch

in

workshop.
partition.
Bull (i),male of the
a

wooden

his garment.

Bumble-bee,

bulk-head, a

Der.

bee

that

booms

or

See Boora

hums.

(i).
cow.
(E.) M. E. Bumboat.
(E.) From btim and boat.
boat on
the Thames
bole,bule. Not found in A. S., but the Orig. a scavenger's
dimin. bulliu,a bullock, occurs.
Prob.
(a.D. 16S5); afterwards used to supply
the bcllower;' cf. M. H. G. bullen, to vei^etables
to ships.
Bellow,
roar
see
(i),to thump; a blow.
-f-D"- bul; Icel.
; and
Bump
(E.)
Of imitative origin
Der.
boli',G. bulk; Lithuan. bullus.
; cf. M. Dan.
bumpe,
A. S. bulluc,
strike with the fist; W. pwrnpio,to
above.
as
to
bull-ock,
Bull (2),a papal edict. (L.) M. E. thump ; pwmp, a lump ; Corn. bo7n,bu/n,
bulk.
The
Lat. bulla, a bubble, boss, knob, a blow.
are
:
senses
(i) to strike,
leaden seal on
edict ; a bull (in late (2)a blow, (3)its effect. See Bunch..
an
Latin).
(2),to boom. (E.) Imitative;
Bump
bullet. (F. L.) M. F. boulet,dimin. of. Boom
(i),and Bumble-bee.
of F. no2ile,a ball. L. btUla, a boss, Bumper,
full glass. (E.) From
a
with
notion of a butnpingor
the
knob, "c.
;
bump
tin,
full glass; cf. thumping,i.e. great.
bulletin.
(F.-Ital.-L.) Y. bulleItal. bullettino,
safeticket.
a
a
Bumpkin, a thick-headed fellow. (Du.)
'

"

"

"

a little tree (Hexham);


conduct, pas^. ticket. Dimin. of bulletta,M. Du. boo??iken,
of
dimin.
of
d
imin.
a passport, lottery
bulla,
boom, a tree, a beam, bar ; see
ticket,
L. bulla,a boss, "c.
also meant
Beam
a seal,bull.
(i). The E. bumkin
"

Bullace,
bolas.
Cot.
L.

"

"

wild plum. (F.-L.) M. E. a luff-block,a thick piece of wood


(CotO.F. beloce,
a bullace ; '^'i.Y
.pelosse.
grave, s. v. Chicambault, and see bumkin
L. type *piloftea,
Late in the E. index); hence, readilyapplied
pellet-like.
"

a pellet. L. pila,a
piloia,
"

Bullet, Bulletin;

baU.

to

block-head,thick-skulled

fellow.

(F.) Cf. prov. F. bugne,a kind


K.
Imllion
of
The
A.
fritters
O. F.
Bullion.
as
(F.-L.)
; perhaps the same
bullio bugne,a swelling
Late L. bulliona,
meant
a mint, and
or
bump due to a blow
of metal, apparently,
from
meant
mass
a
(Burguy),also spelt bigne,'a bump,
its being melted ; cf. F. bouillou,a boiling.knob;' Cot. O. F. bugnete,
a fritter(GodeLate L. bitllionem,
of Imllio,a boiling." froy); also bugnet (id.,Supp. p. 393).
ace.
Bull

see

Bun.

(2).

"

L. bulllre,to

bubble

up, boil.

"

L.

'"

bulla, a bubble.

Bully,
G.)

in

noisy rough fellow.

Sh.

The

oldest

sense,

in

Minsheu

has

loaves, buns,'"c.;
'

Span, bunuelos, pancakes,

cobloaves, buns.'

(O. Low

See

Bunion.

E., is (Doubtful.)

M. Du. boel,a lover


one, lover.'
either
from M. H. G.
sex); borrowed
(of
buole (G. bnhle),lover.
'dear

round
Bignets,\\\\.\Q.

Cot.

Bunch.

"

(E.?)

M. E.

M. E. bunchen, to beat.
like bump, bounce.
And

bunche.

Prob.
see

Cf.

imitative,

Bunk.

Dimin.
Bulrush.
Prompt. Bundle.
(E.)M.E./^w/r^/j-r//^,
(E.) M.V.. bundel.
Parv., p. 244, col. 2. Perhaps'stem- rush '; of O. Northumb.
bund, a bundle (Matt.
from its stout
stem
; cf. Shetl. bulwand, xiii. 30). A. S. bund-, weak
grade of
bulrush.
biindel.
G.
Dan.
a
bul, stem, trunk; see
hondel;
bindan, to bind.-f-Du.
"

"

66

BUNG

Bung,

BURKE
M. Du.

stopple.(Du. L.)

"

honge (Du. bom), a bung;

dialectal

Goth.

baurthei\G.
varying
burden,see below.
root, with

Burden

(2), the refrain of a song.


(F. LateL.) F. bourdon, a drone-bee,
bwng, humming of bees, drone of a bagpij)e
;

"

an

byrdc,

biirde ; from the same


suffixes. For the form

in F. bonde,a bung.
of *bo)ide,
as preserved
with Swiss ///"/ (Weigand, s. v.
Spund). L. puncta, an orifice ; orig.fern,

Cognate
pp.

Dan.

bordw,

form

of pungere, to prick. Cf. W.


orifice,
also,a bung.

"

Cot.

see

"

Late L. burddne77i,
ace

burdo,

01

l^engalthatched house. a drone. Prob. of imitative origin; cf.


Sc. birr, to make
a
whizzing
(Hind.) Hind, bangalah,of or belonging Lowland
den
to Bengal,a bungalow; Rich. Diet. p. noise, E. buzz.
9\ Confused with Burthe name
From
Bengal.
(i).
293.
imitative
Of
Bureau.
(F. L.) F. bureau,a desk,
(Scand.?)
Bungle.
called because
covered
so
writing-table;
origin. Cf. Swed. dial, bangla,to work
O. Swed.
bzinga,to strike with brown baize. F. bureau, O. F. buret,
ineffectually;
woollen
coarse
stuff,russet-coloured.
Ihre.) And cf. Bang.
(Rietz,
O.Y
F.
M
.F\
O.
Bunion.
bure, dark brown; F.
btiire,
.buignon,o'n\Y
(F.-G.)
cloth.
of a fritter (Godcfroy)
L. burrus, reddish.
in the sense
but
coarse
bure,
;
of
O.
F.
Gk.
reddish.
Gk. Trip, fire.
an
augmentative
hiiigne
really
TTvppus,
F.
(F.-Teut.)
(F. bigne,'a bump, swelling/Cot.)." Burgeon, a bud.
bud.
O, H. G.
a young
bungo, a lump (Graff, in bourgeon,
Lengthenedfrom
Schmeller)
; cf. Icel. bunga, convexity.Languedoc boure, a bud, eye of a shoot
So also Ital. bugnone,augment, of btigno,(Diez).-M. H. G. buren,O. H. G. purM. H. G.
a boil,a swelling.See Bun.
jan,to raise,push up, push out.

Bungalow,

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Bunk,

wooden
or
case
box, berth.
the plankCf. O. Swed. buJike,
ing

(Scand.)
of

is
M.

prominent;

"

bunke

Dan.

Bunt,
answers

"

fort

"

city.

or

"

M. H. G. bure

cognate with A. S. burg;

cargo.

bellyof

the
in

form

(Scand.) It

sail.

Dan.

to

Swed.
the weak

bunch
a bundle, a
bicnt,

see

Low

Lat.

(G. burg);
Borough.

burgher. (Du.) Formerlyburger.


"

Du.

bundt,

empor

(F.-M. H. G.) M. E. burburgeis.Low Lat. burgensis,

heap,pile,something belonging
for burgiis,
a fort.
bunke, room
to

G.

shelter for merchandise,


Burgess.
usual sense
of geys.
the
O. F.
(Ihre)
;

ship forming
"c.

Swed.

bor,por, an elevation ; whence


( in por),upwards.

citizen.
a
btirger,

"

Du.

burg,a city;

cognate with E. Borough


; from
the
But
of the verb to Bind.
^
right burglar. (A. F. E.) A. F. bmgler,
Dan.
for ' bunt ' are
words
bnrglour; Law L. buigtihUor.'LdiV/L.
bug, Swed.
G. bauch ; see Bulk
buk, Du. btiik,
(2). burguldre,to break into a house. A. S.
Borough.
; see
(i),a bird. (E.?) M. E. burh, bii?-g
Bunting
Lowl.
also buntyle (^=^bunlel),
hunting',
burgomaster. (Du. and F.) Du.
stem

"

"

Sc. binitlin.

town-master.
a
burge-nieester,

Origin unknown.

Bunting

stuff for

thin woollen

(2),
; from
(E.) Perhaps sifting-cloth
flags.
a

'

'

M. E. boniefi,prov. E. bunt, to sift. Cf.


F. etanmie, in the same
senses.
a buoy ;
Buoy. (Du. F. L.) Du. "^^^z',
also a shackle, a fetter. O. ". buie, a
F. boit^e,
a
fetter,
buoy. Late L. boia,a
"

"

"

because
F.

"

Bur, Burdock

;
fish.

see

collar for the

Du.

burg,

by

the

Burgundians.
"

Bourgogne,Burgimdy.

(E.)

yi..\L.buriel,
biriel,2i

speltberiels,biriels." h..^.
A. S. byrga7i,
to bury;
tomb.
a
by7'gels,
with -al is due to
see
Bury. The spelling
association with fu7ie7--a
I,Sec
tool.
an
Burin,
(F. G.)
engraver's

tomb;

also

"

Burr.

F. botirbotte
'to wallow
(alsobarbote).'"Ybottrbetter,

Burbot,

first used

Burial.

"

L. boia, pi.a
neck, orio'.of leather.

fetter,
clog.

"

a
co;^natewith E. Borough
; and j?ieester,
Master.
see
master, from O. F. 7neistre;
Burgonet, a helmet. (F.) F. bourguignote.'a burganet,'Cot. So called

(F.)

"

from
Prob.
in mud,' Cot.
F. bourbe,mud.
Late L. F. buri7i ; Ital. bori7io.
M. H. G. bore7i (G. bohren),to bore; see
Gk. ^vp^opos,mud.
borba,mud.
Bore
i ) Burthen,
a load carried
Blirden
(i).
to
(E.) A. S. byrden,a load. From Teut.
Burke, to murder by suffocation;
"

"

"

*bur-,weak grade of *beran-,to bear ; see


Bear
(i).+ Icel. byrdr, byrdi; Swed.

murder, stifle. (Personal name.) From


of Burke, an Irishman who comname

the

67

BUSS

BURL
mitted

shelter for rabbits.


a
Burrow,
(E.)
borwgh, a cave, shelter;merely a
of borough. Der. burrow,
spelling

by suffocation;executed

murders

Edinburgh,Jan. 28, 1829.


Surl, t J pick knots and loose

M.E.
varied

at

from

cloth.

threads

burl is to pick verb.


off hurls.
M. E. Inirle,
knot in cloth.
Med.
L.
Bursar.
a
(Med. L.-Gk.)
O. F. bojirle ; dimin. of F. bourre, a flock bursdrius,a purse-bearer.Med. L. bursa,
Gk. jSypcra,
lock of wool or hair. Late L. burra, a purse.
or
a hide, wine-skin.
To

(F. L.)
"

"

"

"

"

woollen

pad ;

allied to L,

burrce,trifles,Burst.

trash,Late L. reburrus, rough.

t.

(E.)
A. S.

brast.

M. E. bersten,
bresten,pt.
berstan,to burst asunder,

comic.
-L.) break; str. vb.+Du. bersten; G. bersten;
(F.-Ital.
ii'dX.
Icel. bresta; Swed.
ludicrous."
briste ;
brista; Dan.
burlesco,
burlesque.'"
trick.
also
O.
Irish
dimin.
briss-im
I
Ital. burla. waggery,
A
a
(for*brest-v)i),

burlesque,

F.

(Ausonius).break.

nonsense
trifles,

from L. burra,
See BurL

Bury

(i),vb.

(E.)

M.

burien.

E.

Burly. (E.) M. E. bnrli, hurliche,A. S. byrigan, byrgan, to hide in the


borli\prov, 'E..bonferly
; Shetland
boorly.ground, bury. From burg-, weak grade
Formed
to hide ; see
Borough.
by adding the suffix -ly (A. S. of beoi'g-ati,
bury.
A.
S.
bur, a bower, a lady's Bury (2),a town.
-lie)to
(E.) As in Canterthe
old
fitfor
A.
dat.
of
S.
chamber
a
senses
oiburh, borough.
byrig,
; hence,
a bower,'
excellent,
large,great; See Borough.
stately,
and, finally,
stout,big. E. g. 'a burly bed.'
Bus, a shortened form oi omnibus. (L.)
'

"

Burn

(I )

(E.)

verb.

M.E.

bernen ; also
a. intrans.

See Omnibus.

Bush

(I), a thicket.
(Scand.-L.)
Dan.
busch, busk.
busk, Swed.
Icel.
shrub.
bj'inna
Du.
bush,
beam, brau, pp. bornen.'\-0.
bosch;O. H. G.
+
; biiske,7[.
buse
G.
busch.
from
Goth, brinnan ; Teut. type *brennancf.
All
Late L. boscus,
;
;
bush ; a word of unknown
flame. |3.
A. S. bryiie,
trans. A. S. bceriian,
a
origin.
hrennen.
A.S.

There

are

forms,

two

bcornan,byrnan, strong verb, pt.

t.

brdnna

brennen

G.

Goth,

brannjan

causal to the former.


Teut. type *brannjan-,
Burn
(2),a brook ; see Bourn
(2).

Burnet,
Low
of a
dark

plant. (F.-O.

H.

from

the dark

E.

to

burnishen

box.

See Pyx.

bushel,
M. E. bushel.
Late

brown

"

"

L.

(F.

measure.

"

L.

Gk.)

"

O. F. boissel;
A.F. bousselle,

"

small
box ; for
of O. F. boiste,a box."
of huxis, a box
buxida, ace.

bustellus,a

dimin.
*boistel,

polish.(F.
;

"

"

Late L. buxis^a box.


Gk. ttv^js,
Gk.
TTu^os,box-wood, box-tree.

"

G.)

colour of the flowers.

burnish,

(2),the metal box in which an


(Du. L. Gk.) M. E. busse.
bus,a box, barrel (ofa gun) ; G.

axle works.
Du.
biichse.

"

Named

"

"

O. F. brunete,the name
L. burneta.
kind of
flower : burnette,brunette,
a
brown
cloth, also a brunette. See

Brunette.

E.

Bush

brenna, Dan. brcende,Swed.


vb.-{-Icel.

wk.

M.

M.

also

O. H.

burnen.

"

G.)

O. F.

Late

L.

(above\
Busk

to
burnir, brunir (pres.part, burnis-ant),
embrown, to polish. O. H. G, brimeu
"^O.H.G.
brun, brown; see
{"i*brunjan).

bfiask,to get oneself ready. Icel.


bfia,to prepare ; and -sk,for sik,oneself.

Brown.

See Bound

(i\

to

get oneself ready.(Scand.)

Icel.

"

"

(3);

and

cf. Bask.

Busk
(2),a support for a woman's
cloak worn
'a buske, or
by the Arabs. (F. Arab.) stays. (F.) M. F. biisque,
F. burnous, bournous.
Arab,
buj'nus, a buste ; Cot. Mod. F. buse. Of uncertain
kind of high-crownedcap, worn
formerly origin. Cf. M. F. buc, a busque ;'Cot.
in Barbary and Spain ; whence
O. F.
(F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.)
Span, al- Buskin.
bornoz, a kind of cloak with a hood.
bousequiii(1483) ; also brouseqtnn."
M. Ital. borzachino,buskin, fine boot.
Burr, Bur. (E ) M. E. btirre,knob
burdock ; bor^-e,roughnessin the L. borsa.
Gk. ^vpaa, a hide. The M. Du.
on
a

Burnouse,

Burnoose,

an

upper

"

'

"

'

"

"

throat.

Not

in

A.S.

N.

Fries,

burre,

broseken

was

borrowed

from

F.

a ?ea/;^rr"?,
Buss, to kiss. (E.) [The old word was
Lat. basitim,z.
bass."
T"Ti.x\.
to kiss.
V. baiser,
urchin; ^ar^'/^^?/';'*?,
a burdock;
borre,
burdock.
modern
From
Teut. base *bnrz-":i*burs-,kiss.] The
buss, of imitative
have
weak grade of Teut. root *bers,to bristle. origin,may
been partlysuggested
See Bi'istle.
Der, bur-dock.
by it. Cf. prov. G. (Bavarian)bussen,
a burr,burdock.
borf'e,

+ Swed.

"

68

CADDY

BUZZARD

cook's cabin ; also


the chimney in 9
to
a
bizz,to hiss ; Ital.btizzicare,
hum, whisper.
ship,'Sewel.
(Hence also Dan. kabys,
Blizzard.
(F. L.) M. E. bosard, Swed. kabysa,caboose.)

Lowl.

Sc.

"

busard,

of falcon.
F.
Cabriolet.
(F.-Jtal.-L.) Cab is
short
with
for
cabriolet.
suffix
Y cabriolet,
a
cab;
buzzard;
F. ra/rw/^,
Late L. biisio from its supposed lightness.
/iar/)."
a caper, leapof a goat ; formerlycapriole.
sparrow-hawk.

inferior kind

an

"

Y. biise,a
busard.
"a)'d (from O.H.G.
"

L.

buteo,a

By,

"

"

M.

(F.)

prep.

bi.

E.

Goih. bi.

big.-\-lK\.
bij G.bei;
',

Ital. capriola,
ItaL
a
caper, a kid.
caprio,wild goat ; cap7'a,a she-goat.

A. S. bl,
Cf.Skt.

"

"

"

L. caper,goat ; fem. capra.

a-bhz, Gk. dfi-(pi.

a
townshi}).Cacao, atree. (Span. Mexican.) Span.
By-law, a law affectinij;
Icel. cacao
name
{cacatiatt)
(Scand.) Formerly also birlaw.
; from the Mexican
of the tree whence
whence
chocolate
is made.
3"?-;-,
by-r^a village(gen.bcejar,
as
cocoa.
bir-^'y
log,a law. So also Dan. by-lov,a % Not the same
town-law.
Cachinnation.
Icel. beer is allied to bua, to
(L ) L. ace. cachindwell.
See Boor.
ndtionem, loud laughter. L. cachinndre,
to laugh. Cf. Cackle.
Byre, a cow-house. (E.) A Northern
E. deriv. of boTver. A. S. lyre, a shed,
Cachucha, a dance. (Span.) Span.
hut.
A. S. bn7% a bower; cf. Icel. bftr,a c acinicha.
"

"

"

"

pantry. See

Cacique,

Bower.

W.

W.

chief.

Indian

(Span."

Indian.) Span, cacique,an


the old

prince. From
Cack, to

Indian

languageof Hayti.

go to stool. (L.) M. E.
cakken.'"'L. cacdre.
Cabriolet.
quentativ
Cackle.
(2),a Heb. measure.
kakeleii,a fre(Heb.) Heb.
(E.) M.E.
of
The
literal
Du.
the
i8th
in
S.
form.
Not
A.
an
+
ephah.
qab,
part
kakelen ; Swed.
kackla ; Dan. kagle; G.
is ' hollow ' ; cf. Heb qdbab,to form
sense
in the shape of a vault ; see Alcove.
is ' to keep on saying
gackeln. The sense
'
Cabal. (F.- Heb.) Orig. a secret.' F. kak ; cf.gabb-le,
gagg-le.
gobb-le,

Cab
Cab

(i);

see

'

a hidden
cabale,the JewesCaball,
*

Cot.

doctrine.

Heb.

"

Cabbage

receive ;

gdbal,

to

(0^

harsh

qibbel,(pojvos,harsh.

"

Gk.

Der.

(Gk.)

sound.
Gk.

harsh sound.
KaKoipoji'ia,
a

0a;i/
-77,sound.

kuko-

"

bad ;

kuko-s,

and

cacophonous
(Gk./coko-

vegetable.(F.-L.) (/xwros).

(Picard)caCad, a low fellow. (F.-L.) Short


cabtis,for Lowl. Sc. cadie,an errand-boy;see
cabiis,
large-headed
cabbage. L. Jamieson. F. fixr/g/; see Cadet.

cabache, cabocJie.

M. E.

Cacophony,

doctrine.

adopt a

to

'

(7(7^M/(7//,
reception,
mysteriousGk.

Heb.

"

science ;

boche,lit. great
'

F. choux

F.

"

'

head

cf. Picard

"

cap-ui, head
cf. Ital.

with

head
capocchia,

(2),

Cabbage

"

Cadaverous,

augmentativesuffix ;
of

steal.

to

c ad alter

From

(F.)

(L.)
corpse-like.

L.

Lat.
Y.. cadauer, a corpse.
fall dead.
cad-e?'e,to fall,
Caddis, a kind of worsted lace or tape.
M. E.
(F.) In Wint. Tale, iv. 4. 208.

nail.

osus.

"

"

cobasser,to put into a basket ; Norman


cabasser,to cabbage (and see Supp. to
in
Godefroy). F. cabas, a basket; Norman
cadas, explained by bombiciniiun
dis).
cabas,tailor's cabbage; of unknown
origin. Prompt. Parv. ; (henceIrish cadas, cadsted,'
Though also used to denote 'worCaber, a pole.(C" L.) Gael, cabar,
silk. F. cadarce,
rafter. L. type *caprio,
it was
a
a
rafter;see
orig.coarse
Y

"

"

"

whereof sleave
'the courstst
part of silke,
is made ; ' Cot.
Cf. Span,cadarzo,coarse,
entangledsilk,that cannot be spun on a
silk. Origin
reel ; Port, cadarco,a coarse

Chevron.

Cabin.

(F.)

Prov.

cabana.

"

M.E

cabam."Y.
Late

"

L.

cabane.

capanna,

hut

(Isidore).
cabinet. (F.)

F.

cabane,a

Cable.

cabin
-

"

cabinet,dimin.

of

M.

E. cable.

Eastern. Der. caddis


n ; probably
the
caddis-like
from
7vorm,
shape of the
of the larva.
case
Caddy, a small box for tea. (Malay.)
Better spi It catty. A small package of
unknow

(above).

(F. L.)

c"7/V"?. Late L.

F.

O. F.

captiluni.
caplum, a strong

L. capere,to hold.
is called in the
the cook's cabin on board ship. tea, less than a half-chest,
camboose.'^Xyw.
tea-trade
a caddy or
ko?Hbuts,
Formerly
catty. Malay kati,a

(holding)
rope.

"

Caboose,
(Du.)

"

70

CALENTURE

CADE

Calabash, the shell of a gourd. (F.


weightequal to i| lb. avoirdupois.This
and
used
in
is
also
China
I'ers.) F, calebasse."
Span. "Arab.
Japan,
weight
and tea is often made
taining Span,calahaza (Port,
calaba^a).Arab.
np in packagescon-

"

"

Cade,
Heb,)

'

cask,
barrel,

F. cade."!.,

"

Pers. kharhuz, a melon


lit. ass-gourd,'
i.e. largegourd. Pers. khar, ass (hence,
odoriferous fruit. Cf. Skt.
coarse);/^Msa//,

catty.

one

(F,-L.

"

Gk."

"

cask.
ccuius,a barrel,

Gk. /m5o?,a cask,jar. Heb, kad, a pail.kkara, an ass.


herb,
fall of the voice.
L.
a
a
(V.
Gk,)
(F." I Calamint,
Ital. L.) M. E. cadence.
F. cadence, a I M. F. calamcnl, Cot.
Late L. calaniintha.
cadence, just fallingof words;' Cot.
I Gk. KaXafx'ivQv,
"

"

Cadence,

'

"

"

"

"

"

I Calamity. (F,-L.)
Ital. cadenza. "l^^Xjt h. cadentia,a falling.
Y. calainitL^
L. ace. calaniiidteni,
L. cadent-.,
of pres. pt.of cadere,to
stem
a misfortune.
fall.+ Skt. (ad,to fall.
Calash, a sort of carriage. (F. G."
Cadet, orig.a 5'ounger son.
(F. L.) Slavonic) F, caleche. G. kalesche. Vo\.
"

"

"

"

"

dimin. of kolasa,
younger brother ; Prov. capdel. kolaska,a small carriage,
Late L. capit-a carriage;Russ, koliaska. a carriage,"
form
Gascon
a
elltim (thesubstitution of / for // being Pol koto,
a wheel
; O. Slav. koto. (VQEL.)
(L.) Should be calregularin Gascon ; P. Meyer); lit. a little Calcareous.
to lime.
(younger)head, dimin. from L. caput, a carious. L. cakdrius, pertaining
L. calc-,
stem
head.
oicalx, lime,
F, cadet, a
Capdet is

"

"

Cadi, a judge. (Arab.) Arab. qddJ, calcine.


(F. L.) Y. calcmer.
to reduce to a calx."
qdzl,a cadi orcazi,a judge. Hence Span. Mod. L. calcindre,
of calx,lime.
al L. calc-,stem
alcalde,the judge (E. alcayde)
; where
is the Arab. def. article.
calculate.
(L.) L. calculdt-us,
pp.
Caducous, falling.
(L.) L. cadnc-tis,of calculdre,to reckon by help of small
l^. cadere, to pebbles. L. calculus, pebble* dimin. of
with suffix -otts.
falling;
"

"

"

fall.

calx,a

See Cadence.

stone.

L. ccisura, a cutting;
Caldron, Cauldron.
(F.-L,) M.E.
L. cces-us, pp. of caiideron, A. F. caudrun.'-O.
North
F".
to cut.
ccedere,
(Picard)catideron, for O. F, chauderon,
calderone.Span.
Caftan, a Turkish garment. (Turk.) mod. F. chaudron (Ital.
Turk, qaftan,
Extended
a vessel for hot water.
a dress.
calderon),
L. caldus,
a hot bath.
Cage. (F. L.) F. cage. Late L. from L. calddr-ia,

Caesura.

pause

(L.)

in

verse.

"

"

"

"

hot.
L. calere,
L. caiiea, a cave, den, cage.
L. contr, form of calidzis,
to
be hot.
See Cave.
caujis, hollow.
(L.) L. calcnddrium,an
Caique, a boat. (F. Turk.) Y. caique. Calendar.
account-book
Turk, kaik,a boat.
kept by money-changers;so
due on
the
Cairn, a pileof stones.
(C.) Gael., called because interest was
a
Irish,\\'.,Bret. car7i, a crag, rock ; also a calends (lit day) of each month; also,
calendar. L. calenda, calends.
pileof stones.
cavea,

"

"

"

"

"

Caitiff.
A.F.
L.
"

M.

E.

caitif.- Calender

(F.-L.)
a wretch
(F.chetif).cloth. (F.
caitif.captive,
a

captmum,

ace.

Captive,

Cajole. (F,)
to
formerly,

of imitative

(0" ^
L.

machine

for

pressing

F. ealandre."
Gk.)
Med. 'L.^calendra,
of captiuus; see
celendra,a calender;an
of L. cylindrus.
a cylinder
adaptation
; see
Der. calender,
smoother
of
to cajole;Cylinder.
a
cajoler,

F.
chatter like

jay. Perhaps linen,a

"

mistaken

"

form

Calender (2),

origin; cf. cackle.

for calendrer.
of wandering

kind

monk.
as
a
jj/),
(F. Pers.) F. ca lender. ^Vers.
oil, (Malay.)
Malay qalandar,a kind of wandering Miihamabandons
monk, who
kayu patih, lit. 'white wood.'
Malay madan
everything
and
the
world.
wood
retires
from
white.
kdyti,
; pfctih,
Cake.
Calends.
(E. or Scand.) M. E. cake.
(L.) L. calender,s. pi.,
N. Fries, kdk, kdg, late Icel. and Swed, |the firstday of the (Roman) month.
Orig.
kaka ; Dan.
from the base cal-,
kage. Tent, stem *kakdn-, I obscure ; but certainly

Cajuput, Cajeput (withJ

tree

"

yieldingan

"

fem. ; from

Teut. root *kak-,of which the


strong grade is *-kdk- (whence prov. E.
Du. koek,G. kuchen, a cake).
cookie^

!as

in O.

Lat. calare, to proclaim,


-f-Gk.
Allied to Hale
summon.
(2).
Calenture, a feverous madness. (F.

IKaK(iv, to

i
7

CAMEL

CALF
"

Span. L.)
"

F. calen/u

calenSpa.n.

re."

of

V,. calent-, stem


calere, to be hot.
tm-a.

"

pres. pt.

thick-skinned.
L. callus,
L. callosus,
calskin.
Callow, unfledged,bald. (L.) M. E.
"

liun. hard

ot

calu, calewe. A. S. calu, bald +Du. kaal,


Calf^i).
(E.) y^.Y..kalf. O.Merc.
calf;A.S. cealf.JfViVi.
kalf\ Icel. kdlfr; bald; Swed. ^^/ ; G.kahl. Teut *kakuoz,
from L. cahms, bald.
Swed.
kalv; Goth, kalbd ; earlyborrowed
kalf\ Dan.
G. kalb.
Dar.
calve,vb., A. S. cealjian.Calm.
(F. L. Gk.) F. caUiie, adj.
Perhaps allied to Skt. garbha, womb, a Allied to Prov. chaiime,the time when the
flocks rest ; F. chd??ier (Jormeily
foetus. Brugm. i. " 656.
c/iaumer),
"

"

Calf
(2), the thick hind part of the to rest from work ; Ital. calma, rest. Late
the heat of the sun
shank. (E.) Perhapsthe same
as the above;
L. cauma,
(whence,
Icel.
cf. Gaulish L. galba,great-ballied
for
time
rest)
[It is sug; Job xxx.
30.
;
gested
in.
calf of the leg. See Cave
that the change from au to al was
kdlji,
Caliber, Calibre, bore of a gun. due to association with L. cal-ere,to be
"

Gk.
F. calibre,size of a bore ; Span. hot.] Gk. KavfJ-a, heat.
naUiv, to
Perhaps burn. Der. be-calm.
(1623). Etym. unknown.
from Arab, qdlib,
a
form, mould, model,
Calomel, a preparationof mercury.
Coined to express a white product
Rich. Diet. p. II 1 1 (Diez). Mahn
(Gk.)
gests
sugGk. Ka\6-s,
fair ;
L. qua libra,
from a black substance.
with what measure.

(F.)

"

"

calibre

"

black.
(E. Indian.)and /LieA-as,
Nanidd
the Malabar
Caloric.
from
Calicut, on
(F. L.) F. calorique.L.
first
L.
whence
it
heat.
to be hot.
was
calere,
coast,
calor,
imported.
hot.
Calif,Caliph. (F.-Arab.) Y.calife, calorific,making
(L.)l^.calorioi calor,
kha- fcus,makinghot. L. calori-,
ot the prophet. Arab,
stem
a
successor
ior facere,io
make.
Aral), khalafa,to succeed.
heat; and -fie-,
lifah,successor.
a
Doublet, khalifa.
Calthrop, Caltrap, a star-thistle,
Caligraphy, Calligraphy, good ball with spikes for annoying cavalry.
A.S.
Gk.
(L. and Teut.) M. E. kalketrappe,
writing.(Gk.) Gk. /":aAAi7/)a./"ia.
from
from
star-thistle.
Coined
a
KaWt;
calcetreppe,
prefix(fork"xK\os, beaut}',

Calico,

-cloth.

cotton

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Ka\6s,good, fair);

and

calisthenics,
gracefulexercises.

jpaipeiv,to write.

callisthenics,
From

(GIc.)

Gk.

with
adorned
strength.
Ka\ki(T9"v-r]^,
Gk.
KaXKi(for /fdAXo?, beauty, from
"

KaXos, fair)
; and

compasses, i.e.
diameters;

see

compasses
Caliber.

Calisthenics

Caliver,
from

sort

its caliber

(F.) Vox

or

for

Calumet, a kind of pipe for tobacco.


F,
calu?net,a
(F. L. Gk.) Norman
F.
F.
f
orm
O.
to
chalejuel,
pipe; parallel
chalujneau, a pipe. L. calamus, reed.
"

aOiv-os,
strength.

Calipers,compasses.

of calx, the heel ; and the


L. calci-,
stem
Teutonic word /ra/. Lit. 'heel-trap';
see
the same.
So also F. chatissetrappe,
Trap.

caliber-

"

"x

(F.

Calumny.

; see Caligraphy.
of musket.
(F.) Named
Diet.
bore ; see Kersey's

See Caliber.

"

"

fcaXapios,a reed.

Gk.

measuring

"

See Shawm.
L.) Y .calonmie.

"

l^.

L.
calumnia, false accusation.
calul,
caluere,to deceive.
Calve ; see Calf.
Calx.
(L.) L. calx, stone, lime (stem
calc- ) ; in Late L., a calx.
"

Calk ; usually
Caulk, q. v.
L. calyx. Gk.
Call.
(Scand.) Late A.S. ceaUian; Calyx. (L. Gk.)
E. Fries, kallen.
cf. hildecalla,
a herald.
KoXv^, a covering,calyx (or cup) of a
Allied to Helm
Icel. and Swed. kalla\ Dan. ka/de.-^Dn. flower.
(2).
wheel.
Teut,
challon.
kallen ; O. H. G.
on
a
a
(Du.)
Cam,
projection
type
G.
Kilian"!
Du. kamfn, a comb
"^-kallon-or '^kallojan-,
weak verb ; cf. W.
; Low
(see
kamvi ; cf. Dan. kam, comb, also a ridge
gahv. to call,Russ. golos\voice, sound.
"

"

"

Callet, Callat, a worthless woman.


(F. Low L. Low G.) In Oth. iv.
"

"

on

wheel, cam,

or

cog.

lit.a

caillette,a gossip, chatterer; Kamerijk, also called


where it was
littlequail; dimin. of caille,
a quail,in Flanders,

also

121."

femme

F.

Littre

woman.

galante.

See

hard.

(F. L.)
"

from

Cambray,

town

firstmade.

givescaille coiffee,Camel.
(F.-L.-Gk.-Heb.) M. E.
O. North F. camel,
camel,camail,chamel.
Quail.
ful.)
(Doubt"

O. F. chatfiel. L. cajnelus. Gk. icajxTjXos.


Heb. gdmdl. Cf. Arab, jamal.
"

Callous,

See Comb.

(Flanders.)Named

Cambric.

2.

calleux."

"

72

"

CAMELOPARD

CANISTER

has lost an n.
a
(L. Heb.
''^cunde)
giraffe.
y. The pp. couth,
A.S.
L. cacouth,
cu6, known, only survives in uncanielopardalis.
which
Allied to Ken
and
see.
girr.fle;
meloparddlis.Gk. KanT]\oTrdp8a\is,
like a paid." Know.
like a camel, partly
(-v^GEN)
j^aitly
Gk. KafiTjXo-s,
a camel
Can
(Heb. gdmdl) ; and
(2),a drinking-vessel.
TE.) A.S.
Du.
Pard.
Ictl.
can.
see
a
a
kan\
i)ard
kanna;
-4ndpSaXis,
;
canne,
Caxnelliai. (Personal name.) A plant Swed. katina ; Dan. kande ; G. kanjie, a
named
(by Linneeus) after Geo. Jos.Kamel, tankard, mug.
(Apparentlya true Teut.
scribed
Moravian
word.)
a
Jesuit(17th cent.),who dein the island of Luzon.
the plants
Canal.
(F. L.) F. canal Cwhence also
Camel.
see
'-'L,.candlis,Si
channel,trench.
Dw.kanaal).
Camelopard ;
Ital.
a
winu.
dance.
a
a
bird,
a
Cameo.
cammeo,
camieo,
(Ital.)
Canary,
from
the
preciousstone carved in relief. Origin (Canary Islands.)All named

Camelopard,

and

"

t-ormerly

Gk.)

"

"

"

(L.) L.

Cam.era.
hence

dark

obscura,

camera

for

camera,

photography
Camlet, a stuff. (F.

box

Islands.

Canary

unknown.

; see
"

chamber

L.

chamber,

"

"

cancel

a deed
by drawing
L. cancellus,
a grating,
pi.
crossed lines;dimin.
cayicellT,
lattice-work,
of pi.cancri, lattice-work.

it.

across

"

Cancer.
(L.) L. cancer, a crab
Cf. G\"..KnpKivos,
an
tumour.
khaj?ilat,kha??ialat,
eating'

Really fiom

Arab.

camlet

Diet. p. 628.
; see Chamomile.

Camomile

'

karkaia, crab ; cf. Skt.


from itshard shell.
Named
a

(F.-Ital.-L.) Y.camp{Qoi.). Candelabrum.

Camp.

Y. canceller. '-l.z.w

(F. L.)

to
cancelldre,

lines

Chamber.
Arab.) Formerly

^\.". canielot,Cot.; supposed


camelot.
cavieVs hair.
from containing
to be named
; Rich.

Cancel.

; also

Skt.

kaikara, hard.

Brugm. i. " 464.

(L.^ \..caudeldbritm,

from candela. a candle.


field,
caiiip. L. raw/?/;;/,a candle-holder;
Candid.
field,
ground held by an
(F.-L.) Y. candide,\f}i\it,
sincere. L. candidus,white,shining.
fair,
Brugm. i. " 563.
army.
L.
field.
a
candere, to shine. L. *candere,to
(F.
campaign, orig. large
fire (in comp.
Ital. L.) F. campaigne,campagne, an
set on
in-cende?-e).-\-9"V
Iial. cafnpo,a

"

ace.

of campus,

"

"

"

"

"

open

field.

"

Ital. campagtia, a held ; also


L. campdnia, open field."

chand{iox ^chand)to shine.


,

y'SC^END.)

Brugm. i. "" 456,818 (2).


L. campus, a field. (Alsospelt
champaign, candidate.
(L.) L. candiddtus,
white- robed ; because candidates for office
and even
champion in old authors.)
white.
campestral, growing in fields. (L.) wore white. L. ca?ididus,
in
F'rom L. campestr-is,
A.S.
candel.-'L.
candle.
dela,
canfields;
growing
(L.)
with suffix -a/. L. campus, a field.
L. candere,to glow.
a candle.
candour.
(F.-L.) Y. candeur.'^l..
Cam.panula. (L.) Lit. *a littlebell ;
Hence also ace. candorern,
dimin. of L. ca?npdna,a bell.
(hence,sincerity).
brightness
ca mpan i-forj?i
Candy, crystallised
sugar. (F.- Ital."
merly Skt.) Y sticre candi,sugar-candy;
whence
Malay.) ForCamiphor. (F. Arab.
inserted
F.
Cot
"Ital.
se
'to
.with
an
candir,
candie;'
i).
speltcamphire
Low
F. camphre, 'camphire;'Cot.
candire,to candy; cajidi,
candy; zucchero
a

campaign.
"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

camphora (whence the form camphor). candi, sugar-candy.Arab, qand, sugar;


Arab,
Arab, kdfur,
of sugar.
qandt, made
camphor ; cf.Skt. karpiira,whence
word
is Ar}an; cf. Skt. khdr.^ava,
lit.chalk ; kdpur The
camphor. Malay kdpilr^
for camfrom
phor.
sweetmeats, khawdia,a broken piece,
Bdriis, chalk of Barous, a name
Barous
to break.
is in Sumatra.
Der. sugar- candy,Ital.
khavuS.,
zticchero candi.
able. (E.) A. S. can,
Can
(0, I am
1st and
3rd persons sing.pres. of
cann,
Candytuft, a plant.(Hyb.) From
The
is Candy, i.e. Candia
to know.
; and tuft.
(Crete)
cmtnan^
pres. t. can
old perf.
M. E.
an
t. ; the same
really
(F.-L.-Gk.)
cam,
peculiarityCane.
L.

"

"

"

occurs

in Du.

kunnen,

Icel. and

Swed.

canjie.

"

F.

canne.

L.

"

canna.

"

Gk. Kawa,

kunna, Dan. kunde, to know, to be able ; a reed. Cf. Heb. qdneh, reed ; Arab.
G. konnen, to know.
p. The pt. t. is qandh,cane.
canister.
could,with intmsive /; M. E. coude,A. S.
(L. Gk.) L. canistrnm,
cii^e ; cf. Goth,
basket.
Gk. Kdvaarpov,
the same.
kuntha, Du. konde, G. a liLjht
"

"

konnte ;

shewing that

A. S. ciiQe

(for
73

"

Gk.

KavT]

Kawa,

reed.

CANZONET

CANNON

(F.

cannon.

Ital.

"

"

Cane.

see

deep gorge,

The

is

cognate.

(0,

canon

rule.

"

L. canna,

Span,canon,

a.

"

reed

Canorous,

with

tube, a

A. S.

(L. Gk.)
"

rule.

tuneful. (L.) L. canor-us


;
suffix-*?/^. L. fa":"?r"?,
tosing.Brugm.
i. " 181.
cant
(i),to singin a whining way,
whine.
(L.) L. cantdre (whence Picard

Gk.) F.
orig.a

"

cannon,

"

rule.

\^ canon,
Gk. Kavrj

canon.

L.

"

Ital. cannone,
great tube,a gun- barrel.
canon.

of the church.
(2),a dignitary
M.
E
canoun."
-Gk.)
canun,
(F.
'L?iX..canom'
O. F. canogne,no\vchanoine.

canticle.

L.

of canonicus, adj.,one
the
on
church-roll or list. L. canofi, the churchroll ; also,a rule. See canon
(i).
ace.

to

(L-)
L. cams,

dog.

L. canlnus,

"

Canister
Canker.

dog ;

(F. L.) North


(F.chancre). L.. cancriun, ace.
"

F.

kanker

may

perhapsE,
of

be

in the

canker

cancre.

trees';cf. Gk.

an

7077^0?,

'

poem.

L.

ing,
sing-

cantujn,

ace.

"

L.

oi cancer,
^ i he G.

of

sense

Ital. r(2"/"7,
a
"

See Cancer.
Teutonic
(Kluge);

crab, a canker.

singing,
song (abovel.
canzonet.
L.) Ital. canzo(Ital."
netta, dimin. of canzone, a hymn, song.

Hound.

"

little

to

"

belonging

see

see

of canticnm, a song ; dimin.


song ; cf. catttus,pp. of

section of

Cane.

see

first

at

was

hence, hypocrisy
;

sing.
canto.
(Ital.L.)

canere,

"

Canine.

sing); frequent,

to

Cant

(L.) L. canticulum,a

dimin.

song
of cantus,

"

cum,

sing.

Kecant.

canon
"

canter,
to

canere,

beggar'swhine

cane.
Kdvva,a (straight)

.d Walloon

of
Gk./fat'a;"',arod,

"

"

of cantio, a song.

cantionem,

ace.

cantus, pp. of canere,

Cant

so

disease

L.

sing.

an
edge ; as verb, to
(2),

tilt. (Du.

L.)

"

and

excrescence

to

"

Du. kant, an edge, corner.+Dan.


Swed. kant, edge ; G. kante, a corner.

All from Late L. cantus, a corner; which


|3.
is prob.from L. canthus
Gk. KavQo-i,
the
because
it burns
candle-coal,'
brightly.corner of the eye, felloe of a wheel.
Prov. E. cannel, a candle.
See Candle.
Canteen.
(F. Ital.) F. cantine.
cool cave
merly Ital. cantina, a cellar,
Cannibal.
(hence
(Span. W. Indian.) forfor
the
vessel
canibal
for
of
canibal.
sense
Caribal,
liquids).Origin
;
Span,
doubtful.
Islands.
a
Carib, native of the Caribbean
Perhapsfrom Late L. cantus,a
The W. Indian (Hayti)word carib means
corner.
brave.' Hence also Caliban.
Canter, an easy gallop.(Propername.)
on

trees.

Cannel-coal.

Lit.

E.)

and

(L.

"

"

"

'

the pace at
Short for Canterbury gallop,
Cane.
thither.
which
rode
billiards.
pilgrims
(2),
(F. Span.)
shortened form of
of carrom,
A corruption
Canticle, Canto; see Cant (i),
F. caramboler, v., to make
at
a
cannon
(F. L. ?) O.F.
Cantle, a small piece.
other balls with
two
to touch
cantel,a small piece(F.chanteau),dimin.
billiards,

Cannon
Cannon

(1);

see

at

"

one's

own

sense,

to

Hoyle's Games.

see

the

touch

caramboler,

to

red

(as

cannon

whence
above) and

of the eye ;

carambolage,
sb.,a cannon.
Span,caramof playingat billiards,
a
bola,a manner
cheat.
device,trick,
Originunknown.
"

Canoe.

(Span.
"

W.

of Picard cant (F.chant),a corner


; Late
L. cantus.
Prob. from L. canthus,corner

Orig.

ball ;

Ind.) Span,canoa

orig.a Haytian word for boat.'


Canon
(i)and (2); see Cane.
'

Cant (2).
see
Canton, aregion.(F. Ital.)". canton.
Ital. cantone, a nook, angle: also,a
; Late L.
township (Torriano)
corporation,
a
cantd7tum, canto,
region, province.
Origindoubtful, ff Canton (inheraldry),
"

"

Canopy. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.)

Should

of a shield,
is from F. canton,
Ital. cantone, from Ital.canto, an

corner

corner,

be conopy; but we find F. canopi,


borrowed
edge; see Cant (2),
from Ital. canope. (Also F. conopce.)!^.
Canvas.
(F. L. Gk.) yi.Y.,canevas.
Late
L, canabdcius,
North
F.
Gk.
canevas.
yiui.
]\x(\\ih.
conopeum,
Koji'ojiTeiov,
9.
an
Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains hempen cloth. L. cannabis, hemp. Gk.
(hence,
any sort of hangings). Gk. kqjpwtt-, Kavva^is, hemp. Cf. Skt. fana, hemp ;
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of Kwvojip,a mosquito, gnat ; lit.


cone-faced
or
cone-headed,'from the

stem
*

'

shape of

its head.

"

Gk.

Kujvo-t, a

and

face,appearance, from
a)\fi,

on,

to

see

Gk.

cone;

base

Hemp.

see

'

(F.-L.-Gk.)

canvass.
toss

in

canvas

sheet,

to

Orig.
criticize

thoroughly.From canvas,
Cant
see
(i).
Canzonet;

discuss

(seeOptics).
74

sb.

to
or

CAPTIOUS

CAOUTCHOUC

L.
North F. capitcl
(F.chapiteau)
; from
(above).
capitellum
capitation, poll-tax.(F.-L.) F.
(LateL.) A. S.
Cap, a head-covering.
L-vlXc L. ace.
L. cappa, a cap (Isidore). capitation.
capitdtionem,
cceppe-'-'l^^ie
of caput, poll,
L.
Late
stem
F.
poll-tax. capit-,
ra/a*^/^.
Capable. (F. L.)
L. capdbilis,
afterwards, head.
comprehensible;
L. capere,to hold below).
able to hold.
Capitol. (L.) The templeof Jupiter,
capit-,
capacious, able to contain. (L.) at Rome, called Capitolium.'^'L.
for
of capax, stem
of caput, a head ; but the reason
stem
from
L. capdci-,
Coined
the
obscure
contain
Class.
is
L. capere,to hold,
able to hold.
name
Smith,
;
; see
Heave.
see
Brugm. i. " 635. (y'QAP.) Diet.
of a horse. (F.
to a chapter.
(L.)
capitular, relating
Caparison, trappings
adj.of capitulum,
Span. Late L.) O. F. caparasson." Med. L. capituldris,
Span,caparazon, cover for a saddle ; aui:;- a chapter of a cathedral,or a chapterof
Y.caotit-

(F. Carib.)

Caontchonc.

"

word, cahnchii.

choitc; orig.a Caribbean

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

from

Med.

from

mentative

L.

caparo, a cowl

Span,capa, a cloak,cover.

capa, a cape

as

"

Late

book

see

Chapter.

capitulate. (L.) \.2X^\^.capituldtus

below.

(i),a coveringfor the

L.

pp. of
also to

shoulders.

to
capituldre,

divide into

chapters,

(forsurrender).
propose
Cape
z. chapter
; see Chapter.
(F. Late L.) O. North F. cape. Late L. Late L. capitulum,
of Seville!;whence
Der.
re- capitulate.
cdpa,a cape (Isidore
also Prov., Span.,Port, capa, Icel. kdpa,
Capon. (L. Gk.) A, S. capun.-^l^.
terms

"

"

"c.

Allied to cap.

Cape

Doublet, cope.

headland.

from
cdpone77i,

ace.

L.)

Ital."

Gk. navo^v,

capo.

nom.

"

(F.
capon.
L.
Ital. capo, head, headland.
Caprice. (F. Ital." L.?) Y. caprice.
Ital. capriccio,
a whim.
Perhaps from
caput, head.
Caper (i),to dance about. (Ital.L.) Ital. capro, a he-goat;so that capj'iccio
frisk like a goat's
Abbreviated
from capreole
a
(SirP. Sidney).might mean
; see
(2),

F. m/.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Ital.capriolare,
to skipas

Ital. Caper

goat.

"

(i).

Capricorn. (L.) L. capricomus,


for capro-,
she-goat.horned like a goat. L. cap7'i-,
of caper,goat ; and corn-u, horn,
L, capra, a she-goat
; cf. caper,he-goat.stem
frisk of a horse.
Icel.
4-Gk. Kairpos, a boar; A. S. hcefer,
capriole, a peculiar
Ital.
Y.
{steCot.).
kafr.
L.)
capriole
(F.
the leap of a kid ; see
Caper (2),the flower-bud of a certain Ital. capriola,
plant. (F.-L.-Gk.) M. F. capre {". Caper (i).
haps
cdpre). L. capparis.Gk. Ka-n-napis, caperCapsize, to upset. (Span.? L.) Perfrom Span, capuzar, to sink (a ship)
plant; its fruit ; cf. Pers. kabar, capers.
a derivative of L.
by the head ; apparently
Capercailzie. (Gael.) Here z represents
M. E. y, pron. as j)/. Gael, capull- caput, the head.
(A guess.)
coille,
greatcock of the wood ; lit.horse
Capstan. (F. Span. L. ?) F. cabeof the wood.
Gael, capull,
horse (see stan ; Prov. cabestaii. Span, cabestrajite,
a
a
a
wood, cabrestante,
Cavalier); coille,
capstan. Of these forms,
gen. of coill,
capriola,

in

also, a

of cafra, a

'

caper
kid ; dimin.

dancing,'Florio ;

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

cognate with PI Holt.

Capillary,

like hair.

(L.)
hair.
capillns,

cabestrante
L.

is the better,and

a
or
halter,
capil-Span,cabestrage,

is allied to

haltering,

Idris,adj.; from
Perhaps and to cabestrar,to halter. L. capistrant-,
allied to cap-ut,the head.
stem
of pres. pt. of capistrdre,
to halter.
halter.
a
Capital (I ),chief. (F.-L.) Y. capital. L. capistrum(Span,cabestro),
L. capitdlis,
L. cap-ere,to hold; with double suffix
belongingto the head. L.
"

"

"

"

"

the head.-|-Skt.
stem
oicap7it,
capit',
kapd- -is-tro.
skull ; A. S. hafela,
head.
la{fn),
Brugm. Capsule, seed-vessel. (F. L.) F.
i. " 64 K
dimin.
small case.
L. capsula,
a
capsule,
of
stock
oi
Case
a
case
(F."
capital (2),
(2).
money.
capsa,
; see
"I.z.Xg L. capitdle,
wealth ;
L.) F. capital
Captain. (F.-L.) y^.Y. capitain.'^
neut. oi capitdlis,
L. capitdneus,
chief;see Capital (i). O. F. capitain."Y.zte
capitstem
(L. ; or dtnis,a leader of soldiers. L. capit-,
capital (3),head of a pillar.
F. L.) L. capitellum,
head of a pillar
head.
; of cap7(t,
dimin. from L, caput, head.
Or from O.
Captious. (F. L.) F. captieux,cavil"

"

"

"

75

CAREER

CAPTIVE

L. captiostis.
'L. capita,a taking,karawTyd-a, caraway- seeds or plant. Cf.
sophistical
argument. L. captus,pp. of Gk. Kapos, Kapov, cumin.
See Capacious.
Carbine.
bine,
capere,to hold.
(F. Gk.) Formerly caraa
musket, the weapon of a carabin,
captive. (F.-L.) F. captif(fern.
"^'L. captiuus, a
F. carabin, 'an
captive. L. or musketeer.
captive).
arqueof
take.
Cot.
W.
to
buzier;'
caeth,
+
captus,pp.
capere,
Perhapsfrom O.F. calabrin,
O. Irish cacht^
soldier ; of uncertain origin.
a captive;
a female
captive.a light-armed
L.
a taker.
Carbon.
(F.-L.) F. carbone. l..
captor. (L.) L. r^//""r,

ling.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

cap-,as in capere,to take; with sufhx -tor. ace. carbonem, a coal.


carbonado, broiled meat. (Span."
capture. (F. L.) F. capture. !.,
L.
in
to
a
as
L.) Span, carbonada, meat broiled over
captilra, taking.
cap-,
capere,
"

"

"

take ; with

coals.

fem. suffix -tura.


hooded friar,
hood.

Capuchin,

(F.
-

Span,carbon,coal;

"

see

above.

L. carbunculus, (1) a
carbuncle.
small coal, (2)a carbuncle,gem, from its

Ital.
Late
L.) M. F. capuchin; V.
"Ital. cappucino,
small hood, glowing, (3) a
red
Double
tumour.
a
capucin.
hence a hooded friar ; dimin. of cappuccio,
dimin. of L. carbo, coal.
Ital.cappa,a cape ; see Cap and
a cowl.
protected
Carboy, a largeglassbottle,
Cape (i).
by wicker-work.
(Pers.) Pers. qardbah,
O. North F. a largeflagon
is prob. of Arab,
Car. (F. C.) M. E. carre.
; which
(Ducange,s. v. Marcellum). origin.Cf. Arab, qirbah,a. water-skin,
carre,di car
"

"

f.; allied to L. carrus,


L. carra,
water-bottle.
of Gaulish
origin. Bret, karr, Carcanet.

Late

"

car;

(F. Teut.) Dimin. of F.


jewels,or of gold."

"

chaiiot ; W.
car, O.
Allied to L. cur
carr.

Gael,

car,
a

us,

Irish

chariot ;

car

can,

"

collar of

O. H. G.

querca,

throat ;

the

cf. Icel.

kverkr,pi.the throat ; Yk'C^.gerkle throat,


Brugm. i. " 516.
to drink.
Caracole.
Brugm. i. " 653.
gei'ti,
(F. Span.) F. cat-acol,
caracole,a snail ; wfYitnce/airele caracole, Carcase, Carcass.
(F.- Ital.)From
dead
Ital.
to
M.
F.
a
nd
to
body.
by soldiers,
applied a manoeuvre
carquasse, a
made
kind
of
shell
horse.
turns
a
a
a
caracol,
by
carcassa,
bomb-shell,
;
Span,
a
snail,winding staircase,
turning about also,a skeleton,frame ; cf.Port, carcassa,
Of unknown
haps
a very old woman.
a carcase,
form). Per(fromthe snail-shell'sspiral
of Celtic origin
cf. Gael, carach, origin.
;
Card
winding ; car, a turn, twist.
(Oj piece of pasteboard.(F."
circling,
Ital. Gk.) Corruptionof F. carte, *a
Carafe, a glass water-bottle. (F.
Span. Arab.) F, carafe. Span,garrafa.,card,'Cot. Ital. carta', L. charta. Q\^.
,

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

cooler,vessel

cool wines in. Arab.


ghirdf,draughts of water ; Arab, root
a

to

"

gharafa,to draw water.


(Dozy, Devic.)
^ Or from Pers. qardbah,a largeflagon;
but

Carboy.

see

Carat.
Arab,

an

pod, husk, carat, 24th

ounce.

"

Gk.

fruit
Kepdriou,

of

"

Horn.

Caravan.
(F. Pers.)F. caravane.
Pers. kdjivdn, a caravan,
convoy.

instrument

for

combing

"

Cardinal.

the locust-tree ; also,a carat ; lit.' a small


horn.'
Gk. Kepar-, stem of Kipas, a horn ;
see

(2),an

chief

"

qirrdt,a

part of

Card

Der.

wool. (F. L.) Y .carde.'~^'it^.L,.cardus,


L. cardials,
a thistle ; for wool-combing.

(F. Ital.-Arab.
Gk.) F.
Ital.
carato."
light
weight.

carat, a very

"

leaf of papyrus.
"yapTT], xapT-qs,
cardboard.
chart.
Doublet,
a

door.

"

(L.) L. cardi?tdlis,
cipal,
printo the hingeof
orig.relating
cardin-,stem

L.

of

cardo,

hinge.

Cardoon,

plant. (F.-Prov.-L.)

Prov. cardon; with augF. cardon, Cot.


ment,
L. card-us, a
Med.
suffix from
"

See Card
(2).
A. S. caru,
(L.) M. E. care.
+ 0. Sax. kara, sorrow;
(Pers.) Pers. kdr- ceartc, anxiety.
caravansary.
inn for caravans.
Pers. O. H. G. chara, a lament; Goth, kara;
wdnsaray, an
caravan
kdrwdn,
; sardy, publicbuilding,Teut. type *kard, f. Hence, care, vb. ; A. S.
"

"

thistle.

Care.

"

inn.

carian.

Caraway,

Carraway.

(Span."

a
Arab.) Span, al-carahueya,

where
also

al is merely the Arab.


written
carvi.
hxdh.
"

Careen.

9\ Not allied
(F.-L.)

'

caraway ; keel ; hence to laya


def. art. ; carine,carhie,keel.
"

karwiyd-a. Career.
76

(F. C.)
"

L. cilra.
Lit. 'to clean the
shipon its side. F.
keel.
L. carina,
to

"

F. carriere,a

race-

CARPENTER

CASINO

Late L. chart nla, a document ;


Carpenter. (F. C.) K.Y. carpenter; register.
O. North F. carpcnticr{".
charpe7itier)."dimin. ol chart a, a paper ; see Card (i).
Late L. carpentarius
sb. ; carpentdre, to
Carve. (F.) M. E. keruen. A.S. ceorfan;
,
work in timber.
L. ca^'pentum,a carriage
; pt. t. cearf,
pi.curfon,pp. corfen.[The
of Celtic origin. O. Irish carpat^ A. S. ceorfanwould
a word
have given *cka?-ve ;
Gael, and Irish carhad,W. cerbyd,
a
retained from the pt. pi.and pp.]
riage,
carc was
"

"

"

"

litter.
chariot,

Carpet. (F. L.) O.

F. mr/zV^. Late
L. carpita, carpeta,a kind of thick cloth ;
also carpia (F. charpie),
lint. L, car"

"

"

pluck, pull

to

pere,

to

Carrack.

"

O. F. carraque,
Lat. carraca,
the

Late

"

L.) F. cascade."
fem. pp. of
; orig.

cascare, to fall. For '^casica7-e. 'L.cdsdre,


L. cdsum, sup. oicadere,to fall.
to totter.
"

(F.)

of burden ;
Of unknown

i. ^ 791-

pieces(lintbeing Cascade.
(F. Ital.
and
Ital.
a
pieces,
cascata, waterfall
carpet,

of rags pulledto
from shreds).
probably,
made

-|-Du. kerven ; G. kerben, to notch,cut ;


also Dan, ka^-ve,Swed. karfva,to notch,
Gk. ypdcpdv. Brugm.
from the 2nd stem.

ship

"

Case
same.
(i), an event. (F. L.) M. E.
F. cas.
L. ace.
cas.
origin.
cdsum, a fall,a
L.
case.
Carriage. (F. C.) M.E.caria^e,tha.t
casus,
pp. oicadere,to fall.
which is carried about (asin Bible,A. V.). Case
(F.-L.) O. F.
(2).a receptacle.
"

"

"

"

"

F.. capsa, a box, cover.


casse.
cariage
; from carter, to carry ; see
fusion
to hold.
^ Its modern use is due to conwith caroch,a vehicle (Massinger, Casemate.
(F. Ital.) F.
a loop-holein a fortified wall.
Renegado,i. 2); see Caroche.
Carrion.
built under
(F. L.) M. E. caroigne,
a
matta, a chamber
"

O. F.

"

"

L. capere,

Carry.

"

"

casemate,
Ital.casa-

wall or
a
F. caroigne; Late L. bulwark, to hinder those who
the
enter
L. caro, flesh.
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. It seems
caronia, a carcase.
'dark
chamber.'- Ital. and L.
Carronade, a sort of cannon.
land.) to mean
(ScotSo named
because made at Canvn,
and lizX.matta,
casa, house, cottage,room;
in Stirlingshire.
fem. of maito, orig.mad, but the Sicilian
'
dim.'
Carrot.
(F. L. Gk.) F. carote, ca- 7nattii means
"

carcase.

"

O. North

"

"

rotte.

"

L. carota."Gk.

"

"

L. carricdre.

Cart.
krat.

KapcoTov,

O. F

(F. C.)

Carry.

carier.

frame

Casement,

carrot.

Lzte

"

Coined
which

L.)

with the

of

window.

(F."

of encasement,
encloses. From

sense

L. carrus, a car ; see Car.


that
or
encases
A.S. cr(s(,crat; cf. Du.
case, verb ; with suffix -ment.
Or from Icel. kartr,a cart ; whence,
Cash, coin. (F. L.) Orig.a tillor box
"

(E.)

"

Picard
probably,

Carte,

carti,a

cart.

to

keep

in.

money

"

F. casse,

case

see

bill of fare.

Der.
(F.-Gk.) Chiefly Case (2) above.
cash-ier,
sb.,one
in the F. phr. carte blanche,lit. white
who keepsa money-box or cash.
Late L. carta; see Card
the nut of a W. and E.
Cashew-nut,
(i).
paper.
Indian tree.
is
Cashew
cartel. (F. Ital. Gk.) F. cartel.
(F. Brazilian.)
Ital. cartello,
lit.a small paper ; dimin. of a corruption
of F. acajou.
^xdizW. acaiu,
the fruit of the tree named
carta, paper, bill;see Card
(i).
acajabaor
Cartilage. (_F--L) F. cartilage,cuajaiba.(Mahn, Littr6.)
from
service.
dismiss
oi cartildgo. Cashier,
to
ace.
gristle.L. cartlldginem,
Der.
(Du. F. L.) Du. casseren, to cashier;
cartilagin-ous.
to
from
F. casser,
Cartoon.
i,F. Ital. Gk.) F. carton.
merely borrowed
charge
disItafl.cartone, lit.a large
also
to
from
casseere,
carta, breake, burst,
paper ;
a card ; see
Cot.
Card
(i).
[Du. words, borrowed
;
to
cartouche, cartridge. (F. Ital. from F., end in -eren?\\.. qiiassdre,
of quatere, to shake ;
Gk. ] Cartridge
frequent,
(withintrusive r) is for shatter,
a

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

of L. cassdre, to
form of cartouche.
F. which annexed the senses
L.
from
roll
of paper.
Ital. cartoccio,
annul, discharge,
a
cassus, void,null.
cartouche,
wool.
soft
roll of paper, cartridge.Ital. carta,
a
a
(India.) So
Cashmere,
in India.
of
vale
the
called
The
from
Cashmere,
Late
L.
see
Card
carta
paper;
(i).%
;

cartidge,
corrupt

"

"

"

took
cartridge
which

it was

its name
rolled up.

cartulary,
Late

L.

from

the paper

(LateL.
register.

speltcassimere,kerseymet-e.
for dancing. (Ital.L.)
Casino, a room

Also

in

"

"

Gk.)

carttildritim,chartuldriuju,

Ital.
house.

78

casino,dimin.
"

L, casa,

of casa,

cottage.

cottage,

CASK

CATAPLASM

Cask. (Span."L.) Span,casco, a. skxiW,


sherd, coat of an onion ; also a cask of
The orig.sense
wine, a casque or helmet.
is husk
peel,rind,
; cf. Span, cascara,
'

'

nnd.

shell,Port, casca,
burst open ; formed

sicdre)from an
to break,burst
F.

Span,cascar,
Lat. *qiias-to
of L.

(K.-Span. -L.)

'"Span,casco,

casque.

quassdre,

lady'schain

Castor.

(L.

beaver.

KaoTcop,

piece
helmet, head-

'

or

'

"c.

Quash.

see

(fem.of
applied
keeper of keys,

castle ; also chdielaine


O. F. chastelain)
now
,

(asif from

helmet.

casque,

or
chastel,

F. chdtelain

to

"

extension
;

of castrtim, a fortified
tellum, dimin.
O. North F. caste[)lace.Der. casteil-an,
lain, O. F. chastelain,the keeper of a

cf.

L.

Gk.)

"

castor.

^G^.

of Eastern

But

origin;
musk
kastiiri,
;

Skt.
Malay kasttlri,

above.

Pers. khaz, bepiVer.


;
Named
from some
small
box.
castor-oil.
a
fusion
conL.)
parently
Ap(Span.
Casket,
'
made
confused with Y. cassette.,
with castoreuni, ' a medicine
a small
casket ; ' Cot.
Formally,it is a dimin. of of the liquorcontained in the little bags
that are next the beaver's groin; ' Kersey.
Cask.
see

"

Casque

Hayti.') Castrate.

plant. (Span.

Cassava,
Span,cazahe

in the W.

Indies

'

P)Ut it is really
a

Cask.

see

"

bread made
of the fruit called the

also

cazavi, the
'

See

sense.

R.

It

ed.

works,

casttdtus, pp. of

Casual.
(F. L.") Y. casuel. l..cdsuL. cdsu-,
dlis, happening by chance.
"

"

properlymeans

Eden's

L.

castrdre, to cut.

the
which is also called manioc ; said to
plant,
be from the Hayti casahbi,with the same

Pineda.

yuca

vegetable
production.

fL.)

"

See Case
chance.
(i).
A.S.
cat.
Cat.
-^Du., Dan. kat,
(E.)
Icel. hottr,Sw. halt,G. kater,katze ; L.
stem

Arber,

oi casus,

See Tapioca.
cdtus. W. cath, Ir. Gael. cat. Russ. kot\
p. 175.
Turk.
kcdt.
of laurel. (L. Gk.
koshka, Arab,
(Prob.
qitt.,
Cassia, a species
Heb.) L. casia,cassia. Gk. Kaoia,a spice Eastern.)
Heb. qetst'dt/i,
in Ps. xlv.
like cinnamon.
Cata-, prefix.(Gk.) Gk. Kara, down,
"

"

"

"

8, a

pi.form

Heb.

root

bark

is cut off.

qdtsa',

Cassock,

the

Cataclysm, deluge.(Gk.)

F.

(F. Ital.)

vestment.

"

coat.

outer

an

(Malay.)

bird.

Swed.

/^tzi'/'a
; Yian. kaste.

Tiev. re-cast.
for
used
instruments
Castanets,
noise.
(F. Span.
making a snapping

Catafalque, a stage or platform,


chieflyused at funerals. (F. Ital.) F.
catafalque.Ital. catafalco
; of unknown
"

"

origin. See

Scaffold.
sudden
a

(Gk.)

seizure.

Catalepsy,

"

"

Kara,

unknown.

broughtfrom
Cast.

/cara-

"

First

Java. Malay kasuwari.


to throw
(Scand.) Icel. kasta.,

Gk.
Gk.

"

Of

origin.

Cassowary,

"

to dash,wash, as waves.
nXv^eiv,
Catacomb.
(Ital. L.) Ital. catavault.
Late L. catacoviba, a sepulchral
and origin
are
cu7nbas ; of which the sense

down

Cashmere.

see

Ital. casacca,

"

away

; because

a dashing
over, flood,
Kkva/jios,

;
a

thoroughly.

"

to cut

Cassimere
casaque.
uncertain

qetsi'dh,cassia-bark.

from

a
F. castagnettes,
'finger-knackers,
Formerly cataiepsis. Gk. KaraKT]\pi^,
Gk.
make
wherewith
down;
a
s
eizing.
Xayi,'
Kara,
players
pretty grasping,
noise in some
dances;' Cot. Span, cas^a.v"Lv,to seize.
tanetas, castanets ; pi. of castaneta, a
Catalogue. (F.-Gk.) F. catalogue.

L.

"

Gk.)

"

"

"

"-

snapping noise

resemblingthe crackingof

roasted chestnuts.

Span,castana,a

"

Gk.

Kaaravov

Caste,

;
a

see

chestnut-tree."

the

Lat. castanea.

nut."
chest-

Chestnut.

breed, race.

(Port. L.)
"

Port.

Late Lat.

ace.

catalogum.
"

Gk. KaraXoyos,
Gk. Kara, fully
;

enrolment.
to
Xey"iv,
say, tell ; see Logic.
of raft.
a sort
Catamaran,
a

countingup,

In

"

(Tamil.)

Diet., ed. 1859,

Forbes, Hindustani

katmaran.
have
a raft
; the
casta, a race, orig.a
pure'breed ; a name
p. 289,we
tied
in
and
classes
of
I
the
word
is
Port,
to
means
men
logs'
orig.Tamil,
given by
wood
India.
Port, casta, fern, of casta.,
kalUi, binding; maram,
j Tamil
pure."
L. castus, pure, chaste.
| (Yule).
'

'

"

"

L. castlgdtus,
Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.-L.pp. of
lit. to keeppure.' t Gk.^i
\^. cataplasma."
F. cataplas"ie.
-Gk.
chastise.
Gk.
Karai^haa
\
Doublet,
poultice.
ixa, a plaster,
Gk.
A. S. castel. l..
to
over.
Kaia,
KaravXaaanv,
spread

castigate. (L.)
to chasten
castigdre.

L. casttis,chaste.

Castle.

(L.)

'

"

"

"

cas-\
79

"

CATAPULT
and

fully;

CATTLE
mould

nkdacrdv, to

to receive, also
accipere,

see

Plaster.

(Late L.

Catapult.
catapult
a,
Gk.

Cataract.
Gen.

vii.

(L.
Gk.

"

; the

down

Gk.

"

L.

a Highland robber.
(Gael.)
caterajius,answering to Gael.
ceathairne, lit. common
people ; cf.
s. pi.,freebooters,
ceathainie-choille,
laws.
out-

to

From

Catercousin.

of the
storms.

the

"

break.

Catarrh.

(F.

Late

Late

"

L.

L.

cold in the head.

sudden
overturning,
to
(TTpitpen/,

Catch.

is

ciare,Late

L.

turn.

"

turn.

It

vb., and

cater,

; and

\.o

Ital.

of

Catechise.

Late

(L.-Gk.)

Gk.

to
Karrixiif^iv,

ringingin

Category,
yopia,an

the

ears

class.

"

which

cf.

Gk.

"

see

Karq-

(L.

Gk.) L. cathechurch,or one

has

bishop'sthrone.

throne.

Ka6-, for

"

Gk.

KaOeSpa,

down

Kara,

Late

"

and

L.
seat.

a
k'Spa,

I sit;
chair,from e(op.ai
( c5-^o;xat\
=

Sit.

accusation ; but in logic,


L. catholicus
a pre(L. Gk.)
dicamentCatholic.
class.
Gk. KarqyopHv,
Gk.
or
to
KaOoKiKu^, universal.
(Tertullian.)
Gk. Kar-a, down, against;*d7uthe whole, in
Gk. KaOoK-ov, adv., on
"

"

"

/"""/,with the

address

(1580).

Ka$apu9,pure.

"

accuse.

Baret

ecclesia^'-?icathedral

cathedra,a
seat,

Gk.

(Gk.)

Gk,

"

Cathedral.

Echo.

see

'

"

purge.

catechise,drdlis

ra/^j- ;

E.

Cater, a steward, a

cleanse,
purgative.Gk. Ka6aipc-iu,{o

TLKos,

L. ^^^^-

sound

"qx^^v,to

'

Cater.

see

called

mod.

Cathartic, purging.(Gk.) Gk.KaBap-

"

of
provider

instruct ; lengthened
form of KaT-qx^^i-v, to
din into one's ears, lit.'to din down.'
down

So

the catour,

provided by

cater-er

M. E. pt. t. cau^te imitated


lau^te,pt. t. of M. E. lacchen,to catch.
Doublet, chase (i\

/car-a,

robs

"

The

"

assimilated

was
or

"

becau"e

find M. Du.
Picard
from

even

kaetsen,to catch,borrowed

chizdre.

who

one

wailingnoise.
(F. L.)
Cates, provisions.

cac-

form

captus, pp. of

L.

"

cachier.

a caterpillar
chatepelose,
(Godefroy);

the latter half of the word

"

to

answers

captdre, to catch.
capere,to seize. ^ We

an

"Gk.
to declaim, general.
oia'yopeveiv,
Ka9-, for Kard, according
assembly,from a-yopd,an to ; and o\ov, gen. of oAoj, whole.

sense

assembly.

Catkin.

Catenary, belonging

to

chain ; used

of the curve
in which a chain hangs.
From
L. catena, a chain ; see Chain.

Cater,

buy provisions.(F.

to
as

verb

from

M.

buyer of provisions
(whom
call a
cater-er). Catour
formed
acatoiir^i
Ch.
F.

from

so,

or
piller,
spoils.
pi//s,
is lit. 'hairyshe-cat.'
chatepelose
KaraaTpofr], O. F. chate, fem. of chat, cat ; pelose,
Gk. Kara,
hairy. L. cdtus,cat; pilosus,
hairy,from
pihis, a hair.

extended
*captidre,

L.

Formed

so

together.'If

O. Picard
cachier, Caterwaul.
(E.) yi-Y.. caterzvawen;
to make
a
chacier,to hunt, cliase ; coined from cat, and waweu,

"

hence, to catch.

rixos,

they eat

L.^

(F.
of O. F.

variant

Gk.

(ed.

O. F.

Catastrophe. (Gk.) Gk.


;

O. F.

(of rheum),

p"(iv, to flow.

down

word

Nares

Cater-cotisms, friends

Caterpillar. (F.-L.) Adaptedfrom

Gk.

"

Gk. Kara., down

"

F.

Gk.)

caiarj-hus.

flowing down

Karappoos,

an

of

cousin.

catarrhe.

band

cateriia, a

(F.-L.)

'

has :
familiar that

1S76)

KaT^ppa-y-qv was
of waterfalls and
rushing down
Gk.
down
; prjjuvfii, I
Kara,

cethei-n, ceithem,

cf. L.

See Kern.

men.

break
used

aor.

Irish

troop, band

sb., a

Karapp-qywixi,

'

'

Kara,

as

see

L.

cataracta,

KaTappaKT-qs,

buy ;

to

Gates.

Cateran,

Low

"

adj.,broken,rushingdown.

as

allied

Prob.

same.

Gk.)

"

ii.

waterfall ;

L.

swing,hurl.

to
77-aA\6tf,

Late

Gk.)

"

enginefor throwingstones.

an

the
Kara-ireKTTjs,

down

and

Accept

from

we

"

L.)

is

short

loose

of

spike

its soft

downy appearance.
'a kitling,*
Du. kattekeii,
Hexham.
'catkin'; cf.
(It also meant
F, chattons in Cot.) Dimin. of Du. kat,a

cat

from

"M,

(.L.)

E. cat our,
should now

(Du.)

flowers,named

(M. Du. kaite).

tion.
Catoptric, relatingto opticalreflec-

for

(Gk.)

Gk.

reflexive.
/faToiTT/"i/foj,

"

Gk.
mirror.
a
buying,purKar-a,
KaroiTTpoy,
chase, Gk.
O.
F.
inward
I
acat
;
(mod.
down,
prol.571.
oTT-To/xai, see, with suffix
buyinii;Folk-L. acaptum, a -rpoi', of the instrument.

acat, a

"

"

achat),a
purchase; for accapttim. YoXk-'L. accap- Cattle. (F. L,) M.E.r^/^/. property;
F.
of hence, live stock, cattle, O. North
tdre, to purchase(a.d. 1060),frequent,
"

"

"

"

80

CAUCUS
ra/^/. Late L.
"

CIEL

CEIL,

le,capital,
capita
property ;

Cf. Skt.

to beware.

cauere,

i. "

wise.
kavi{s),

Hex. pre-catitiott.
Ital. L.)
F. cava(F.
lier,
Cavalier.
applied to certain
Caucus, a name
Jtal. cavaliere, the
horseman.
a
meetings. (American Indian?)
political
L. caballdi'iuvi,
of caballdrius,
same.
ace.
ing
Said to be from an Algonkin word meanSee
horse.
L. caballus,a
kaw-kawthe same.
to speak,
to counsel,whence

(2)and

Capital

see

Brugm.

Chattels.

635.

"

"

"

"

"

counsellor.

asti,

'

elders, called

Their

Chevalier.

cavalcade.

Capt.Smith's Works,
cazvcazuwassotighes)^

(F,

Ital.

L.)

F.

Ital. cavahata, a troop of


ed. Arber, p. 347.
'
'i'his
is
id.
more
horsemen; orig.fem. of pp. of cavalcare,
%
captaine
;
p. 377.
L. caride. Ital. cavallo, a horse.
than
the
to
entirely
u
nsupported
story
likely
a horse.
about caulkers' meetings.
balhim,ace. of caballus,
O. F.
Caudal, belongingto the tail. (L.) L.
cavalry. (F. Ital. L.^

Caucorouse, which

is cavalcade.

"

"

"

cavallerie.
Ital. cavalteria,
cavalry.
ital. cavaliere,a knight; see Cavalier.

(and a, the tail.

Caudle,

drink.

warm

(F. L.)
"

O.

O. F. chaiidel,
F. caiidcl,
sort of
a
drink.
O. F. c/iaitd,
chald,hot.

North
warm

"

"

for calidits,
hot.
caldiis,
Caul, a net, covering,esp. for the head.
(F.) O. F. cale,'a kind of little cap ;

L.

Cauldron

Cave.

(F.

L.)

"

Vi.Y..caue.-O.Y.

(F.-L.)
cave.

Folk-L.

"

raz/a, a cave. " L.


Der.
cav-ity;

(y'KEU.)

hollow.

{". caverne, L. cauerna).


in.
(M. Du.)
Properly to
introduced
calve in, a
by Du.
phrase
cav-ern

'

Cave

Flanders
liavvies. Cf. W.
inkalven, to
in ; E. Friesic kalfen,
a
to calve as
whence
cow,
kalfenin,to cave in. The

Caldron.

see

Cauliflower.

"ave,
cauus,

Originunknown.

Cot.

"

"

Formerly

cave

M. E. col (O. F. col),a


and flory,from
O. F. Jlori,falling
portionof earth is compared to a
Confused
with
calf
of
The
to
flourish.
dropped by a cow.
Jicuri,pp.
Jleurir,
L. ace.
from
hollow.
O. F. col is from
a
caitlem,
cave,
is from L.
a cabbage ; z.ndjleicrir
laiilis,
Caveat, a caution. (L.) L. caueat,
lit.let him beware.
L. c'a?/^;-^,
to beware.
to flourish.See Cole and Flourish.
//t^riFrc?,

colyfory.From
cabbage ;

"

M.
E.
Caviare, roe of the sturgeon. (F."
in
ead
cauken,to ti
(as Ital.) F. caviar. "XX-dX. caviaro; whence
; hence,to squeeze
also Turk, khavydr,caviare.
oakum
into a ship'sseams). O. F. catitread
with
lint.
wound
Cavil.
to
to
tent
a
(F.-L.) O. F. caviller.-1.
;
qtier,

Calk.

Caulk,

(F.

L.)

"

L.

"

tread,force down
by
oi calx, the heel.
L. calc-,
stem
1^. causa,
(F. L.) ". cause.

calcdre,to

l^ressure.
"

Cause.

Der.

cause.

Causeway,

object to.

"

banter ; hence, to wrangle,


ling.
cavilL. cauilla, a jeering,

"

"

cazissa,

cauilldri,to

paved way,

Caw.

vb.

cause,

raised way.

the

imitation

An
daw.

(E.)

crow

or

Cf. Du.

of the cry of

kaauw, Dan.

(F. L. ; and K.) Formerly caus-ey-way ; kaa, a jackdaw : which are imitative.
ribbean.
(Caby adding way to M. E. causi, causic.
Cayman, an American alligator.
"

causey.

"

O.

North

caucie

F.

(mod.

The
caij?ian.
spelling
Caribbean
acayilman
Spanish.
Also

F
is

(hauss^e,Prov. causada.Span,calzadd).^ cay man


Late L. calcidta,
for calcidta uia, a paved iLittre).
L. cessdre,
Late
L.
calcidtus,
(F. L.) F. cesser.
way.
pp. of calcidre, Cease.
of
to
it
cease
down
to make
;
a
slowly,
loiter,
frequent,
by
treading
;
go
roadway
from L. calcdre,
to
L. calc-,
cedere (pp. cesstis
to tread.
stem
yield,go away,
"

"

"

"

"

oi calx, heel ;

Caulk.

see

lu. caustictis.
a tree.
"Cedar,
(F.-L.-Gk.) O. F.
(L.-Gk.)
cedrus.
Gk. Kedpos.
cedre.
L.
Gk.
Kavaros.
burning.
KavaTiKos,
late word (A. D. 1633).
A
burnt.
Gk. Kaiuv (fut.
burn.
Cede.
to
Kavacu),
(L.)
L. cedere,to go, to come, to yield.
F.
cauterise.
(F.-Late L.-Gk.)
cautcriser.
Late L. cauterizdre, to sear.
Ceil, Ciel, to line the inner roof or
the
Gk. KavTr]pia((iv,
Gk. KavTi)walls of a room.
to sear.
(F." L.) Hence
E.
M.
to
Gk.
sb.
a
o
r
ceelen,
Kaieiv,tu
branding-iron.
ceil-ing ciel-ing.
piov,
a canopy.
ceil ; from the sb. syleor cyll,
burn (above).

Caustic.

Gk.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Caution.
ace.

(F, L.)
cautionem, heed.
"

"

word
same
F. caution."
!.. F. ciel,
as ciel,
a. canopy
: the
L. cautus, pp. oi heaven.
heaven,a canopy,
[Cf.Ital.cielo,
I

CELANDINE

CENTAUR

^ Not to pass., to fall asleep. Allied to Keifiai, I


cieling.]L. ccelmn,heaven.
with seal ; nor
be confused with E. sill,
lie down
nor
; Skt. fi,to lie down.
with L. celdre,
with seel (F, siller)
L. ccenobtta,
Cenobite.
; nor
(L. Gk.)
The L. cceldre,
of a (social)
to hide.
to emboss, seems
a member
fraternity
(Jerome).
influence on
the word,
L. cocnobiu77i,
some
Gk. noivo^iov^
to have had
a convent.
a

"

"

"

but did not


a

it ;
originate
Late

canopy

convent.

Gk.

"

O. F.
L. cheli-

L. celidonia.

"

swallow-wort
x^^^^'^^'-'^^^

donia. '"Gk.

"

celure, a

Gk.

"

kolvo^ios, livingsocially.

common

Koivo-s,

Cenotaph.

plant.(F.-Gk.)

Late

"

E.

L. ccelutiira.

Celandine,
celidoine.

cf. M.

"

cenotaphe.

L.

raipiov,

empty

"

an

life.
jiios,

Gk.) O. F.
(F. L.
k(voceiiotaphiu77i.-^Gk.
-

tomb.

Gk.

"

Kevo-Sy

of x^'^'So'i',
swallow.
stem
a
a tomb.
xf^'Soi'-,
empty ; rdcp-os,
is
"
(The
Censer.
intrusive.)
(F. L.) M. E. censer.
ened
Celebrate.
se?tser
(L.) L. celebrdtus,pp. O. F. ce/isier,
(Godefroy); shortof celcbrdre,
to
from O. F. e;ice7isier. L,a.te L. infrequent,to solemnise,
honour.
L. celeber,
frequented,
populous. ce7tsdriu7H,also i7icensdriii77i (whence
cense
inCelerity. ;"'--L0 F- i-///r///. L. mod. F. ence7isoi)').L. incenszi77i,
Gk.

"

"

"

"

"

"

celeritdtcm,speed. L. celer,quick.

ace.

; from

"

Cf. Gk.

Celery. (F.-L.-Gk.)

F.

the Piedmontese

leri ; for Ital. selini,


pi.of
L. selinon,parsley. Gk.
"

"

of

i. " 6^3- See Incense.


introduced
Censor.
^//^r/,
(L.) L.

Brugm,

a runner;
ic(\r]s,

from

Ital. sel- assessor,

(F.-L.) O.
ccelesti-s,
heavenly.

cehstiel.

(above).

L.

aelum,

census.

"

and

again

The

(L.)
'

singlelife

(L.)

"L.

Celibate.
a

it

was

orig.sense

afterwards

sb., meaning

taxer, valuer,

give

cetisere, to

an

'

one

who

Li

(L.)

part of

hundredth

the

L.

"

ing.
register-

in per cent.

hundred, as

America,

dollar.

is

L. ce7isus,

censert

(above).

ce7isere

Cent,

was

adj.,

an

L.

"

F.

heaven.
'

censor,

L.

"

orig. opinion.

censHra,

Celestial.
L.

critic.

selino,
-j-Skt.
parsley.opinion,appraise.
^ams, to praise.
a kind
criKivov,
censure.
(F.-L.) Y. censure. "^\..

oarsley.

"

of i7ice7idcre,
to kindle.

pp.

cejttttm,

hundred

a
see

sb. celibacy,single Hundred.


single.'L. cielibdtus,
oi ccelebs.single,
L. ccelib-,
married.
unstem
(L.) L. cente7idrius,
centenary.
*ccelibdtia^.
hundred.
L. ce?ite7ius, a
to
Der. celibacy
a
(for
relating
L. ce}itui7i.
M. E. celle.
L. cella, hundred
Cell. (L.)
distributivel}').
(usu.
"

life.
"

"

"

See

centennial.

hide.

hut.
Cf. celdre,to
room,
Helm
(2). (yKEL.)

small

relatingto

A.F.
cellar. (F.-L.) yV.Y.cekr.
L. celldrium,a cellar.
celer; O. F.t^//"r.
"

"

Celt
Gauls.

Celts ;
'

(above).
originally
(1),a name
givento the
(C.) From'L. pi. CelUt, the
the word
riors
warprobablymeant

Lith.
strike

through,beat down (Rhys).


Celt
(2), a primitivechisel or
Late L. celtis,assumed
L.)
(Late

of the

abl. celte

Vulgate Version
readingis due
seems

to

be

with

of

Job

to

some

error,

the
this

there

from

to
ccedere,

Perhaps

"

I centipede, centiped. (F.-L.)

F.

a
many-footed
centipeda.
for
hundred-footed) insect. L. "re"//-,
(lit.

centipede.
"

L.

stone

and

o^ pes,

ped-, stem

centuple. (L.) L. centuplex(stem


hundredfold.
L. centu-m,
a
centuplic-),
to fold.
hundred
; plic-dre,
"

Jie7/i,a
;

captainof

(L.)

L.

centurio-

ace.

hundred.

"

L. ce7ttiiria

(below).

century. (F. L.)


L. centuria, a body of a
(Brugm. i. " 587).
hundred.
of one
Cemetery. (L. Gk.) Y.zXo.l^.cceme- number
hundred.
terium.
Gk. KoifxijTTjpiov,a sleeping-place,
I
I lull to sleep; in I Centaur.
Gk. Koifxdcu,
(L. Gk.)
cemetery.
hence, cement.

into

degrees. L. centi-,for centiun,


Grade.
a degree ; see
; grad-tis,

centurion.

in Latin.
F. ciment.-

(F.-L.)
rubble,chippingsof

centesi77i-us,

foot.

nom.

O.

L. ccE77tentum,

L.

(L.)

"

"

But
and

mean

year.

hundred;
certiui7i,

axe.

in
chisel),

xix. 24.

such word

no

Cement.

hundred,
L. ce7it-ti//i,
Divided
(L.)
centigrade.

j imndred

A. S. hild, Icel. hildr, war


;
to
kalti,to strike ; L. per-cellere,

; of.

to

"

; a7in-us,

Ihundred

'

Coined

dred
century. L. cenl-u7n, hun-

centesimal.
hundredth.

L. cella

(L.)

for ^ccedmentuju,

Y. ce7iturie."

"

cut

hundred
"

"

L.

men

"

"

"

L.

iefitn-771,

Centaurus.

CENTAURY
Gk. Kivravpos,

"

CHAIR

centaur,

half

creature

centaury,
centaurea.'^^j^.

plantnamed

plant. (L. Gk.)

L.

"

centaury;

Kcvravpeiou,

from

L.

"

Gk.

"

centrifugal, flyingfrom
L.

(L.)

of

ed.,p.
verb, to

sess,

rate; which

is

"

(below).
L.
(F. L.) F. cession.
L,
ace.
cessioneyn,a yielding.
cessus, pp.
oi cedere,to yield,
to cede.
Cess-pool. (Hybrid.)Most probably
N. E. D.
Cf.
see
equiv.to {se)cess-pool;
is
Ital. cesso, a privy(Torriano)
; which

cession.

"

"

"

centre

for centra-,stem
centri-,

from

"

a
Kcvrpov,
Gk. k"vt(qj,

"

Ireland, Globe

Orig.a tax, rate,


Spenser,State of
643, col. 2. For

(F.-L.) F. cessation."
Cessation.
ace.
cessdtionem, a ceasing. L. cessdL. cessus
tus, pp. of cessdre, to cease.

spike,goad,
Of. W. cetAr,a spike.
I goad on.
prick,centre.

rating,

; see

L.

F.

(F.-L.-Gk.)

centrum.

8.

i.

short for Assess.

the Ceiitaiir Chiron.

Centre, Center.

ii.

assessment

sess;

Centenary, Centennial, Centnple, Centurion, "c. : see Cent.


centre.

IV.

Hen.

and half horse; which some


have compared
with Skt. gandha7-vas,
a demi-god.

man

trum
cen-

to fly.
2Sidifug-ere,
shortened
of secesso, a retreat."
form
a
a
centripetal, tending towards
L.
centri'the
centre.
L.
i
(above);pet-ere,
draught;'Matt. xv. 17
(L.
secessus,
to seek.
(Vulgate).
Ceramic, relatingto pottery. (Gk.) Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L.
Gk. KipafXLK'OS, adj, Gk. nepafx-os, potter'sGk.) L. (:"?/z/j-.Gk. ktjtos, a sea-monster.
earth.
Cf. Kcpawvpii
I mix.
(fut.
K^paaoj),
;

"

"

Cere,

to

to
cerd7'e,

coat

wax.

"

"

M'ith
L. cera,

wax.

wax.

(L.) L.
Gk.
+
KTjpos,

Ch.
white wine.
a
(F.) From
partment
of
mi.
E.
Auxerre, in the deC/iad/is,
of Yonne, France.

Chablis,

wax.

cerecloth.

(L.and E.) Lit. a

waxed

1 2

cloth.

vex.
(F.
by friction,
F.
O.
to warm.
c/ian/e?i,
(L. -metitum').
cf.
Prov.
to warm
O.
F.
;
white
lead.
(F.chauffe?-).
chaufer
(F." L.)
ceruse,
Late L. ^cakfdre,to
to
warm.
\^. cerussa, white lead. L. r/ra, calfar,
cert4se.
L.
make
for
to warm,
wax.
calefacere,
warm;
L.
to
to
to
cale-re,
glow ; facei'e,
glow.
(L.) L.
Cereal, relatingto corn.

cerement.

From

(L.)

Chafe,

with

cere;

to

M.

L.)

suffix -ment

warm

"

E.

"

"

"

"

"

cerealis.

l.. ceres,

"

make.

corn.

(E.) A.S.
(L.) Chafer, Cockchafer.
kind of beetle.+Du.
a
cefer{slsoceafior)
kever ; G. kdfer.
husk
later chcef,
Chaff. (E.) A. S. ceaf,
Cerecloth, Cerement
; see Cere.
G.
Low
of
+Du.
kaff. % The
kaf\
grain.
(F. L.) M. E. cereCeremony.
So also
i.e. vex.
verb to chaff to chafe,
monie.-'Y
c"emonie.
l^. ccerimonia, a
for chafe-wax.
rite.
chaff-wax.,
ceremony,
Certain.
(F. L.) O. F. certein, Chaf"nch, a bird. (E.) I.e. chaffbarn-doors.
certain.
'L. cert-us, sure;
with suffix finch; it frequents
Chaffer.
nate
(E.) The verb is from the
Allied to L. cernere,
to discrimi-anus.
also chaffare,
M.
E.
a bargainsb.
ing.
to separate,decide.
chapfare,
; Gk. Kpivfii',
and
S.
A.
a
faru, a
bargain,
M.
E.
ceap,
certifien."
certify. (F. L.)
and
F. certifier.
to make
Late L. certificdre,
journey,also business ; see Cheap
to
Cerebral, relating

the brain.

From

the brain.
L. cerebr-um.
Cf. Gk.
the
i.
head.
"
Brugm.
619.
/fctpa,

"

"

"

"

"

"

of certiis Fare.
L. r^r//-,for certo-,stem
Chaf5.nch
and -fie-,
iox fac-ere.
to make.
(L.) L. ccerukus, Chagrin.
Cerulean, azure.

sure.

"

(above);

choly.
chagrin,melanchagrin,
shagreen; but wrongly.]
Chain.
(F. L.) O. F. chaine,chaene.

ccelum,sky. Brugm. i. " 483,

From

Cere.

"

the neck.

(L.)

ceruix,neck.
to a hart.
(L.)
Cervine, relating
L. ceriilc-,
stem

ceru;n-j4S.'-\.. certi-us,

Cess, limit,

measure.

"

hart ;

(F.

"

see

L.

Hart.

L.)

L. catena,

Chair.

of

Chaff.
F.

(F.)

[Diezidentifiesit with F.

from
ccErulus. blue; for ^cceluleus,
*a?lHhis,

Ceruse, white-lead ; see


Cervical, belongingto

see

chain.
M.
chaere.
chaiere,

E.

(F.-L.-Gk.)

chaire,

catheL. dra,
a
throne, raised seat, chair. Gk.
KadiSpa,a seat. Gk. Ka6-, for Kara, down;

chaere.

"

OF.

"

"

In

"

83

CHAISE

"dpa,

I sit;

see

CHAP

e^onai (=
seat, from
Sit.
Cathedral,

named
k8-yofiai),

chaise,

from

Champagne in France, which


plain ; see below.
'

'

means

a
lightcarriage.(F. L.
champaign, open country. (P\" L.)
F. chaise,
a chair,
also,a chaise ; a In Sh. F. champaigne,of which thePicard
Parisian modification of F. chaire,
was
a pulpit,form
campaigne; see Campaign.
-

"

Gk.)

Champak,

a seat.
orii5[.

kind

of quartz.
Rev. xxi. 19.
Gk.) L. chakedoniiis,
Rev. xxi. 19.
Xo.Kurjbojv
,

Chalcedony,

"

Gk.

"

(Skt.) Skt.

tree.

paka,the champak.
Champion.
(F.-L.)

(L,

O.Y.

chajupion."
cham-

Y,.

of campio,a
campionem, ace.
Chaldron, a coal-measure.
(F. L.) combatant (Isidore).L. campus, a place
O. F. chaldron, orig. a
caldron ; see
for military
exercise;a peculiaruse of
"

"

Caldron.

campns,

cup. (F.-L.) A.Y.chalke;


O. F. calice.'^\a. caliceni,
of callx,a
ace.
Allied to calyx, but not the same
cup.
word.

Chalice,

Chalk.

field.

See Camp.

Chance, hap.(F. L.) M.

"

"

O. F. cheance,chaance.

a chance.
iia,a falling,

happen ;

see

"

L.

"

E. cheaimce.
'LaiQ L. caden-

cadere,to fall,

Cadence.

M. E. chalk. A. S. cealc
Chancel.
(F.-L.) So called because
oi calx, lime.
orig. fenced off by a latticed screen."
M. E. chaknge, O. F. chancel,
enclosure fenced off with
an
*
claim.'
Late L. cancel Ius, a
olten in the sense
an
screen.
a
calenge,
open
O. F. chalonge,
A. F. chalenge,
a grating;
calenge,a chancel,screen ; L. cancelli,
pi.,
claim ; an accusation.
L. caliim- see Cancel.
dispute,

(L.)

(Southern). L, calc-,stem
Challenge, i^.- L.)
"

"

"

"

nia, false accusation

chancellor.

Calumny.

see

Chalybeate. (L. Gk.) Used of /zVr.


water
containingiron. Coined from L.
steel. Gk. xaXvp (stemxa-^v^S-),
screen
chalyb-s,
steel ; named
from the Chalybes,
a people

Late

"

"

of Poiitus,who

made

it.

vaulted

room.

room,

orig.an officerwho stood near


before the judgment-seat.L.
"

grating;

M. E.

Gk. KUfxapa,

"

Chancel,

see

(F.-L.)

chancelerie.

O. F.

"

Chandelier.

place.

(F.-L.)

the
celli,
can-

Cancel.

Yovchancelry.
chancellerie.
"

Late L. cancelldria. the record-room


cancelldrius ; see Chancellor.

"

vault,vaulted

O.Y.ckance-

cellor
cancelldrinm, a chan-

ace.

chancery.

Y.chamChamber.
(F.-L. -Gk.)
bre\ Prov. camhra. L,. car?iera, cafnara,
a

(F.-L.)

L.

0.".

of

lier,
chande-

candle-holder.
Late
L. candechamberlain.
a
(F.-O.H.G.-L.Idrius,m. ; cf. cajideldria,
a candle-stick.
Gk.) F. chamberlain,O. F. chambrelenc.
O. H. G. chamerlinc
L. candela ; see Candle.
M. 11. G. kamerlinc,
who
has the care
formed
of rooms;
one
chandler.
(F. L.) O.Y.cha^idelier,
with suffix -l-inc (the same
chandler.
E. -l-ing),
Late
L. candeldrius
as
a
a
"

"

"

"

"

from

L.

camera

candle-seller.

(above).
(L.-Gk.)

L. candela; see Candle.


where chandler merely
corn-chandler,
"

Der.
Chameleon.
\.. chamceleon. Gk. x"/""'-'^*"^^'.
lit. a ground-lion,
dealer.
means
seller,
dwarf-lion ; a kind of lizard. Gk. x"/^"''
vb.
(F. L. ) O. F. changer,
Change,
the ground(also
on
dwarf, in comp.); and changier. l.^tQ L. cambidre, to change
\eojv, lion. Cf. L. humi, on the ground. (Lex Salica). L. cambTre, to exchange.
"

"

"

"

"

chamomile.

L. camotnilla {chamomilla).Gk. xoA^a'lit. ground-apple,


from the applefirjKov,
like
smell of the flower.
Gk. x"/^"'-5 on

Cf. Late L. cambium, exchange; whence


F. change,E. change,sb.
M. E. chattel,
Channel.
(F. L.)
canel.
O.Y.
chanel,canel,a canal. L.

the

ace.

(Late L.-Gk.)

Late

"

"

ground (seeabove) ; fxrjAov,


apple.

Chamois.
borrowed

(F.
from

cf. Piedmontese

some

G.)

Swiss

camossa.

"

F. chamois;
dialectal form ;
M.

H.

G. gamz

"

"

"

canalem

Canal.
Chant.
( F.
L.) F. chanter,vb. L.
of canere, to
cantdre, to sing; frequent,
sing. Der. chant- ry, M. E. chatinterie.
^L E.
L.
Late
cant aria ;
chanti-cleer,
; see
"

"

a chamois
(for*"amtiz),
(G.gemse).
Champ, to eat noisily.(E.) Formerly chaunte-cleer,clear-singing.
cham or chamm
like
Chaos.
(Gk.) L. chaos,Lat. spelling
; of imitative origin,
of Gk. x"os. chaos, abyss,
lit.a cleft. Cf.
Cf. Swed. dial, kdmsa^ to
jam, to crush.
chew with difficulty.
Gk. xaauf^iv, to gape. See Chasm.
A
wme
L.)
Chap (i),to cleave,crack. (E.) M. E.
(FChampagne.
-

84

CHASE
O.

F.

CHEEK

chacier,chacer, to

L. ; in

see

pursue ;

(2),to enchase; short

Chase

wliich

chdsse,a
Case (2).

shrine.

Chasm.

gulf.
to

(L,

"

Gk. xao'/'ta, a

x""'''"^f'"to gape

Chaste.

caupo,

a
choufo,

huckster.

often cheaters ; hence the verb.


were
See Escheat.
Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F.
ters

Chaos.

"

chaste. ~l..

0.".

(F.-L.)

O. H. G.

chase,
en-

L. chasma,
a
Gk.)
yawning cleft. Allied
; see

L.

"

L. capsa, a

"

for

from

But this is now


held to be unlikely
(Kluge,
Franck).
(F. L.) Cheat, to defraud. (F.-L.) Cheat is
box ; see
merely short for escheat ; cf. M. E. chete,
escheat (Prompt.Parv.). The
escheaan

see.

frame.
(3),a printer's

Chase
F.

"

that
particular,

huckster,is

Catch.

Pers.)

chek,

M. E.

stop ; also check !

in playingchess.
The word
is due to the
game, which is very old. The orig.sense
'
of check was
M. E. chastyor chastien ; see below.
king! i.e. mind the king,
the
yi.Y..
is
in
chastise.
ckastisen;
king
(F. L.)
danger. O. F. eschec, ' a
O. F. chastier.
shorter form chastien.
L. check
Cot.
at chess-play,'
Pers. shah, 3.
castus, chaste ;

Caste.

see

(F. L.) Used

chasten.

in

placeof

'

"

"

"

Chasuble,
chasuble.
sense

hence,

Late

L.

mantle.

(F.-L.)

vestment.

l^?itQL.

"

as

"

Castigate.

see

"

pure.'L. casttis, king,king at chess ;


check-mate,lit. ' the

make

casiJgdre,lit.' to
chaste ;

"

F.

casubula,with

the same
little house

casula, a
L. casa,

shdh-mdt,
king is dead,' from
Arab, mat, he is dead. Similarly
have
we
F. echec,a check,repulse,
defeat,pi.tehees,

chess ;

Ital. scacco,
also

"

Chat, Chatter.

(E.)

kvittra,to cuirp.
Chateau.
(F.-L.) F. chateau,O. F.
L. castellum,dimin. of castrtim,
chastel
"

fortified

chatelaine

place. Der.

for which

castellan

also

Castle.

see

board,
chess-

shews

for

al,the def. art.,and


pron. of Pers. shah.

shdg is the

checker, chequer,
squares.

of

square

chess
that O. F. eschec
esh-shdg;where esh is

M.

form of chat.
An
imitative word ;
cf. Du. kwetteren,to warble, chatter,Swed.

check, defeat. See

cottage.
E. chateren, below.
^ Devic
also chiteren,
to chatter,twitter; frequentative
represents Arab,
a

whence

(P". Pers.)

squares like those

on

mark

with

mark

with

to

To

"

Arab,

chess-board.

M.

E.

chekker,chekere,a chess-board.
(Hence
The Checkers,s.n inn-sign.)
O. F. eschequier,a chess-board,also, an exchequer.
"

PL
of M. E.
Chattels.
(F.-L.)
Low
L. scaccdrium, a chess-board.
O.
also
F.
cattle.
chatel,property,
chatel,
Low
0. North F. catel,
L.
Cattle.
see
scaccl,chess,pi.of scacciis, from
property;
the
Arab,
form of Pers. shdh, king.
Chat.
Chatter
see
;
"

"

Chaudron,
1.

33.

The

entrails.
is inserted

F. chatidron,a
forms

older

caldron.

caudun,

(F.)
by
"

Macb.

checkers, chequers,

iv.

confusion with

O. F. chaudun,
caldtm, entrails

for the game


or

see

at

chess-board

draughts;
;

From

king

Arab,
is dead

an

old

name

the checker

from

above.
(F. Pers. and

see

check-mate.

(Godefroy).[Cf.G. kaldaunen, entrails ;


Mid. Low
from
G. kaldune, the same]
Thought to be from Late L. calduna,
entrails (Ducange).Perhaps
a dish containing
from L. calidus,warm
(F. chaud).
Chaw

"

"

Arab.)

^shdg-jndt,for shdh-mdt,the
;

Check.

see

Pers.) A pedantic
spellingof check, from confusion with
name
a
given to a
exchequer; it is really
of which
one
draft for money,
keeps a

cheque.

Chew.

(F.

"

counter-check.
memorandum
or
by-form of Jaws
; see Jaw.
Cheap, at a low price; orig.a sb. (E.) chess, the game of the kings. (F."
M.E.
chep.,
cheep,barter,price; always a Pers.) Equivalentto checks,i.e. kings;
above. "O.F.
sb.
in a good market
Check
Hence, good cheap.,
esches,chess;
see
bon
t
he
whence
used
E.
check,orig. king.'
tnarche);
really pi.of eschec,
(F.
cheap,
formed
Pers. shdh, a king, were
as
an
adj. A. S. ceap.price; whence the % From
E. check,Ital. scacco,
verb ceapiati,
So also O. F. eschec,F. ^chec.,
to cheapen, buy.
Du. koop,a bargain, koopen,to buy ; G. Span.xaque,jaque, Port, xaque, G. schach,
schack,
katif,
purchase,kaufen,to buy; \z"\.kaup, Du. schaak, Dan. skak, Swed.
of
Swed. k'op,
Low
Lat. Indus
Dan. kiob, a purchase; Goth.
scaccorum
game
of
traffic.
Some
or
to
checks,
kings.
^
kaupon (weak vb.),
from
borrowed
are
Cheek.
(E.) M. E. cheke,cheoke. O.
say that these words

Chaws,

'

86

CHEER

CHICORY

in M. E. chestein.'^O.Y
chastaigne(F.
cece, A. S. cedce, cheek. + Dn.
chdtaigne).L. castanea, chestnut-tree.
kaak, jaw,cheek ; Swed. kdk, jaw.
chestnut. Chestnuts are
a
Cheer.
(F. L.) M. E. chere, orig. Gk. Kaaravov,
the mien ; hence, ' to be of good cheer.' said to have been called /faarara,
ox Kapva
O. F. chere, the face. Late L. cai-a, Kaaravaia, from
Kaarava, Castana, the
of a city in Pontus
where
to Cik. Kapa, the head, name
face. (Relationship
they
Merc,

"

"

"

"

"

abounded
chter-ful.
probablyfrom Armen.
; but more
from kask,a chestM. E. chese. O. Merc.
kaskeni,a chestnut-tree,
nvit (Kluge).
cese
(A. S. cyse, for earlier *ciese",*ceasi),
A. S. "^ciesi Cheval-de-frise, an obstruction with
with 7-mutation ; preliistoric
cheese
*cdsioz.
L.
a
spikes. (F.) Lit. horse of Friesland,'
"
cdsetis,
; whence
is

doubtful.)Der.
(L.)

Cheese.

"

other

forms

rowed. jitcular
borname;

(G. kdsc, Du. kaas) are


ed. " 75.

Sievers,2nd

the

Cheeta, Cheetah,

2.

pard,
hunting leo-

chevalier.
"

ble,
cheeta ; from chitra,spotted,also visiclear. Skt. chit,to perceive. See
"

Chemise.
L.

"

of

Cheveril,

?i
(F. L.) Y. chevalier,
cheval, a horse. L. caa horse.
caballus,

kid leather.

chevrele,fern.,a

(F.-L.^ O.

little kid.

"

cat?iisia,
a

shirt, thin

dress ;

chevron,

O. Irish caimmse, shirt ;Stokes).


short for al(Most
chemist
Chemist, Chymist;

whence

L.

in heraldry,
sembling
reordinary,
a house.
(F. L.)

rafters of

"

Cheque, Chequer
Cherish.

an

of
"

the saddlemeant
to represent
likely
peak.)"F. chevron, a kid, a chevron in
a
rafter;'Cot.
building,
Augmentative

Alchemy.

; see

two

F.

Dimin.

chevre, F. chevre,a goat, kid.


capram, ace. oi capra, a she-goat.

chemise.^

F.

(F. L.)

is

"

F.

O.F.

Chintz.

Late

pi.chevaux-de-Frise

See below.

commoner.

a leopardused for the chase.


(Hind. horseman.
chitd.-^'SkX.
Hind.
balhuji. ace.
a
chitraka,
Skt.)

"

the

see

Check.

L.) O. F. cheris-,form of chevre,a she-goat.L. capra, a


of pres. pt. of cherir^to hold dear.
stem
Caper (i). Cf. L. capreshe-goat
; see
L. cdrus, dear.
F. cher,dear.
a prop.
ohis,which likewise means
(F.

"

"

"

Cheroot,

cigar. (Tamil.)

roll ;

shuruttu,a

hence,a roll

Tamil

(E.) M.E. chewen.


Chew, Chaw.
A. S. ceowan, to chew. eat.+Du. kaauwen;
G. kaiien ; O. H. G.kiuiuan
; Russ. Jevate.

of tobacco

(Yule)*.
Cherry. (F.-L.
mistake

Gk.)

cheris,the final

for

for the

pi.inflexion.

"

M. E.
s

O,

chert,a Cf. also Icel. tyggja,tyggva,


taken (Streitberg).
being misNorth

L.

Chibouk,

F.

Folkcherise,O. F. cerise',
representing

Turk,

Turkish

chew

to

pipe. (Turk.)

a
stick,tube, pipe
chibiik,
chybiik,

''^ceresea. L. cerastts, a cherry-(Zenker,


*ceresia,
p. 349).
usually Chicanery. (F.-Pers.1) F. chicaKepaaos, a cherry-tree;
F.
said to come
from
Cerasos,in Pontus ; nerie, wrangling,pettifogging
; Cot.
Curtius doubts.
a story which
chicaner,to wrangle; orig.to disputein
"

tree. "Gk.

"

the game
of the mall or chicane (Brachet\
Chert, a kind of quartz. (?)Unknown.
Cf. Irish ceart, a pebble.
Perhapsfrom the medieval Gk. t^vkolviov,
Cherub.
(Heb.)Thetruepl.isr/^^n/3- a word of Byzantineorigin(id.)
; from
""". Heb.
Pers.
k'rilv i,pl.
bat.
a
a
/^V?7z//"z),
chaugdn, club,
mystic
"

Chicken.

figure.

Chervil,

Sometimes

(E.)

shortened

plant.(L. Gk.) A.S. cer- to chick ; but the M. E. word is chiken.


L. charephylla,
A.S. clcen,earlier *ciucin. + D"- kieken,
pi.oichcerephyllum.
yf//(?.
Gk. xaipkfpvKKov
chervil, lit. pleasantkuiken, a chicken,Low
G. kuken; cf. G.
leaf. Gk. x"'V""''"
Icel.
Swed.
^o
a
chicken,
rejoice;(pvWov, kiichlein,
kjukling,
a

"

"

"

leaf.

kyckling
; related to Cock, which shews the
weak
*cuc- ; see Cock
grade
(i). Sievers,
;
chiste. 2nd ed. " 165.
(L. Gk.) M. E. cheste,
A.S. cist.-mLi.cista.^Gk.
a
chest, Chicory, a plant,
(F. L,
Kiayq,
succory.
box (whence G. kiste,
Gk..
Sec).
Gk.) F. chicor^e. Y.. cichorium.
Chess
Chest.

Check.

see

"

"

"

Chestnut, Chesnut.

"

(F.-L.-Gk.) Kixopia, neut. pi.; also Kixiipiov,


Kix^pVy
chestnut,which is succory,
p. Succory is a corrupter form
short for chesten-ntct,
nut of the chcsten, of the word, apparentlyfor siccory or
which is the old name
of the tree, called cichory,
from L. cichoriiim.
Chesnut

is short

for

87

CHIDE

CHIRURGEON

Chide.
(E.) M.IL. c/iiden. A.S. c/dajz, pi.; hence Chinee in the singular,
by a
second droppingof se.
chide, brawl ; pt. t. cidde.
Chief.
(F. L.) M. E. chef,chief.
Chinchilla, a small rodent animal.
L. type (Span. L.) Span,chinchilla,
O. K. chef, chief,the head.
lit.'a little
*capunj (Ital.capo). L. caput, head. bug,'as iffrom itssmell ; but undeservedly
to

"

"

"

named.
so
ker-chief
Span,chinche,a bug. L. ciq. v.
(F. L.) O.Y.chevetaine. inicem, ace. oiciniex,a bug.
Late L. capitchteus,
a captain.
capitdnus,
Chinchona; the same as Cinchona.
from caput, a head.
L. capit-,
ChinCOUgh, whooping-cough. \ E.)
Chiffonier, a cupboard.(F.) Lit. a For chink-cough; cf. Scotch kink-cough,
a ragcough'. A kink is a
placeto put rags in. F. chiffotiier,
picker,kink-host \hostmeans
also a cupboard. F. chiffon,
catch
in
the
nasalised form of a
breath,
ment,
augoi chiffe,
base *kik, to gasp. -fDu. kinkhoest;M.
a rag.
Orig.unknown.
Swed. kikhosta,
Chignon.
(F. L.) Hair twisted; V)\x.kieckhoest\
chincough,
of F. chainon, a link."
anotlier spelling
kikna, to gasp ; G. keichen, to gasp.
F, chatne, 0.1^. chaine, a chain." L. caChine.
tena,
(F. O. H. G.) O. F. eschine (F.
Der.

"

Chieftain.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

chain.

Chilblain.

(E.)

Main

ichine),the back-bone. "O.H.G..r/^/"a,a


For
by needle,prickle(G. schiene,a splint).
the sense, cf. L. spina, a thorn, spine,

caused

chill.

Child.
(E.) M. E. child. A. S. cild. backbone.
with
neut. ; cf. Goth. ^'?7- Chink
(1)5a cleft. (E.) Formed
type */cilJ"om,
the womb.
suffixed k, from the base of M. E. chine, a
//i^/,
rift. A. S. cinu, a chink.
A.S. cin-,
Chill, cold. (E.) Orig.a sb. A. S. cleft,
cele,ciele,chilliness. Teut. type *kaliz, weak grade oi clnan, to split
(strongvb.).
sb. ; from *kal-an, to be cold,as in A. S. + Du
keen, a chink,also a germ, kenen,
calan. to be cold,Icel. kala, to freeze. +
to bud ; cf. G. keimen, Goth, keinan, to
bud.
Du. kil,a chill ; cf. L. gelu,frost.
(Germinatingseeds make a crack in
Teut.

"

Chime,
of
chinibe,

sb.
which

hencj the
Shortened

M. E.
(F.-L. -Gk.)
the orig.sense
was
bal
cymchime or ringingof a cymbal.

the

"

ground.)
(2),to jingle.
(E.)An

Chink
word

cf. clink,clank ; and

imitative

ChinO. F. chimbale, dialectal cough.


E. Fries, kinken (a strong vb.);
form of O. F. cimbale,a cymbal."
M. Dan. kinke.
L. cy7nbalum. Gk. Kvix"aXov ; see
Chintz.
bal.
Cym(Hindustani Skt.)Yoxchints,
find M. E. chy?ne-belle,
N. B. We
pi.of chint. Hind, chhint,spottedcotton
;

from

"

which
Der.

"

looks like a

popularform

for

cloth,named
cyiyibal.

chime, verb.

Chimera,

Chimaera.

"

"

"

"

furnace.

Chimpanzee,

the

variegated
patterns
a

spot "Skt.

chitra,variegated,
spotted.See

Chip,

"

"

from

it; chhit, chintz,also

on

(L.-Gk.) L.
chimcera.
Gk. x'Va'pct,
a
she-goat
; also,
a fabulous monster, with
a
goat'sbody.
Gk. x'V"/'"?)
he-goat.
Chimney. (F. L. Gk.) F. cheminee,
'a chimney;' Cot.
Late
L. camindta,
providedwith a chimney; hence,a chimney.
L. caminus,
Gk.
an
oven, a fire-place.
KCLixivos, oven,

see

vowel)

to

little at

Cheeta.

(E.) Related (witha lighter


chap (i) or chop; as if to cut

vb.

Cf. A. S. for-cyppod,
Fries. kippe7i,

time,

(,Lye)
glossto praecisus
; E.
to

cut.

Chirography,
From
hand.

"

handwriting. (Gk.)

Gk. ")(^iipo'^pa(pi1v
to write with the
,
Gk. \(ipo-, from x**V"the hand;

tune-tell
Cf. chiro-mancy,forI am
to write.
ypdcpeiv,
ape. (African.)
informed
that the name
in
is tsitnpanzee
by the hand ; chiro-pod-ist,
the neighbourhoodof the gulfof Guinea.
who handles (and cures)the feet.
one
Chin.
(E.) M. E. chin. A.S. "".-f
Chirp. (E.) A\%o chi7-rup.M.Echiran

Du. kin, Icel. kinn, Dan.


kind, Swed. pen. Also M. E. chirken, chirmeft, to
kind ; Goth, kinmis, the cheek ; G. kimi, chirp. The
forms chir-p,
chir-k,chir-vi
chin ; L. gena, cheek ; Gk. 7"i/us, chin ; are from an imitative base ; cf. Du. kirren,
cf. Skt. hanus, jaw.
to coo.

China.
or

ware

(China.)
from

China.

The
name
Chineses ;

formerly
people was
dropped the final s, and

use

of the
we

Chinese

have
as

the old

Chirurgeon,

^\ioti{ox chi7ia'Ware.

Gk.)
(F. L.
surgeon;' Cot. F.
"

'a

"

"L.

88

"

of
spelling

geon.
sur-

chi7-urgien,
gery.
chirui-giesurF.

chtru7gia.-^Gk.
x^'pou/)7ta,

CHISEL

hands, art, surgery.


the
Xf//",

Gk.

"

the

work.

"

Chisel.
(F.-L.) M. E. chisel. A. F.
F.
O.
cisel{". ciseau). Cf. Late L.
chisel,
s
cissors
cisellus,
(a.d. 1352). O. F. cisel
Late L. *ctselhim, with the
to
answers
of L. cTsorium, a cuttinginstrument
sense
-

Soheler's

; see
(Vegetius)

to

note

lengthening. Cf. Icel. koka, to


gulp ; kok, the gullet.
Choler, the bile,anger. (F. L.-Gk.)
Anger was supposedto be due to excess of

quent
from

x^ipo-,

tpyuv,to

; and

hand

skill with

hands,

the

working with

CHRIST

Diez.

bile. M.E.

coler. O.F. colere. L. cholera,


bile ; also cholera,bilious complaint. Gk.
Xo\(pa, cholera ; X''^^*^i^^ ; x^^os,bile,

wrath.

Caesura.
carver,
Chit (i).
a pert child.
(E.) M.
a
whelp, cub, kitten. Allied to

A.

see

and
ketliftgr),
(Icel.
a

female

GalL

(L.

And

S.

Gk.)

L.

cholera, as

Melancholy.

see

Choose.

M.E.

(E.)

chesen, chusen.

(also ceosan), to
and
G.
"{"T)\\.
c^as, ceds).

choose

ceosan

E. chil,

(pt.t.
kit-ling Icel. kjosa, Goth,

kiesen,
type

kiiisafi;Teul.

cf. G. kitze, *ketisatt-.


kit-ten-,

Allied to L. gus-tare,to taste,


ycuofiai, I taste, Skt. jush, to relish.
HolSee Gust.
In land's
(VGEUS.)
Brugm. i. " 602.

to

Gk.

cat.

(2),a shoot,sprout. (E.)


Pliny, xiii. 4. Perhaps allied to
chi the, 2i SY"xo\\t(N.E.D.).-A. S.

Chit

See

cholera.

"

above.

"

"

I". *dsu?n, for cces-um,


supine of cccdere.
also Late L. incisor, a
cut ; wlience
to
cutter

"

Chop

(1), to cut; a later form of


(i).
clQ, a germ, sprout. Cf. Goth, keinan, to
Chop (2),to barter. (E.) Probablya
variant of chop, a verb which
to
s^eems
producea shoot ; G. keivi,a germ.
have
evolved
from
E.
been
the
chivalrie.
M.
sb.
chapman.
Chivalry. (F. L.)
O.F.^-^^z^a/^r/i?,
knighthood. Chopine, a high-heeledshoe. (F."
horsemanship,
Late 'L.cabal Iujh, Span.) In Hamlet, ii.2. 447 ; iox chapine.
F. cheval, a horse.
O.F. chapin; later chappin(Cotgrave).
of cabalhis,
a horse.
ace
a
Span, chapiji,
clog with a cork sole,
Chlorine, a pale green gas. (Gk.)
Gk. xKoip-o'i,
woman's
from itscolour.
Named
shoe, high cork shoe. Perhaps
pale
from
a thin plate(ofmetal),
Span,chapa,
green.
The latter used to strengthen
the work it covers.
chloroform.
(Gk. and\..')
element relates to foj-myland formic acid,
Chops ; see Chaps.
Gk.
obtained from red ants.
Chord.
acid formerly
an
(L. Gk.) L. chorda.
the string
of a musical instrument,
\^.formica,an ant.
X0/J677,
orig.a stringof gut. Brugm. i. " 605.
Chocolate, a paste made from cacao.
Mex.
chocolate.
% The same word as Cord.
(vSpan. Mex.) Span,
Chorus.
(L. Gk.) 1..chorus,a hand
chocolatl,chocolate ; Clavigero, Hist.
of singers. Gk. x*^'P^'^^
of
^ dance, a band
Mex. i. 433.
^ Not allied to cacao.
Der.
Choice.
(F. Teut.) Not E. M. E. dancers or singers.See Choir.
M.E.

Chap

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

chois.

O. F.

"

chois

O. North
choisir,
Teut.

origin.

Choir.
church
O. F.

of

(F.
is the

L.

cuer,

choose.
The
the

M.E.

Of

choir of

sit.

choir

choeiir,'the quire of a
of singers; Cot.
L.
Gk.
chorus, a choir.

of

ace.

dance,

singers.See
Choke.
cheoken.

"

"

band

of dancers

or

(F.) M. E.
A. S. ceocian ;

choken,cheken,
vative
only in the deri-

the

glossator
hardlyseems

to

Horn. i. 216

of J
shortening

with
to

change
0

Chouse,
chouse

in M.

from

E., and

eo

to

eo,

subse-

Dan.

kaa, Swed.

the

of

sense

sense

i.

The

allegedto be to a Turkish
who
committed
a
interpreter,
fiaud in 1609."Turk,
chd'ush,

is
or

notorious
a

'

Ben

'cheat'; Alchemist, i.

of

allusion

(Turk.? \ To act as a
Jonson has chiaus in
Turk,' with the implied

cheat.

to

cheat.

or

Pers.
macebearer. Palmers
senger,
chdivush,a sergeant, herald, mes-

sergeant,

Diet. ;

have

understood, and in the pp. dceocod. ^Ifric,

kaauw,

kaja,a jackdaw.

chiaus

Chorus.

dceocung, to translate L. ruminatio,


which

in Du.

seen

are

queir,quer.-'

ti oop

Xopoj,

kansjayi,

Gk.)

chor-i-ster.
chor-al,

Chough, a bird. (E.) M. E. cho^e,


Not
found
in A S., which has
chough.
try,
See
(however)the forms ceo, cio,and the early
forms ciae,
chyae.Somewhat similar forms

to

part where

later

F.

"

kiusa7t,to

speltquire;

church,
chorum,

O.
(F. choix).
choose.
to
coisir,

Goth,

"

test; causal
Choose.

Also

F.

Diet. p. 534.
Ital. ciaus.
; see below.
the anointed one.

Rich.
from

Chrism

Christ,

Or

ately)
(medi-

M.

(L. Gk.)
"

CHRISM

CID

Chuck
toss. (F."
A. S. Crist.'"1^. Chrtstus.'^GV.
xP'"'"'"^s,
(0" to strike gently,
Der.
Gk. XP''"? I rub,anoint.
anointed.
Teut.) Formerly written chock (Turbermas
to givea shock,jolt.
ville).F. choquer,
Christ-ian, Christ-en-dom, "c. ; Christ"

"

anti-christ,
opponent of
Gk.
avri, against; see

(seeMass)
,from

Christ
I

Du.

"

schokken.

to

jolt,shake

allied to E.

shock and shake.

Chuck

John ii. 1 8).


chrism, holy

unction.

An

(L. Gk.)
"

(2),to chuck as a hen. (E.)


imitative word ; Ch. has chuk to express
the noise made
by a cock ; C. T.

Also s[)elt
chrisome,whence chrisorne-child,
cloth
child
or
a
15180(6.3464^ Qi. cluck. "Dqx. chuck' le,
W'-aringa chrisoine-cloth,
after holy unction ; cf. in the sense
'to cluck.'
which a child wore
'
Chuck
O. F. cresme, ' the crisome, or oyle ; Cot.
(3),a chicken. A varietyof
Late L. c/irisma,
holyoil. Gk. xp'O'Atci,chick,for chicken. See above.
Chuckle.
an
x/"'^(^s above).
(E.) To chuckle is to laugh
unguent. "Gk.
in
colours.
a
t
o
suppressedway; cf. Chuck
(Gk.)
Chromatic, relating
(2).
"

"

Chump, a log. (E.) Cf. Swed. dial.


kumpa, to chop into logs; kumping, a
log, round stick ; also Icel. kumbr, trekumbr, a log of wood, from Icel. kumbr,
nasalised
form
of kubbr, a
chopping;
Icel. kubba, to chop. Der.
chump-end^

"Gk.
stem
3-"^jx/"^ /"'"'''-"
x/o"^A*''''"^^y"
colour; allied to xP^^y skin.
xP'^/^ot,
chromium.
chrome,
(Gk.) A

Gk.
of

its compounds exhibit beautiful


colour.
Gk. xpcb^-a,
L.
-Late
Chronicle.
Gk.) M. E.
(F.
cronicle,with inserted /; also crojiike,i. e. thick end.
Church.
(Gk.) lA.^.chirche^chireche.
cronique.^K. F. cronicle ; O. F. crontque,
later circe ; (cf.Icel. kirkja
annals.
Late L. A. S. cirice,
chronicles,
pi.croniques,
;
G. kirche, Du.
for neut.
Gk. KvpLa/iou, a
chronica, fern. sing.
;
/^^r/^).pi.
Gk. xpoviKa, pi.,annals. "Gk.
church, neut. of Hvpiafcos, belongingto
XP^'^''^-^^^
the Lord ; or (possibly)
chron-ic
from Gk. KvpiaKa,
Der.
adj. from xP^^"^^itime.
pi.,treated as a fem. sing. Gk. Kvpios,
( XP^'^^'^^'^^'
metal

colours.

"

"

"

"

chronology,

science of dates.

From
xp^J^o-J, time ; -A.o7ia,from
discourse ; see Logic.
time-measurer.

chronometer,
From

xpoi^o-?, time ; fxerpov, measure

lord, orig.
mighty. Gk. Kvpos, strength.
Skt.
Cf.
filra,a hero.
A07-0S,
Churl.
(E.) M. E. cherl,cheorl. A. S.
+ Du. kerel^G. kerl \ Dan.
(Gk.) ceorl,a man.
Sw.
Icel. karl.
Teut.
; see
types, "^kerloz^

(Gk.)

"

*karloz.

Metre.

Churn, sb. (E.) A. S. cynn ; older


by some
Chrysalis,
form
cirin (printed
the
insects. (Gk.)
cirm), Corp. gloss.
goldXP"'''"^^'?,
coloured sheath of butterflies,
chrysalis. 1866. + Icel. kirna, Swed. kdma, Dan.
Gk. xP""^"0?, gold.
kierne, a churn; cf. O. Swed. kerna,
Swed.
flower.
a
kdma, Dan. kierne,to churn,Du.
(L.
chrysanthemum,
to churn.
-'Gk.
kernen,
L.
XP^'^^^'
Gk.)
chrysanthemum.
Gk.
a
Chutney,
xP^^'^'^i
S^W
Chutny, a kind of hot
OepLov, marigold.
;
a
bloom, from avO^iv, to bloom, relish. (Hind.) Hind, chatnt (Yule).
avOijjiov,
form

the
Gk.

taken

"

"

F.
Chyle, milky fluid. (F.-^L.-Gk.)

related to av9o^,a flower,a bud.

(F. L. chyle. L.
Gk. x^^ {
O.
crisoliie."1^.
F.
Gk.)
chrysolithus,
Gk.
Rev.
xxi. 20.
Gk.
chyme,
XP^'^^^'-^^'^'

chrysolite, a yellow stone.

"

"

chylus.

Gk.

"

x^^^y, juice.
"

I pour.
X^F'^)^

(-y^GHEU.)
merly
liquidpulp. (L.-Gk.) Forchytnus.'^'L.
stone.
chymus.^'Gk.
X.i9os,
;
gold
x^l^os,
XpvfTo-s,
above.
as
chrysoprase. (L. Gk.) L. chryso-juice. Gk. x^'*'*';
Alchemist.
see
Gk. xP'^'^^'^P'^^^^i
^
Chymist ;
prasiis,Rev. xxi. 20.
Gk. xp^'^^'^"
stone.
yellow-green
gold;
=

"

"

"

"

"

"

TtpcKTov,

Chub,

(green)leek.
a

fish.

Ci"

Cz.

(F.) Etym. unknown.

kobhe,a seal,prov. 'Swed.iM(5'"^2/^o-,


Cicatrice, scar. (F. L.) V. cicatrice,
L. cicdtriccf)i,
fat ;
oi cicatrix,
Norw.
ace.
kubbeii.,stumpy ;
a scar.
Swed. kiihb,a block,log. This does not
Ital.
Cicerone,
L.) Ital.cicerone,a
i
explainthe ch ; but see Chump.
guide; orig.a Cicero. L. ace. Ciceronem,
Cf. Dan.

"

chubby,

"

"

"

fat. (E.) Lit. 'like a


cf. prov. Swed. ktibbug
(above).

chubby,

chub;'

proper

Cid,
90

name.

lit.a chief

or

commander.

(Span.

CITE

CIDER
title of

Arab.) Usuallya

"

Riiy Diaz, (also circuire^,to

round.

go

L. circiivi,

"

the national hero of Spain. Arab, sayyid, round ; Ire, lo go.


a lord ; Richardson's Diet. p. 864.
Circum-,
prefix, round.
"

Cider.

L.

Gk.

L.
of

(L.)

around, round;

It

Heb.)
circmn,
orig.
circtimCircle.
Der
M. E. sicer, circus^
a circle ; see
strong drink.
; cira/m-am/"u/aie
cyder.'^Y.cidj-c,O. F. cisdre (for*cisre).amdien/ (see Ambient
Gk. (xUepa,
h. szcera.
strong drink."
i^seeAmble) ; and see below.
circumcise.
Ileb. shekdr^strong drink.
Heb. shdkar,
(L.) L. circiuncls-us

(F.

ace

merely means

"

"

"

to

be intoxicated.

pp.

uf

round.

to cut
circtinicidere,

to
circum, round ; and ccedere,
Cieling ; see Ceil.
circumference.
(L.)
;
Cigar, Segar. (Span.)Span,cigarro

whence

also I'
.

Jereiitia,
boundary

cigare.

of

circle.

"

L.

"

cut.

L. circum^
L

circum-

of pres. pt.oicircuni-ferre,
to
(Span."ferent-,
Cinchona,
round
{\o\i\
to
bear.
Named
of Chinchon,
after the Countess
;
fcrre,
carry
wife of the governor
of Peru, cured by it
circumflex.
(L.) L. syllahacirmarked
with a circumflex
is S.E. of Madrid.
a
A.D.
1638. Chinchon
syllable
cunijicxa,
bark.

Peruvian

stem

L. rzVrKW(Shoiddbe chinchona.)
(a) or 'bent' mark.
of
to
bend
L.
Cincture.
a
circujfifiecteie,
cinctura,
flextis,
girdle.
(L.)
pp.
round ; iiom flectere,
to bend.
L. dficius,pp. oicingere,
to gird.
Cinder.
(E.) Misspeltfor sinder (by
(L.)
lying near.
circumjacent,
"

"

of pres. part,of circwn-iacere,


F, cetidre
L. cinerem : From
stem
lie
to
around
A.S.
: from
iacere,to lie.
"scoria,'
slag.
Cinerary).
sinder^
(L.) L. circum+Icel. sindr ; Swed. suidej- \ G. sinter^ circumlocution.
cinders.
a
dross,whence Du. sintcls,
lociitio,
% The
periphrasis.L. circuinloctitus,
about
A. S, sinder occurs
to speak in a roundin the 8th century.
pp. of circnni-loqul,
confusion

with

"

see

"

to
Cinerary, relating

dead.

L.

the ashes of the


L. ciner-,

cinerarius.

(^L.)
dust, ashes
citiis,

way

loqui,to speak.

from

circumscribe.

"

L.

(L.)

circ2im-

around, to limit:
to write or draw
dead.-f-scribere^
from sc7'ibere,
to write,
Gk. KovL%, dust.
Der.
a flower ;
cineraj'ia,
named
from the ash-coloured down
the
on
circumspect, prudent.(L.) L. cirleaves. Brugm. i. " 84.
ciimspectus,prudent; orig.pp. of circuvistem

of the

of

Cinnabar,
Pers.) L.

Cinoper.

cinnabaris.

to
}picere.

(L.-Gk.-

vermilion.
From
Pers.
red lead, vermilion,
cinnabar.

Cinnamon,

spice.(L.

L. ci)ina??idmum.

look

around

look.
Kiuvdliapi,
zinjarf, circumstance.
zinjifrah,

; from

specere,to

Gk.

"

"

Gk.

Heb.)

"

Gk. Kivva/xwfxov.
qiiindnwn; said to be of Malay
"

"

(F. L.) Adapted


-

L. circnmstatt/ia,
lit.a standing around, also an
attribute,
circumstance
by F. circon(influenced
from OF.

Heb.

cirConstance.

"

stem ofpres.pt.
origin stance). !., circumstant-^
to stand round ; from stare,
mon
cinnaoicircuvi-stdre,
vGesenius).Cf. W-A'^sykdyu-7nd,nis,
to stand.
; from kdyu, wood, manis, sweet.
O.
F.
Circus ; see Circle.
Cipher. (F. Span. Arab.)
a
cipher,zero.
cifre(t chiffreSy
Span. Cirrus, a fleecycloud, tendril. (L.)
curled hair.
a curl,
fZ/ra. Arab, sifr^a cipher;lit. 'empty L. cirj'iis,
Cist, a sort of tomb. (L.-Gk.) L.
adj.empty ; Rich. Diet,
thing; from sifr,
"

"

"

"

"

'

translation

(A

empty;

(2) a cipher.)

Der.

de-dpher,

from

of un-, and
L. de, in the verbal sense
to decvpher
cipher; cf.M. F. dechiffrer,
;
Cot.
'

"

butM.E.
(F.-L.) K.'^.circul-,
dimin.
Y.cercle.'''L. circnhis,

"

'

"

Cistvaen,
and

of

cirais,a ring,circle; see Ring (i). Der.


encircle^sevii-ci?'cle; and see circiitn-.

"

"

Circle.
cercle.

Gk. kiott], a box, chest


cistern.
(F.-L. Gk.) ". cisteme.
L.
L. cisterna,a reservoir for water.
cista,as above.

of Skt. cfinya.(i) cista,a chest.

p. 937.

W.)

W.

British monument.
a
cistfaen,

stone

(L.
chest,

made
with four upright
stones,
fifth on the top. W. r/j-/,
chest
a
L.
and
a
stone.
cista)
;
i7iaen,
(from

monument

and

"

circus, a ring.(L.) L. circus (above). Cit, Citadel ; see civil (below).


Circuit.
Cite, to summon,
quote. (F. L.) F.
(F. L.') F. circjiit. L.
of cie7r,to
L. citdre,frequent,
L. cir- citer.
ace.
circiiilum,a going round.
also circumitus,pp. of circumire
excite, call. + Gk. "/cu,I go.
cuittts,
rouse,
"

"

"

"

"

CITTERN

CITHERN,

(-^KI.)

See Hie.

Der.

CLARION
L. clam dre

hi-cite,outcry.
ex-cite,
"

ous.
{above)."Der. clamor-

re-cite.

Cithern, Cittern,

kind

of

guitar. Clamber,

[AlsoM. E. ^zV^rw^; from O.


cent,
gtnterne. a guitar.]Tlie n is excres-

to climb

by

(E.; perhapsScand.) XV.

F,

clameren, clafnbren.

"

in

as
"

of

imitation

in
biiier-n,

V,. cithara.

giterne,

Gk.

"

of M. E.
kind

KiOapa,a

lute.

lyreor

Citizen;

see

(F.

L.

ace.

City;

see

Civet.

(below;.
civet
(F. Arab.) F. "r/z;^//^,
"

Rich.

Diet. p.
civil.'"l..

767.
cnulis,

L. ciiiis,
a citizen.
of a
hnvan, members

A" S.

M.

Dan.

klamre,

Affected

M. E.

E.

klambra.,

pt.

t.

by
was

which

klam,

Earliest form

(E.)

A. S.
confused with

clam,clay(see

adj.clam,

an

cf. E. F ries. and


clammy, moist.

Du.
See

Clamp.

Clamour

Claim.
XV.
cent.
(Du.)
see

Clamp.

Dvi.klampe,

holdfast ; whence
to clamp,
klainpcn,
grapple,also to board a ship.+ Dan.
a

"

to

the

viscous.

but
sticky
; with
kla7n, Dan.

Clay)

Civil

Civil. (F.-L.) F.
belonging to citizens.
Allied

of which

from
perhaps-

clay
my,

"

zabdd, civet

Icel.

pinch closely
together
;
gripfirmly
; see Clamp.

Clammy,

also the civet-cat;Ital. zibetto\borrowed


Gk. ^airknov(Brachet)."
from medieval
Arab,

Cf.

cent.

clamb, clam.

(below).
Gk.) F. citron.

Civil
-

citrdnem.
'L..citrus,orangewood."
tree; orig.a tree with fragrant
Gk. Kedpos,
a cedar.
Brugin.i. " 764.
L.

to

Climb,

Citron.
Late

to

tightly.

graspmg

(L. Gk.)

household.

klamtne, a cramp-iron
; Swed. klamp, the
Icel.
smith's
vice ; Teut.
same
a
kldmbr,
;
base '^klamp,
answeringto the 2nd grade

civil-i-an.
Dar.
civil-ise,
of M. H. G. kli?npfen,
cit ; short for citizen (below).
to press tightly
citadel. (F.-Ital.-L.) Y.citadelle. together. Cf. Clump.
Ital. cittadella,
small
a
^Gael.) Gael, clann, offsprmg,
town, fort ; Clan.
dimin. of cittade cittate Uittd,),
children
a
; Irish eland, clann,descendants,
city.
"

L.

"

of

ciuitdtem,

ace.

ciuis, a citizen

citizen.
from

F.

A.

cluitas,a city. L.
"

(above).
(F. L.)

M.

"

in
citisein,

which

E.
s

tribe ; \S. plant,pi.offspring,


children.
Cf. Skt. kula{vi),
a herd,family. Krugm.
a

citesein,i. " 669.


was
an
Clandestine.

(L.) L, dandestlnus,

insertion.
O. F. citeain (F. citoyen)
Allied to cla^n,
secretly.
; secret, close.
formed
from O. F. cite {citi)
resound.
to
(L.) L. clangere,
city,by hel]j Clang,
of the suffix -az"
L. -anus
below.
to resound
clangor,a loud noise.
; see
; whence
+ Gk. KXay^-q,a clang; allied to K\d("iv,
city. (F. L.) M. E. cite, citee.
"

"

"

"

O.F. cite (F.citi)."


Late L. iyY"^*civtdtem.
to
clash
for ciuitdtem,ace.
oi cluitds \ see citadel.
See below.

(fut.K\dy^aj).

Der.

clang-or.

with a church.
a small village
Cla"cliail,
Clank, a heavy rmging sound. (Du.)
Gael.
circle
Du.
of
XVII
cent.
a
klank, a ringing
clachan,(i)
(Gael.)
stones,
;
Cf Du. klonk, pt. t. oiklinken,
(2)a small rude church,(3)a small villageHexham.
'

"

with

church.

also Irish

clock, a

Gael,

clack,a stone.
; clack,O.

hamlet

stone.

Clack.
allied

"

clachan,a

(F:.) M..Y..

dacken.

E. F"ies.
Icel. klaka, to chatter ; Du.
clack, crack ; Irish clag,the
a mill.
Crack.

to

to

to

Ir.

clink.

See Clink.
M. E.

Der.

clank,vb.

clappen. [We only


Voc.
find A. S. clcBppetan,
to palpitate;
hands.
Furies,
E.
to
Imitative; 473.]
klappen, clap
is to make
noise by
a
klakken.-\-The orig.sense
klakken, to striking.
+ I^^^l- klappa, Swed.
klappa,
M. H. G. klciffen,
Du. klappen,
clapperof Dan. klappe,
to pat, clap,
prate, make a noise. Allied

Claim,
L.)

So

Clap. (E.)

to demand, call out for.


to Clack, Clatter.
(F.
red wine.
OF.
claimer, clafuer. l^. cldjndre, Claret. (F. L.) Orig.alight
clairet
call out ; cf. O. L. caldre,to proM.
O.
F.
E.
claret.
claret,
(F.
claim
Der.
Kak^LV, to summon.
clairet),
adj.;dimin. of clair,clear. L.
; Gk.
"

"

"

"

ac-claim,de-claim, ex-claim, pro-claim,cldrus, clear. See Clear


re-claifn ; also (from pp. clamdtus) acclarify. (F.-L.) O.Y. darijier.clear. L. cldri-,
to make
clamat-ion,de-clamat-ion, ex-clamat-ion, L. cldrijicdre,
for facere,
-ion.
from cldrus, clear ; and -Jic-,
re- c la mat
tro-clamat-ion,
to make.
clamour.
(F. L.) M. E. clamour.
"

"

"

O. F\

clamour.

"

h.

ace.

cldmdrem.

clarion.

an

92

(F.

L.)

M.

E. darioun.

"

CLUE

CLEW,

CLOG

the placeof M. E. deliver,


quick,nimble,
Ch. pi-ol.
84."O. F, delivre, free,prompt,

Cf. Du.

rivet ; also,
a blow
klink,a latch,

O. H. G.

and

klenkan,

knot

to

and
alert ; compounded of L. de, prefix,
together.
free ; see Deliver.
liber,
Cling. (E.) M. E, clingen,to
thread.
of
ball
be matted
stiff,
a
(E.)
together.A.S.
Clew, Clue,
M. E. clewe.
A. S. cllwen, a clew ; also (pt. t. clang, pp. clungen),to
cleowe
whence

bind

or

become

clingan

dry up,
shrivel up. -fDan. klynge,
to cluster. Allied
to
Swed.
kldnga, to climb; O. H. G.
clunga,a clew.

kluiven.
(Epinalgl.cleouuae^.-\-\yvi.

kluwenen, to wind on clews (E.


G. kluwen
clew up a sail)
; and
; M. Low
haps
PerClinical
a clew.
of. G. kndiiel (for'^kldnel),
(F. L. Gk.) F. clinique,
'
'
allied to L. gluere,
to draw
together. one that is bedrid ; Cot. L. clinicus,
the same.
Gk. kKivikos, belongingto a
Cf. Claw.
"

"

"

"

his art.
Gk.
pressing bed, a physician
; 77 kXiulkt),
(E.) An imitative word, exbed.
and thinner sound than
to lean; see
Gk. KXiveiv,
a
fcXivT],
lighter
Cf. Du. klik- Lean
E. Fries, klikken.
Clack.
(i).
lised
Clink.
klakken, to clash.
(E.) E. Fries, klitiken. Nasa-

Click.

"

"

form
of Click. -j-Du. klinken, to
suitor."
a
Client.
(F." L.) F. client,
L. clientem,ace. of clietis cliiens,
orig.a sound, pt. t. klonk, pp. geklonken; Swed.
hearer,one who listens to advice ; pres. pt. klinka,to jingle.Cf. Clank.
to hear.
of cluere,
clinker, a hard cinder. (Du.) Du.
(VKLEU.)
Cliff, a steep rock, headland. (E.) klinker,a clinker,named from the tinkling
when
A. S. clif,
a
they strike
rock, cliff.+Du. and Icel. sound which they make
=

each

klif; O. H. G. klep. Cf. G. and Dan.


Swed.
klippa,a crag ; and Icel.
klippe.
of
a
khif, ridge cliffs.
Climate.
(F.-L.-Gk.) yi.'^.climat.

clixuacter,a

criticaltime of life.

In

"

"

klinken

"

regionof the earth,climate.


to lean,slope
K\ij/eiv,
; see Lean.

clink ; cognate

(F.-Du.)
clinquant, glittering.

"

Gk.

to
,

Shak.
Lit. ' tinkling.'
F. clinquant,
pres.
Du.
clink.
to
pt. of O. F. clinquer,

of
F. cliniat.-^\-.2X^
L. climat-, stem
of KXi/xa, a
cliina. Gk. /fAi/xar-,stem

slope,zone,

other. "Du.
klinken
E. clink.

with

(above).

Clip, to

"

cut.

(Scand.)M.

E.

klippen.
to
klippe,
"

Swed. klippa,
Dan.
klippa,
clip,shear hair. Cf. Snip.

Icel.

(F.

Clip 2),to embrace. (E.) A. S. ch'ppan.


-Gk.) M.F. climaclere,adj.;whence I'an
a
Clique, a gang. (F. Du.) F. clique,
climactere,'the climatericall {sio year;
to click,
gang, noisyset. "O. F. cliquer,
every 7th, or Qlh,or the 63 yeare of a
noise.
Du.
a
klikken, to click,
man's life,
all very dangerous,
but the last, make
tell
clash
also
of
to
a
inform,
a
most;' Cot. Gk. KKLfxaKTrfp,
; cf.Du. klikker,
;
step
"

"

"

See Click.
life. Gk.
a tell-tale.
of Kkifia^,
a ladder,climax,
Cloak, Cloke. (F.-C.) M.E.rM^.O. F. cloche. 'L?ittl..
O. North
F. cloque,
with suffix -TTjp of the agent; see below.
bell
horseman's
also
a
;
cape, which
climax, the highestdegree. (Gk.) cloca,a
Gk. KAifxa^,a ladder, staircase,highest resembled a bell in shape: see below.
'
bell * ;
sense
was
of
clock. (C.) The orig.
(in rhetoric). Gk.

ladder,

dangerousperiodof

"

K\ifiaK-,stem

"

pitch

expression

to slope. Der.
Kkiveiv,

"

precededclocks

bells

anti- climax.

for

times.
notifying

M. Du. clocke (Du. klok), a


O. North F. cloque,
a bell.
bell
from
Gk. KXifxa
; or
; see Climate.
Celtic
bell
of
Late
L.
clo7nb.
a
origin.
M.
E.
t.
Climb.
;
cloc{c)a,
cllmben, pt.
(E.)
a
bell,clock ; clogaim,I ring
A. S. climban,pt. t. clamb, pi.clumbon.-\- Irish clog,
bell ; O. Irish cloc,a bell.
sound
Teut.
a
or
as
Du. klimmen, M. H.G.
klimnun.
is
The G. glocke
Cf. W. clock,2L bell,"c.
serted
The
was
m
orig. intype *klimban-.
also
"c.
Du.
word
borrowed
so
klok,
a
;
in the present stem, and did not
Icel.
Clod.
is shewn
(E.) M.E. clod,clodde. A. S.
to the root
as

Clim.e. (L. -Gk.)

L.

Either

a climate.
"://wrz,

from

"

"

"

belong
Cleave

climb.

clod

it is allied to

Hence

see

climate.

Clinch, Clench,
clenchen, klenken,
to

to

to

(E.) M.E.
smartly,to

rivet.

strike

(in compounds),a lump

of

earth.

Teut. type *klu-dO',from the weak


grade
See
of Teut. root *kleu-,to stick together.
Clot.
Cf.
Cloud.
Clew,
sole of
hindrance; a wooden
a

(2).

Clim.e ;

make

by

to
klifa,

Clog,

clink ; causal of klinken,to clink.


94

shoe;

wooden

shoe.

(E.)

M.E.

clog.

CLUMSY

CLOISTER
Not found in A. S. A
cf. Norvv. klugu,a hard log.

log, clump.

word

Cloister.

de

late

clove,' Cot.

'

girojle,a

semblance

to

nail.

Cf

from

the

Span, clavo,a

of
F.
L.) M. E. cloister.
nail,also a clove. L. clduiim. ace.
cloistre ( F. cloiire). !^. claustrutn.
a nail.+O. Irish do, a nail.
clduiis,
shell of
lit. enclosure. "L.
c/ausits, pp. oi clati- Clove
(2),a bulb, or spherical
of garlic,
"c.
a bulb
dere, to shut. See Clause.
(E.) A.S. cluju,f. ;
cf. cluf-tvyrt,
a buttercup
close (i\ to shut in. (F. L.) M. E
(litclove-wort).
"

"

"

O.F.

"

"

its cleavage into si ells.


from
pr. s. of O. F. clore, Named
A. S. chif-,
weak gradeot cltofan,
L. claiidere (above). Der.
to shut in.
to split;
in-close.
Cleave
see
a cleft.
a field ; dis-close,
close,
en-close,
(i). Cf. Icel. klofi,
close
Clove
(3),a weight. (F.-L.) A. F.
(2),shut up. (F. L.) M. E.
closen.'~O.Y

clos,i

"

"

"

O. F. clos,pp. of clore (above).clou ; the same


word as Clove
(1). Late
(F.-L.) O.F. closet,dimin. L. cldvus,a weight (forwool).
enclosed
clos,
A. S.
Clover.
(E.) M. Y.. claver.
space. "O.F.

clos,does.
closet.

"

"

of

cios,

an

pp.

; see

close

Clot.

Du. klaver,whence
cLlfre,trefoil.-4cldfre.

(2).

G.
M. E. clot,clotte,a ball, Swed.
klofver,Dan. klbver; Low
% The supposed
esp. of earth. A. S. dolt,clot,a lump.-J-klever ; cf. G. klee.
G. klotz,a lump. Teut. type *klzit-to-,
connexion
with cleave (1) is impossible.
from the weak gradeof Teut. base ^kleut ;
Clown.
a clumsy,
\ct\.khin?ii,
(Scand.)

(E.)

boorish

Cleat, Clout, Cluster.


Cloth.
(E.) M. E. cloth,clath.
cldd.'\-T)\.\.
kleed,G. kleid,a dress.
A. S. clddas,pi.of clJQ.
clothes,
see

clothe,

with

A. S.

fellow

kluns,a
log; cf.

Der.

Clump.

Swed. dial, klunn. a log,


fellow ; Dan. klunt, a
Dan. khmtet, clumsy. Allied to
'
Orig.sense ' log or ' clod.'
:

clownish

cloth.
(E.) Cloy. (F. L.) Orig.to stop up, hence,
M. E. cloihen,clathen, pt. t. clothede (or tosate.
Cot.;
M.F.^Ay'"fr,'tocloy,stopup,'
of F. clouer (O.F. doer),to nail,
a by-form
cladde),
pp. clothed (or clad). Formed
from A. S. cldd.-\-Y"-a.
kleeden,from klecd ; fasten up.
[A horse prickedwith a nail,
also G. kleiden,from kleid. % But the in shoeing,
said to be cloyed.]O. F.
so
was
:
do, F. clou,a nail;see Clove (i). % Cloy
pt. t. and pp. clad are of Scand. origin
cf. Icel. klcedd-r,pp. of klce"a,
short for ac-cloy
or
to clothe ;
(inE.)is usually
a-doy,
to

cover

"

"

Swed

where

klddd, pp. of kldda.

Cloud.

M. E.

(E.)

cloud,orig.a

the

prefixa- representsF.

F. endouer,

mass

en-

see

endoyer in Cotgrave,

word
M. E. clnd, Club
as
(i),a heavy stick. (Scand.)M.E.
dubbe.
Icel. klubba, kluniba, a club ;
A. S. cliid.a round mass,
of rock, hill. From
Teut. root '^kleu, Swed. klubb,a club,log,
mass
lump ; Dan. khib,
variant ot
A
to stick together
Clod.
mere
: see
club,
Clew,
klump, lump.
of vapours;
the
of rock.
a mass

Clough,

same

"

hollow

in

hill-side.

M. E.

below.

(E.) Clump
A. S.
H. G.

dough, clo^e. Answering to


*cldh,not found; connate with O.

club

(2), an

See Golf.
association.

(Scand.)

Lit. 'a clump of people.'


kldh. The A. S. *cldh (-O.H.G. klah, Cf. Swed. dial, klubb, a clump,lump, also
in Klah-uelde, Forstemann)
as
represents a knot of people(Rietz).See above.
Teut. type *klanxo-,from *klanx, 2nd
a
Cluck.
(E.) M. E. clokken, to cluck

grade of *klinx; cf. G. klinge,O. H. G.


chlinga,a clough (Acad.,Aug. and Sept.

Clout, patch.(E.)
a

Vi.Y.. clout.

dut, a patch;

whence W.
patch,clout ; Ir. and

Orig.sense

same.

as

'

mass,

hen ;

stuff' ;

mere

gloctre.An
;

see
a

Not

in

clump.

variant

of

Clack.

klukke, G. glucken;

imitative word.

Clew.

Clump,
cent.
a

klokkeji,Dan.

Clue

A.S.

chvt,Corn, clut,
Gael, cltid,the

pieceof

cent.

Du.

L.

1SS9J.

XVII

mass,

block.

A.S.,except

Cf. Dan.

as

(E.) XVI
dymp-re,

in

klump, Swed. klump;

orig.Teut.

from Teut. root


Du.
G. klump. a
clump,
klomp, Low
type *klut-oz,
in Clot.
*kleut-,as seen
*kl2ci-,
klumba, a club, with b
Closely lump, log ; (Icel.
allied to Cleat
gradeof the same

/). From
klump-, weak grade of
to
as in M.ll. G.
klimpfen,
*klemp-,
Clove
i), a kind of spice.(F, L.) press tightly
together. Cf. Clamp.
M. E. clow ; the change to clove,
in the
Clumsy. (Scand.)Cf. M. E. clumsed,
(which is

from

the

2nd

for

root).

Teut.

"

XVIth
of

cent., was
Ital. chiovo.

"

due to the influence domsed, benumbed


fingersare
; benumbed
F. clou, a nail ; cloti clumsy. This is the pp. of clomsen, to
95

COCHINEAL

CLUSTER

benumb,

(Rietz)
; Icel.

course,

"

adj.which

an

Formerly
phrase
ordinary

rough. (F. L.)

Coarse,

Cf. Swed.

feel benumbed.

to

or

dial, khimnisen, benumbed

from

arose

the

of an
in course
to
to denote anything
klumsa, lock-jawed. Cf. Du. k!cini7ien,
See
pinch;klaimen, to be benumbed, kleiimsch, character; cf. mod. E. of course.
with
also
S.
Course.
numb
A.
cold;
clom, clam, a
Coast.
(F. L.) M. E. coste. O. F.
bond, clasp. See Clammy,
shore.
S.
coste
A,
bunch.
a rib,slopeof a hill,
cluster,
a
cBte),
(F.
Cluster,
(E.)
L. casta, a rib.
G. khister. Suggests
a bunch. + Low
clyster,
O. F.
M. E. cote.
Teut. type *klut-tro-,
a
Coat.
a cluster ; formed
(F. G.)
Low
L.
cota, cotta,a coat.
with suffix -tro from *klut-,weak gradeof cote kV cotte);
for
M.
H.
G.
mantle;
to mass
Teut. root '^kleut-,
kotte,kutte,a coarse
together;
O. Sax. cot,the same.
which see Clot, CI sat, Clout.
vb., from
Clutch, to seize. (E.) M. E. clucchen, Coax. (E.?) Formerlyr"?^^J,
clicchen. A. S. clycca?t(whence pp. ge- cokes, sb. a simpleton,dupe. Perhaps
We find also M. E. cloke, allied to Cocker
to Cockney.
or
cliht,Somner),
Cob (i),
a round
was
lump, knob. (E.) As
claw; which
a
supersededby the
-

"

"

short and
applied to a pony, it means
M.
E.
also
stout.
a
clutter,
cob,
great person
;
Clutter,
to
vb.,is a variant (Hoccleve).In some
senses, it seems
vb.,to clot. (E.) Clutter,
be allied to A. S. copp,a top, summit.
into clots ; see Clot, and
of clotter,
to run
clotted.
cobble
cf. E. Fries, klutern,to become
(0) ^ small round lump. (E.)
Dimin.
M. E. cobylstone,
confused
a cobble-stone.
Clutter also meant
a
confusion,
verbal form.

clotted

mass

of cob

by association with
a rattle.
kl'dter,
L. clyster,an
(L. Gk.)

heap, turmoil, din

Clyster.

(above).
to beat. (E.)
(2),

Cob

Cf. E. Fries,

Clatter.

thump

"

the bowels.
Gk. icKvaT-qp,
a
strike,
esp.
syringe.Gk. kXv^uv, to wash.-f- (0.
clyster,

into
injection

bunch

cob, a

the cop

on

"

Cf. W.

prov.
head.

;
or

cobio,to

E.

cop,
See

to

Cob

"

(G.) G. kobalt,
a
given by the miners,
Co-, prefix.(L.)
;
co-, together
better
considered
I
jefore
used for cona
poisonous
;
( cuvi), together,
a
vowel.
demon,
c
operate,
okobold,meaning
Hence, co-efficient,
(i)
(2)
co-equal, spelt
UfG.
See others below ; cobalt.
co-ordinate.
origin(Kluge).
and see Con-.
Cobble
(i); see Cob (i).
F. coche, a
Cobble
Coach.
(2),to patchup. (E.) Origin
(F. Hung.)
coach ; Cot.
Etym. disputed.Said, as unknown; cf. Cob (2),of which it seems
earlyas A. D. 1553, to be a Hungarian to be the frequentative.
word ; from Hung, kocsi,
a coach, so called
Cobra, a hooded snake. (Port. L.)
also cobra de capcllo,
i.e. snake
called Port, cobj-a,
because firstmade at a Hung, village

L. clnere,to wash.

Cobalt,

(VKLEU.)

mineial.

nickname

cobalt ;
becaus;i

L.

'

"

'

"

or
A'ocs,near Raab ; see Littre,and
Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions.

with

A'ocsi

XV

Coadjutor. (F.-L.)
coadjntour.L
"

co-, (or con-

cent.
rz^w,

A.F.

dimin.

(L.)

copiveb,
coppeand zueb.
spider,
a cob,*
or
kop,koppe,'a spider,
(E.')

web ; from
Cf. M. Du.

help.
curdle.

"

S. ii. 205.

Cobweb.

"

to

L. colubra, snake ; de, of;


of capellus,
hat, hood,
See Notes and
of capa, a cape.
hood.

together;Queries,7

adiutor, an assistant,from vb. adiuudre, to assist. L. ad-, to ; iuud7-e,to


and

Coagulate,

ace.
capelhirn,

M.

Hexham.

L. coagu-

M.

E.

E. coppe,a

From

A. S

coppa, as in

attor-

L. coppa, a spider
curdle.
to
Idtus,pp. of codguldre,
; from
; lit. poison-bunch
head.
which
A.
S.
milk
and
to
codgulum, rennet,
causes
dttor, dtor, poison,
cop,a
run
together. L. co- {cutn),together; Coca, a Peruvian plant.(Span. Peruv.)
"

"

ag-ere,

to

drive.

Coal.
(E.) M. E. r^/. A. S. f^/.+
kool, Icel. Swed. kol, Dan. kul, G.

Du.

kohle.

Peruv. cuca ; Garcilasso,Peru,


Span.
bk. 8. c. 15. Distinct both from cocoa
(or
cocaine.
coco') and cacao.
Der.
Gk.)
Cochineal.
(F. Span. L.
coca.

Cf.

"

to blaze.
Skt.y^a/,
cochineal
cochinilla,
to grow
together.(L.) L. F. cochenille.'^S^a.w.
like
look
which
from
insects
berries).
coalescere. L. co-,iox
con; vmade
cu?n, together
L. coccimis. of a scarlet colour ; see
and alescere,
oi alere,to
to grow, inceptive
Isaiah i.18 (Vulgate).L. coccum, a berry;
nourish.
-

Coalesce,

"

"

"

"

96

COD

COCK
also kermes, supposedto be
cochineal.
KuKKos, a berry,

Cock

berry.
"

Gk.

suffix

fem.

with

tread ;

-trix, of

the

agent.

bird. (E.) "SLE. cok


*
the bird's cry.
Crydc
Ch. C. T. Nvm's Priest's

Cocker,

M. E.
to
(E. ?)
pamper.
dulge).
(w:;ence \V. cocri,to fondle,inCf. AL Du.
co/^! cok '.'
anon
kokelen,ketikelen,
Hexham
F.
to
cocker, to foster,'
Tale, 457. Cf. Skt. kiikknia. a cock :
; M.
to
And
dandle,
cocker,
liner,
Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks.
ioqtie
pamper
Norw.
cf. Cuckoo.
(a child);' Cot.
kokra, to call as
of a barrel,
is tlie a cock ; also,to cocker.
cock, the stop-cock
Cock
see
So also G. hahn, (i)a cock,
word.
(i\
Cockerel;
same
A. S.

(i),a

cocc

male

from

cokcren
"

'

of bivalve.

(F. L.
cockle
a
cock,
[Cf.
cock,
gun.
C. x. 95) ; A. S. sie-cocca;
its originalshape; cf. G. den Hahn
span- (P.Plowman,
shell
cocklea
(where sie -sea)] F. coqiiille,
nett, to cock a s^un.
; cf.Ital. cochiglia. Lat. type *cochycockade, a knot of ribbon on a liat.
for conchy
liuvi,a cockle,shell-fish.
(F.) F. coquarde,fern, oi coquard,saucy; liiitti,
Gk. /f07xv^ioi',
a
also coquarde,
bonnet a la coquarde, any
cockle, dimin. of "07KvKi], from ku'^kt],a cockle or mussel.
bonnetorcapworn proudly; Cot. Formed
with suffix -ard from F. coq, a cock (from Cockle
(2),a weed among corn.
(E.)
Gael, cogall,
A. S. coccel,tares; whence
the bird's cry).
corn-cockle ;
tares, husks, cockle ; cogtill,
cockerel, a young cock. (E.) Double
corn-cockle.
Irish
dimin. of Cock
Qi.
cogall,
pik-erel.
(i).
to be uneven,
(.'.)"
pucker up.
cockloft, upper loft. (E.and Scand.) Cockle
So also G. hahnbalken^ (Scand.) Of Scand.
From
cock and loft.
origin; cf. Norw.
cockled
a lofta roost, cockloft ; Dan.
koklutt,lumpy, uneven,
loftkatnvier,
up ;
from Norw.
kokle,a littlelump, dimin. of
chamber, room
up in the rafters.
kok, a lump; see Ccck
Cock
(2). Cf. Swed.
(2),a pileof hay. (Scand.)Dan.
kok. aheap; prov. Dan. kok, a hay-cock, kokkeU dimin. of koka, a clod.
at kokke hoet,to cock
hay ; Icel. kiikkr, Cockloft; see Cock (i).
Cockney, orig.an effeminate person.
lump, ball ; Swed. koka, clod of earth.
Cock
to stick up
Caccherelli,
cacklings
abruptly. (E.) (E.) Flono has:
(.^),
Apparentlywith reference to the posture of liens ; also egs, as we say cockanegs.'
of a cock's head when
crowing; or to that From M. E. cokenay,a foolish person, Ch,
of his crest or tail. Cf. Gael, coc, to cock ; C. T. 4208. Lit. cocks' egg ; i.e. yolkFrom
M. E, cokett,
in coc do bhomeid, cock your bonnet ; less egg.
as
gen. pi. of
Cockle

(2)a stopcock.

part of the lock of

From

"

Gk.)

(1),a

sort

"

E, cokel.

"

"

'

"

'

'

'

'

'

'

And

cock-nosed.
coc-shronach,

ade.
Cock-

see

cok,

See

C.

cock ; and ay, ey, A. S. ceg, egg.


S. Burne, ShropshireFolk-lore,

(4, Cockboat, a small boat. p. 220.


Span.
(F.
(Span.) From
Gk.) O. F. coque, a kind of Cockroacll.
boat, orig.a shell. Cf. Span, coca, Ital. cncaracha,a wood-louse, cockroach ; from
(also cued),a kind of caterpillar.
(by Diez) cuca
cocca, a small ship. Derived
from L. concha, a shell ; from Gk. ko-^kt], Originuncertain.
Cocoa
a cockle
Cockle
: see
(i),Coco, the cocoa-nut palm.
(i).
Port,
and Span, coco, a bugbear,
Cock
see
(I).
(Port.)
Cockade;
kind
mask
of
to
an
a
Cockatoo,
ugb
frightenchildren ; hence
parrot. (Malay.)
of
account
on
Malay kakatua ; from the bird's cry. Cf. applied to the cocoa-nut
Skt. the monkey-like face at the base of the
Malay ktckuk, crowing of cocks.
See Cock
Cf. Span, cocar, to make grimaces.
nut.
kiikkuta,a cock.
i^i).
Cockatrice.
Cocoa
(F. Late L. L.) By
(2),a corrupt form of Cacao.
confusion with cock,it was
said to be a
(F. L."
Cocoon, case of a chrysalis.
Cock
"

L.

"

"

hatched

monster

cocatrice.

"

from
Late
L.

cock's egg.

used

to

render

'

the treader

the

afterwards transferred
(seeaccount in N. E.

O.F.

Gk.
to

or

of

and
Ixv^vixojv,
mean

D.).
"

F. cocon,
shell. See Cock

Gk.)

cocoon

shape;

'crocodile'
L. cakd-re,

to

; and

young

cf. M.
see

Du.
below.

cod ; M. E.

from

(4).
Latin
a fish. (E.?)
a
Cod (i),
tracker,'Palsgrave.Perhapsnamed

cocdtricem, ace.

cocdtrjx, caucdt7-ix,
answeringto
i.e.
type *caicdtrix,

"

coque,

Spelt codde

in

ed
from its roundkodde. a club (Hexham)
Der.

codlyng.

a
cod-ling,

COD

Cod

COISTREL

(E.) Cognisance, knowledge,a badge. (F.


L.)
Formerlyconisaiince.-'O. F. coji^odri,scrotum
bag.+Icel.koddi,pillow,
; noissance,knowledge; M. F. cognoissance.
(2), a

husk, bag,

husk
Hence. peas-cod,
a

Swed.

kudde,

Coddle,
L.

?)

A. S. codd.

render

effeminate.

"

caudle,vb. (in

for

conoissant,pres, pt.

know.

L.

"

O. Y.

of

Know.

; see

cognition, perception.(L.)
ace.

L.

of

to

cognoscere,

From

'L, cogtiitns,
cogfiiiio.
pp.

of

"

'L, codicem, ace.

"

book

of codex, a tablet, cognoscere (above).


a
surname.
caudex, a trunk of a
cognomen,

older form

tree.

surname.

codicil.
a

L.

"

{cuvi),together,fully;

CO-

gnoscerc, to know

"

to

know.

conoistre, to

Caudle.
treat with caudle ; see
Cf. prov. E. coddle,to parboil,
stew.
Code, a digestof laws. (F. L.) F.

code.

O. F.

"

pamper,

Perhaps

(F.
Shak.),to
-

bolster.

pea.

cushion.

to

of

L. codicillus,a codicil

(L.)

will ; diinin. of codex

nomen,

Codling (0, Codlin,

kind

of

name,

with

(stem codic-).

apple. See Noun,

gnomen,
(L.) L. coL. co- {ctini),
with;
altered to gnomen
fusion
liycon"

gnoscere,
Name.

(C.?) Earlier spellings


querdling,
quad- Cohabit.
(L.)
Apparentlyformed, with dwell togetherwith.
ling,qtiodliiig.
E. suffix
an
-ling,from Irish cueirt,
apple; habitdrc,to

noscere,

L.
"

know.

to

co-habitdre,to

L. codwell.

gether
{cum-),to-

See

tation.
Habi-

tree.

Cohere.
(i).
; see Cod
(L.) L. co-harere,to stick
L. r^?-,together
(L.) L. coercere, to compel. together(pp. r"?//"^.f"i-).
;
cohesto stick.
Der.
close, hat-ere,
co-ictini),
cohes-ion,
together;arcere, to en-

Codling (2
Coerce.
L.

"

"

confine,allied

to

area,

chest ;

jive,from the
I Cohort, a

see

Ark.

Turk,

pp.
band

of soldiers.

(F. L.)
"

from cohors,
qah^.cc.coho?'iefn,
(Turk."Arab.)
'
See
veh.
Arab, qahwah, coffee.
of soldiers.
a
court, also a band
it is a doublet.
\ Court, of which
Coifer.
(F. L. Gk.) M. E. cofre.
also cojin,
O. F. cofre,
chest. L. ace.
a
(F.-G.-L.)
Coif, Quoif, a cap.

Coffee.

F. cohorte.-^l^.

"

"

"

"

"

Gk.

cophinnm.
"

coffin.

Kocpivos,a basket.
L.

O, F.

Gk.) Orig. case,


(F.
F, cojiji,
above.
as
(Doublet
"

"

O.
chest.
of coffer.)
"

H.
*kupp-Jdn-.'-0.
tooth

(i), a

Cog

M. E.

(Scand.)

Low
coi/e,coiffe;

on

cogge

wheel-rim.

[whence

also,the

cup ;

Gael,

Coil

and

Coiled

'

"

"

under

worn

L. cuppa ;

Cup.

see

Coin.

; see
(i),to

up

"

a cap.
cofea,

cap

chuppha ; stem
chuph (G. kopf),a

G.

head.

Coign

Irish cog, a mill-cog; W. cocos, cocs,


M. Dan.
cogs of a wheel]. Not in A. S.

L.

M. H. G. kuffe,
kupfe,a
helmet ; O. H. G.
the

gathertogether.(F." L.)

cable ; ' Beaumont


O. F. coillir,
to collect.
in

and

L.
kogge, cog, kogge-hjul^a cog-wheel Fletcher.
Collect.
(Kalkar); Swed. kugge,a cog ; M. Swed. colligere
; see
Coil (2),a noise, bustle. (F. L.?)
kugg (Ihre).
or
;
slang expression
Cog (2), to trick. (Scand.) Prob. Grig, a colloquial
with a cog; to cog a die,to prob. from Coil(i). We
find 'a coil of
to catch
as
it fall as desired. hay,'a heap ; nnd coil,to twist.
check it so as to make
Cf. Swed.
dial, kugg, Norw.
F.
Coin.
kogga, to
(F.-L.) M. E. coin.~-0.
dupe ; Swed. kiigga, to cheat, to cog ; coin, a wedge, stamp on a coin, a coin
of a wedge"). L.
Oman.
(stamped by means
a

"

"

'

'

"

(L.)

Cogent.

L.

cogent-, stem

part, of

of
for

cuneum,

ace.

of cuneus,

wedge.

Not

allied to Cone.

cdgere,
compel ;
gether. coign.
(F. L.) F. coing, coin, a
con-agere)lit. to drive tocorner
Brugm. i. " 968.
; lit.a wedge (asabove).
Coincide, to agree with. (L.) L. coCogitate. (L.) L. cogitdtus,
pp. of
think
for
from
to
co-agitdre,
with); and incidere,to
cum,
(forcon;
cogitdre,
fall
from
and
to
agitdre, agitate,
in^ upon, and cadere,to
CO-, con-, together,
upon,

pres.
co-agere

to

"

="

of
frequent,

Cognate.
by

birth.

"

agere, to drive.
(L.) L. co-gndtus, allied
L.

co-

;
(for cum), together

gndlus, born, old form of tidtus^pp. of


nasci,to be born; see Natal.

fall.

Coistrel,
For
An
an

98

mean

fellow.

coustrel,the older form


E.

adaptationof

M. F.

(F. L.)
(Palsgrave).
"

coustillier,

armour-bearer, lackey; lit.

'

one

who

COLLOP

COIT
carries

poinard.' M.

O. F.

(F. L.)

conference.
a
coiistille,

F.

"

"

L.

a
collation,

ing
bringa
conferring.L. colldtum,
together,
to
supinein use with the verb conferi-e,
from
different
a
root).
Coulter.
bringtogether(but
L.c^/- {{oxconcum),together
; latum,
Coit ; see Quoit.
See
coal. (E. ?)
Coke, supine of tollere,to take, bear.
Coke, charred
Tolerate.
-coal
o
r
sea
charred;'
1674.
Ray,
pit-coal
better
poniard; variant of O. F. cojistel,
couielja knife. L. cultellum,ace oi cultelius,a knife ; dimin. of culler. See

conference.

"

colldtionem,a

ace.

"

"

=^

"

'

cf. M.

Etym. unknown;

colk,the

E.

(0.

Colleague

core

partner.

(F.-L.)

M. F. collegue.^L. collega,
a
partner in
(ofan apple).
coloffice.
F.
strainer.
a
(for con-, cutn),with;
Colander, Cullender,
choose
Pro
t
o
see
:
Legend.
v.
M.
E.
(Prov. L.)
cfllyrtdore.'-O. legere,
to
of
Prov.
a
join in an alliance.
form
(2),
couladou^
Colleague
"^colador,
orig.
"

"

F.
colleguer,to
strainer. Late L. '^coldtdrem,ace. ; for L.
L.) O. F. colliguer,
bind
L. colligdre,
to
L. coldre,to strain. colleague with.
cdldtorhijii,
a strainer.
"

"

"

"

Cf. Span, colador,a


L. coliiDi,
a sieve.
strainer from L. coldre').
Cold.
(E.) M. E. cold, kald, adj.;
"

tocol- (for con-, cum), gether


See
bind.
League
t
o
(i).
; ligdre,
Collect, vb. (F.-L.) O.Y.collecter,
to collect money
(Roquefort).Late L.

together.
"

L.

O. Merc,
cald, A. S. ceald,adj.+ Icel.
lection,
cola
kaldr, Swed. kail, Dan. kold, Du. kot(d. collectdre (thesame), from collecta,
of
to
of
"^kal-doz.
fern,
Teut.
Goth,
G.
kalt.
colligere,
kalds,
orig.
pp.
with ;
L. col- ( for con-, cum)
cold ; from Teut. *kal,to be cold (as in collect.
with suffix -doz=-QfV.
to gather; see Legend.
Icel. kala, to freeze),
legere,
a
cold ; see
Lat. gel-idtis,
Cf
geal,
Con-Toy.
collect, sb. (L.) Late L. collecta,
"

"

collection in
prayer, hence

Chill, CooL
For
A, S.
M. E, coi,caul.
Wort.
cdwel (or Icel. kdl). L. caulis,
a
cdtil,

Cole, Colewort, cabbage.(L.)

-ivort,see

Gk.

stalk.
winged insects.

KavXos,

sheath

Coleoptera,
(Gk.
wing.

Gk.

KoXeo-s,a sheath; -uTep-uv,

Colleen, a
girl; dimin.

an
assembly for
money,
short
a
prayer; see above.
girl.(Irish.)Irish cailin,

of caile,
a country-woman.
cailin,dimin. of caile.
College, an assembly,seminary. (F."
of
society
L.) O. F. college.L. collegitim,
L.
a
or
collega,
companions.
colleagues

"

stalk,cabbage.+

Gael,

"

"

'\i).
colleague;
(F.-L.-Gk.)
Collet; see Collar.
adj. L. colicics.'-GV.
pain.^Y. colique,
gether.
in the colon.
Collide. (L.) L. collidere, to dash tokooXlkos,for koMkos, suffering
"L.
col- (forcon-, cum), together;
Gk. KuKov.
See Colon
(2).
collis-ion
Der.
Coliseum.
Icedere,to strike,hurt.
(Med.L. Gk.) The same
II
CO
is
a
t
-us).
as Colosseum,
a largeamphitheatre Rome,
(frompp.
of shepherd's
named
from its magnitude (Gibbon). Collie, Colly, a kind
so
The Ital. word is coliseo. See Colossus.
coley; prob.
dog. (E.) Formerly,coally,
black.
fall in. the same
as
coal-y,coal-coloured,
Collapse, to shrink together,
in
collied
(L.) First used in the pp. collapsedCf. obs. colly,adj.,coal-black;
Shak.
M.
N.
i.
D.
from
L.
i. 145.
Englished
collapsus,
pp. of colldln,
.i.e.cum)
Collier. (E.) \\.Y..colier\fromM.E.
conto falltogether.L. col- (for
to slip. See Lapse.
col,coal. Cf. bozv-yer,
saw-yer.
together
; Idbi,
to
M.
and
F.
E.
A.
together.(L.)
Collar.
place
Collocate,
L.)
(F.
to place
L. colldre,
From
coler. O. F. colter,
together.
a collar.
a
pp. of L. col-locdre,
L. collum,the neck.-f- L. col- (ioTcon-, cztm) together
band for the neck.
; locdre,
A. S. heals,G. hals, the neck.
to place,from locus,a place.
Collodion, a solution of gun-cotton.
collet, the part of the ringin which
glue-like."
a
the stone is set. (F. L.)
F. .collet,
(Gk.) From Gk. ko\\wS-t]s,
L. collwn, neck.
collar. F. col,neck.
Gk.
like, eJdos,
KoW-a,
glue; -ildTjs,
Collateral.
(L.) Late L. collaterdUs, appearance.
L. col- (forcomside by side.
cuvi\
Collop, a slice of meat. (E.?) M. E.
man
from
for
lateral,
later-,
(P.Plowwith; lateralis,
; pi.col-hoppes
col-hoppe
coloppe,
Short for colic

Colic.

see

Colleague

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

^lates-,
stem

"

oi la/us,side.

Collation,

whence

a
kalops. Here
comparison:formerly,

99

M.
col-

Swed.
coal

kollops,Swed.
(see Coal) ; ct.

COLLOQUY

COMBUSTION

Swe.l. A\a\. gld{d)hoppa,


a cake

baked over
Colt.
(E.) A. S. colt, a young camel,
"c.-fSwed. dial, kullt,a boy ;
ass,
(E.Bjorkman).
young
Swed. kull, Dan. kuld, a brood ; cf. Dan.
Colloquy. (L.) From L. colloquitun,
dial, koltring-j
L. col-Ioqni,
to
conversation.
a lad.
converse
with, lit.to speak together.L. col- (for Columbine, a plant.(F.-L.) M. F.
colombin.
\u3.te L. columlnna, a columbine
con-, cum), together;
/oqut,to speak.
a
Collude, to act with others in a fraud.
; L. columlnnus, dove-like ; from
L. coluf?il"a,
to play supposed resemblance.
a
(L.) L. collude re (pp.collnstcs),
hot coals.

gledesor

"

"

"

"

with,

in

act

colhis-ion,from

with.

L.

"

col-

From

fruit of a
the nom,

kind

of

and

See

Culver.

(Gk.)

cucumber.
ace.

L.)

"

Gk.

Gk.

of

cases

pillar,body

of

troops.
cohunna,
pillar; cf.
columen, culmen, a summit, collis,a hill,

(F.

the pp.

Colocynth, Coloquintida, pith of


the

dove.

ludere, to play. Column,

cum), with;

(forcon-,
Der.

collusion

L.

a hill. See Hill.


"oAcui/o?,

Colure,

of two

one

(V'QEL.)

great circles

the

on

KoXoKvvOis

(ace.KoXoKwOida),a kind of celestial sphere,at rightangles to the


round
Gk.) So called because
gourd or pumpkin.
equator. (L.
and
of
the
mark
in
them
is always beneath
a
Colon
a
(i),
part
(:) writing
Gk.
horizon.
The
word
a
means
kojKov,
limb,
docked,
printing.(Gk.)
ped."
clipclause ; hence, a stop marking off a clause.
L.
colure.
colunis, curtailed; a
Gk. KuXovpos, dock-tailed,truncated ; a
Colon
(2),part of the intestines. (Gk.)
Gk. Kokov, the same.
colure. Gk. /C0A.-0J,
docked, clipped;and
Colonel.
(F. Ital. L.) Sometimes
ovpa, a tail.
is the
Colza
coronel, which
Span, spelling
;
oil, a lamp-oilmade from the
the pronunciationas kurnel.^Y.
whence
seeds of a variety
of cabbage. (F. L. and
"

"

"

"

colonnel.
Ital.colonello,a.
colonel,
colonel; Du.) F. colza,better colzat. Du. koohaad,
lit.a littlecolumn, as being the upholder rape-seed,
"Du.
kool (borrowed
cabbage-seed.
"

"

'

of the

'

The colonel
Torriano.
from L. caulis),
cole,cabbage; and
led the company
Du. zaad=Y..
seed.
at the head
of the regiment. Dimin.
of Ital. colonna,
Com-, prefix.(L.) For L. cum, with,
column.
L. cohtmna, a column.
See
when
followed
a
;
together
by b, f, m,

regiment;

he who

was

"

Column.

p. See Con-.
Coma.
a deep sleep.
(Gk.) Gk. /ccD/za,
Ital. colonnata,a range
of
Comb.
a comb, crest,
(E.) A. S. camb.^
Ital. colonna,
a column
+Du. kam, 1cg\. kambr, Dan. vSwed.
(above).ridge.

colonnade.
colonnade.
columns.

(F.

Ital.

(F.

L.)

Ionia,a colony,band
L.

"

F.

"

"

Colony.
CO

L.)

F. colonie.
of

husbandman.

colonus, a

L.

husbandmen.

kam

G.

kamm.

type *kamboz ;
yofjupos,a

Teut.

cf. Gk.

Idg. type *gomb/ios


;
Skt. jamb/ia-s,
a tooth.

L. colere, pin,peg;
*qiielere
Comb,
; cf. L.
"

till. Colere
is for
(E.)
Coomb, a dry measure.
A. S. cumb, a cup.-f-Du.kom, a bowl ; G.
inquilmus,a sojourner.Brugm. i. " 121.
at the end of kumpf, kumme, a bowl.
Colophon, an inscription
with
and
a
Combat.
book,
title, (sometimes)name
(F.-L.) Grig,a verb. F.
and date. (Gk.) Late L. colophon. Gk.
with.
combattre, O. F. combatre, to fight
F. comKoXofpbjv,a summit ; hence, a finishing(forL. cum), with ; and F. battre,
stroke.
Allied to Column.
O. F. batre,to fight,from
for
*battere,
to

"

Coloquintida
Colossus.
Gk.

Ko\oa

Colo

see

(L. Gk.)
largestatue.
-

OS,

"

L.

cy nth.

L. colossus.
Der.

"

large; coliseum,q. v.
Coloxir. (F.-L.) U.E. colour. ^0.".
colour (F.couleur).-~'L.
ace.
colorem,from

beat.

Der.

the F. ptes. pt.


Combe, a hollow in

al,
coloss-

i.e.

battuere,to

combat-ant,

from
W.

Corn,

cwm.

ctim,

Celtic

type *kumbd,

ciimar,

hill-side.

(C.)

hollow, dale

valley;

cf. Irish

valley.

color,a tint.

Combine.
(L.' L. comblndre,to unite,
join two thingstogether.L. com- {ctifn),
Colporteur, a hawker of wares.
(F.
who
carries wares
his together; and binus, twofold. See Binary.
one
on
L.) Lit
neck ;
F. colporteur. F. colporter,
F. combusto
Combustion.
(F.-L.)
F. col,neck; porter, tion.
the neck.
L. ace. combustionem, a burning up.
carry on
L. collwn, neck; portdre, to
to
L. combust-us,pp. oicom-burere, to bum
carry.
and
L. com(for cum), together;
carry.
up.
"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

COMPENSATE

COMMIT
of comniiitere,to commit

missus,pp.

see

companion, O.

F.

co77ipa7tio/t
(F. C07n-

pagnon), a companion.] Med. L. cot7ia


commit, to entrust to. (L.) L. cof/i- pd7iiem, ace. of co7!ipd7iies,
taking of
send
{cu77i),
viittere,to
out, begin, entrust, meals together. L. co7ntogether;
Der.
consign; pp. r"?w?//zVj-zw. L. coin- {ciini),and pd7iis,bread ; see Pantry.
to
with; 7nitiere,
co7npanion,from O. F. compa77ion.Also
send, put forth. Der.
from F. a
commiss-ion, ". commission, from L. ace.
accompany O. F. acco77ipaig7tie7',
to assom issiouem
com
ciate
(forL. ad) and O. F. cot7ipaig7iier,
perpetrat ion.
Com.m.odioiis.
with, from compaig)iie,
(F. L.) O.Y.comcompany.
modieux
L. commodiostis, useful."
to set together,so
to
as
Compare,
\ Med.
L.
likeness or difference. (F. L.)
examine
L.
comcommodtis, fit, suitable.
F. co7nparer. l^. co77ipa7-d}-e,
to adjust,
set
\cuj}i),
with; modus, measure.
below.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Commodore,

commander

the

of

L.)
Formerly
squadron. i^Du. F.
spelt coinmandore
(1695); also commanhas :
den
deur, as in Dutch ; Hexham
"

"

'

Commandenr

Stadt, The ComTowne.'"


F. commandenr,
L. ace.
ty[)e '^commaneen

van

together.L. C077ipa7;co-equal. L. com{ctc/7i),


together; par, equal.
(F.-Iial.-L.) F.
Compartment.
Ital.
Cot.
'a partition;'
C077iparti77ie7it,
Ital. co7npartire
co77ipa7'timento.
; Late L.
"

"

"

"

L. comcompartire, to share.
{cu77i)f
to
together; pa7'tii'e, share,to part, from
decl. stem
Late
commanddre
oi pars, a part.
L.
ddtorem, from
; parti-,
Command.
F. co7npas, a
see
(F.
L.)
Compass.
Gomm.on.
circuit,
circle,limit ; also, a pair of com(F. L.) M. E. commun.
passes.
L. commfniis,
Late L. compassus, a circuit. L.
O. F. comun.
comoun.
(cum), with; passus, a pace, step,
common,
general. L. C(?/;z- (rz/w),
togethercomwith ; and munis, readyto serve
(Plautus)
; passage, track ; so that co7?ipassus a track
mandeur

of

commander.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

cf. munus,

(As if ' helpingeach that joins together, circuit. See Pace.


verb ; compasses, s. pi.,an
mainas, Russ. mic7ia, Der. co77ipass,

service.

other.')Cf.

Lith.

barter.

Brugm. i. "
ion, commu7i-ity

20S.

Der.

instrument

comt?iun-

verb.

com,mune,
"

with ; Late

(F.

O. F. communer,
L. commiindre.

L.)

"

to
"

L.

(above).

common

C0m.miiuicate.
(L.) L.
of
co7nf?iunicdre.
L.
cdUis, pp.
"

M.

E.

F.

L.)

(F^
-

L.

cofn-

of

comcompassione7n,
with ;
{cuT7t),
passio,sympathy. L. c^wfrom patt, to endure.
communis, passio,suffering,
ble,
compatible. (F.-L.) F. compaticommUnicompatible,coneurrable ; Cot.
fice
adj.,used of a benecommunis, Late L. co7npatibilis,

passio7i.
"

ace.

commune

"

'

'

"

which

excominunicate.

Der.

common.

drawing circles.

Compassion.

comutien.

for

could

held

be

together with

another.
L. co7npati,to endure
Com.m.otion.
together
(F." L.) Y. commotion.
L. coin1^. with.
of commotio.
with; paii, to
L. commotiojiem, ace.
{cu77i),
"

"

"

"

cotnmot-us, pp. of
L.

"

to

to

commouere,

{cMfn),intensive;and

com-

disturb.
mouere,

Com.m.1lte, to exchange.(L.)
fmltdre,

to

Compeer,
M.

See Move.

move.

endure.

exchange with.

"

L.

co?)i-

L.

per,

com-

"

F.

L.

"

pare7n,

(F.
L.)
together
; O. F.

co7}i-,

equal.

peer,

(cum),

associate.

an

E. comper.

gether;
(ctmi),to-

C077i-

oi par,

ace.

"

equal;

see

Peer.
change.
to comfastened
pel,
Com.pact (i),adj.,
together, Compel. (L.) L. co77i-pellere,
lit.to drive together. L. cotfi- {c7im^^
M. F. co?nfitted,
close,firm. (F. L.)
drive.
Der.
ion,
compulstogether,pp. together;
pellere,io
pacte. 'L. compactus, fitted
from pp. compuls-us.
of co!?!pingere.
l^. com(cum),together;
Compendious, brief. (F. L.) F.
pange7-e,to fasten. See Pact.
from
a
adj.,
sb.,
bargain, agreeCompact
(2),
compendieux. L. cofupe/idiosus,
ment.
lit.a saving,
compe7idiu7Han abridgment,
(L.) L. co7npactutn,slS. L. co?nL. C077ipendere,
to
to agree with.
pactus, pp. of cojnpaciscT,
sparing of expense.
L. C0771- {cu7)i),with ; pacisci,
to make
a
weigh together. L. co77i- {cu7n),with ;
bargain,inceptiveform of O. Lat. pacere, pendere,to weigh.
See Pact.
to agree.
(L.) From pp. of L.
compensate.
Com.pany. (F. L.) yi.Y.. C077ipa7iye.compe7isdre, to weigh one thing against
O. F. compa7iie.[Cf,also O. F. conipai7t,
another.
L. com(cum), together;pen-

with

mntdre,

to

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

COMPREHEND

COMPETE
of pendere,
to
to weigh, frequent,
weigh {\)Y.
penstis).

Compliance,

sdre,

L-

(L-)

Compete.

competere.

L.

"

strive

together;petere, to

{cum\

com-

to

L.^i

competent. (F.

M.

F.

Comply.

see

Compliment.

Ital.
L.) F.
(F.
complimento,
compliment.
ment,
complito fill up,
civility.Ital. cofnplire,

after.
"

the verb
is not of Y

-ant, from

comply^which, however,

origin;

formed

Compliant;

with F. suffixes -ance,

com-

"

Ital.

"

fetent; orig.pres. part, of competer, to be


to fillup ; see Comsufficientfor. L. competere.to be sufficient to suit. L. complere,
plete.
for. L. comDoublet,
complement.
(cum), with ; petere,to seek.
M. E. complin.,
compline. (F. L.
COm.petitor.(L.) L. competitor, a
rival candidate.
L. com{cum), with ; the last church-service of the day ; it was
gold-enfrom gold),and
petJtofja seeker,from petittis,
pp. oi petere orig.an adj.{y\}^t.
"

"

"

"

"

"

to

stands for

seek.
O. F.

Com.pile. (F^ 1..)


-

compiler.
"

fAncren

complin song; the sh. is compile


Riwle). O. F. compile(mod. F.
"

together.L.

which
is pi.),com] Jine.
Late
complies,
L. completa(sc.hord), fern, of completus,
to
com(for cu??i^,together;and /i"/"ir^,
complete;because it completedthe 'hours'
press down, from piluni, pestle. Cf. L.
of the day'sservice ; see Complete.
to pound. See Pile
pinsere,
(3).
Com.placeut. (L.) From stem of
comply, to yield,accord with, (Ital.
L.
of
to
L.) It has no doubt been supposedto
co?uplacere, please.
pres. pt.
allied to ply (whence compliant,by
to please. be
comycum^, intensive ; placere,
F. combut is quitedistinct,
plaisant, analogy yf'ith.
pliant),
complaisant. (F. L.)
and of Ital. origin. Ital. complire,
to fill
obsequious,
pres. part, of co??ito
to please. L. complacere,
to please up, fulfil,
suit,'also to use
plaire,
ments,
compliceremonies,or kind offices and
(above).
Torriano.
O.
F.
Cf. Span, complir,to
plaint-,
comL.)
offers;'
Complain. (F.
of complaindre.'"\.2i\"
L.
fulfil,
a stem
satisfy.L. complere,to fillup; see
L.

lit.
comptldre,

to

press

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

to
coviplangere,

bewail.

with ; plangere,
to
beat the breast.

L.

"

com-

bewail, lit. to

i^ctcm),Complete.
strike, Complot,

Cf.
a

supply.
conspiracy;see

Plot

(i).

composing. (L.) L.
of
'L.
stem
(L.) complementum. componcjit-,
Complement.
pres. \A.o{componere,
that
which
L. com[cum], together;
completes. L. complere to compose.
(below). Doublet, complimejtt.
ponere, to put. See Compound.
(L.) \j.completus,Comport, to behave,suit. (F. L.) F.
complete, perfect.
L. comportdre,
to fulfil. L. comse
{czi"i),
comporter, to behave.
pp. of complere,
fill.
Allied
L.
to
together
t
o
to
com{cuTti},
; plere,
together
ple-mis,
carry together.

Component,
"

"

"

"

"

"

full.

See Plenary.

Complex,
round

portdre, to

twined
(L.) L. complexus,enCompose.
of composer, to
; hence, intricate ; pp.

carry.

F.
and
L.
Gk.)
(F.
compound, make; Cot.
com(L.cum), together;and ". poser,
under
put, of Gk. origin,as shewn

L. comembrace.
to
(cum), F.
cojfiplectt,
allied
and
to
to
to
plectere, plait,
;
together
See
Pleach.
to
twine.
Pose,
plic-dre,
"

F.

q.v.

"

iffDistinct

from

compound.

Composition.

(F.-L.) Y. composition.
of comL. complexionem,
"Ij. ace. compositioncm,
ace.
appearance.
of complexio,
a putting
a
pass,
ace.
comprehending,comtogether.L. compositus,
positio,
habit of body, complexion. L. compp. of L. componere ; see compound.
of
t
o
surround,
complecti,
plexus, pp.
compost, a mixture. (F. L.) O. F.
L. comL. compositum,neut.
entwine.
together;
plec- compost, a mixture.
tere,
(^cum),
of compositus,
to plait.
pp. of componere (below).
crescent
complicate. (L-) From pp. of L.
compound. (F.-L.) The d is exO. F. comL.
fold
E. compounen.
comt
o
; M.
together.
complicdre,
to fold.
pound,
{cum),together; plicdre,
ponre (Bartsch).L. componere, to comL.
F.
com(cum),
L.)
together.
(F.
compUdte,
put
complicity.
F. complice,
a bafl confederacy
a
together
; ponere, to put. See Component.
; Cot.
confederate.
L. complicem,ace. o{ coinComprehend. (L.)L. co7)i-prehendere,
and
plex, interwoven, confederate with ; see to grasp. L. coj)i- {cum),together,
seize
Prehensile.
t
o
see
Complex.
;
prehendere,

complexion.

(F.

L.)

"

plexion,
com-

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

03

COMPRESS

Compress.
oppress.

L.

"

com-

CONCLAVE

(L.) L. compressdre,to concevoir,to conceive,though the real


conceu
(cujti),
together
(F. confu); by analogy
; /;rj'- pp. was

oi pre mere,
sdre, frequent,

Comprise.

with deceit,q.v.

to press.

From

(F. L.)
"

O.

conceive.

F.

conceiven.

comprised,comprehended; pp.
cotnpris,
oi comprendre,to comprehend. L. comprehendere
; see Compreliend,

Comprom.ise,

settlement

by

to
cipcre,

cessions.
con'

yi.Y.. conceven,
of O, F.
conceive.
L. con-

a stem
conceiv-,

conceive.

"

L.

"

conception. (F. L.)

"

gether
{cum), alto-

co7i-

capere,to take.

F. compromis, a
(F. L.)
compromise,mutual promise;'Cot. Grig,

A. F.

"

concevoir,to

concever,

"

See below.

(F.-L.)

"

conception.

L.

conceptioneni."'Y..
concept-us,pp.
to conceive (above).
concipere,
"

'
promise
pp. of F. comprotnettre, to put unto com'
L. compromittere^
Cot.
to
;

of

Concentre, to draw to a centre. (F."


L. con- {cum),
promise. L. ":cw- {cum), L. aJidGk.) F. concen/rer.
to
promise; see together; and ce}it?-ii?n,Si
mutually; promitlere,
centre, from Gk.
"

make

mutual

"

"

K^vrpov; see Centre.


Der.
co?ice7itr-ate (modein).

Promise.

Comptroller,
troller ;

another

of
spelling

Concern,

F.

See Compel.

(F.

"

"

pungT,

feel remorse,

to

L.

prick.
prick.
to

"

L.

"

com-

pass, oi compungere

to separate, distinguish.
skir-ti,
Brugm.

li. "612.

to

(L.) L. cojnputdie, to
cotii{cum),together;put are,

clear up, reckon.

to

cernere, to separate,decree,observe.
-|-Gk. Kpivdv, to separate,decide ; Lith.

with consort

certer,

Doublet,

shew

"

M. E.
Allied

cunnen

A. S.

A. S.

to

to

fused
concon'

to

to

know

The
Ital. forms
derived from L. concertdre,

contend, struggle
together
; indeed,we

Span,concertar,to settle or adjust,


also pointsto
covenant, bargain; which
the same
origin.[Itwould seem that the

test.
see

that it was

find also

(E.)

scan.

cunniaji, to

cminan,

F.

sb., agreement.

"

(i),to study,peruse,

"

"

"

"

'

Often

in old writers.

consort, or
agree together;
Ital. co7icertare,'to agree or tune
count
(2). Cot.
F. camarFlorio ; cf.contogether,singin consort,'
certo,

Comrade.
(F. Span. L.)
ade.
; also
Span, camarada, a company
comrade.
an
a
associate,
Span, camara,
chamber, cabin. "L. camera, a chamber.
Con

(VSKER.)
(F.-Ital.-L.)

concert.

Compute.
reckon.

"

and

cojji-

{cum); pimgere,

com-

"

"

L.)

"

compunction. Late L. ace.


punctionem. L. compuitcttis,pp. of

concetitr-ic,

vb. (F. L.) Y.comemer.


L. C07icer7iere, to mix; in Late Lat.,to
refer to, regard. L. coti{cum), with;

Control.

see

Compulsion. (F.-L.)
remorse.
Compunction,
O.

con-

(1). Der. ale-conner,i. e. ale-tester. L. vb. took up the sense of to settle by


Con (2),short for contra, against.(L.) debate,and so, to agree.] L. con- {cum),
In the phrase pro and con^
together; certdre, to contend, vie with ;
of
Con-, prefix.(L.) For com{cum), orig. to decide by contest ; frequent,
Der.
with,when the followingletter is c, d,g. cerjiere, to decide. See Concern,
Can

"

'

'

'

Before b, m,
J, n, q, s, t, or v.
com; before /,col- ; before r, cor-

p, it

concert, sb. concert-ina.

is

Concession.

(F. L.)

F. concession.
L.
f,
concessus, pp.
to concede ; see Concede.
Concatenate.
(L.) L. comatendtus, oi cojtcedere,
Conch, a marine shell. (L. Gk.) L.
pp. of concatendre, to link together.L.
Gk. nu^xv (also
concha.
shell.
con(cum), together;catena, a chain.
a cockle"o7Xos),
conch.
F.
Y..
Concave.
Der. cona
concave.
+Skt. faiikha,
(F. L.)
hollow.
L. concoticauus,
{cum), with, chology(from /f"i7Xo-s).
com-

or

; before

con-.

"

L.

"

concessionem.

ace.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

together;

Conciliate.

hollow.

cauus,

Conceal.
(F. L.)
L. conceldre,to hide.

O.

"

"

Concede.
"

to

L.

concekr.

concilidre,to

(L.)

the pp. of L.

From

bringtogether,conciliate."

{cum), L. concilium,a council ; see Council.


(F.-L. ; or L.) F. concis.
(2). Concise.
L. concisus, brief,
to retire,
cut short ; pp. of co7i'
(L.) L. concedere,
cidere. L,. concon{cum), together
[cum),intensive;ccedere,
; cede7-e,
"

to hide.
completely;rif/^ri?,

yield.

F.

L.

con-

See Helm

"

"

yield. Der.

concess-ion

(frompp.

to cut.

con-

cessus).
Conceit.
ceite. Formed

Der.

Conclave.
CF.

"

as

Isl.Y..conceit,
conif from the pp. of O. F.

L.)

small
a

104

room

room

concis-ion.

(F.-L.)

F.

conclave,a

in). L. concldue,
later,a place of assembly of
(to meet

"

CONFEDERATE

CONCLUDE

be guilty. L.
to
{cum),together;cldttis,
wholly; damndre, to condemn.

cardinals,assembly. Orig. a locked up

place.
a key.
"

L.

con-

"

con-

\ciim),

nounce
Condense.

L-

(F.-L.)

F. condenser.^

L. condensure."!^.

condensus, very ttiick.


L. co7ishut
close, end.
{ciini), L. con- {cum), \ery ; densus,thick,dense.
up,
F. condeCondescend.
(F. L.)
together;and -chlde7-e claudcre,to shut.
Der. conclus-ion.
Similarlyex-chide,iti- scendre. hale L. condcscendere,to grai.t
in-chis- (lit.
to descend with). L. co7i-{cum),\i\\.\
clude,
pre -chide,se-ch{de\whence
descend ; see
to
se-clus-ion
Descend,
ive, pre-clus-ion,
(from pp. descendere

(L-)

Conclude.

to
cojiclildere,

"

"

"

"

"

-clusus

Der.

clatisus)
.

from
condescens-iou,

Condign,

L. concoctus,pp.

From

(L.)

Concoct.

the pp.

well merited.

(F.-L.)

L.

"

condigne.

O. F.

condignus, very worthy.


L. con{cum),very ; dignus,wortliy.
(L.) L. condlmentum,
accompanying. (L.) Condiment.
Concomitant,
"L,
sauce.
From
L.
co7icondh-e,to season,
{cum), together; and seasoning,
of
of
comitdri,
fruit).
ace.
comitajit-em,
spice,
preserve (as
pres. pt.
Condition.
from coviit-,
stem of comes,
to accompany,
(F. L.) Y. condition.
L. co7iditidnem,ace.
of conditio,a late
Count
a companion; see
(i).
of concoqtiere, to cook
together,
digest.
L. con- {cuni) ; coqtiere, to cook.

"

"

~.

"

of condicio,a covenant, condition.


Concord.
(F. L.) Y. concorde. \^. spelling
L. condicere,
to talk over
Concordia, agreement. L. concord-,stem
together,
agree
"

"

"

"

of con-cors, agreeing. L.
"

{cuni)
;

con-

cor

upon.

L.

"

ant,
Condole.
concordant.
(F. L.) F. concordL. with.
L.
pres. pt. of concorder,to agree.

to grieve
(L.) L. cojtdolere,
{cum),with ; dolere,to

"

agree.

concordat.
agreement.

L. concord-

"

(F. L.)
"

F.

(above).grieve.

L.

Late

"

(L.) L. condotidre,to remit,

Condone.

concordat,

concorddtum,
convention,thingagreed on, esp. between
an

coji-

"

"

to
concorddre,

to
{cum),together;dice^-e,

con-

speak.

the heart.
(stemcord-),

L.

pardon.
"

to

give;

see

{cum),wholly; dondre,

con-

Donation.

vian.)
"Peruand F. kings; pp. of concorddre, Condor, a largebird. (Span.
Peruv. citntur,a
Span, condor.
(above).
condor.
Concourse.
(F. L.) Y.concours."
L. ace
to draw
(L.) L. coudficere,
conciij'sum, a runningtogether.- Conduce.
lead
L.
of
run
to
L. concursus,
to.
cont
owards,
together
con-currere,
{cum),
pp.
together,L. con- {cum),together;and together;diicere,to lead.
See Concur.
conduct, sb. (L.) Late L. conductus,
currere, to run.
guard, escort.- L. ri7"(L.) defence,protection,
Concrete, formed into one mass.
L. concrct-us, pp. of concrescere, to grow
ducttis,
pp. of con-ducere (above).
conduit.
cres(F.-L.) M..Y. conduit."
together;
together.L. con- {cu?n),

the pope
to

agree

"

"

"

"

"

cere, to

grow.

(F. L.) O.Y .concubine.


coficublna.^'L. con- {cum),
;
together

Concubine.
"

L.

O. F.

Late L, conductus,
conduit,a conduit.
a
defence,escort ; also,a canal,

tube ;

see

Cone.

lie.

to
r.ubdre,

Y.

(F-L.)

Concupiscence.

piscence.
concu-

desire.
concupiscentia,
form
desire
to
inceptive
concupiscere,
;
L.

"

"

"

"

L.

of
(r"w),intensive ; and

concupey-e. lu. coji'


cupere,to long for.
Concur.
(L.) L.
"

cojtus.

Skt.
same.

"

above.

(F.-L.-Gk.)
Gk.

kSjvos,a

cdna-s, a whetstone
See

Coney;

Hone.
see

Ul.Y.cone.-h.

cone,

peak, peg. +

; cf. L.

Brugm.

cos, the
i. " 401.

Cony.

Confabulate.

(L.) From pp. of L.


talk together. L. conto
confdbtddri,
from
L. conto converse,
together,
{cum),together;{cum), w'wh.;fdbtihh-i,
agree.
discourse
a
Fable.
Der.
to
run.
concourse.
see
fdbjila,
;
currere,
Concussion.
(F." L.) F. concussion. Confect, to make up into sweetmeats.
to put
L. concussiotiem,ace. of concussio, a (L.) L. confectus,
pp. of conficere,
L. conviolent
gether
{cum), toshaking. L. concussus, pp. of together,make up.
to put. Der
; facere,
concutere, to shake
confect-ion,
together. L. co7iSee Comfit.
confectio7i-er.
{cum),together;
quatere,to shake.
Confederate.
Condemn.
(L.) L. confaderdtus.
(F. L.) O.Y .condemner.
L. condemndre, to condemn
wholly,pro- united by a covenant, pp. of confcederdre.
concurrere,

to

run

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

105

CONFER
L.

"

CONGLOMERATE

{cum)^together
; fader-,for

con-

stem
*fcedes-,

of

faedus,a treaty.

See

Federal.

L.

(L.)

From

L.

conferre,to

L. conbestow.
collect,
bring logt-ther,
(cum
to
together;fcji'e,
bring, bear.
"

See

from

(i).

Fuse

Confraternity.

(F.-L.)

FromL.

{cufn),with; and Fraternity, q v.


Confront.
(F.-L.) Y.confronter,Xo

con-

Not

confound.
together,

pour

{cum), together
; fundere,to

con-

|)our.

Confer.

to
confundere,

L.

"

F.

bring face to face. Med. L. confrontdri,


L. conto.
together;
(F.-L.) O.Y. confesser.^to be near
{cufn),
Late L. cortfessdre.^Y..
stem
forehead,front.
coufcssus,
oifrons,
pp. of front-,
used as
L. r{?"- (cum), fully; Confuse.
to confess.
conjiteri,
(L.) M. E. confus,
to acknowledge,allied to fdri, to
in
Chaucer.
L.
a
fateri,
confusus,pp. of
pp.
speak. Cf. Gk, (^aris,a speech. Brugm. confundere,to confound ; see Confound.
i- " I9.SConfute.
(F.-L.) F. confuter. L.
confute.
to trust
to
Confide.
confiitdre,
(L.) L. confidere,
repress, also to
to
L.
L.
conto
con{cu7n\
together;*fiitdre,
fully.
{cum), iwWy \ ftdere,
from
the
beat
back
probably
trust,allied iofdcs,faith ; see Faith.
;
repress,
beat
root
A. S. beatan, to
as
figuration same
Configuration. (F. L.) F. conallied to L.
L. configuratianem,
formation."(Walde). If so, it is not
cona
L. configiirdtus
pp. of confatilis.
L.
t
o
;
Congeal. (F.-L.) F. congeler.^l..
fgiirdre, put togelher. r^;^?- (f"^")
to
to cause
to freeze together. L.
a
fashion,
figure.
congeldre,
ixovafigura,
figurdre,
from gelu,
See Figure.
to freeze,
con-, together
; geldre,
frost. See Gelid.
Confine, to limit. (F. L.) F. conM.
F.
Congee, Cong^, leave to depart.(F.
finer, to keep within limits.
Cot.
L.
bordering L.) F. conge, leave, dismission ; Cot.
confinis,
confiti,
near;
with
L. conon.
b
oundary. O. F. congie,cunge, congiet(Burguy); the
finis,
{cum),
;
Prov. comjat. Late L. comidtus,
See Final.
as
% Mod. F. has onlyconfins,same
O. F. consb. pi.,confines; representing
leave, permission(VIII cent.)
; the same
L. commedtus, a travelling
L. conftnia,
as
together,
pi.; whence E. confines,
fines,
L. comalso leave of absence.
{ctim),
pi.
Confirm.
(F. L.) M. E. confermen.together;medtus, a course^ from pp. of
to
O. F. confermer. L. confirmdre,
medre, to go.
"

Confess.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

firm, strengthen.

make

"

L.

Congenial,

{cum),

con-

to strengthen,
{"a\\y,firmdre,
iiomfirmus,from

L.

firm.

adj

from

Confiscate, to adjudge to be forfeit.


to
pp. of confiscdre,
(L.) L. confiscdtus,

-al to

lay by
the

L.

in

transfer to
to confiscate,
coffer,
L. con{cum) ; fiscus,a

treasury.

"

the
cent.).L.

fiagration.

L.

ace.

great burning. L,
"

and

genial,

(L.)
word

congenite(XVII

see

adding

congenitusbom with. L. conborn,pp. oi gignere,


; genitus,
Genital.
See
produce.
"

"

[cum),with

Gk.)
Conger, a sea-eel. (F. L.
O. F. congre.
L. congrum,
M. E. congre.
a
conflagrdtionem,
of congrtcs, by-form of conger, a sea"r(7"- {cum), together; ace.
F.

Conflagration. (F.-L.)
"

obs.

Coined

(L.)

G-enial.
Coined by

genius ;

Congenital.

to

purse.

kindred.

{cum), with;

con-

con-

"

"

"

"

eel." Gk. 7^^77/505,


the same.
See Flagrant.
to burn.
fldgrdre,
of particles.
L.
cona
mass
(L.)
(L.)
Conflict, an encounter.
Congeries,
from
the
L.
L. congerere, to
a
a
congeries,
heap.
;
together
pp.
flictus, striking
to strike together.L. conof confitgere,
together;
bringtogether.L. r^;z- (^"/;z),
to strike.
; fllgere,
gerere, to carry.
[ctim'^.,
together
Confluent.
congestion, accumulation. (L.)From
(L.) From stem, of pres.
flow
L.
to
see
ace.
together;
congestus,pp. of
conges tionem."!^.
pt. of confiuere,
sb., from the congerere (above).
So also confiux,
Fluent.
Conglobe, to form into a globe. (L.)
pp. confluxus.
con{cum), together;
Conform.
(F. L.) F. conformer." L. con-globdre.^'L.
L. con-, globus,a globe.
to fashion like.
L. conformdre,
(L.) From
Conglomerate.
pp. of
; formdre, to form, from forma,
together
"

"

"

"

"

conglomerdre,to

form.

Confound.

(F. L.)
"

Y.confondre.^ together.L.
"

io6

con^

wind

into a ball,heap
{cum), together;and

CONGLUTINATE

CONSIDER

glomer-^for ^glomes-,stem
ball,clew

Connive.

of glomus,

of yarn.

Conglutinate. (L.)

From

pp.

of

(F. L.)
"

Y. conniver.'-\..

close the eyes at, overlook.


L. con{cum), together;and *niguere,
to wink ; cf. nic-tdre,
to wink. + Goth.
hneiwan, to bow ; Brugm. i. " 664.
to

conniuere,
"

to
glue together. L.
coriglulindre,
to glue,
con{cum), together;glutindre,
from gh'iiin-,
oi gluten,glue.
stem
Connoisseur,

L.

"

a critical judge. (F."


of tea. (Chinese.)
In L.) F. connaisseur , formerly
connoisseur,
called kang-hu te,where
the Anioy dialect,
O. F. connoiss-ant,
a knowing one.
pres.
kang-hu is lit.' work, labour ; i.e. tea on pt. of O. F. conoistre ; see Cognisance.
which labour has been expended(Douglas). Connubial.
lating
(L.) L. connubidlls,re-

Congou,

kind

"

'

The

Chinese

true

the

same

kung-fu ch'a,with

is

to

"L.

sense.

pp. of L.

From

(L.)

Congratulate.

congraiulari,to wish much joy. L. f"3"to wish joy,from


ictwi),fully
; grdttildrty

congregare,

collect into

to

(F." L.) yi."..conqu":ren.


conquerre.~'\j.
conquJrere,to seek
quer.
after,go in quest of; in Late L.,to con-

{cum), together;gregdre,

con-

flock,from

to

L.

"

ble
assem-

of grex,

greg-, stem

O. ".

"

of L.

flock.

See Nuptial.

marry.

Conquer.

"

adj.^rd^///5',
pleasing.See Grace.
Congregate. (L.) From pp.

"L. co{n)nubium.,
riage.
marmarriage.
conwith; nUbere,to
\cuni),

"L.

{cum), with; qucererg, to


conquest, M. E. conqtieste,
from
Late
L. conquesta, L. conquisita,
fem. of conquTsttus,pp. of conquirere.
seek.

flock.

con-

Der.

Consanguineous.

Congress,
L. congressus.

gredl,to

meet

meeting together.(L.)

a
"

L. congressus,

together.L.
"

pp.

con-^

of

cons

suffix

cojt-

-ous.

"

together;sanguin-,stem

J
of
.

From

(L.)

related

Conscience.

walk.

gradi, to advance,

anguine

-us

con-

L.

by blood, with
{cum), together;

blood.
sanguis,
(F. L.) Y conscience.
"

consciousness.
l^.cojtscient-,
L.c"?;?5""Vw//a,
Congrue,
(L.)
suit.
of
Der.
to
stem
(Root uncertain.)
gruere,
pres. pt.of conscire, to know along
L. congruus,
L. confrom
suitable ; with.
{cum), with; scire, to
congru-ous,
See Science.
know.
Der. conscionable,
congru-ity.
to

agree, suit.

L.

con-

"

"

Conjecture. (F. L.)

ill-contrived word, used as a contraction


an
conjecture.
oi conscien{ce)-able.
coniectura, a castingtogether,a
L. coniectus,pp. of conicere,
to
conscious.
(L.) From l^.consci-us,
guess.
throw or put together.L. con- {cum"',
suffix
with
gether;
to-ous.^h. conscire, to be
aware,
of (above).
aware
iacere,to throw.
rolled,
enConjoin. (F. L.) O.Y. conjoindre.Conscript. (L.) L. conscriptus,
L. conhingere(pp. conhinctus),to join\
to write down
pp. of conscrtbere,
together.L. con- {cum),together;tuntogether.L. con- {cum),together
; scriSee
write.
to
Join.
to
Der.
bere,
join.
gere,
ion,
conjunctF.

"

"

L.

"

"

"

"

"

from the
conjunct-ive,

pp.

to marriage. (F."
conjugal,relating

Consecrate.
(L.) From pp. of L.
L. conconsecrdre, to render sacred.
crate
{cum),with, wholly; sacrdre, to conse"

L.) F. conjugal. L. coniugdlis,


adj.
l^. coniugem,ace. of coniux, a spouse."
Sacred.
; see
L. con-, together; iug-,allied to iungere, Consecutive.
(F. L.) yi.Y.consecuwith suffix -?/(L.
to join,
Cot.
Formed
iugum, a yoke ; see Join.
-tuus)
tif,
"

"

"

conjugation. (L.)

From

L. coniu-

from

L.

consecut-us,pp. of consequi,to

follow together.L. con- {cum), together


gdtio, a conjugation(Priscian)
; lit. a
;
yoking together.L. coniugdtus,pp. of sequi, to follow. See Sequence.
coniugdre,to yoke together. L. con(L.) L. consequent-,
consequent.
oi
of
stem
a
(cum),together
; iug-um, yoke.
consequi (above;.
pres. pt.
Conjure. (F. L.) M.E. conhtren.m.
Consent, vb. (F. L.) F. consent ir.
F. conjurer.
^L,. coniurdre,to swear
L. conL. consent ire, to
toagree to.
L. con-, together {cum),with ; sentjre, to feel. See Sense.
getlier,combine
by oath.
; iurdre, to swear
; see Jury.
Conserve, vb. (F. L.) F. conserver.
L.
L. contie
L. conserudre, to preserve.
Connect.
to
(L.)
connectere,
serve,
together. L. con(cum), together; and \cu7n),
fully; serudre, to keep. Der. convb. : conserv-atory. See Serve.
nectere, to bind (pp. nexus). Der. connex-ion [notconnectio7i\,
from the pp.
Consider.
(F. L.) O.Y considerer.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

107

CONSIGN

CONTAIN

L.
template ste; nation.
ace.
consider,
consterndticnefn,
orig.to con(Festus). L. con- {cum), friglit.L. consferndtus, pp. of const erstem
gether;
oistdtis,ndre, to frighten.L. con- (forcujn),totogether;sider-,for * sides-,
and
a star.
*sterndre,proh. ailied to
(F. L.) F. consigner." Gk. TTTvpeiv, to frighten(Walde). See
Consign.
record.
L. consigndre,to attest, register,
Brugmann, i. " 499.
L. con(cum) together
; signdre, to
Constipate. (L.) From pp. of L.
mark ; see Sign,
constipdre,to join closely,
press together.
L. conConsist.
(cum), together;stipdre, to
(F. L.) F. consisfer, to
L. consistere,
to
rest, abide,"c.
consist,
press, cram.
Constitute.
stand together^consist.
L. cott- {cum),
(L.) I". constitntus,
pp.
causal form from stare, of constituere,
to cause
to stand together,
; sistere,
together
establish.
L. conState.
Der. consistory.
to stand ; see
{cum), together;sta'L. tuere, to set up, denom.
vb. from status,
F. consoler.
Console.
(F. L.)
with
comfort.
L.
Statute.
a
see
t
o
position
cofi;
[cum),
consoldrt,
;
L. constderdre ,
the stars

"

to

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

soldri,to comfort ; see Solace.


Constrain, to compel.(F.-L.) O. F.
Consolidate.
(L.) From pp. of L. constraign-a stem of constraindre, later
contraindre.
L. constringere,
bind
L. conto
consoliddre,to render solid.
(cum),together;soliddre,to make solid, together,fetter. L. con- {cum), together;
Der.
from
to draw
consols, a stringere.
solidus,solid.
tight.
for consolidated anfamiliar abbreviation
Construct.
nuities.
(L.) From L. constructus, pp. oi construere (below).
construe.
(L.) L. construere, to
Consonant, agreeingwith. (F.-L.)
,

"

"

"

F.

L. consonant-,
consonant, accordant; Cot.
of pres. pt. of consondre, to
stem
"

sound

together. L.

Consort,

;
(":";"),
together

":"""-

"

sondre, to sound;

F. consort.'-'
who shares
one

(F. L.)

sb.

(3).

Sound

see
"

of consors,
L. consort-,stem
property with another, a partner. L.
\cum),together;sort-, stem oi sors, a
"

Conspicuous.
visible,with suffix
see

to construe

passage.
struere, to
mis-construe.

Consul.

Etym.
to

con-

-ous.

thoroughly.L.

"

con-,

"

consult

see

con-

in Late

L.,
gether;
{cum), to-

pile, build.
L.

(L.)

doubtful

L.

"

; but

a
constil,

allied to

Der.

consul.

constilere,

below.
"

Y,. conspicere,
to
prob.allied
fully; specere,to a seat.

Consume.

See Species.

see.

lot, consult.
(F. L.) F. consulter.'"'L.
form of
to consult ; frequent,
constiltdre,
Root
uncertain ;
con-sulere, to consult.
(L.) L. conspicu-us,

See Sort.

share.

build,construct
heap together,

sit ; of. solium,

sedere,to

to

(L.)

conspirer."take

L. consumere,

lit.to

{cum), together,
up, from *sups-,

up wholly.
combine,
wholly; sumere, to take
together,
{cum), together;allied to sub,under,up, and emere, to take,
plot. L. conbuy. Brugm. i. " 240. Der. consumption,
spJrdre,to breathe.
(F. L.) from the pp.
Constable, a peace-officer.
L. comes
O. F. conestable (F. conn^table).
Consummate.
(L.) From pp. of L.
lit.*count
the titleof consum7ndre, to bring into one
to
of the stable,'
stabuli,
sum,
"L.
of the Roman
and
wards
aftersumcona dignitary
together;
perfect.
{cum),
empire

Conspire. (F. L.)

F.

"

L.

conspirdre,to

L.

"

con-

breathe

"

"

in

use

the

among

Franks.

See

mdre,

(i) and Stable.

Covmt

(F. L.)

firm.

Constant,

to

sum,

from

summa,

sum

see

Sum.

F.

Consumption

Consume.
L. contactus, a
firm ; orig.pres. pt. of constdre, to stand
L.
contactus,
touching.
-pp. oi contingere,
touch
to
L.
see
Contingent.
constdre,
closely
;
{cum),
together.
together
;
to stand ; see
State.
contagion. (F. L.) F. contagion.
L. contdgionem, ace.
of contdgio,a
lation.
Constellation.
(F.-L.) Y. constelL.

"

"

constant-,

stem

of

stant.
con-

Contact,

constans,

see

(L.)

sb.

"

"

"

"

"

stars.

pp.

"

of

L. ace.
L. con-

hence contagion. L. con- {cum),


elldtionem,cluster of touching,
with;
s
telldt-us,
tag-, 2nd gradeoi tag-, as in *tag(cww),together;
const

to
stelldre,

See
a
star.
Stella,
Consternation.

"

set

with

stars, from

tus

to touch.
{y-tac-tus),
pp, oitangere,
(F. L.) From a tonic stem

Contain.

Star.

(F.-L.)

F.

"

of O. F. contenir.

con-

108

"

L. continere,to

hold

CONTRITE

CONY,

CONEY

Contrite.
(F. L.) F. contrit. L. orig.pres. pt. of conuenire, to come
suit (above).
iontritus,thoroughlybruised,hence, penitent
convent.
; pp. of L. conterere, to rub together,
(L.) L. conuentus, an
bruise.

L.

"

See Trite.

rub.

to

"L.

(cujn),together; terej-e,

con-

conuentus, pp. oi

convention.

Contrive.

Gk.)

L. and

(F.
; M.
spelling

altered

gether,
to-

"

E.

An

controuen,

(F. L.)
-

F.

tion,
conven-

L, ace.
compact;'
tcentionem,a meeting,compact. L.
Cot.

'a

coti-

sembly.
as-

con-tienire.

"

"

conuentus,
con-

to meet.
(= controven, contrcveti). O. F.
pp. of con-uenJre
to
find,find out (Bartsch)." Converge.
(L.) Late L. conuergere,
demn),
(L.con-^ for cum) ; O. F. irover, to incline together(Isidore).L. confind ; see Trover.
to
^[ Conti'ive (of.
cline.
to
bend, intogether
; uergere,
is from M. E. cotiireve,
retrieves
answering
treuen

"

controver,
O. F. coil-

"

O. F. conireuv-, stressed stem

to

of

Converse,

con-

trover.

(F.-L.) Y.converser,

vb.

associate with ; Cot.


L. conuersdrT, to
Control, sb. (F. L.) Controli?, s\\oxi live with. L. con- {cum),with ; uersdrt,
for contre-roll,
old form of counter-roll.
oneself about), orig.
to dwell
turn
(lit.
10

"

"

"

"

used
a duplicate
O.F."r^"/r^-r"?/(/)^,
register,
official or

verifythe

to

first-made

roll.

pass, of the

oinertere,to turn.
frequent,
vb.
convert,
(F. L.) O.F. con-

"

"

O. F. centre,over
a roll.
against; rol\l)e,
L. contra, against
of ro; roiulum, ace.

vertir.

tuhis, a roll

{cuffi),
wholly; uertere, to turn.
Convex.
(L.) L. conuexus, arched,
vaulted,
L. con{cutn),together;and
*naxus
*tiac-sus,
bent,from ^tiac-{*uaq-),

"

Controversy.
troversie
contro-,
to fem.

K.Y.

(F.-L.)

con-

a quar[^\-^o']).~'L.
cont7'duersia,
rel.

L.

"

ueriere,

Roll.

see

contrduersus, opposed.

masc.

uertere, to

tierstis, pp.

turn

L.

con-

wholly,change.

L.

con-

"

of

edly.
reel,go crookuac-iiIdre,io
Cf. A. S.w*?,^,
crooked.
L.)
(F.
Convey, Convoy, vb.
M. E. conueien,conuoien
{conveien,conto

in

bend, as

See Vacillate.

See Contra-.

(F. L.) A. F. contucontumdcia,obstinacy.

Contumacy.

to

for
*converttre,

"

L.

corresponding

against;

turn.

macie

form

neut.

or

contra,

"

Folk-L.

"

"

also to convoy.
A. F.
to convey,
(1 303 ). L.
voien),
born. cojiveier,
contut?idci- stem
of contiiniax, stubO. F. convoier,to convey, convoy,
L. con- {cum),very ; and *tui?i-ax, accompany
the way.
Late L. conuidre,
on
L. con{cum),with; uia,
prob. from tum-ere, to swell with pride; to accompany.
Tumid.
see
% Cofiveyis the A. F. or Norman
way.
"

"

"

L.

"

"

"

(F. L.)

Contumely.

"

W.Y.contu-

form

vielie.

L. conttimelia,insult,reproach;
tumacy.
prob. allied to contu?fidcia ; see Con-

; convoy

Convince.

"

overcome

is Parisian.
(L.) L.

conuincere,

L.

by proof.
"

to

{cum),

con-

Der.
vict,
conconquer.
A. F. convict "X..
conuictus,pp. of conuincere.
Convivial.
(L.) Coined as adj.from

wholly ; uincere,to

Contuse,

bruise

to

(L.)
severely.

L.

verb

and

sb., from

cotitundere,to bruise
(cum),with, much ; and
tundere, to strike.4-Skt. tud, to strike ; L. conutui-um, a feast. L. con{cuni),
Goth,
eat).
; tiiuere, to live (hence,
together
stautan^ to strike. (ySTEUD.)
Convoke.
Brugm. i. " 8i8.
(F. L.) F. convoquer.^^
call together.L. con-,
L.
to
Conundrum.
conuocdre,
(Unknown.) Formerly
call.
used in the sense
of whim, crotchet,or
to
together;uocdrc,
Also quojtundrum; orig.in univ.
hoax.
Convolve.
(L.) L. conuoluere,to roll
of

contusus, pp.

severely.L.
"

con-

"

"

"

slang; prob. uf

L.

Convalesce.

begin
"

L.

to

well ;

inceptiveform.
to be
(^cum), fully; ttalere,

grow

con-

origin.
(L-) L. conualescere,to
an

L. conwrithe about.
{cum^y
together,
ion,
convolutto roll. Der.
together;zioluere,
"

from pp. comwldtus


; convolv-ul-us,
L. comioluulus, a twiningplant.

Convoy

strong.

Convene,
convcnir,to

assemble.

to

assemble.

together.L.

come

"

uenJre,

to

stem

"

of

F.

Convulse,

Convey.

see

to

agitateviolently.(L.)

L. commlsus, pp. of conuellere,to pluck


L. co7i(cum), with,
together;up, convulse.
(rz^w),

L.

conuenire,

to

"

; uellere,to pluck.
severely

come.

L. )
( F.
Cony, Coney, a rabbit. (F. L.)
3.\so conyji^. An^o-". conil,
suitable; yi."..coni',
conuenietis,

suitable.

convenient,
From

con-

"

(F. L.)

L.

10

CORACLE

coo
conin

rabbit ;

0. F.

cotinil.

word

"

(E.)

Coo.

L.

of uncertain

speltcroo.
Cook.
(L.)

also

Copeck,

cuntctihis, a

less

origin.

A purelyimitative word
Cf. cuckoo, cock.
M. E. coken, to cook

Russian
coin, worth
hundredth
part of a rouble.

small

than^(^/.
; a
Russ.

a copeck ;
y^(9//V//('a,

dimin.

(Russ.)

of Russ. kopee,
wSo called from the
a lance.
of
Ivan
IV,
holdinga lance (1535).
figure

See Rouble.
L. coqutis, a cook ; coSkt. pacJi^ Copious, ample. (F. L.) O. F. coGk.
cook.
TrfCfreti/
to
+
;
quere,
to bake.
copiosns,
plentiful.L. copia,
; pieux.'"l^.
to cook ; Russ. pech{e),
cowhence
Lat. *pequere,
(forcum),
becoming *queqticteplenty; for *co-opia.'-'L.
Gk.
together; op-y base of op-es,wealth. Cf.
by assimilation,and then coquere;
A.S.

coc,

cook.

"

"

(V^^EQ

i. "

iricadiv^Erugm.

whence
*iTiq-ULv,

"

Late L. a7(;"j,for coqtiiis.


Cookie, a cake ; see Ca,ke.
Cool.
(E.~"A.S. c^/,cool. + Du. kocl:

66

A..^.

in-opia,want.

Copper,

coc^

metal.

(Cyprus.)yi.Y..coper.

Late L. cuper, L. cuprum, a


A. S. ":"t"/^r.
contraction for Ciipriuvi
cbs, Gyprianbrass.
"

Gk. Ki;7rpio?,
Teut. type *kdl-uz;also,with mutaiion,
Cyprus,
Cyprian; Kr;7rpo?,
whence
the Romans
2nd
ktihl
from
G.
Dan.
^cJ/-,
got copper.
grade
;
/^t)/,
of kal-,as in A. S. calan, Icel. kaia, to
sulphateof iron. (F. L.)
copperas,
M. E. coperose.'O.Y
freeze (pt.t. kol) ; see Cold.
;
coperose {couperose)
"

"

Coolie, Cooly, an East Indian porter. cf. Ital. copparosa. According to Diez,
lation
(Hind,or Tamil.) Hind. kfllT,a labourer, from L. ciiprirosa, rose of copper, a transof
Gk.
brass
from
Koll
flower,
xaKK-av6os,
porter,cooley(Forbes); prob.
But this is prob.onlya popular
a tribal name
(Yule;.Or from Tamil -^/7/?,
copperas.
hence, a
day- etymology; and the Late L. cuprosa seems
daily hire or wages;
to be merely an
labourer (Wilson).
adj.form from cuprum.
-

Cooxnb

Comb.
(L.) M. E.

Coop.

cupe^

basket

not

as
a
gloss
cype (with z-mutation)occurs
also
'L. cilpa,a tub, whence
to dolium.
"

Icel. kupa, a bowl ;


ktiip,
G. kufe, tub,
copa, whence
Du.

small

C^//_yis short for


and
coppice,
copse is contracted, "O. F.
quently
freunderwood
copeiz[Low L. copecid],
1^1'.L.

wood.

"

Gk.)

"

cut, brushwood,

also Late L.

vat, coop

Copse,

Coppice, Coppy,

'^alpe, found,though

answeringto A.S.

N.E.D.

See

see

to cut.
couper'),

pit, stroke.

"

0-F\
coper (F.
cop (F, coup),a
"

O. F\

L. colaphus,
stroke,
colpus,
blow.
a
^ O. F.
KoKaipos,
to a Late L. type *colpdtiCo-operate. (L.) From pp. of L. copeizanswers
to strike. Coppy arose
co-operdri,to work with; from co- (cum), citim,from colpdre,
from coppice
with; and operdrT, to work; see Operate.
being taken as coppics,
pi.;
from reduciiig
a supposed
Co-ordinate.
(L.)From L. co- {cwn), and copse {cops)
with ; and the pp. of ordindre,to order. pi.*coppis
to cops.

Cf. Skt. kf/pa,


O. Sax. copa, a tub,
a
hollow.
tub-maker.
Der.
coop-er,

blow.

LowL.

"

Gk.

"

Coprolite. (Gk.)

See Ordinate.
fowl.
Coot.
(E.) M. E. cote, coote,a water4-Du. koet,a coot.
Originunknown.

Made
a

Gk.

from

stone.

For

resin.
copalli.,

Co-parcener,
is the true

Parcener
see

Idre,

to

join.

co-partner. (F. L.) Couple.


old spelling
oi partner ;
Copy.

dung-stone.'
a.nd\i6-os,

cf. Aerolite.
-lite,
F"om

Mex.

'

dung
fcoirpo-s,

Copal. (Span. Mexican.) Span,copal. Copulate. (L.)


"

Lit.

"

L.

pp. of L. copu-

band;

copula,a

see

"

; the

Partner.

cape. (LateL.) M. E.
cope.,earlier cape ; A. S. *cdpa,not foimd ;
"Late
L. cdpa, a
but Icel. kdpa occurs.

(F. L.)
"

mod.
of

sense

M.

E.

dance
copy, abun-

is due

to

tiplication
the mulof

copies.
also a copy.
abundance;
copie,
L. cdpia,
plenty; see Copious.
from
see
Cape
(i).
'apratling
pope,
[Cf.
Coquette. (F.) F. r^^?/^//,?,
cape;
A. S. pdpa.~\ Der. coping-stone.
or
Cot.; fem. of coquet,2i
proud gossip,'
Cope (2),to vie with. (F. L. Gk.) little cock, dimin. oicoq,a cock. Cf. provIsl.E. copen, coiipen,to light. O. F\ coper, E. cocky,
i.e. strutting
as a cock.
strike
to
wicker
boat. (W.) W,
to
(F.coiiper, cut). Coracle, alight
couper, colper,
Late L. corwgl,cwrwgl, coracle ; dimin. of coi'wg,
O. F. cop, coup, colp,
a blow.
L. colaphus^
Gk. K6\a(pos,
So Gael.
a blow.
a carcase,
colpus,
civrwg, a boat, frame.

Cope (i),orig.a

"

"

an

by means
original

O. F.

"

"

"

"

"

"

blow

on

the ear.

See Coupon.

ctirachan, coracle,from

curach, boat

of

CORAL
wicker-work

CORNET

O. Ir. cia-ach, }-ant,cormaratt


cf.Ir. corrach,

(Littre).O. F. corp, a
O. F. *7?tarenc,
belongingto
the sea, deriv. of L. inaj-e, sea, with G.
Coral.
(F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. coral.
L. coralhvn, cordluim.'"OV.
suffix -m^;
cf. Y.Jlamant^flamingo. L.
Kopa.KXi.ov,
coral.
See Schade, p. 1374.
of coruus,
ace.
a
crow
cortium,
; "c.
a cormorant
Corban, a gift.(Helx) Heb. qorbdn, Cf. Port, corvoniarinho,
; lit.
'
to God, in fulfilment of a vow
from L. coruus
an
marine crow
moriniis.
offering
;
;
;

boat.

crow

"

and

"

'

from

qdrah, draw
bdn, a sacrifice.
to

Corbel.

Cf. Arab,

near.

But

qur-

probably-moran

fur^ed

with, Bret,

due to,

was

or

con-

cormorant

morvran,

a raven,
Jrom 7nor, sea, and bran, a crow).
(F. L.) O. F. r^r^t-/,
from the notion
Corn
(inarchitecture),
(0, grain. (E.) A. S. r^r".+Du.
beak.
Folk-L. corbellum, koren, Icel. Dan.
Svved. G. kom,
Goth.
projecting
Teut. type *ktir7io"?i,
corvcllwn, ace. of co-ve/his, dimin. kaurn.
Idg. type
"

corbel

of

"

for
of L. coruiis,
a
a basket
corbeil,

O. Slav, zriino,
raven.
corn
^ Distinct from *g9r7iom,
; whence
full of earth (F.corbeille,
ls.r.ss. zerno,
Cf. Lat. grdtitan,
corn.
L. corbicula,dimin. oi corbis^
a basket).
worn
down, pp. oijrl.
grain; Skt.y/""a-,
M. E. corde.Cord.
T) oyxhlet,
(F.-L.-Gk.)
grain. See Grain.
Brugm. i.
F. r^r^^.

Late L.
L. chorda.

a thin rope ; the


" 628.
cot'da,
(Vgp:r.)
Gk. x^P^f the string Corn
the
on
(2),a hard excrescence
of a musical
instrument.
Der.
cord-agefoot. (F. L.) O. F. corn (F.cor),a horn,
; cord-on
(F. cordage)
(F. cordon); cord- horny swelling.L. cornu, a horn; see
-elier (F. cordelier,
twist of rope, also Horn.
a
who used such a twist ; from
in the eye.
a Gray Friar,
homy membrane
cornea,
cordeler,to twist ropes). See Chord.
(L.) L. cornea, fem. oi cornens, horny."
Cordial.
L. CO' nfi, a horn.
(F. L.) Y. cordial,YiQ^wty.
L. cordi-,deck stem
of cor, heart; with
cornel, a shrub. (Du." L.) M. Da.
same

as

"

"

"

"

"

"

suffix -dlis ;

see

Corduroy,
stuff. (F.

'

and

Cordwainer,

leather."Late

L.

"

"

shoemaker.

(F. Span.)

the wood.

cordottan,

dova
Cordoa, Cor-

from

"

cordcwane,

"

the

co"nus,

hard, horny nature

L. cornu,

L.

nel-tree
cor-

of

horn.

cornelian,

kind
of chalcedony.
a
Formerlycortialine. F. coi^na-

(F. L.)

"

"

Spain(L. Cordubd).

nel-berry
cor-

Late
cornillier,
cornel-tree.]

cornolium, cornel-iree. L.

Royal.

M. E, cordewaner,a worker
in
i.e. leather oi CordiON2i.^O.Y.
in

Weigand. [Cf.M. F.rtJm/V/^,a

in

See Cord

Cordovan

kornelle, the fruit of the cornel Ie-tree,'


Hexham
; cf.AL H. G. comelbatim, cornel-

corded

or

Y. corde du 7-oi,
name,
tree ;
a tradeEngland ; lit. * king's

L.)

"

invented

cord.'

Heart.
thick-ribbed

line, 'the

cornix

cornaline,a

or

flesh-

Cot.
Cf. Port, cornestone
"c. (F. L. ?) coloured
Core, hard centre in fruit,
;
doubtful.
from
F.
also
Ital.
a
corniola,
lina;
cor,
Etym.
Perhaps
(i)a cornel-tree,
the foot,callosity. (2) a cornelian,prob. so named
because
on
horn, also,a corn
L. cormi, a horn, a horny excrescence.
that of the fruit of the
its colour resembles
F. cori- cornel-tree (SchadeV Late L. corniola,
Coriander.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
atidre. L. coriandj-nm
S. cel- cornel-berry;
A.
cornolium, cornel.- L. cor(whence
of
coriander.
lendre).-^Gk. Kopiawof,
a cornel.
^ Altered
jieus, adj. cornus,
Kopiov,
Cork.
(Span. L.) Apparentlyfrom to carneolus in Late L. (Schade.p. 1379),
O. Span, alcoj'qne,
cork
in E., and carneol in G., from
carnelian
a
shoe, which
to be an
connected
it
Arab, form allied to Span. a popularetymology which
seems
of caro, flesh. Cf.
where al is the with L. earn-, stem
al-cornoque,the cork-tree,
def. art.,and co7-n-oqne is formed
Arab.
Gk. 6Vi;",
finger-nail.
OJiyx
from L. qnern-us
yioi*qiiercmis),
corner.
oaken,
(F. L.) A. Y.comere ; O. F.
adj.from L. quercns, an oak. ^ But the cortiiere. Med. L. corneria,corner, angle.
bark of the tree was
in Span.,corche,
Med. L. coma,
angle. L. cornua, pi.of
called,
'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

ho. "l^. corticem, ace. of cortex, bark. cornii,horn, projection


; taken as a fem.
Hence
cork is often derived from Span. sing.
a horn ;
cornet. (F. L.) M, E. co7-net,
corcho,though k for ch seems
able.
improb-

core

"

of horse (who carried a cornette or standard)


; also an officer of such
F. cornet, cornette, dimin. of F.
a troop.

a troop
later,

Cormorant,
is excrescent.

"

bird.

(F. L.)

F. cormoran\

"

O. F.

The
conna-

"

12

M
"

CORSE

CORNICE
horn.

come,

Med.

"

L.

horn

enclosure.

Cornice.

(F. Ital.)M.
"

F.

Ital.
cornice ; F. corniche.
ledge for hanging tapestry
"

(from L.

usually,
crow). Originuncertain
a

(Span."L.) Span, coi'ral,a court, yard,


Span, corro, a circle,a ringof
the
and Picard
From
people met to see a show.
toros,to hold a bull-fight,
cornice,a phrasecorrer

coma,

(^above).

crow

bulls.

run

cor7iTce?n, See Kraal.


idenlisome
Correct,

L. currere,

"

to

(Diez).

run

ace.

by

(Florio)
; lit.to

"

iied with coronix, a square frame.


Kopojvis, curved ; as sb.,a wreath.

"

Gk.

of

adj. (L.)

corrigere,to

con-

correct.

L. corrcctus, pp.
L. cor(for
"

together
ctivi),
; regere,

to

rule.

COrregidor,
Spanish magistrate.
lit. corrector.'
(Span. L.) Span. co7-regidor,
L.
correct.
t
o
"Span,
corregir,
(L.)
'L.corolldriu7fi,iiY"Ttcorollary.
of a garland,a gratuity
sent
(above
corrigere
; also,an
additional inference. L. corolla (above).
Correlate, to relate or refer mutually.
gether
to(F. L.) Properly (L.) Coined from L. cor- (^^cuf/i),
coronal, a crown.
and
L.
F.
v.
Relate, q.
an
coronal, adj.
corondlis,
;
adj.
^'L. coj'd7ia,
a crown.
to a crown.
Correspond. (F. L.) Y.corresponbelonging
coronation. (L.) LateL. ace. cordnd- dre. L. cor- (forcon-, cum), together
;
dimin. of
(L.) L. corolla,
See Crown.

CoroUa.

'lona,

crown.

co-

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

tionetn,from
L. corona,

pp. of corondre, to

and

crown."

crown.
"

croivner;

both forms representA. F. coruner, coroner,


Latinised as cordfidrius,
a crownofficer,
a
coroner
(afterwards Latinised as coroO. F. corone, a crown.
L. corona,
ndtor
"

"

corone,

"

"Ital.
long (runningalong)gallery.
to

rere,

Dimin.

(F. L.)
"

crown.

"

L. corona,

of O. F.

crown.

cor-

L. currere, to run.
(Gael.)Gael, coire,a circular

run.

"

Corrie.
hollow
dell ;

crown.

coronet.

"

"

Also

(F. L.)

coroner.

Respond, q. v.
Corridor.
(F. Ital. L.) F. corridor.
Ital. corridore,a swift horse;
also,a

with

surrounded

a
hills,

mountain

a
[Cf.G. kessel,

also,a cauldron.

a ravine.]
+ O. Irish coire,core, a
kettle,
kettle ; W. pair,A. S. hwer, a cauldron.
Brugm. i. " 123.
Corroborate.
(L.) From pp. ofL.

dirge.(Gael.)Gael. ":^ra howlingtogether.'


Gael, comh- ( L. cum) together
(for
; riinaich, corrohordre,to strengthen.L. corconstem
a
oii'obur,
cu/?i),
wholly; robor-,
howling,from the verb I'an, to howl
an
outcry. strength.
cry, roar, which is from I'an, sb.,
So also Irish coranach,a dirge.
Corrode.
(F. L.) F. corroder. L.
officer.
subordinate
to pieces. L. corto
a
(for
corrodere,
Corporal (0,
gnaw
'-'\jaXQ.L. corconctivi), wholly; rddere, to gnaw.
(F. L.) O. F. corporal.
from pp. corros-us.
a
pordlis,
captain; a leader of a body of Der. corrosive,
stem
sion.
Corrody, Corody, allowance,pentroops. L. corpor-, for *corpos-,
coi-odie.-of corpus,body. ^ F. has now
the form
(Low Lat. Teut.) A.Y
L.
L. corrodium,
earlier corredium,
Low
chief of a
a
caporai,from Ital. caporale,
of
A.
F.
form
bnnd ; as if from
Ital. capo, head
preparation,
cotirei,
vision,
pro(L.
allowance.
See Curry (1).
caput); but this does not explainthe -or-.
(L.) From pp. of L.
corporal (2),belongingto the body. Corrugate.
L.
cor(cum),
O. F. corporal,corporel.-^t^.
corrugdre, to wrinkle.
(F. L.)
to
*r"?r
and
L.
for
wrinkle, from
rilgdre,
bodily.
wholly;
corpordlis,
corpor-,
of corpus, the body.
Der.
nlga, a wrinkle.
pos-, stem
(from L. corpor-) corpor-ate,corpor-e-alCorrupt, adj. (F.-L.) K.Y.corupt.
to break
L. corruptus,pp. oicorrtimpere,
(L.corpore-us),"c.
Brugm. i. " 555.
cictn)
a
body wholly,corrupt. L. cor- (forconcorse,
corps,
corpse,
(F. L. ) [Here corps is F. ; corse is from wholly; rumpere, to break.

Coronach,

lit.
ranach,a dirge,

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

=^

"

"

the O. F. corsP\ M. E. cors, corps."-O. F.


the body.
L. corpus,body.
cors, M. " .corps,
corpulent. (F. L.) F. corptdent.
L. corpulentus,
fat. L. corpus, body.
"

"

corpuscle. (L.)
double

dimin.

Corral,

an

Corsair.
(F. Ital. L.) F. coi-saire
(Prov.corsari,one who makes the course,
a
corsa). Ital. corsare, earlier corsaro,
pirate. Med. L. ciirsdrius,a pirate.
-

"

"

"

L. ciirsus,
L. corpus-cu-han,

of corpus,body.
enclosure for animals,pen.

"

course.

body. (F. L.) M.E.cWJ.


cors.'^X^. corpus,a body.

Corse,
O. F.

See Course.

"

"

CORSET

COUGH

corset.
(F. L.) Yroxa.O.Y.costeve.
(F. L.) F. corset, a pairof Costive.
L. constipdttis,
stays; dimia. of O. F. cors^ body.
constipated.See concorslet. (F.-L.) F. corselet,a little stiperin Littre ; and Constipate.
Costume.
body,'Cot.; hence, body-armour. Double
(F.-Ital.-L.) O. F. ^^^"

"

"

'

dimin. of O. F. cars, body (above).


a
Cortege. (F. Ital. L.) F. cortege,
-

train,retinue.
"

Ital. corte,
of

tufne, a

costume.

costiima

see

retinue.
a
corteggio,
L. cortem, cocourt,

Ital. costume
; Low
Doublet
of

"

Custom.

L.
tom.
cus-

Ital.

"

ace.
hortern,

tered.
Cosy, Cozy, comfortable, snugly shel-

"

a
cohors,

court

(Scand.) Lowl.

Court

; see

Scotch

cosie,cozie

(Bums). Etym. unknown


; perhaps cf.
Norw.
refresh
kosa
to
kosa,
assembly.
;
seg, to enjoy

COrtes, the Span, national


(Span."L.) Span,cartes^pi. of corte,a oneself
L. cortem
court.
(above;.
Cortex, bark. ;L.' L. cortex (gen. Cot,

koseleg,
snug,

cosy ;

creation.
kosingyre-

"

bark.
corticis),

(L.) From
pp. of L.
glitter.
Corvette, a small frigate.
(F. Port.
L.) F. corvette. Vort. corveta ; Span.
Coruscate.

"

"

"

corvette.-

shipof burden.
sailing

L.

dwelling;Cote,

(E.) M.E.

cornscdre, to

corbeia,a

small

cortical.

Dsr.

closure.
en-

cot,den ; Northumbrian
Der.
cot.
kot, cot, hut ; prov. G. /:ot/i,
cott-age(with F. suffix)
; cott-ar or cott-er

sheep-cote.

slow-

corblta,a

an

A. S. cot, cote, a
Icel.
cot.-\-l}i\.^ot,

cote.

people. (F. Teut.)

set of

coterie, a

"

F. coterie,
L. cordis,
a basket.
set of people,company
a
;
to the world.
Cosmic, relating
(Gk.")allied to O. F. coterie,servile tenure
from koctixos, order,also
Gk. Koaui/coi, adj.,
L. coteria,a tenure
by
(Littre)
; Low
L.
Dsr.
the world, universe.
who
cottars
clubbed together.Low
cosmo-gony,
"

"

cosmo

'

graphy

(citizenof

(above)
logy, cosjno- politecota, a cot.
a
world, Gk. -nokiTrjs,
Cotillon,Cotillion,a dance

cos mo

the

"

kot

Du.

for 4

or

lit.
G.) F. cotillon,
(F.
petticoat;see Cotgrave. Formed, with

8 persons.

citizen).

I^I.H.

cosmetic, that which beautifies.(Gk.) a


skilled
in
Koayir]TiK6s,
adorning; suffix -ill-on,from O. F. cote, a coat,
also
F.
Gk.
whence
Koayiko^,frock ; see Coat.
cosmitique.
I adorn.- Gk. kogixos, order,ornament.
Cotton
(i),a downy substance. (F."
S.
Russian
M. E. and A. F. cotoun."
a
"Arab.)
Cossack,
light-armed
Span.
soldier. (Russ. Tatar.) Russ.
kozak\ F. colon.
colon, algodon,cotton
S\)Z.n.
kazak' ; of Tatar (Tartar)origin. Turk!
(whereal is the Arab. art.).Arab, qittn,
man
qutun, cotton.
quzzdq. a vagabond ; a predatoryhorsecotton (2),to agree. From a technical
(Vule).
Gk.

"

'"

"

"

"

Cosset, to pet. (E.) From i6th cent. use of cotton,to form a down upon ; from
as
Cotton
a pet-lamb,
a pet. Prob. the same
cosset,
(i); see Nares.
A. F. coscet,cozet,a cottar ; A. S. cot-s"ta, Cotyledon, seed-lobe.
(Gk.) Gk.
Gk.
dweller
in a cot, * cot-sitter.' P"om
a
a
cup-shapedhollow.
icoTvXrjdujv,
"

A. S. cot,cot ; s"ta, dweller,from sittan, kotvKt], a hollow vessel,


cup.
G. kossat^
to sit. Cf. prov.
a
cottager.
Couch, to lay down, place,set. (F.-L.) M. E. couchen,to set,arrange. O.F.
[So Ital. casiccio,
; from
pet lamb (Florio)
to
coucher,colcher,to place. L. collocdre,
casa, a cottage.]
"

"

Cost, vb. (F.-L.)

M. E. costen.

put together.L. col- {cimi), together;


and locdre,to place,from locus,a place.
is
Der.
couch, sb.,a place on which one

O. F.

"

L. const are, to
to cost.
(F.coilter),
stand together,
last ; also to cost.
L. con{cum),together;and stare, to stand.
to the ribs. (L.) From
Costal, relating
coster

"

"

coziched

laid.

or

Couch-grass, a

grass which

is troublesome

(E.) Here couch


form
quitch,palatalised

is a
of
of
life
of
; see Quick.
costerd-monger,or costard-monger,quick,i.e. tenacious
a seller oi costards or
apples. [The suffix Cough. (E.) M. E. coughen,cowhen.
M. E. A. S. ^cohhian, only found in the deriv.
is E. ; see
Monger.]
-monger
noise.
a
[The usual
where
the suffix -ard is cohhetan, to make

L. costa,a rib.

See Coast.

Costerm.Onger. (F. and

costard,an

as

E.)

merly
For-

variant

weed.

apple,

F. ; prob. from O. F. coste,F. cote, a rib ; A. S. word is h7udstan.']Cf. Du. kuchen,


ribbed fruit (Hamilton).to cough ; M. H. G. kitchen,G. keuchen^
cf. Y. fruitcdteli,
114

COUPLE

COULD
:o

From

gasp.

'^kuh^to

gasp ;

Could

imitative

an

Coulter,

is

L. culcita pimcta, a
counterpane, a
stitched quilt(see Ducange). L. culcita,
of
coulter, a quilt
; puncta, fern, of punctits, pp.
See
lo
Quilt.
ptiugere, prick.

(i).
plough.(L.)

Can
part of

see

of O. F. coutepointe,
corruption
in Littre).
(see
courtepointe
counterpane

*ketili,
poind

base

Chincough.

see

"

M.

E.

"

A. S. cutter. "^'L. culter,


a
stn^Q.
Ct per-cellere,io
Council.
(F. L.) Y .concile.-^Y..conan
:iliu7n, assemblycalled together.L.
"alter
cnife.
.

(2% counterpart

Counterpane

"

deed.

M..Y

(F. L.)

of

contrepan, contre"on[cum), together; and caldre, to pant \ Cot. F. contre (L. contra), over
jummon.
pan, a piece,part ; see Pane.
^ Often confused with counsel. against;
conseil."
Counsel.
Counterpoint, the composing of
(F." L.) M.E.
contre'y.", conseil. l-,.
consilium,deliberation. music in parts. (F. L.) M.F.
in
music
Consult.
a
or
L. consulere,to consult; see
;
poitict, ground plainsong,
"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

IfOften

(i),
orig.sense

Ihe

with council.
title of rank.

confused

Count

(not in

"Qiinte

was

M.

(F.
"

The lit.sense
vi, pointagainst
point,
the pointsor dots which
represented
musical notes, and were
placed on staves
each other in compositions
over
or against
Cot.
from

L.'

companion.' A. F.
also
E.). O. F. conte
'

-,

"

in two or more
tra),
L. comitem, ace. of comes,
a
comparts. F. contre (L. conPoint.
see
L,.coma
corn-itDanion (stem
(forcum-),
against
; point, point;
).
and it-um,supineof ire, to go.
Counterpoise. (F."L.) Yxovacouti.ogether;
ter and poise
Der. count-ess
; see Poise.
; also couni-y (below).
exterior slope of a
F.
reckon.
to
Count
(F.
L.)
Counterscarp,
(2),
Teut.j Y.con-onter,formerlyalso compter.-^Y^. compu- ditch. (F. Ital. L. aW
"omte.

"

"

"

"

"

"

'dre,to compute ;

trescarpe; Cot.

Compute.

see

Ital. contra,

O. F. conCountenance.
F.-L)
demeanour
'enance, gesture,
; also look,
which
L.
continence,
.'isage. continentia,
Late

L. meant

L. continent-,
stem
;ee

Continent,

Counter,

'

"

M-E.

countour.

confer

"

Scarp.
to

attest

F.

.F.-L.)

by signingin

'to
contresigner,

Ital. contratenore, a
contreteneur; Cot.
adult male voice.
the
highest
; countertenor,
"

^\\.2X.contra,

Count

". centre,

"
.

tenor

over
against,

against;
tenure,

Tenor.

see

Countervail.

"

Counteract.
and
prefix,

and

Countersign,
addition.

"

0.".

"

O. F.

From

(2).
(F.-L.)
Counter-, /r^:/^.^.
igainst. L. contf-d,against.
;ee

contrasca7pa.
against; scarpa,a scarp.

'

countour.

:0Hteour,

Ital.

F. contre, over
of pres. pt. oicontin'ere; subsigne
against;
; Cot."
and Sign.
vb. signer,to sign; see CounterHev. dis-coutttenance,
Countertenor.
(F.-ItaL-L.) M.F.
with, a
piece to count

(F. L.)

Dureau.

gesture, demeanour.'

over

See Counter-

"

"

M. E.,

(F.-L.)

stem
O. F. contrevail-,
a
to avail against.0..F.
contrevaloir,

trevailcn.

L. ) See Counter-,

Act.

"

"

r^"-

of
tre,
con-

against; valoir, to avail. L. contra,


M.E.
against; ualere,to be strong.
contrefait,
couftter/eit.'-O.Y.
pp.
contree.
oi contrefaire,
C OUntry. (F. L.) M.E.
F. contre, over
to imitate.
like ; /aire,to make.
L. contra, O. F. contree
{ Ital. contrada). Late L.
against,
lit.that which
contrdda, contrdta,a region,
to make.
against; facere,

Counterfeit,

imitated.

(F.

L.)

"

"

"

"

"

"

; cf. G. gegend,country,, lit.


opposite
from^^^^w,opposite.L. f^"MF,
(F. L.) F. contremander, to recall a opposite,
Contra-.
command.
F. contre (l^.contrd),
; see
; opposite
against
mander
command.
to
(L. vianddre),
Country-dance. (F.) Yxoxa country

Countermand,

revoke

to

an

order.

lies

"

"

"

Counterpane

and

),a coverlet for a bed.

(The

dance.
from

(F. L.) An altered form, in place of


M.F.
in Shak.
as
contrecounterpoint,
"

F. contredanse

this E.

was

rowed
bor-

form.)

by a
County, orig.a provincegoverned
cottntee.-'O.Y.
the back-stitch or quilting-stitch,
count.
poinct,
(F. L.) M,E,
also a quilt
Y. comte, a province.
p. Thus named, by a cotmte (i.e.coun-te),
; Cot.
a
from
fancied
Late
L,
a
tion
conneccomitdtum, ace, of comitdttis,
popularetymology,
pany
with M. F. contrepoincter,
a comthe county (thoughthe old meaning was
to work
\u.contra). But
back-stitch (fromcontre
or
suite). L. comit-,stem of comes,
connected with M. F. coutrepointer,
count
Count
a
(i).
really
; see
to quilt
(alsoin Cotgrave).In fact,contreCouple. (F.-L.) O.F. cople,later
"

"

"

"

15

COUPON
^Y..
couple.

KINE

sohrTbond, band, that a cousin. L. con- {cuni),together;


ior *co-ap-tila.
sister
L. cofor
t
o
a
*swesr-inus,
b
elonging
;
nus,
a
sister;cf.
{cuin),
together;and O. L. apere, to join.,from L. soror
(for'^szvesdr),
in the pp. apius ; see Apt.
Skt. svasr,
sister. See
Sister.
a
preserved
(Cf.
which

copula, a

Coupon,

"

short

joins;

"

of

series of
(F. L.

conjoinedBrugm. i. " 319.)


ber,
a chamGk.) F.
Cove, a nook. (E.) A. S. cofa,
Icel.
hut
a coupon.
cave.
a
a
+
coupon,a piececut oft",
; Swed.
Y.couper,
kofi,
F. co7(p,a blow.
Late L, kofva; G. koben, a cabin.
to cut, slash.
^ Distinct
blow.
Gk.
from cave, coop,alcove. Brugm. i. " 658.
a
colpus,short for colaphus,
KoKacpos,a blow on the ear.
Covenant, agreement. (P\" L.) 6.F.
tickets

one

certificates.

or

"

"

"

"

"

"

Courage.

". courage,

(F.-L.)

formed with suffix -age

corage ;
from
O. F.
Der.

heart.

cor,

L.

"

O.Y.

also convetiatit,agreement.
covenant,
O.
F.
co{7i)venant,
(L.-dticttni)
pres. pt. of co{n)venir,
"

heart.

cor,

to

assemble, agree.

encouj'age.

Courier.

(,F.
"

Ital,

L.) yi.Y .courier, Cover,

"

F. courrier.'^\\z\..

"

L. conuenire,

to

semble,
as-

together
; see Ccnvene.
hide. (F, L.) O. F. covrir

come

to

"

lit. icouvrir).!^. cooperire, to cover.


L. cocoi'7-iere,
runner.' Ital. correre, to run.
L. curFor
hide.
^(r?^w),
wholly; operjre,ioshut,
cf.
Lith.
I
to
run.
az-weriu,
shut,
rere,
*op-uerij-e
;
L. curcourse.
(F. L.) F. course.
waj-tai,doors,Oscan ace. verzi, a door.
of cursus, a course
Brugm. i. " 350.
SU771, ace.
; from pp. of
runner

"

"

"

"

"

"

Der. cours-er, a swift horse.


coverlet.
(F. L.) M. E. coverlite.
(i),a yard; royalretinue,
judicial A. F. coverlet,coverlit (notin O. F.),
bed-cover.
O. F. covrir,to cover
a
assembly.(F. L.) M. E. cort, ciirt.
; ///,
O.F. cort,C2irt (F. court),
b. court, a yard, a
bed, from L. lecttim,ace. of lectus,a

currere.

"

Court

"

also

"

-^

"

tribunal.

L.

"

(nom. cohors),a

cohorton
cdrteni,

ace.

bed.

covert, ^'^.
(F. L.) O.Y
(above).
L.r^- (r"w), together;
and hort-, Covet.
(F. L.) yi.Y. coueiten {coa garden,
F. coveiter (F. convoiter).
with
A.
as in hort-us,
yard,cognate
veiten).
Cf.
Ital.
cubitare
to covet.
yard. (VGHER.)
(forcupitare),
from
court
(2),to seek favour. (F. L.) Formed, as if from L. *cupiditdre,
From
the sb. court ; hence,to practise
arts
cupiditd-tem,ace, eager desire,which
in vogue at court.
is from ciipidus,
desirous of. L. cupere,
(F. to desire. See Cupid.
courteous, of courtlymanners.
L.) M. E. cartels, later corteous."
Covey. (F. L.) O. F. covee (F.cou~
fem. of pp. of
O. F. cort, a
O. F. corteis,courteous.
vee),a brood of partridges;
L. ciibdre,
to hatch,sit.
court ; with suffix -els (L. -ensis).
cover
(". ccuver),
to lie down, sit. Cf. Gk. kv^Iws, bent.
courtesan.
(F. Ital. L.) Fem.

yard,court, also

enclosure,cattle-

pen,

band

cohort, or

covert.

"

of soldiers."
oi covrir,to

cover
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of F. courtisan,a courtier.
Ital. cortia courtier. For
giano(inFlorio cortegiano),

Covin,

"

term.

agreement, fraud

secret

M.

(F. L.)
"

E.

covine.

;
"

lawO. F.

extension of cortese,coursemble,
teous
covine,agreement. O. F. covcnir, to asfrom
Ital.
L.
L.
to
court.
come
ace.
;
corte,
conuenire,
agree.
Covenant.
See Convene,
iortem; see Court
(The
together.
(i).
cortesie. O. F. covifie answers
to Late L. convenia,
courtesy. (F.-L.) M.E.
O. F. cortesie,
courtesy. O. F. corteis,pi.oi convenium, an agreement.)

*cortesiano,an

"

"

"

"

"

courteous

see

courtier.

Cow

courteous.

(F. L.)
"

yi.Y..cotirteour.

From
A. F. *cortei-er (O. F.
live at court ; with suffix -our
O. F. cort,a court.

Court

cards

corruptionof
old

to
cortoi-er),
pi.kine; see
also
(L.-atorem). whence

"

cards,pictured
cards,the

cu

(i),female of
pi. cy, whence

coat

name.

below.

the bull. (E.) A. S.


the
M. E. ky, and

Teut. stem

*kii-,

Icel. kyr.+ Du. koe, Swed.


'^ko-. Also
Dan. ko. G. kuh : Teut. stem
Irish and Gael, bo, W.
buw, L. bos (gen.
Gk. /3oCs,
boti-is),
VQxs.gdw,Skt.^.^?(nom.

Idg.
Court.
gdus) ; cf. Russ. goviado, oxen.
F.
O.
stems
cosin.
M.
E.
*g{w)du-,
*g{w)ow-. See Beef.
(F. L.)
cosin (F. cousin ; Late
L. coshius, Ital.
(E.) A new
kine, cows.
pi.; due to
*
cugino,Romaunsch
cusrin,cusdrin^." lu. A. S. cyna, gen. pi., of cows.' Cf.
The A. S. cy^
the child of a mother's sister, M. E. ky, A. S. cy, cows.
consobrinus,

Courteous,

Cousin.

"c. ;

see

16

CRANIUM
kraanbere

G.

Low

CREAK

G.
(Berghaus),

krantranebcer

beere,lit. craneberry; cf. Dan.

(from trane^krane,

above);

as

Swed.

tranbdr.

Russ. Kroaf

Cranium.
nm?fi.

Crank

Cravates.
origin; cf.

Croatian.

calle"i

were

Crovates
or
of Slavonic

or

to crave,
(E.) A. S. crafian,
Icel. krefja,
Swed. krdfva,Dan.
mand.
krcBve,to demand ; Icel. krafa, a de-

"

G]^.

"

Croatians,who

Crave.
(L. Gk.) Med. L. craskull; allied to "d/)a,ask. Cf.
Kpdvlov,

head.
a bend.
(i),
(E.)

Allied

the

by

worn

in F. Creates
Croat is a name

M.

E. cranke.

bent.
Craven.
(F.-L.?) The oldest form
kroiikel,a wrinkle, kronkelen, is M. E. cravant, with the sense of beaten,
Teut. base *k7'ejik-,
to wrinkle,turn, wind,
Mr. Nicol sugi.
foiled,or overcome,
gested
variant of *kreng-. Cf. Cringe, Crinkle.
that it is a clippedform of O. F.
crank
(2),easilyupset, as a boat. cravanti, pp. explainedby Cotgrave by
Cf.

E. Fries,

to

krunken,

pp.,

Du.

(E.) I. e. easilybent or twisted aside.


Cf. Du. krank, ill,
poor ; also krengen,to
Swed.
boat
careen
a
krdnga, Dan.
;

'

oppressed,foiled

'

; this is the pp. of


O. F. cravanter, to break, oppress
Late
L. '^crepantdre,
formed from crepant-,stem
=

heel over
of pres. pt. of crepdre, to crack, break.
Cringe.
; see
Cf. Span, quebrantar, to crack, break.
crank
(3),lively.(E.) The same
rather to be due simply
word, from the idea of turning quickly. 2. But it seems

krange,to

Cf. Norw.
kring,active,brisk ;
dexterous.
krceng,
(F. L. ?) M.
Cranny.

Dan.

dial.

"

ful
of doubt-

"

G. kratiz,a wreath.

its wrinkled
small

"

"

Craze.

see

Crasis.

(Gk.)

contraction.

hence,

Gk.
"

Kpaacs, a mixing;
Gk.
Kepavvvfxi, I

(L.)

Cratch,

thick,dense.

L. crassus,

crib,manger.

(F.
"

O.H.

G.)

O. F.
creche (creche)
;
0. H. G. crippea (whence
Prov. crep"cha.
See Crib.
G krippe),
a crib.
M.

E.

crecche.

"

"

(L.) L.

Crate.
a

crates, a hurdle ; hence,

crater.

which

(L. Gk.)
"

"

Gk.

Kpar-qp,

mixed.

thingswere

L. crater, a bowl,
large bowl in

"

Gk. Kipnvvvixi,

I mix.

Cravat.
(F. Slavonic.) F. cravate,
Cravats
(i) a Croatian, (2) a cravat.
"

were

of

See

Trans.

Phil.

fail;

Soc.

strength,
great
1902 ;

p.

loss.

659.

See Decrepit.

(E.?) M.E.
crop of fowls.
the neck ;
if from A. S. ^craga,
not
found; N. Fries, krage,neck, craw.
Allied to Du. kraag, G. kragen,neck,
Craw,

As

Crawfish,

introduced into France

in

croffie,
to

crawl.

II

Crayfish.

as

same

Prov.

Icel.

E.

craffie,

krajia,to

paw,
grope ; Dan.
Cf. N. Fries, krabli^
kravle, to crawl.
quentative
krawli, to crawl ; Low G. kratie/n. Frebase *ki-ab-,
Teut.
to
from
crawl ;

Swed.

"

krajia,to

Crab.
O. H.
O. F.
crevise.
;

see

iF.

Crayfish.

G.)

Altered

M. E.
from
crevisse,esO. H. G. crebiz,G.
crevisse {^crevisse).
krebs,a crab ; allied to G. krabbe,a crab ;
"

"

see

(i).

Crab

Crayon, (F. L.)


"

F. craie,chalk.

(Scand.)

Craze.

"

F. rray^w; extended
L. creta, chalk.
M.E.
erased,i.e.

Swed.
cracked.
krasa, Dan. krase, to
also F. ^eraser,to break
crackle ; whence
sia in kras, Dan,
in pieces. Cf. Swed.
slaae i kras, to break in shivers.
Creak.
(E.) ^i.Y.. kreken. Allied to
"

trake, crack.

1636, as

the

(Scand.)

Crawl.

from

wicker- case, "c.

Crater.
a

burst,

to

Span, qiiebrar,to

quebrants,want

scratch,claw

mix.

Crass.

participle

pres.
crever,

L.

O.Y.
M.E.
crater,
205.
crayer.
Of unknown
origin.
creer, a war-vessel.
Crash, vb. (E.) Of imitative origin;
closelyallied to crack. Cf. clash,dash ;
2.

and

cravant,
craver,

crispus,collar (whence Late Icel. kragi,Swed.


krage,Dan. krave, a collar).Note also
of a bird ; Swed. krdfva.
In
Dan. kro,the craw
Cymb.
ship.(F.)
surface.

curled. See Crisp.

dead

creve,

crawe.

Crape. (F." L.) F. crepe,formerly


crespe, 'frizzled,crisped,crisp;' Cot.
Crare,

O. F.
O. F.

"

authority).See Crenellate.
G.j M.
CrantS, a garland. (M. Du.
wreath
Du. krants, Du. krans, a garland,
All
Sw.
Dan.
krands,
krans).
(whence

iv.

the

E.

notch ; with
F. cran,
a
Allied to Ital. ar/?", anotch
notch (a word
Late L. crena,
a

From

the

break ; hence, to fail,to be overcome,


crany.
E. suffix -y. to yield. L. crepantem, ace. of the pres.
Cf. O. F.
(Florio).Cf. part, of crepdre, to burst.

"

from

to

of

Cf, Du.

kriek, a

cricket.

CRIB

CREAM

of European blood.
to creak,allied to craquer,
(F. Span. L.) F.
criqtier,
Of imitative origin.
Creole."~^\)z.n.
a
criollo,
negro corruption
of *criadillo,
dimin.
of criado,one
cated,
eduCream.
(F." L. Gk.) O.Y. cresvie

M. F.

"

"

crack.

to

"

(F. crhjic) ; reallythe same


cresme
(F. chreme), chrism
with

an

juice).
"

oil.

"

Gk.

instructed,or

O. F.

as

fused
(though con-

thick

L. cremor,

chrisma, consecrated

L.

word

Late

xp'"7/^",

child

of

of criare,to

of

hence, a

Criado

create, also,to

dimin.
criadilla,

unguent; see Chrism.


Crease
(i),a wrinkle, as

blood.

is pp.
L.

educate.

create, make.

to

creare,

brought up

European

Cf.

"

Span.

criada,a servant-maid.

folding Creosote, a liquiddistilled from tar.


"c.
(F," L.) Earliest spelling (Gk.) Lit. flesh-preserver.'Gk. Kp^o-^
paper,
flesh ; and acur-, short for owT-ijp,
for Kpkas,
a
a ridge(later,
furrow). Variant
c?-cast,
of crest,ridge(asof a roof). Cf. Walloon
ow^dv, to preserve, (informed.'
preserver, from
crest, ridge of a roof, kretle,
cress, a
wrinkled (Remade) ; Prov. crest^creis,a
Crescent.
(L.) The
'increasing'
of moon.
L. crescent-, stem
of pres. pt. of
ridge;and prov, E. crease, a ridge-tile
to
increase (pp. cre-tus),
a roof.
crescere^
grow,
{Atken.Sept.18, 1897.J
inchoative
form
allied
a
to
Crease
lay.^
(Ma(2),Creese,
dagger.
cre-dre, to
Malay kris, 'a dagger, kris, or make ; see Create.
Cress.
creese
(E.) M. E. cres, also ket'se(by
; Marsden.
Create.
(L.) From pp. of L. credre, shiftUigof r). A. S. carse, cerse, cressce.
in

'

"

"

'

make.

kr, to
make.-f-Skt.

to

ttre, O.Y.

Der.

Crescent.

creat-

And

creature, L. credtura.
Brugm. i. " 641.

see

"

IM. E. crede ; A. S. creda.


of
L. credo,I believe : the first word
the creed. + O. Irish cretim, I believe ;

Creed.

(L.)

"

Skt.

pad-dadhdmi,I

believe.

ence
cred-

Der.

ible
credence,L. credentid); credcred-ulous
credit
creditus)
(L.
;
;
pp.
"c.
Brugm. i. " 539.
(L. credttlus),

(O. F.

Creek.

(E.?)

+ l)u. kers,M. Du. and Low G. kerse,G.


kresse,O. H. G. cressa.
M.E.
Cresset.
^F. L.)
cresset,
a
lightin a cup at the top of a pole.
O. F.
cresset, craisset,a cresset
(with
iron cup
O. F. craisse (F.
grease in an

M. E. creke,a creek. +
kreke; cf. Icel. kriki, a

"

"

graisse),
grease;
from

grease,
Walloon
also

Littre.

Folk-L.

"

L. ciassus,

'^crassia,

thick,dense.

cracks,

cresset,

So
from

Icrache, grease.
Crest.

O.

(F.-L.)

F.

(F.

creste

L. crista,a comb
Crete. ^
tuft on a
or
kreek,M. Du.
bird's
F.
The
nook
head,
crest.
crack,
(whence
crique^.
Cretaceous, chalky. (L.) L. creorig.sense is *a bend,'as in Swtd. dial.
armkrik, bend of the arm ; krik,an angle, tdce-us,adj.from creta, chalk ; with suffix
Du.

nook.

"

-Otis.

(F."
Crevice, Crevasse.
iF.-L.) M.E.
O. Y
L.) O. F. creil,wicker-work
(Ducange, crevice, crevase, crevasse.
crevasse,
for a rift (Late L. crepdtia).0. Y crever, to
s.v.
cleid). \^. type *crdticiihim
L. crepdre, to crackle,
crdtictila,
wicker-work, double dimin. of burst asunder.

Creel,

osier
angler's

an

basket.

"

"

"

"

See Crate and Grill.


M. E. crepen; A. S.
Creep. (E.)
creopan.-^-ViVi.
kruipen,Icel. krjupa,Swed.

crates,

hurdle.

to crawl.
kr)'be,

krypa, Dan.

Teut.

type

str. vb.
^kreJipan-,

Creese

Cremation,

(2\
pp. of

cre-

?ndre, to bum.

crenellate.
pp. of Late
battlements.

dimin.
from

of

Late

Creole,

From
notch.

(L.)

Ital. crena,

AL

(LateL.-F.-L.)

Late
From

"

O. F.

one

"

L.

ac-

(forad

to; oescere,

ac-

to
to

grow.

Crewel,

cren,

crena

bom

F.

C7'an,

notch,

thin worsted

yarn.

Origin

Indies,but

manger.

(E.^

kribbia, Du.

kHb,

A. S.
G.

crib.-\-

krippe;
krybbe.

allied to Icel. Swed. kriibba,Dan.


Allied perhapsto M. H. G. krebe, a basket;
but not to Du. korf,G. koi-b,
if these are
from L. corbis. Der.
crib,verb, to put by
in

(above^.
in the W.

Crib,
O. Sax.

L. crenelldre,
to furnish with
O. F. rrd^"(?/,
a
battlement;

L.

to.

ac-

unknown.
notched.

Crenate,
L. crena,

"

"

grow
L. cremd-

burning. (L.)

oi crematio; from

iionetn,ace.

(F. L.) Formerly ":rM^, short

Crew.

for accrue,
re-inforcement.
O. F.
a
crene, increase ; orig.fem. of pp. of
croistre,to increase. L. accrescere,
"

Crease

see

burst.

where
crib,purloin; cribb-age,

the secret store of cards

crib is

CRICK

CROP
line.

twist in the neck,


a
or
spasm
M. E. crykke; also used in the sense
Prob. allied to Crinkle.
of wrench.
Cricket
(i), an insect. (F. Tent)

Crick,

F.

"

(L.

C7'in

crinem),hair;

ace.

and

hence thread,from L. llmim,


lin, flax,
flax,also,a thread.

(E.)

Cripple.

M, E. crepel,
crupel;
crypel,Luke v. 24. Lit.
to creak, rattle, 'a
cricket. O. F. criquer,
creeper.'A. S. crtip-,weak grade of
chirp. Du. kriek,a cricket ; krikkrakkeii, creopan (pt.t.creap),to creep; with suffix
the imitative base krik ; -el (for -ilo-)of the agent. -f-Du. kreupel,
to rattle. From
G. kriippel.
Cf. Dan. krobcf. prov. E. cracket,creaker, a cricket. Icel. kryppill,
"

M.

criket.

E.

O.

"

crequet, criquet,O.

(E.)

Northumb.

"

"

"

Cricket
was

game
stick

(2),a

kricken, to creake.'
(F. Du.) The
game.

once

played with

has M.

Hexham

'

Du.

ling (fromkrybe,to creep). See Creep.


Crisis

"

hooked

Critic.

sve

Crisp, wrinkled, curled.

A.S.

(L.)

curled. Brugm. i. " 565.


crosse).-^O. F. criquet,crisp. L, crispus,
'
de but au jeu de boule ;
baton servant
Critic. (L. Gk.) L. criticus. Gk.
a crutch ;
KpiTLKis, able to discern ; cf. Kpir-qs, a
Godefroy. M. Du. krick,ki-icke,
Cf. A. S. cricc,
critHexham.
to judge. Der.
crycc, a crutch, judge. Gk. Kpi-vdv,

(Cot.,s.

V.

"

'

"

"

"

"

erion, Gk,

staff.

Crime.
??ien,

an

allied to

test ;

Kpir-qpiov,

dia- critic,

fitfor distinguishing
(F. L.) Y. crime. 1^. crl- from Gk. diaKpcTiKus,
accusation,fault (stem crij?iin-)
; between.
crisis. (Gk.) Gk. Kplais,
a discerning,
cernere, to decide. + Gk. Kpifxa,
"

"

a decision
Kpifia,

to judge. Der.
Kpiveiv,

crisis.
"

Gk.

to judge.
Kpi-veiv,

Croak.
hence,recriminate
(E.) Cf, A. S. cr"cetung, a
late
wrinkle.
In
Of
imitative origin.Allied to
to
use
:
(E.)
croaking.
Crimp,
answering to an A.S. '^crempan,E. Fries. crake,creak.
'i"he
Crochet.
(F. LateL.) Y.c7-ochet,ix
krempen, causal deriv, of Cramp.
littlehook ; dimin. of croc, a. crook.
E. Fries, and Du.
Late
as
orig.str. vb. occurs
crimin-al,crimin-ate

"

"

O. H.G.
krimfan; Teut. type L. crocciwi, ace. of croccus, a hook.
kriffipen,
'^krempan-{krimpan-),to draw oneself
Crock, a pitcher.(C.) A.S. crocca.
Cf. E. Irish crocan, Gael.
shrink up ; pt. t. ^ki-amp,pp. Of Celtic origin.
together,
a
*-krumpano-.See Cramp and Crumple.
pitcher,
crog, Irish crogan, W. crochan,
Crimson.
a pitcher.
(F.-Arab.-Skt.) M.E.
pot.-j-Gk.
Kpajaaos (forKpwKyos),
So also Du.
O. F. cramoisin^ cramoisyiie
cremosin.
kriiik,Icel. krukka, Swed.
L. crauieG. h'tig.
kruka, Dan. kriikke,
(see cramoisi in Littre)
; Low
also carmesTmis, crimson
dile."
(F. L. Gk.) F. croco(Span. Crocodile.
sinus,
Avah.
L. crocodilus." Gk. KpoKoddKos,a
carmesi, Ital. cherf?iisi).-'
qirmizi,
sect."
the cochineal incrimson ; from qir7?tiz,
a crocodile.
lizard,
i.
Gk.
Skt. kr/;u\s),
Crocus.
a
worm.
Brugm.
(L. Gk.) L. crocus.
" 418.
KpoKos, crocus, saffron. Perhaps Semitic ;
Cringe. (E.) M. E. ci-engen ; causal cf. Arab, kaj'kam,W^h.karkom, saffron.
derivative of A. S. cringan, crincan, to
a fleld.+Du.
Croft.
(E.) A. S. croft,
the downs.
the
foe. krocht,kroft,
sink
in battle, fall beneath
a fieldon
Crincan
is a strong verb ; see
Cromlech.
Crank,
(W.) W. cromlech,a flagstone
"

"

"

"

"

Crinkle.

Cringle,

others.
W. cro7n, fem.
laid across
flat stone.
oi crwm,
crooked,bent; llech,
(F. L.) Tusser
Crone, an old woman.
Prob. from Picard
has crone, an old ewe.
"

an

iron

ring. (Low G.)

a ring
kringel,
(Lubben");E. Fries.
allied
Icel.
to
kringel;
kringla,a circle
of a drag-net).caj'one, carrion ; whence
M. Du. karonie,
the
(ci.kringar,
pi., pullies
of E. Fries, kring,a ring.Du.
Dimin.
kronie,an old sheep. See Carrion.
kring,a circle ; allied to Crinkle, Crank
Crony, an old chum. (Gk.?) Pepys
has chrony (N. E. D.").
(i),and Cringe.
Perhaps for Gk.
friend
y\.Y.crittkled
Crinkle.
a
trended, XpovLos,
(E.)
'long-lasting' ; as itarose
form of the causal
twisted. A frequent,
in collegeslang(Skinner).Butler rimes
in the A.S.
cronies with monies.
deriv. oi crink,which
occurs
str. vb. crijtcan,
to sink in a heap ; see
Crook, a hook, bend. (Scand.) M. E.
^wed.
ci'ok
Cringe.
(Ancren Riwle). Icel. "^r^/"r,
Crinoline, a lady'sstiffskirt. (F." krok, Dan. krog,hook, bend, angle.
(2) crinoCrop. (E.) A. S. cropp,the top of a
L.) Y. crinoline,(i)hair-cloth,

Low

G.

"

"

I 20

CRUMPET

CROUP

plant,the craw of a bird ; orig.a bunch.


[Hence the verb to crop, to cut off the

bird.

(2),a

crow

(E.)

A. S. crdwf
kraai,G.
with a crowlike

(seeabove).+0. S. krdia, Du.

harvest. ]4-T^"- ki'dhe. Der.


croiv-bar,bar
beak.
crop ; Icel. kroppr,
Crowd
hunch ; Swed.
(i),to push,throng.(E.) A. S.
a
kropp,Dan. krop, trunk
Cf. W. cropa, Gael, and Ir. *ctildan
of the body.
pt. t. cread),to
tpr. s. crydej),
whence
is
bird's
to
a
otit
crowd,
croda,
push
gecrod,
[To crop
;
sgroban,
crop.
and

tops ;

hence

crop, a

krop,G. kropf,bird's

(2),hinder part of

croup

Teut. ")

"

throng.+ M. Du. krxiydcn,kruyeji,Du.


(F. kruien, to push a Ion;:; E. Fries, kroden^

out.]

bunch

horse.

kriidett.
orig.protuberance.

croupe, crupper;

"Icel.

kroppr,a

Teut. type *kr2/dan-,


str. vb.
fiddle.
M.
a
(W.)
(2),

(above). Crowd

hunch

E.

crwth, a trunk,belly,
crowd,
(F. Teut.) F. cronpierecroude.^\N
crupper.
f
iddle
O.
Irish
Gael,
F.
Y
F.
violin,
crtiit,
h
arp
;
(O.
crope,
;
cropiere).
croupe
(O.
"

"

crot, harp.

above;.
N.

French
the

stick ;

Crown.

(F." LateL.) From


croquet, a little hook, bent

Croq,uet,a

game.

same

crocket.

Y.

as

coroune

Crosier.

(F.

LateL.)

"

Formed, with

M. E. croce, in the

same

M.Y.
'

of

Gk.

croce7',

Gk.

;' Cot

"

"

with ]\L E.

of

ace.

cruc-eifi,

Irish

O.

crux,

suffix -dlis.

with

crucify. (F." L.) O.Y.crucifier.'-'


ci-ucifigere

L.

cross.

L.

"

dative of crux;
Icel. criici,
L.

cros.-^

Fix.

to fix; see
figere,
-ion.
crucifix,

Der.

Crucible.
bolu77i,
(i)a

Der.

cross.

Cf.

"

"

L. *crucificdre,
for
to fix on
(pp. crticijixus),

O. F. crois,
a cross.
(L.) M. E. cros\ from

Cross.
kross, adopted from

curved.

L. curutis, bent.
'
like
cross(F. L. ) F. crucial,
L. cruci-,
decl. stem oi crziXy

croisier,Late

coinagefrom

cross

bent,

Kopwvus,

Kvpros,

bishop's Crucial.

Cot. ; mod.
crosier,'
O.Y.
F. crosse ; Late L. crocia.
c?-oc, a
hook ; see
Crochet.
^ Not from cross,

staff.' O. F. croce, 'a

though earlyconfused

"

"

suffix -er, from

sense

"

Gk.
(F.conronnc)."L. corona, a wreath.
a
end,
wreath,
tip; Kopu/vts,
Kopwvrj,
land."
gar-

See

Crochet.
croscr, "c.

(F. L. (}k.) M. E. corone,


(whence croui7e).'^O.Y. coroue

(L.)

Late

From

L. cruci-

(2) a vessel for


night-lamp,
The
adj. (L.) Orig. transverse, melting metals.
lamp may have
cross,
from having four nozzles
from the shape of a cross; hence,peevish.been so named
mon
coma
(F. Late L.) with wicks, forming a cross (still
Crotchet, in music.
Ital. pattern)
in
F. crochet, a small hook, a quaver
decl.
; as if from cruci-,

a-c7'oss.

"

'

'

music

Cot.

called

hooked

(The
was

quaver
See Crochet.

French.)

the

Crouch.

cken,
to

to

cu)u,

ace.

KpWojv,a

(F. LateL.)
stoop, bend.
crooked

yi.Y.

O. F.

"

"

"

Late

a.

cross

with

suflix -boln77t
Allied

Raw.

(F. L.)

cruel.

"

crudelis,cruel ;

crou-

O. F.

allied

crziel.

L.

"

criidus,

to

raw

crochir, (above\

(Godefroy).

crook ; also croc.


of croccus, a hook.

of crux,

-btdtwi,as in turibuhuii,a censer.


Crude.
raw.
(L.) L. C7'2idus,

to

reseml)les.
castor-berry
"

grow

crocke,a

stem

now

crochet in

Gk.

Croton, plant. (Gk.)


tick,which

mark

called

L.

O. F.

Cruet.
small

croc-

vessel

(F.-Teut.)

A. F.

(Godefroy)
;

dimin.

Low

cruie,crue, pot.

"

land
Lowdisease. {Y.^ From
Sc. croupe, crape, to croak, make
a
harsh noise.
Of imitative origin
ciated
asso;

Croup (I ),a

croak,and with North


crow,
E. roup, rope,to call,
from
shout hoarsely,
Icel. hropa,weak vb.,to cry out.
Cf. A. S.
with

"

O. H. G.

L. cruga,

k7^uog,G.

cruet,

of O. F.
a

krug, a

pitcher.
pitcher;

allied to Crock.

Cruise.
cru.se,
"

L.

with

cross

ace.

(Du.
the

"

"

kruiseti,to
kruis, a cross.

Du.

L.)

sea.

Du.

from
cr7"{C-eni,

crux,

cross

of
lengthening

z?.
Prov.

E. croor7i.
A. S.
to cry out ; G. rufen
Crumb.
(E.)
hropan ^pt.t. hreop),
final
b
is
t.
crii77ia.
+ Du.
(pt. rief).
excrescent.)
(The
of
G.
Dan.
a
a
see
Crop.
horse;
kruim,
kru7?ie,
kru77i7/ie,
Croup (2),
Cf. Ital. g7-u7tio, a clot. Der.
vb. (E.) A. S. crdwan
Crow
(pt.t. crumb.
(i),
G.
G. krdhen, crumb-le, verb ; cf. Du.
to crow.+Du.
kruif/ielen,
creozv),
kraaijen,
weak verbs ; and cf. O. Slav, grajati,
Lith. k7-iii7iel7t,
to crumble.
Of imitative origin,
to crow.
groti,
Crumpet, a kind of cake. (E.) Wyclif
I

CRUMPLE

CUFF

render
Lat. laga- Shetl. coob, to bringforth young, applied
cf. prov. E. crumpy
only to a seal ; Icel. kobbi,kopr,a young
For crimip-ed,
pp. of seal.

crofupidcake to
(Ex. xxix. 23);

has
nuin

cake, crisp cake.


M. E. crtcmpen,

curl up
Y. cube.^Y..
Cube.
(F.- L.-Gk.)
(whence E.
cubum.
Gk.
to
ace.
a
kriimpen,
kv^os, cube, die.
crumple).
knimpen,
crumple,curl up ; krumm, curved ; i)u. Cubeb, a spicy berry. (F." Span."
See below.
krommen, to crook,curve.
Arab.) F. cubebe,in Cotgrave. Span.
to

Cf. G.

"

"

Crumple,

obs. crump,
weak
grade of A. S.
and

Cramp

see

of
Frequentative

vb.
(E.)
curl up.
to

From

cubeba.
cubeb,

crump-,

^crimpan,str.

Crupper

bend

Crimp.

"

"

L.

is due

to

leg.

Crusade.

of crils,the

crilr-,stem

ault, coucual (Godefroy),a cuckold.


O. F. cucu
(F. coucou^,a cuckoo ; with
depreciatorysuffix -atilt,-al, from G.
"

confusion

-wald
of F. croisade
Late
L. crttcidta,cucu

sb.

Span, crnzada.
fem., a marking with

the

of

crucidre,to

L.

"

of crux,

Cruse,
W.

The

(F. ^w^Span." L.)

with

stem

Fries,

cross."

pp. f.

cross,

Swed.

krus, Dan.

L. L. L.

cruse.

Icel.

cruisir,croissir,to crack,break

with

gnash

to

teeth.
O.
Crust.
L.)
(F.
crusia, crust
croilte].'-\..
-

2.

v.

and

F. crouste
of bread.

cuckold

see

Shak.

920, "c.)

Cuckoo.

the

bird's cry.

Gk.
Skt.

(Span. Cucumber.
M.E.

Teut.
a
cj'uxir, Ital. crosciare). From
(see Diez),causal form
type ^kraustjan-

kriustan,

ii.

cuckoo

(F.) Y.coucow, from


Cf. L. cuculus, a cuckoo ;
KQKKv^, a cuckoo ; kokkv, its cry ;
kokila-,a cuckoo ; Irish cuach, W.
Cf. cock,cockatoo. And
Coo.
see

kruiis, a

kroes, cup, pot, crucible ;


mug ; Du.
M. H. G. kruse, G. krause, mug.
O. F.
Criish.
crush;
(F.-Teut.)

Goth,

cuckoo

cross.

(Diez, Gram.
(F. coucou^,a

346). Cf. O. F.
a
; secondly,
whose wife is unfaithfuL
man
(There are
endless allusions to the comparison between

cruci-,decl.

small pot. (E.) M. E.


kr'dss,E. Fries, kros. +

krus, a pot

from

(L.) L. cubitus,an elbow,


lengthfrom the elbow to the
Allied to L. cubdre,
end.
finger's

the

to

leg.
form

aromatic.

an

middle
lie down, recline ; see Covey.
Cuckold.
see
Crop.
{".',with G. suffix.)M.E.
;
(,L.) L. crurdlis,
belonging kokewold,kokeweld,cokold. O. F. cucu-

Crural.
the

kabdba{f),pi. kabdbah,

Cubit.

vb. ;

Crunch.
(E.) An imitative word.
Cf. prov. E. crinch,crunch,to crunch.

to

Arab.

"

iL.^ The

cucumer.

"

h.

cog.

/^is excrescent

cucutnerem,

of

ace.

a cucumber.
cuctimis,
Cud.
(E.) M. E. cude, code,quide.
A. S. cwidu, cweodu.. cudu.
Teut. type
Cf.
neut.
Skt.
resin ;
*k2vedwom,
jatu-,
(F.

the

also

Cf.

Icel.

kwdtsa, resin.

Orig.

sense,

'glutinoussubstance.'
to
a
(E ) Perhapsfor '^cottthle,
crust, stubborn, Cuddle.
be
from
to
familiar,
curt
fondle;
couth,
harshly
(ofpeople).
adj.
well known;
A. S. cU^, known,
Crutch.
(E.) M. E. crucche ; from familiar,
See Can(i). Cf.
A. S. crycc, a crutch,staff.+ Du. kruk, pp. oi ctinn an, to know.
Swed. krycka,Dan. krykke,G. krucke.
to fondle.
; cootie,
prov. E. couth, loving
F. crier.
Cry. (F. L.) M. E. crzen.
Cudgel. (E.) ^M.E. kuggel. A.S.
Gk.

Kpvos, frost ;
like
C7'ust-y,hard

"

"

(Fullerforms

Der.

Crystal.

see

in Ital. gridare.
Span.

occur

',

'

\..

Crypt. (L.-Gk.)
KpvTTir],

vault,hidden

of KpvTTTus, hidden.

Crystal.

"

L.

(F.
"

"

'

the

that

orig,fem.

to

Hpvmiiv,

Gk. )

hide.

Formerly

"

"

"

Gk.
KpvoTaivHv,to
frost.

Cub.

(E.?)

freeze.

Etym.

zc.?.?^;

to

cattle

also

cud-

crypta.'-GV.

Cue,

"

Gk.

unknown.

Kpvos,

Cf.
12

for

an

actor.

(L.?)

Sometimes

qu in the i6th cent., and


supposed to be for L. quando,when.
written

L. crystallum, Cuff
O. F. cristal.
Gk.
crystal.
KpvoTaXXos, ice, crystal." Swed.
cristal.

r^^/ and

administered
lost their cud.'
So

plant being
had

Care, ed.

wort.

cave

Gk.

Gregory'sPastoral

in

cycgel

Sweet, p. 297. Cf. Cog.


Cudweed.
(E.) From

gritar. Port, gritar.)"!^.quiritdre,to


shriek,cry, lament
(Brachet) ; lit. 'to
implorethe aid of the Quirites or Roman
citizens (Varro).

or

Cf.
(i),to strike. (Scand.?)
M.
Swed.
to
thrust,
kuffa,
push,
to cuff (Ihre).
kuffa,to strike,
Cuff (2), part of the sleeve. (L. ?)
M. E. cuffe,
a
coffe.Cf. Late A. S. ctiffie^

CUIRASS

CUPREOUS

(Leo); M.
cap
a
coif; see
ktiffe,
kuppe,
kind

H.

of

a dove.
kupfe, Culver. (E.) A. S. culfre,
[Very Culverin.
(F, L.) Corrupt form,

G.

Coif.

"

for *culev)-ifi. F. coulevrine,a culverin ;


Cuirass.
(F. Ital. L.) Formerly a pieceof ordnance named from its long
O.F.
O. F. cuirace (F. ctiirasse).Ital. shape, like a snake.
curace.
couleuvrin,
L.
from
Formed
from
adder.
L.
cuirass.
adder-like;
a
an
couleuvre,
corazza,

doubtful.]

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

coridceus,leathern." L. coriu??i,leather
(whenceF. cuir,leather).
Cuisses, pi.(F. L.) O.Y.acissaux,
for the thi^^hs.F. ctnsse, thigh.
armour

colubra,coluber,an

L. coxa,

Cot.
gutter,'

Culvert,

doubtful origin
;
added t, from O. F.

"

hip. Brugm.

609.

of

Culinary.

Cumber.

longing
bren.^O.Y.
L. cnlmdrms, bekitchen.
L.
cu/wa, usual form

the

to

"

to collect."
F. coillir,
cuillir,

See

to collect.
colligere,

(i) and

Coil

L.

"

Compare

cullis
Port-

"

en-cc/7ibrer.^Yatt

rubbish.

mer,

heap in the

Collect.

Cullender; see Colander.


Cullion, a wretch. (F. L.)
"

F.

L,

CuUis,

C". F.
A

cuwbrus,

and

Gk.

Cummin,

Kv^ivov.

"

coleys. Cumulate.
colys.
(F. L.) YoxTatxXy
to
cole'is,
couleis,later cotilis,a cu7tiuldre,
"

'

Cot.
cullis,'

substantival

of

use

=^\-0

Weh.

load.

plant. (L."
A.^. cu77tin,
xxiii. 23."

cumin.
ka77imd7i,
P^rom
L.
up.

vL.)

heap

put

en-cumber^from

"

strong broth, boiled

way.]

cumber

Der.

encombrer,to encumber,

Cumin,

coarse

Thus

Gk.
Heb.) V^.Y. comin.
(Ital.cogltone)."^'L.
cy77teit.^'L.
cu77Hnu77i, Matt,

conillon

coleus.

O. F.

'

trickle.

heap, a barrier ; of doubtful origin.


[Cf. L. cuinuhis, a heap; but also G.
kumvier, gritf,
oppression,
prov. G. ku7?i-

M. E.

select. (F.-L.)
Cull,to collect,

"

coulouere,a channel,

couler, to

cnlUn.^0.

strained.

L.)

"

(F. LateL.) M.'E. comcofubrer, to hinder (rare);

(L.)

kitchen.

word.

F.

(F.

"

servant; and de, gen. of dfa, God.

L.

"

drain.

perhapsformed, with

a Culdee, a
coldre,to strain,drain.
(C.) Irish":^z7^r/^,
and Cullis.
God.
Ir. ceile (O. Irish cele^,

Culdee.
servant

i. "

arched

an

Of

"

"

adder.

"

pp.

of

L.

cumulus,

cole'is,heap.

later coulis,'gliding,'
L. type ^coldCot.
Cuneate, wedge-shaped.
(L.)Formed,
with suftix 'ate,from L. cu7ie-us, a wedge.
ttcius ; from colare,
Cf. cullis.
Portto strain.
Allied to Coin.
Der. cimei-for77i
; i.e.
"

Culm,

(L.) L. culmus, a
calamus, a stalk. See

stem.

stalk ; allied to
Haulm.

Culminate.
culmindre,
stem

M. E. cu7i7ien, to know; hence, 'knowing.'


From
A. S. cujman, to know
(i).
; see Can
pp. of L.
L. ctdniin-, cunning, sb. (E.) M. E. cu7mi7ige.
to a top.
columen),a top. See From A. S. cu7inan, to know.
Perhaps
From

(L.)

to

come

of culmen

wedge-sha])ed.
Cunning, adj.(E.) Orig.pres. pt. of

"

suggestedby Icel. ku7i7ia7idi,


knowledge;
to know\
coupahle.from Icel. ku7t7ia,
O. F. culpable^
coupahle(F".coup- Cup. (L.) A. S. cuppe,a cup. Late L.
colpable,
L.
able).
culpdbilis,
blameworthy. L. cuppa, variant of L. cupa, a tub, in Late
blame.
also Du.
L.
t
o
L., a drinking-vessel
; whence
culpdre,
culpa,a fault.
culprit. (F. L.) In Dryden. Not Dan. kop,F. coupe,"c. See Coop.
word, but due to a fusion of
orig.a single
cupboard. {Y. a7id E.) M. E. ciipA. F. cul- (forculpable,
i.e. guilty)and
bo7-de,
orig.a side-board for holdingcups ;
Allit.
Morte
Arth.
e.
Poems, B. 1440;
prist or prest (i.
ready to prove it);
206.
clerk
of
the
that
the
was
crown
signifying
ready to prove the indictment (N. E. D.). Cupid, god of love. (L.) L. cupido,
desire. L. cupere, to desire. + Skt. ki4p,
Culter ; see Coulter.
excited.
F.
to become
Cultivate.
Der.
(L.) Late L. cult'ivdtus,
cupid-i-ty,
from L. ace. cupiditdte7)i.
pp. of cultivd7'e.to till. Late L. culttvus, cupidite,
Column.

Culpable. (F.-L.)

M. E.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

fitfor

tilling.L.
till. Brugm. i. "
culture.

cultus,pp.

"

culttlra;allied

to

dome; from
F.

culture.
L. cask, a
cult-us,pp. of colere, cask.

(F. L.)
-

Cupola.

of cole7-e,
to

121,
"

to till.

Ital. cupola, a
(Ital. L. ^
its shape. L. cupula,a small
"

little vault ; dimin.

Cupreous,
123

"

coppery.

of L. cupa, a

(L.) L. cupre-us,

CUR
of copper;

with

CURTAIL

suffix

-ous.

"

L,. ciiprwii, forced

spelling,
givinga wrong
1596, we find cormullion,with

copper.

clue.
the

In

same

The first syllable


Cur.
to be cur,
seems
(E.) M. E. kur-dogge(ab.1225% sense.
find Lowl. Sc. murgeon,
a whelp ; and
we
-f-M. Du, korre, a house-dog;cf. Swed.
dial, kurre, a dog. Named
from growling. to mock, to grumble ; miidgeon,a grimace.
Cf. prov. E, curr, to
G.
Currant.
(F.-L.-Gk.)
formerly
purr ; Low
Y .raisitisde Corinthe,
kiu'fen,to snarl (Lubben) ; Icel. kurra, raysyns ofcor aunt.
"

to

Swed.

grumble ;

murmur,

kurra,

to

'

;" Cot.

currants

rumble.

of

Curate
Curb.
bend.

M.

(F.
L.)
courber, to
-

F.

"

Corinth

is a

ruption
cor-

\L. Co7'inthus,Gk.

Cure.

see

currant
Flence,

E.

bend,

conrben,
l)OW.

Current,

to

M.

"

running,flowing. (F, L.)


"

currant, O. P\ curant, pres. pt. of

E.

bent.
L. cur(F. courir),to run.
curiidre,to bend ; from curuus,
curre, corre
crtid.
M.
E.
Prob.
Prob. for *curse7-e. Brugm.
Curd.
)
curd,
rere, to run.
(E.
from
A. S. crtid-,related
to
crudan, 1. "" 499, 516. Perhaps allied to Horse.
curricle.
to crowd, press together.Cf. Ir. gruth,
(L.) L. curriculum, a
Gael. ^^rz/M,
curds.
L. currere,
(Fick, ii. 119.)
also, a lightcar.
runnn:ig;
Cure.
(F. L.) 0.". cure."l.. alra, to run.
"

"

"

Tprim.Ttal. *koizd). Brugm.

attention

" 874.

Xot

curate.
benefice

with

L.

cf. curdtum

of

cure

curat

us,

Curry

i.

care.

Med.

(L.)

priest,curate
a

allied to

{\),to

and
Teut.)
earlier forms

dress

O. F.

leather.

correier

(F.-L.

(Godefroy),

conreder,conreer,

later

con-

curry, dress leather,


O.F. conrei,older form

beiiefichim,
royer, courroier,to

souls, "L.

alra^ orig.to prepare.

ttmreid,

cure.

"

preparation. A

gear,

hybrid

curious.
(F. L.) O. F. curios. L. word; made
conby prefixing
{ L,. con,
cnriosus,attentive. L. cura, attention.
cuvi) to O. F. rei, order (Ital.-redo in
Curfew.
A. F.
(F. L)
coeverfu,arredo, array). (3.This O. F. rei is of
Scand. origin
O.F. covrefeu
order (also
(F. couvrecovrefeu,curfeu;
; from Dan. j-ede,
in
Icel.
to
set
of
time
tackle.
cisely
Prea
fires,
reUji,
feti), fire-cover,
covering
order),
the same
for putting out
O. Y rei helpsto form E.
fires. O.F.
covrir, to
coy^x
^ To curry favour
; feu, fire {",Vj.
focum, ace. oifociis,
ar-ray ; see Array.
is a corruptionof M. E. to curry favel,to
Cover
hearth, fire)
and Focus.
; see
rub down
horse ; Favel was
Curious
a
a
common
; see Cure.
"

"

"

"

Curl,
of

(a.D.

sb. (E.)
7-); from

Not

i.^oo\

E. end

M.
M.

E.

ing
(with shift-

old

in A. S.

Fries.

E.

kruUa,

krull,krul, a curl. + Du. krul, a


curl, krullen, to curl ; Dan. krolle,a curl,
Swed.
krullig,curly; G. krolle, a curl,

for

name

horse.

Curry

crul, adj.,cuily

(2), a seasoned
'i'amil kari, sauce,

YxQVQ.

dish.

Tamil.)
(^

relish for rice

(Yule).
Curse.

(E.) K.'i. cursian,vtx\i; czirs,


sb., imprecation.Cf. O. Ir. ciirsaigim,
M. 11. G. kriille. Cf. Norw.
krull, a curl, 'I reprehend (\\indisch).Der. ac- cursed,
M. E. acorsien, to curse
to curl, from
; krtilla,
somethingrolled together
extremely,
the prefixabend or bow together. Allied to E. Fries. where
A. S. d-, very ; see
an

'

krilkn,

to

bend,

krellen,to turn;
twisted ;
to

wind,

suggestingTeut.
str. vb.

Curlew,
'a.

coo

base

bird.

(F.)

M.

so

that it is named

one

; said of

F.

cor

lieu,

its cry.

"

runner.

hoarder
where

of corn,

hence,

mudgin

is for

mudging, pres. pt. of miidge, to hoard,


also speltjnooch (M. E. f?iucheti),
to skulk ;
from O. F. viucer, to hide.
But this is a

ing
(L.^ Med. L. cwsivus, flowL.
handwriting. curs-us, pp.

to

"

See Current.

run.

Late

(L.)

cursory.

hasty.

L.

cttrsorius,

L. cursori-, decl. stem


of cursor,
L ctcrs-us
{a.ho\e).
"

Curt.
(L.) Y. curtus, short,cut short.
curtail.
(F. L.) It has nothingto

(E.?)Ongin unknown.
(Phil. do
speltcorn-niudgin

instance

Holland), as if
a
stingy fellow

from

(4).
Cursive.

of currere,

Cf. Ital. chiurlo, a curlew,


curluej' Cot.
chiurlare,to howl, Swed. kurla, to
;

A-

*krellan-,

(Franck,Koolman).

Curmudgeon.
In

G.
turn, wind ; Low
N.
Fries, krall, c'ose-

"

with

tail,but

is

an

alteration

of the

curtal,verb,to dock ; from the


adj. curtal, having a docked tail (All's
Well, ii. 3. 65). O.F.
courtault, later
courtaut, curtail,being curtailed ; Cot.
older form

"

'

'

The

same

as

Ital.

a
cortaldo, a curtail,
'

CYLINDER

DAGGER
O. F. "7-

(F.-L.-Gk.)

Cylinder.

Cf,

M. Du.

dabben,

pinch, fumble,

to

dabble ; G. tappen, to grope, prov. G.


indre, later cyiindre. 'L. cylindi'us.^QV.
blow.
See Dub,
a roller,
Tap.
/cuAti/tS^oy,
cylinder.Gk./c^uAtVSeti/,
tappe, fist,
to roll. Cf. O.Slav.
dabble.
to roll ; from /fuAtetj',
(E.) To keep on dabbing;
of dab. + M. Du.
kolo,a wheel.
dabbelen,to
(-/QEL.)
frequent,
W^.ciinhale.
dabble
L.
of
M,
Du. dabben
Gk.)
fumble,
(F.
; frequent,
Cymbal.
"

"

"

cimbale.

O. F.

"

"

L.

"

Gk.

cymbahcfu.

"

a cymbal ; named
Kv/xl3akov,
shape. Gk. kvuPtj,
"

from

its cuplike

cup. "{"Skt.
and see

kumbha-, a jar. Allied to Cup ;


Comb
(2\ (VKEUBH.)
Cynic, lit.dog-like.(L. Gk.)

(above).
Dab
(2), expert. (E.?) Prob. from
dab (i); perhaps influenced by dapperox
by adept.
Dab

fish.

(E.) M. E. dabbe.
dab, lightblow, a soft
See Dab
dabbed down.
Gk. KvuLKos, dog-like,
a Cynic. Gk.
mass
cus."
(1),dabble.
Dabble; see Dab (i).
KVV-, as in Kvv-6sy
gen. of kvojv, a dog (E.
Dab-chick.
Aound).
E.) Formerly dap-chick,
a m o o r hen
(L. Gk.) L. cynosura,
dop-ch ick C i A S dop ^;z /(^,
cynosure.
the stars in the tail of the constellation of lit. dippingduck ;'c/^//^//^",
to dipoften,
of these is the Polethe Lesser Bear ; one
immerse
See Dip.
a float.
; Du. dobber^
of attraction).Gk.
star (hence,
centre
Dace.
a
(F. O. Low G.)
Formerly
da7'ce. 0. F. dars,nom.
of the word
the Cynosure,tail of the Lesser
case
Kvvoaovpa,
Bear ; lit. dog'stail.' Gk. kvvos, gen. of also speltdart, meaning (i)a dart,(2)a
The
fish is also called a dart or
dace.
Kvcvu, a dog ; ovpa, a tail.
swift motion.
its
See Dare
from
tree.
a
a
(F.-L.-Gk.)
dare,
(i
(2),
",
Cypress
"

L.

(3),a

allied

cyjti-Prob.

to

"

"

'

"

"

"

'

"

Dart.
M. E. cipres. O, F. cypres,later cypres.
Gk. Kvirdpiacros,
L. cttpressus,
Dacoit, a robber. (Hind.)
cyparissiis.
ddkdit, a robber belongingto an
cypress-tree. Cf. Heb. gopher.
cloth of gold,a kind
a
ddkd, robbery by
gang ; from
Cypress (2"),
"

"

Hind,

"

of satin,

kind

of crape. (F.
explainsF. crespe by ' a
a

'

grave
Pals-

Wilson").
(,

gang

robbery.
dacoit-y,
the
(L, Gk.) L. dactylus,

Der,

Dactyl.
cypres for
has ' crespe, metrical foot marked
"

Gk. ha.Krv\o%,
a dactyl.
suggests a finger,
of cypress with
confusion
(E.) A child's word for father.'
ci-ape. Dad.
doubtful
but
of
is
So
also
W.
tad, Irish daid, Bret, tat, tad,
origin
;
cypress

neck

womans

L.)

"

armed

cipres,cobweb

Cotgrave
'

lawn

"

-"".

which

'

some

The
it

occurs

as

and
to

seems

of

as

man,
cipres,cypirsin Piers PlowIt
in
Sir
Degrevant.
cypi-us

have

been

importedfrom

father ; Gk.

rara,

Skt. tata, dad.

Dado.
(Ital. L.) Formerly used of
the isle the die, or square part in the middle of the
"

of
pedestal

Cyprus.

column

afterwards

applied

pouch (in animals) containing to the part of an apartment between the


morbid
matter.
Gk.)
(L.
Formerly plinth and the impost moulding. Ital.
written cystis. Late L. cystis. Gk. "i'o-Tis, dado, a die, cube, pedestal.(Cf. Prov.
a bag, pouch.
dat-z,a die.) Folk-L. datum, assumed to
a die
Czar, the emperor of Russia. (Russ. mean
; lit. a thinggiven,a lot,'
of pp. of dare, to give.
Teut.
L. datum, neut.
a
L.) Russ. tsare (with e mute
See Die
(2),
king. O. Slav, cesari. Goth, kaisar.

Cyst,

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

Ccesar.
^ This has
Matt,
but
xiii. 24
see
L.

been
in

Daffodil.

disputed;

(F,-L.-Gk.)

The

^ is

Schleicher,later addition ; perhaps from M. F. Jieur


translated
'daffodil-flower.'
IndogermanischeChrestomathie, p. 275, d'affrodille,
O.Slav, cesarstvo
F. asfor Russ.
where
M. E. affodille
occurs
; Prompt. Parv.-M.
'
or
Der.
czarowitz, phodile,also affrodille,
th'affodill,
tsarstvo, kingdom ; "c.
tsarevich\czar's son

from

Russ.

from

Russ. tsaritsa,empress;
G.
Ital. sufhx -ina, from

with

flower;' Cot.
czaritsa,asphodill
kind
Gk.
a
czar-ina,
d(T"/)65"Aos,

"

L.
of

asphodelus."
phodel.
lily.See As-

fem. sufhx
foolish ; the same
Deft.
as
(F.) M. E. daggere; allied to
daggen, to pierce. F. dague, a dagger;
of unknown
origin(notCeltic). Cf. Ital.

Daft,

-in.

Dagger.

"

Dab
dabben

(i), to strike gently.(E.) M. E.


; also

dabbe,a

blow.

Not

in A. S.

Span, daga, Port, adaga, dagger. The


26

DAGGLE
Port, form

suggests

ddkhdh, to

cf. Heb.

Daggle,

to

DANDELION
L. dalmalica
origin
; matia.) F. dal mat ique.
to
{iiestis)
; fern, of Dalmaticus,belonging

Eastern

an

"

strike.

moisten,

with

wet

dew

Dalmatia.

or

Dam

verb from
i^Scand.)Frequentative
dew.
Icel.dogg(gen.daggar),
Swed. dag!^,
See Dew.
Cf. Icel. doggva,to bedew.

(i),a mound, bank againstwater.


S. datum, only in the derived
(E.)
verb for-demman, to dam
up ; O. Fries.

spray.

dam

Gk.)

and

(F.

Daguerreotype.
Formed

A.

F.

by adding-^-///^to

Dagnerre,
(A.D. 1838).
after Dahl,

North.

Icel.

Fries,

dafnmr,

dam. -f-D".
dam,
dam, Swed. da?nm,
damtn, a dam, dike.

Dan.

M. H. G. tarn, G.
personal
name, the inventor
Cf. G oih. faiirda?nmjan,
to dam
(Swed.) Named
up.
botanist (A.D, 1791).
Dam. {2),a mother, appliedto animals.
a Swedish
Dainty, a delicacy.(F. L.) M. E. (F L.) The same word as Dame.
deintee,orig. a sb.,a pleasantthing; cf. Damage.
(F." L.) ls\.Y,. damage.-^
A. F. damage (F. dommagc')
A. F.
; cf. Prov.
dcyntee^greediness(Bozon).
O. F. daiiiiie \\..
e. daintU),
answering to Late L. '^'damndtida?nnatje,
agreeableness.
find Late L. damndticus,
harm ; we
L. ace.
Dignity.
cum,
digiiiidtcm
; see
the
the
condemned
mines.
L. damndtus,
daintie
The
is
true
to
O.
F.
%
popular
O. F. form ; digniteit
is a pedanticform ; pp. of damndre
Damn.
; see
cf. O. F. dain, old spellingof digue, Dam.ask.
^Ital. Syria.) M.E. "/^?a

Dahlia.

"

"

"

"

"

"

maske, cloth

worth)'.

Dairy. (Scand.)

M.

E.

of Damascus.

Ital.damasco.

"

Heb.

mascus
dmeseq,damask, Dammeseq, Dafor a deye,i.e. a mi Ik-woman,
farmroom
(Gen. xiv. 15), Der. dainaskO. Norw.
servant.
to inlaywith gold {".
deigja,Swed. deja,a rose ; damask-ine,
also the breadwho was
maid, dairy-maid,
damasquiner,from damasqu-in,adj.).
is kneader of dough.' Dame.
sense
maker; the orig.
fF.-L.) "^l.Y..dame.-O.Y
Teut. type "^daig-Jon-,
sb. f.,as if from
damey a lady. L. domina; fem. of dofui(Goth.)deigan (pt.t. daig),to mould ; nus, a lord. See Don (2).
whence
also Goth, daigs,
Icel. deig,
Swed.
to condemn.
Damn,
(F. L.) M. E.
% The cognate damnen, dampnen. F. damner.-^l^. damdeg,dough ; see Dough.
borrowed
A. S. ddge occurs
or
once
only; nd}'e,to condemn, fine. L. damnum, loss,
see
fine,
Thorpe,D?pl. p. 64T.
penalty. Brug.i. " 762.
(E.) Cf. M. E. da?npen,to
Dais, a raised floor in a hall. (F. L.
Damp.
Now
used
of
the
raised
E.
Fries, damp, vapour.-|-Du.
Gk.)
platform suffocate;
which
the high table in a hall stands. damp, vapour,
steam
on
; Dan.
damp, G.
it was
the table itself
Swed.
but
dust.
From
was
damb,
Properly,
dampf,
\
vapour ;
also used of a canopy over
of state, the 2nd grade of Teut.
a seat
'^dempan-,
pt. t.
M. E. deis,
or of the seat of state.
deys.
'^damp,pp. '^dumpano-yas in M. H. G.
A. F. deis,O. F. dois,a high table (Supp. ditnpfen,
timpfen,str. vb., to reek ; of.
to Godefroy). L. discum, ace.
of discus, Swed. dial, dimba, str. vb.,to reek.
See
table.
i
n
Late
L.
Gk.
a quoit,
a
Dumps.
platter;
disc. See Disc.
a quoit,
Dam.sel.
SiaKos,
(F. L ) M. E. damosel.
fem. oi dameisel,a
Daisy. (E.) M. E. dayesye(4 syllables).O.F". dameisele,a girl,
A. S. dceges
Late L. domiman,
squire,
eage, eye of day, i.e. I young
page.
the sun, which it resembles.
cdlus, a page, short for *dominicellus,
double dimin. of dominus, a lord. (Pages
Dale, a valley.(E.) M. E. dale.A. S. dcel (pi.
often of high birth.)
Icel.
Dan.
were
dalr,
-fdal-ti).
Swed. dal,a dale: Du. dal\ Goth,
dal \
Dam.SOn.
i,L. Syria.) yi.Y.. da?7ia'
G. thal\ also O. Slav, dolic (Russ.
1.. Damascenum
{prdnum), plum
doV); scene.

deyerye,a

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

cf. Gk. QoKos,a vault.

Dally,

to

Der.

dell.
E.
O. F.

"

cf

Bavarian

children

chat,pass the time in


(Bozon). Of Teut. origin;
dalen,to spenk and act as

converse,

lightconverse
1

dahlen,to

Schmeller)
;

mod.

G.

Dance.

M.

dalien, to play,trifle. A. F. and


to
dalier,

Dalmatic,

(F.-O.

O. F. danser.

(vulgar)at-thinsan,to

draw

Dandelion,
vestment.

(F.

"

Dal-

V..E.

daun-

O. H. G. danson, to
cen.
round
in
a
dance)."
drag along (as
O. H. G. dans, 2nd grade of dinsen, to
Cf. Goth.
pull,draw ; allied to L. Thin.
"

trifle.
a

See Damask.
H. G.)

of Damascus.

trifle. (F.-Teut.)

dent de

127

"

towards
flower.

lion,tooth of

one.

(F.-L.)

lion ; named

F.

from

DASTARD

DANDLE

jagged

the

leaves.

"

L.

deits, tooth; de, prep.;

dent-em,
leonem,

ace.
ace.

of

dape, a pool,a

of

idea of

'

whence

splotch
;

wet
'

splash or

'

the

blot.'

Dare
(I),to venture,
(E.) W.Y.. dar,
durste. A. S. ic dearr,
(E.) Prob. of imitative origin
; I dare ; pt.t. dorste,
of. M. F. dodiner, dodeiine?','to rock, I dare ; he dearr, he dare ; pt. t. dorste ;
dandle, lull,'Cot. ; M. Ital. da7idola7-e,infin. *dnrra)i. + Goth, ga-dars,I dare,
dondolare, to dandle or play the baby,' -daursta,I durst,infin.-daursan ; O. H. G.
Also Gk. QapFlorio; dandola, dondola,a toy. Godetar, I dare, infin. turran.
froy givesM. F. dandiner, to balance or aeiv, to be bold,Opaavs,bold ; Skt. drsk,
to dare.
Brugm. i. " 502.
(yDHERS.)
sway the body. Cf. E. Fries, dindannen,
dace.
O. Low
side
side.
G.)
a
from
to
walk
Dare
(F.
to
(2),
unsteadily,
sway

leo,lion.
Dandle.

'

"

scurf

Dandrilf,
also

Formerly

head.

the

on

dandruffe.Of

(E.)

unknown

A new
form, made by takingda7'ce (old
and
form of dace)as a pi.form ( dars),
dare.
thence making a singulardar,now
=

dander,
; but cf. prov. K.dait, scurf,
origin
a
slightscurf on the skin ; and prov. E.
hurf,tijf,scurf,from Icel. hriifa, scab.
% The W. niarzu-dojt, dandnff,is from
niaj'W, dead,and ton, skin.
Dandy, a beau (E.?). Originunknown.
a

See Dace.

Dark.
with

(E.)
broken

M.E.

derk.

vowel

A.S.deorc,
older

for

*derc.

to hide (answerO. H. G. tarc/ianjaft,


ing
toW.
Germ.
*darkn-jan)is from the
Cf.
of the same
base.
2nd grade *dark
also O. Sax. der-ni,A. S. derne,O. H. G.

The

dandy, gay, fine. Note M. Uan.


dajtde,brave, excellent. Dandy is also a
of Andrew.
form
tar-ni,secret,dark ; see Tarnish.
[F. dajidin, a meaCot., is unsuitable.]
cock,noddy, ninny,'
darkling, in the dark. (E.) Formed
M. E.
as
\njlat-ling,
Danger. (F." L.) M. E. daungere, with adv. suffix -ling,
Prov.

E.

'

O. F. dangler
to harm.
esp. power
also dongier(XIII cent.),
(F.dajiger),

power,

"

A.
hedling(headlong),

S.

wards.
backb"zc-ling,

authoiity.Darling. (E.) M. E. derling. A. S.


irresponsible
A. S. deor-e (in
Late L. type *domniddeorling,a favourite.
deor-),dear; with double dimin.
rium, ^dominidrinm, not found, but regularly comp.
L. dom{i)niiijn,
suffix -l-ing. See Dear.
from Late
formed

absolute
This

power,

to

answers

"

Prob. from
cent.
Darn.
(E.) XVII
E. dernett,to conceal,from derne,adj.,
Dangle, to swing about. (Scand.)secret, hidden; cf. prov. E. dern, darn,
A. S. derne,
Dan. dangle,Swed. dial, dangla,to swing to hide, to stop up a hole.
and Icel. dmgla, Dan.
about ; cf. Swed.
dyrne, secret, hidden. + O. Sax. derni,

authority. Late
power,
do minus, a lord.
"

L.

domnus,

L.

M.

"

dingle, to
forms

from

O. li. G. tarni,secret.
swing about ; frequentative
Darnel.
(E.) M.
ding (pt.t. dang), to throw

Sei Ding.
Dank, moist. (Scand.) M. E. dank,
wet
(esp.with ref. to dew). Swed. dial.
dank, marshy ground ; Icel. dijkk (stem
dial, ddnka,
a pool. Cf. Swed.
*dajikwd-),

about.

"

From
in

an

O. F.

See Dark.
E.

darnel, dernel.

word,
only preserved
(Rouchi). darnelle, darnel

Walloon

now

but cf.
(Hecart\ Hitherto unexplained;
darnel
or
dar-,ns in dar-repe.
repe.,
(Lowl. Sc. dornel); and O F. nielle,nelle

Swed.

darnel (Godefroy).The
(Late L. nigella^,
dial,
Swed.
dara
to
means
dtinkel,
dynka,
stupefy(as with
;
moist, Swed. dial, dunkelhet, moisture ; lolinm temulentti77i\ ; cf. Dan. daare, a
drunken
North.
PI danker,a dark cloud ; Swed.
fool ; Walloon
dau7-nise,
da7'nise,
dial, and
M. Dan.
dunken, musty; G. (Grandgagnage).
dark.
Dart.
diinkel,
(F. O. Low G.) M. E. dart.
valiant
O.
F.
dart
(F. dard). Of Teut. origin
; cf.
)
;
to

Dan. dii^X.ddnke,
dynke^Norw.
moisten,
to

wet

also

Dan.

Dapper.

hence

(Dn

Orig.good,

brave, fine,spruce.

H.G.
dapper,brave.-J-O.
G. tapper,
brave
valiant,
good. Brugm. i. " 563.

XV

cent.

"

Du.

taphar,weighty,
; Russ. dobrui,

a dagger,
a
dart,Swed. dai't,
da7ra6r, a dart, O. H. G. tai't,a

A. S. darc^.
Icel.
dart.

G.
E. ddsche7i. Cf. Low
Dan.
thrash
;
(Kerghaus)
(Scand.)daschen,
Dapple, a spot on an
Icel. depill,
a spot, dot ; a
dog with spots daske,to slap,Swed. daska, to beat ; we
the eyes is also called depill.The
over
speakof water dasliingagainstrocks.
'
from Norweg.
Dastard.
^Scand.; with F. siiffix.)
orig.sense is a littlepool,'

Dash.

animal.

(E.) M.
to

28

DATE

DEAF

M. E. dastard \ where
dimin.
tdhele (now G. dohle),a. daw ;
-ard is a F. suffix,
in duli-ard,
whence
Vast appears
Ital. tacco/a,
Der.
a daw
sltigg-ard.
(Florio).
to be for dazed; cf. Icel. dastr,exhausted,
jack-daiv
of breath ; da sad r.
to be out
Dawk, transportby relaysof men and
pp. of dcrsa,
as

pp. of dasask^ to be horses. (Hindi.) Hindi


Cf. Icel. dasi^ a lazy
"c. (Yule).

exhausted,weary,
Daze.

see

weary;

fellow,M.

port,
ddk, post,trans-

fool (whence
a
Dawn
dasaert,
; see Day.
a
dullard, Day. (E.) M.M. day,dai,dcei. A. S.
(i.e.
daz^e)ard),
G. ddskopp,a blockhead
in N. E. D.) ; Low
Dan. Swed. dag.Icel.
dceg,
pi.dagas.'^Y)\x.
The
G.
Goth.
is
sense
(Berghaus)
gard.'dagr, tag,
slugorig.
dags. Allied to Lith.
hot
to burn.
autumn
time,
dagaSj
; degti^
Date
(i\ a given pointof time. (F." Teut. type *dagoz; Idg. type *dhoghos;
M.E.

Du.

das-art

'

^\.Y..date.

Y date, date.
Late L.
from -^'DHEGH, to bum;
Skt. dah, to
date ; L. data,neut. pi.of datiis,burn, ni-ddgha-,
not season.
Day is the
given,dated. L. dai'e,to give.+Gk. St- hot, brighttime ; as opposed to night.
I give; 3otoj, given ; Skt. daddmi, % In no way allied to L. dies.
8co/it,
I give; Russ. date, to give. (-y^DO.)
dawn, vb. (Scand.) M..Y.. dawnen;

T.)

"

"

data,a

"

from the older sb. daw7iing. ^wed. Dan.


palm. (F. L."
dagning,a dawning,dawn ; as if from a
Gk.
M.E.
date.
O. F. date (F. datte) verb *dag-?ia,
to become
day,from Swed.
also datete,
date.
L. dactylum,ace. of Dan.
We
also find M. E.
a
2.
dag, day.
dawn
also
from
S. dagian,to
A.
to
a
a
dactylus.-'G^.
bo.KTvXos, linger;
daiven,
;
date (somewhat like a finger).But it is become
A. S. dag-,base of
day, dawn.
probablethat baKTv\os,a date, was a word
day. (Ci.fawn,vb.)
dceg,
of Semitic origin,
assimilated to the word
Daywoman,
dairy-woman. (Scand.
for finger.'
Cf. Aramaic
diqld.a palm- and ".) In Shak. L. L. L. i. 2. 137.
The addition of W07}ian
tree (^seeGen. x. 27); Arab, daqal.
is needless. Day
M. E. deye. O. Norw.
O. F.
Daub.
a maid
(F. L.) M. E. dauben.
deigja,
;
danher. to plaster
older
; answering to an
esp. a dairymaid; see Dairy.
form "^dalber. L. dealbdre,to whiten, Daze.
to stupefy.
(Scand.)M. E. ^aj-^;?,
Swed. dasa,to lie idle ; Icel. dasask,
to
to
plaster.L. de, down, very ; albdi-e,
Cf. be wearied,lit. to daze oneself,
where -sk
whiten,from albus,white; see Alb.
is the reflexive suffix ; dasi,a lazyman
to plaster.
^\)a.v\.
Jaibegar{^*dealbicdre),
;
Der.
be-daub.
dasinn,lazy;Dan. dial, dase, to be idle ;
Low
G. ddsen,dosen,to be listless
dohDaughter. (E.^ M. E. doghter,
; in ''n
ter.
A. S. dohtor.-^Yiw.
dochter,Dan. dat- das' sein,to be in a daze' (Berghaus).
Svved. dotter,Icel. dottir,
Goth.
ter,dotter,
dazzle, to confuse. (Scand.) From
G.
tochier
suffix -le. Der.
Russ.
Lith.
dazzle.
bedaiihtar,
daze; with frequent,
;
doche,
Pers. dukhtar, Skt.
dukte, Gk. Ov-yaTr^p,
dtihitr. Orig.sense
doubtful.
De- {,1'),
'L^) L. de^
prefix.(L.; orY.
daunten."
Daunt.
down, away, trom, verv; hence sometimes
(F. L.) M.E.

Brugm.
Date

167,168.

i. ""

(2).fruit of

"

the

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

'

"

"

O. F. danter; also donter.^'L. doJ7iitdre, F. de-,de-,O. F. de-.


of donidre,
He- {2),prefix.(F.-L.)
to
tame, subdue ; frequent,
des- ; fiom L. dis- ; see Dis-.
tame
Tame.
see
;

F.

to

Dauphin.

L.

^^-,O.

F.

'L.
deken.
M. E.
Gk.)
dauphin, Deacon.
title of the A. S. diacon.
l^.didco/ius. ^Gk.
diaKovos^
eldest son of the king of France,who took a servant,a deacon.
Cf. ey-Kovioj, I am
it from the provinceof Daiiphiny (a.d. quick,(j-Kouis.
a maid-servant.
Dead.
A. S. dead,
1349','" ^^^ the provincehad formerlyhad
(E.) M. E. deed
several lords named
Du.
Swed.
Dan.
dbd,
dead.+
dood,
Dauphin.
do'd,
Teut. type
Davit, a support for ship's boats. Icel. daudr, Goth, dauths.
a

dolphin;

(F.
-

see

"

Gk.)

Dolphin.

F.

"

'

(Heb.V) Formerlyspelt
David, as
(a.d.1626). Also
proper name

daviot

in A.

David.

Daw.
the bird

F., a

dimin.

of O. F.

if from
called

"^dau-boz,
orig.a pp. with Idg. suffix -to(Teut. -do- from the vb. ^dau-jan-(Icel.

Davi, deyjd),to
Deaf.

die.

See Die

(i).

vE.)

"M.Y.deef. A.S. dea/.-^


the noise made
(E.^ From
by Du. dooj,Dan. dov, Swed. do/,Icel. datifr,
H. G. tdha,a daw ; |Goth, daubs G. taiib. Orig. obfuscated ;
; cf. ca-M.-if-O.
'

129

'

DEAL
Gk.

DECAGON

allied

to

sunx"r.

blind.
rtv"-.\."s.

Deal

,i\

Vl^HEUBH."

share.

c^c
darkness, small building,

smoke,

tik^j,

M. E. flSrri.

,li.

; of Teut.

Du. cmJ, Dan. duS.


share. "4"
dfJ, Goth, liaus. G. f/sa'I. Cf.

A. S. j'?/.a

Debenture,

debt.

Sw^.
O. Slav. Ji-Ju,
a part.

share
t^above\+ Du. diden^ D.an. dM,
G.
Swe^i. i^/j, Icel. dcita, Goth, dailjan,
ih^iJm ; cf. the resj"ective
sbs. above'.
Du.^-"7.
Deal
3\ a thiu board.

'

"

due.' because

they are

Debilitate,

or

ords d^bcn-

pi. pass,

of

of

L.

From

v'^.)

pp.

F.
of

bof:.:!'^:

A. F.

aire. lit.of

"

'

"

for dc bon
dt'bonaire
L.
stock.
^i",
of;don-us,
good
and O. F. tM/r.
place,stock, race,

over

"

L. d^-em. ten.
I good;
of
word
uncennin
Dear.
(E." M. E. dire. A. S. d?ore. a
origin. Diez
and Swed. dyr, suggests that
it represents LaL
+Dan.
acodyre,dear, precious.
field.
dear, costly,Icel. i/Prr, dear, precious;a^rum.
O. Sax
i/Z-i
r; ; G. tht-tur.
i Debonch.
(F." L.^ F. dcboucJur, to
dearth., scarcity.^E.) M. E. dfrthf^ uncork, to emerge from; hence, to march

monks,

ten

dean.

soldiers

ten

L. debiirs,weak.
dtbih'tjff.to we.iken.
L. uv, -iw ay, not ; -bi.'/s,
prob. allied to
Skt. baJa~,strength
; cf. dur-buSa(Jot
LiMS-baJa-^,feeble. Brugm. i. " 55,^
Debonair.
d^bomre, devF." M.E.

(Du.N

pl.ink.+G.dUlt\ see Thill.


Dean.
^F.-L.) M. E. ^"a-0.
ificn ;F. tiyrw^. L. deianum,
ace.
over

of

acknowledgment

L. dl'bf"iur, lit.

"

set

see

i^L.^ Formerly dehcftinr (Eacon\

Brugm.i." 379 (^2^.such receiptsbegan with the


fnjhi ^Webster'': pr.
deal ^i^, to divide, distribute. (E. iur
M. E. j"/^w,
A.S. df/jK.-A.S.
dJL a d?be^, I owe
; see Debt.

,.v.-J":/.c,
one

origm ;

Balk.

"

deamess

hence, dearth.

formed

but

Not

in A. S.

h^aJ-th,toarm-tk, "c-+

as

Icel. jT'r5.value, from dy'rr(above'^.


; O.
value, from
Sax. diunxha
dsuri, dear,
O. H. G.

precious
:

fiurida, from

of

out

narrow

"L.

opening,from

i Debris,

iiuri I Teut.^
'

pass,

dis-^, away

F.

briJiVr,to

O.Y
dtsF. d^ \
and
bciuht, mouth,
=

"

L. btucj. mouth.

broken

pieces. ^F.

"

\^.brisar)^

b:ise bv

O. F.
down

d-cbjJTf,to

M.E.

O. F. dettg

"

habere,

to

have.

F.

debi-or,

Der.

O. F. ddeiir, L.

\ M. E. det-tur,from
tf^,dibit ore m.

L.

^butin M.

"

jaway

d^bafen.-.

debare. ar^ue.

of
spelling

"

L. d^. down.
pretixing

Debate.' ,F.-L.

E. dette.

a
sum
due;
misspelto^-^'/^V L. d^bt'ta,
to
fern, of d^bitus. owed, pp. of d^bc~re,
D^bh-c^de-hibere
i.e. to
owe.
Plautus),
L. dc-. do\Mi,
I have
away, have on loan.

"

from

di-

de-,

"

'

d"/f, M.

a"d

"

E." lsi.^.d"eth. A.S.deaS.


from L. dF, down ; and brisur
Death.
Dan. Swed.ii i/.Goth, dauihus, to break ; see Bruise.
+Du. d.\"d,
G. tod; cf. Icel. dau^i.
Teui. type *daiiA bad
Debt.
,F.-L.)
\vith Idg. suffix -f"-. Tent.
9u:^ formed
from
base *dau- : see Dead.
ihe
-du-,
Debar
,F.^ F. debarrcr: O. F. ^rFrom
barre^.
De- ^2' and Bar,
Formed
Debase.
,L..and F. L.'

L.

di-brL\ fragments.
O. F.
break
O.
F.
to
pieces.

ace.

See Batr-er (i\


A first
; bjxrc-n\ to beat.
Debut
^F.-L. a"^fO.H.G."
in a play. F. dSut. a first
Debancb.
^F.-L. ^w^Teut.) O. F. appearance
dcsbauchar, ^F. dJbaucher), to debosh, stroke,firstcast or throw at dice, firstplay
.

"

'

'

in the game of bowls : verbal sb. oidi-buter,


M. F. d"sbuter, to put from the mark he
to
orig.sense was
from
aimed
it
is
a
at
(atbowls),Cot. ; hence,to come
workshop' ;
certainly
away
derived from the O. F. prefix
From
d^s- ' L. dis-^
in first,be entitled to lead.
L,
O. F. batuhi. explainedby dis-,from and F. but, mark.
and
See Butt (i\
away,
mar,

seduce, mislead

Cot.

that the

Diez

'

supposes
entice

'

'

Roquefon as
grave
m

as

*'

little house.' and


of stones
course

"

by

or

Decade.

Cot-

building.'Cf. M. F. embaucktr, to use


employ,esbaucher, to rough-

in business,
hew, frame.

onlyin the
Supp. adds

Godefroy gives
sense

of '
detach

desbaucfur

rough-hew.'but

cF.

decade.' Cot.

bricks

"

i.e.

L.
an

"

Gk.^i

of de^\is.
L. de'sad-em,
ace
of SfKos, a company

ace.

Sexa, ten

see

decagon.

his

F. decade,

aggregate of
"

Gk.

of

ten.

ten.

-a
"

beaada,
"

Gk.

Ten.

Gk.''

Named

from

its ten

from one's service, angles. Gk. Se/ra. ten;


-)aT-ta, a comer,
The
allied to 7^11'. knee ; see Knee.
distract.'
turn
aside,
orig.se^se of ar.gie.
bauchi was
(ivb^Ka,eleven); dodecaprob. 'balk.' i.e. beam, hence Der. h^nJ^ca-gcn
in buiidine. "vn \h(uh"Ko^
frame of a building,course
twelve).
"

"

"

30

DECAHEDRON

decahedron.
ten

ii'i^i vr

DECOLLATION
Xanaed from its decem.

Gk.;

osjies

Gi-r.3""a.

"

ten

!?-;",

from "C'''Amu
for l^^ofuu
bas^,lit. .="at,'

I si' ;

;-ee

^Gk.

do-deca-hedron

Der,

Sit.

L
cf. ii-enntzi

decalogue.
"l..

"

L.

oi

zee.
diialcgum,

man

to
ten
h-e'.'.nihn::;

L-

"

t.n;

aic-crn,

year*.
years ;

*en

annuz,

logue, 1 ^2.r.
Y. deca-

Gk-"

"

ar.d uir,

d-i-iiKK-'-i:.fji

ro-

'F.

Ten^

see
.

Decennial,

'

ten

Virile

::ee

Decent.

d^calogu:.^

F.-L.

O. F. "fe^w/.

L.

"

decentem.
of pres. pt. of decere,to
Gk. OiKaXoy(/i,the ten commandment*."
ace
befit; cf. decus. honour.
Gk, 5"iea,ten ; A^oi, a speech,saying; oecome,

Deception.

F.

L.

O. f

deception.
d"upturnem.^\..
deceptus,
pp.
of decipere,
^Gk.
fjK. ce.-ci. frn ; "TvkXa07i,
a syllable.
Deceive.
to deceive ; see
Y.
Der.
Decide.
L., ". decider. L. dehke'iUJUca.yllabic
(Gk. cro""a, ele^'en
F.
cecide.
L.
L.y Y.ddca- cidere. pp. decisus,to cut ofr'^
Decadence, "^^ecay.

see

Logic.

decasyllabic, ha\Tng

syllables.

ten

"

"

a.,

"

"

..

"

"

Me'^:. L. decadentia.

deny.e.
"

L,

"

^, down;

cis-ion

ccukntia,a failing
; see Cadence.

Decamp,

depart. iF

to

L, "/if-

L.;

"

orig.to remove
campir: O. F. dtzcamper,
L.
and campus, a
"/z';-,
a
away:
carr;p
See Defield, iater, a camp.
,2^ and

from

ccBdere. to

pp.

cut,

Der.

d^-

dectzus,.

off. fL.; L. /"3fDecidnons,


falling
with siffix -"?"x.
ciiu-u:. t.'.a.: fails down:
L. deciden. to fall down.L. d(I?,
down;
ana
cadere,to fill. .See Decay.
"

"

Camp.

F
L.
O. t. decimal.'"
DecimaL
Late L. cUcimdli:, belong ng to tithes."
L. decima. a titne ; fern, of duimus.
te::th"

Decanal.

dean.
siiffix-"z/ L.

^L,^ Belongingto

L. dicdn-u:.

"

and

"^, down;

dean

with

Cf. L. aV-^/":.ten.
Y. decanter
L. a^"^ Gk.;
L,
decimate.
rrom
pp. of L. d!?for
Span. c^/z"/ar;.Med. L. decanthaT-e cimare, to select ever^ terith man.
to pour ouc
ten.
(a word of the alchemists
pcniihment. L. decern,
Formed
L. de,from : canthu:, the lip of a cap,
Decipher. F. a"^/ Arab.
of
the
of
Gk.
after
F.
to
u
=e
comer
a peculiar
kcu^Oos,
dechinrer,
decipher. F. "^-,
-a/z-' :

-Vr';

Dean.

Decant.

F.

"

"

"

"

"

"

'Hatzfe'd

eye
ve~s"ri.

Der.

decant-er.

L.

to behead.
dicapitdre.
o:'caput, head.
stem
capit-,
"

Decay,

to

pp. of Ls.:e
L. ^. off; and

From

L.

Decapitate.

\^Tne-

fall into

(F.

rain.

L.,

"

variSpan, decaer); ant


of O. F. (Uckair^
decheoir. O. F, i/^-;
and cheoir F. r/^"7fr, to fall. L. "^. down
:
and Foik-L. ci-iire.cadere,
variants
to fall,
"

"

L. cad"re.

Decea.se.

to

fialL
F."

L.)

.vitn F

na:e

Thatch, q.v.

Declaim.

O. Nor-fi F. dey:cur

o:

F. de:-. L. i/zh-,
apait ; Cipher, q. v.
Du.
Lm. dekketi,to
cover.
to
Deck,
deJc.
a ship's
cover
Cog; aV.^.a carer,

^^. E.

di:-.:.

Formerly diclame."

L.,

dicidmdre,to cry alcnd, L. "if down.


fully: cturndre, to cry ; see Claim.
ll. O. F declarer.
Y.
Declare.
L.

"

"

"

L. decldrdre. to make
clear,deciare-" L.
-r".ful y : cldrus,clear.
F." L.', O.F. eUclinaiDeclension.
declension* of a nocnu-e:,r
:ae
::k.
'

"

"

OF.
^^^(?j fF. dices., death.
L. :.,
deces:um.
cLi:-.
d
eath.
L.
departnre.
pp. oi decedere. to deparu L. -'
cedere. to go a.vra.Y.
"

zee
deciindtidnem,,

"
-

:.2.rion,deciension.
dl'.y.n-dri heiow

"

"

"

o:

L.

dedecittvitic,
diclindius,pp.

dediner."
T." L.) O.F.
^F,' L.) A-F.
L. ii:iinare. to lean or bend aside from,"
Deceive.
:
.:,
O. F. decevdr, decevair, pres. stid;.deietve. L. ii^-,
from ; -ctinare (onlyin comp.
to
,
L. decipere,
L.
take
deceive.
lean
: see
to
Incline, Iteaii \\j.
away,
F. ddclivite."
^, away ; and cap)ere.to take, Der. tz'^- Declivity. Y."'L.

decline.

"

"

"

ceit.from

O. F. deceit, pp. of decevHr.


O. F,
L,
L. December. 'm\_,.decern,ten :
of the Roman
:Jir tenth minth

December.
Deccm-Wi
as

it -.

year.

3.S

;^F.-L.)

"

L.

d^:l:ui:licmy

do";vnwaTd
downward.

"

"

of

ace

slope.

L.

a
dicituitdSy

dectiuis,sloping

L. ^, down; cuutis,

sk^ie,

See Xjean (i).


L. decoctus,pp. of ^L.
Decoct.
L. di^ down,
""oil
down.
c.cuert.
-.0
magistrates.

of ten
one
Decemvir,
(L.) L, decem-uir. one of the d.i^:emuiri
or
ten
men
joinedin a com mi ssJcai. L.
.

hilL

"

away:

"

131

.".r.ir'-r.

to

Decollation,

cook.
a

beheading.^F."L.)

DECOMPOSE

DEFEASANCE

O. F. decollation. Y.^io. L. ace.


dec oildtidnem.
From
to behead.
pp. of decolldre,
the neck.
L. de, off ; colluni,

down

weak

grade of die-,as

from
dic-^
to say.
dicere,
Deduce.
(L.) L. deducere,to biing
down
(hence, to infer). L. de, down;

"

"

dicdre,

to

proclaim;
in

^F.-L. a"^ Gk.) F.


and
to bring. See Duke.
dficere,
(XVI c.); from de-,prefix,
decomposer
See Compose.
deduct.
composer, to compose.
(L.) Grig, to derive from.
Decorate.
to bring
(L-) From pp. oidecorare, L. deduct-tts,
pp. of deducere,
to adorn.
L. decor- (for*decos-),
of down
stem
(above).
to
decus,honour, ornament
Deed.
; cf. L. decere,
(E.) M. E. deed. O. Merc, did,
be fit.
A.S. d,"d.-\'D\x.
daad, Icel. dad, Swed.
decorum.
(L.) L. decorum, scemli- dad, Dan. daad, Goth, deds, G. that,
seemly. L. decor-, O. H. G. tdt. Teut. type *dcediz ; Idg.
ness; neut. of decorus,
of decor,seemliness,allied to decus
stem
type *dketis ; from -y'DtiE,to place,
put,
do.
See Do.
(above). Der. in-decorum.

Decompose.

"

"

"

"

Decoy,

contrivance

for

Deem.

wildcatching

ducks.

(F.andViw.) Coined from prov. E.


the E. de- (F.
coy, a decoy, by prefixing
de-, L. de). E. coy is from Du. kooi,a

to

man,
doom

(E.) M. E,
judge,give a
;

Icel. dcsma

Du.
koye,older form
cage, decoy, M.
from
kouwe
L. catiea, whence
(Hexham) ;
also F. and E. cage ; see
Cags.
^ The
of de- was
fusion
prefixing
probablydue to con-

Doom.

see

demen.
doom.

A. S. deA. S. dom,

"

doejfien,

Cf. Du.

(fordcemd),Swed. doma,

Dan.

domme, Goth, domjan, O. H. G. tuo??iian,


Teut. type "^domjan-,
from *ddmoz, doom.

profound.(E.) M. E. deep.
-|.Du. diep,Dan. dyb, Swed.
deop.
with M. E. coy en, to quiet; so that djup, Icel. djupr,G. tief,Goth, diups.
down.'
Teut. type *deupoz
a
de-coyseemed to mean
'quieting
; see Dip.
Decrease.
(F. L.) A. F. descrees, depth, deepness.(E.) From
deep;
descreis,O. K. descrois,
sb., a decrease ; cf. Icel. dypd,depth,from dj'tipr,
deep.+
from descroistre,
Late L.
Du. diepte
vb., to decrease.
; Goth,
diupitha.

Deep,

A. S.

"

"

used
discrescere,
diminish
away

L.

Deer.

decrescere,to
de, down,
(pp decrettis).'~'L.
to

; crescere,

decrement.
a

for

decrease.

"

deer,

animal.

an

dier,Dan.
dyr, Goth, dius,

dyr, Swed. djnr,Icel.


decrementum, G. thier. Teut. type *deuzom ; Idg.type
from *dheus-,
cere.
*dheusom, pxoh. a.n\TCi2iV;
decre-ttis,
pp. of decresto breathe (Kluge). Brugm. i. " 539 (2).
grow.

(L.)

L.

M. E.

(E.)

A. S. deor,a wild animal. +Du.

L.

M. E. decree.
Decree.
Der. wilder-ness,
(F.-L.)
q. v.
O. F, decret.-'Y^. decretu7n.
\^. decretus, Deface.
M. E. defacen.(F.-L.)
of
lit.
O.
F.
to
to
to
decernere,
decree,
desfacier, deface,disfigure.
pp.
separate.
-

"

"

"

L. de, away

; cernere,

to

distinguish.

O. F. des-

apart; face,face;
("L. dis-),

decretal.

O. F. decretal. see Face.


(F.-L.)
Late L. decretdle,
L decrettis. Defalcate, to
a decree.
abate, deduct.
(L.)
less,
noiseFrom
or
defalDecrepit. (L.) L. decrepitus,
pp. of Late L. diffalcdre
about like an old man, aged. cdre, to abate,deduct, take away.
L. difcreeping
L. de, away ; crepitus,
else
Late
L.
or
noise, allied to ( =dis-),
de,
apart,
away;
of
L.
f
rom
with
to
make
t
o
a
cut
sickle,
crepitus,
crackle,
falcdre,
crepdre,
falx
pp.
a noise.
a sickle.
{stemjalc-),
"

"

"

"

Decry,
descrier,to

to

condemn.
cry

down,

fF.

L.)

"

Defam.e.

O. F.

disparage.O.
"

P\

(F.

defamen,
L.) M.E.
to take away
a
diffamer,
character.
L. diffdmdre,
to spread
apart;
report. L. dif-(fordis-),
"

des-

"

F.

O.
diffa?7ien.

(L.dis-),implyingthe reversal of an man's


here opposed to
; crier, a bad
cry up
See Cry.
to cry.
fdma, a report. See Fame.
(F.-L.) M. E, defaute.Decussate, to cross at an acute angle. Default.
from defaillir,
to
a
default,
(L.) From pp. of L. decussdre,to cross, O. F. defaute,
to put into the form of an y^.
l^.decus sis, fail ; imitatingfaute from faillir.See
coin worth
and therefore
ten
a
asses
De-(i) and Fault.
(as-es),
null. (F.marked
L. decem, Defeasance,
with X, i.e. ten.
a rendering
o^ as, an ace ; see Ace.
a rendering
ten ; assi-,
stem
L.) A.F. law-term defesance,
defeisant,
Dedicate, to devote. (L.) L. dedicd- void. O. F. defesant,
pres. part,
O. F.
devote.
L. de, of defaire,
to render void.
to
desfaire,
ius, pp. of dedicdre,
act,and

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

132

DELVE

DEGREE

gradus^ Delf. (Du.) Earthenware firstmade at


formerly
Delft,
Delf,a town in S. Holland,
degret,about A. D. 1 310 (Haydn). The town was
degree (F L.) O F degi-e,
from its delfox canal ; cf. Delve.
a
step, rank ; orig.a step dozvn (used of named
L.
down
a
stairs). de,
Deliberate, carefully
weighed and
; gradiis, step.
scent-,
dehiL.
considered.
L.
dellberdtiis
(L.)
(L.)
Dehiscent,
gaping.
pp. oideL. de, thoroughly;
of pres. pt. of dehiscere,to libei'dre,
to consult.
stem
to
L. de, down
to weigh,from libra,
a balance.
llb?-dre,
; kisce?'e,
gape
open.
of hidre, to yawn ; see
Delicate, dainty, refined. (L.) L.
gape, inceptive
luxurious ; probably allied to
Hiatus.
delicdtzis,
delicia
see
Deity.
Deist
(or delicice,
pi.),
pleasure,
delight,
Deify,
;
L.
and
to amuse
M.
E.
to
dc'licere,
(below).
L.)
(F.
deigjzen.^
Deign.
(F.
to
A. F. deign-,a stem of O. F. dig}t{i)ei',
delicious.
L.) M..Y. delicious.
Late
L. deliciosus,
O. F. delicious.
by-form oi digndri,to
deign. L. digndre,
L.
deem worthy. L. dignus,
delicia,pleasure.L. deworthy. Erugm. pleasant.
allure. L. de, away ;
ii. " 66.
licere,to amuse,
deite.~O.Y.
entice.
M.E.
to
Iacere,
(F.-L.)
Deity.
of deitds,deity,
deite.'-L. deitdton, ace.
delight. (F. L.) Misspeltfor delite.

graddrc,the

same.

"

L.

de^from

See Grade.

rank.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

O. F. deliter,
deleicf. M. E. deliten,verb.
and
Gael,
delectdre
L.
Delectable.
Cf.
W.
ter.
duw,
diuiis,godlike.
; see
Ir. dia, Skt. deva-,a god ; Gk. hios,Skt.
Delineate.
(L.) From
pp. of L.
delinedre, to sketch in outline. L. de,
dai7ja-,divine. See Tuesday.
Godhead.

dei-,for deits^God

L.

"

"

"

"

deify. (F, L.) M. E. deifyen.


deifie ;
Cot.
Late L.
O. F. deifier,
to
L. deijicus,
accountingas gods.
deificdre.
"

"

'

'

down
; llnedre,to
See Line.
a line

god;

and

for
-Jic-,

due to
deificat-ion,

linea,

L.
in duty.JL.)
Delinquent, failing

"

L. dei-,for deiis,
a
make.
Der.
t
o
facere,
"

out, from

mark

of pres. pt.oidelinquere,
fail,to omit one's duty. L. de, away,

stem
delinquent-,
to

"

pp. of

from

L.
F, deiste. From
de-US ; with suffix -ist.
Deject, to cast down. (L.) From L.
deiectiis. pp. of deicere {deiicere),
to cast
down.
L. de, down
to throw.
; iacere,

become
liquid.(L.)
become
liquid.L. oi'^,
deltquesce?-e,io
form of liquere,
inceptive
away ; liquescere,

deijicdre.
deist. i,F."L.)

to
linquere,

leave.

Deliq.liesce,to

L.

"

See Liquid.
(L.) A coined word (with
Delay, vb. (F.-L.) O. F. delayer,suffix -ous),from L. dellri-um, madness,
which
is also adopted into English. L.
dilaier]also^^/^^r (Godefroy).It answers
of the
in sense
L.
to
dildtdre,to defer,delay, delirus, mad ; lit. ' going out
to

be wet.

Delirious.

"

"

would
properlygive O. F. furrow.' L. de, from ; and lira,a furrow.
G. g-leise,
JDtldtdre is from dildttis,
a track.
deferred,Cf. O. H. G. leisa,
to
(F.-L.) O.F. delivrer,
apart ; /dtus, Deliver.
put off; from L. dl- (dis-),
borne, pp. of tollere,
to lift,
sustain,bear. set free. Late L. deliberdre,to set free."
to free, from liber,
L. de,from ; llberd?-e,
a
^ The O.F. spellingwith ai causes

which
put off";

"

dileer.

"

Der.
difficulty.

Delectable.
delectable.-'Y.

O. F. delai.
(F.-L.) Late M. E.
delectable."^Y,. delectdbilis ,

delay,sb. ;

free.

Dell,

dale.

dell,neut.

(E.)

M. E. delle.

Sax.

Cart.

i. 547;

A. S.
ii. 71.

Dale.
quent,Teut. type *daljof}i
L. delectdre,
to delight;fre; see
delightful.
licious. Delta.
allure.
See Deof delicej-e,
to
(Gk.) Gk. UXra, the letter A ;
of the
the name
answeringto Heb. daleth,
of
door
chosen
L.
letter
of
the
a
a
orig.
4th
alphabet
;
deputy.(L.)
Delegate,
deltoid.
D
er.
tent.'
a
Phoenician.)
delegatus,pp. of delegdre,to depute,apOrig.
point.
"L.
to
(L.) l^.deladere {\)T^.delusus)
de, away;
legdre,
depute. Delude.
See Legate.
to mock
at, cajole.L. de, down; ludere,
Delete, to erase.
(L.) L. deletus,
pp. to play. Der. delus-ion,from the pp.
of delere, to destroy.See below.
Deluge. \F.-L.) O.F. deluge.--1..
"

'

"

'(Gk.)

L. diliiere,
L. dele- diluuizini,a washing away.
Late
L. dl- [dis-)
wash
suffix -oits.
For Gk. S77A.77to
apart ;
away.
,
Gk. brjXrjTrjp,
Itiere,to wash, allied to Lave.
a destroyer.
TTjpios,noxious.
deluen.
Gk. drjKeof^ai,
I harm, injure.
Delve, to dig. (E.) M.E.

Deleterious.

"

with
teri-ns,

"

"

"

34

DENOMINATE

DEMAGOGUE

decease. (F. L.)


Demise, transference,

-^Du.
delfan^pt. t. dealf,
pp. do/fen.

A. S.

hollow

biie,to

Cf. Russ.

"

demise, des?nise,fem.
to displace,
dismiss.
Biugm. i. " 521 (2). destnettre,

telben.

M. H, G.

delven ;

out.

dol-

of
pp.
L. dltnit-

of

O. F.

"

(F.-Gk.) F. d^jna- tei'e ; see Dismiss.


(jk.
8t]
Democracy. K F. Gk.) Formerlydefj-ayaryus a popularleader.
gogue.
Gk.
5^fx-os,
people; d7a;7os,
leading,mocraty (Milton).M. P\ democratie ; Cot.
Gk.
to lead.
from d-y-"iv,
drffioKparia,
popular government,
for Stj/xos,
Demand.
(F. L.) F. demander^ to rule by the people. Gk. S-rjfxo-,
also the people; and
trust
a
country-district,
demand, require.L. deniandare,to en-

Demagogue.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

L. de,
L., to demand.
order.
to
commission,
majiddre,

away

late

in

"

Demolish.

"

brom

inchoative

Cf. O.Ir. ddtn, a retinue.


(F." L.) 0.". demoHss-,

to demolish."
afew(?/?",
L.
to pulldown.
also F. dimarcation.
N.E. D.); whence
de, from ; moles,heap,mass.
dcemon.
Demon.
L. de, down
Span, tnarcar, to
(L. Gk.) Y o^vc^e.x\^j
; and
L.
Gk.
^(^w
of
see
word
German
(?/;.
a
a
daifioDv,
origin
;
mark,
god,genius,
I impart.
spirit.CI. Saiofiai,
Marque.
to
Demonstrate.
Demean
(L.) From pp. of L.
(i),to conduct ; reflex.,
O. F. dcmonstrd7-e,to show fully.L. de,down,
behave. \Y
L.) M. E. demenen.

(Span. L.
Span, dcmarcacion

Demarcation.

M.H.G.)

ajid

rule.

to

Kponiv,

of

stem

{'i^^ L. detnoliri,dlmolire,

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

to show, iioxxxi/wnsti'um,
fully; 77io7istrd7'e,

conduct, guide, manage.


de),down, fully; mener, to
Late L. mindre, to drive
from L.tniudri,
io threaten.
cattle,
conduct,

demener,

to

"

O. Y .de { L.
conduct,from

(F.

(F."L.)

demeanour.
{XV cent.)
;

M. E.

word,

to demean, behave
demeneii^

; see

F.

for
-iser,

(F. L.) O.
"

-i^uv).

Gk.

F.

de7nourer,

the prefixDeSee Mean


(2.

7nean.

moral;
dis-),
apart; ?7ioral,

with suffix -ise


See Moral.
vb.
Demur,

"

L.

coined

morals.
d^77io7'aIise7'.'-Y.
de-,

F.

Mod.

L.)

demeu7'er,to tarry ; hence, to hesitate."


to delay fully L. de,fully;
(Hy- L. de7Hord7-T,
(2),to debase, lower. brid
from 77i07-a,delay.
and
to delay,
E.)
Made, like debase, 77iordri,

(i

Demean
from

M.E.demenfrom

Demean

"

O. F. des {L.

See Menace.

ure

portent. See Monster.


to corrupt in

Demoralise,

the

(i), and

adj. Demure.
(F.-L.) XIV cent. Coined
de- (seeDe- (i)),to M. E.
by prefixing

O. F. w"f"?'
mad.
(L.) Pp. of the old t7iure, mature, calm, demure.
L. indturtis ; see
demenL-^1-.. denientdre,
to drive
(F. niur), mature.
of one's mind.
L. de^from; 77ient-,Mature.
out
oide77ii-.
of mens, mind.
stem
Demy ; a spelling
Also
M.
E.
ill
desert.
Den.
^E.)
den; A. S. denn, a
(F. L.)
Demerit,
allied
i.
to
in
Cor.
a
i.
-f-M. Du.
a
deft^i,
valley.
276." cave,
merit,
good sense;
merit."
O. F. demerite,
desert; also a fault,dedenne,a cave (Kilian).

Demented,

verb

"

to

"

"

"

pp.

Denary, relatingto tens. (L.) L.


L. dmi
containingten.
( *decdenarius,
Hence
L.
ten.
ten
ten.
dec-e77i,
7zi),
pi. by
of
L
.
ten
(as-es).
denier, denarius,piece
Dendroid.
(Gk.) Gk. Uvlpo-v,a tree ;
form, shape.
-dibrj's,
like,from ejSoy,

Late L. demeritum, a fault ; from


of L. demerere,
to deserve
deniereri,

(in 2i good sense).L.


"

mereri,

to

(F. L.) K.Y.demeine,


demesne
(withsilent s) ; other

of Domain,
spellings

Demi-,

"

"

also
deniene,

half.

(F.

q.
-

Denizen,

v.

L.)

O. F.

"

fully;nierere,

See Merit.

deserve.

Demesne.

de.

demi,

P.

naturalised

a
"

bitant.
citizen,inha-

Formerlyflfejwj-^zw."
deinzein
also de7izeiii),

L.)

half. L. ace.
dimidiu7n, half. L. "//"dis~,apart ; medius,middle ; see Medium.

A. F. and O. F.
used in the Liber Albus to denote a trader
of the cityfranchise,
of large bottle. zvithin the privilege
Demijohn, a kmd
Formed
F. dame-Jeanne
(F.) From
by adding
; cf. Span. as opposed ioforeift.
damajuana. Much disputed,but not of the suffix -ei/t( L. -d7iens)to O. F. dei^iz,
Eastern origin. The
L. de i7itus.from
F. form is right as
now
speltda7ts,within.
from
it stands,though often much
within.
L.
within,allied
de,
inttis,
perverted.
;
"

"

"

"

"

From
F. da/ne
Sp. dama), lady;
Jeanne (Sp.Jiiana),Jane, Joan.
i

N. E. D.

and

to Interior.

Denominate.

See

dmomindre, to
35

vL.)
name.

"

L.

From

pp.

of L.

de,down, fully
;

DENOTE

DEPOSITION

from

hang down or from. L. de,down, from ;


pendere,to hang. See Pendant.
Denote.
(F.-L.) Y.ddnoter.-\..deDepict. (L.) Formerlyused as a pp.
L. ^c",down
out.
noiare, to mark
to depict,
; L. depicttts,
pp. of depingere,
See
lit. paintfully.L. de, fully;
notdre,to mark, from iiota,a mark.
pingere,to
Note.
paint. Cf. Picture.
the
undoing: of a
Benouement,
Depilatory, removing hair.
(L.)
knot. (F. L.) ".d^no2itment, ?,h.,ixom Formed, in imitation of M. F.
depilatoire
from a L. adj.'^depildtdrius,
L. dis-,apart ; (Cot.),
dt!nouer,to undo a knot.
not
See found.
L. depild-re,
to knot, from nodus, a knot.
iiddare,
to pluck out hair.
Node.
L, de, away;
pildre,to pluck away hair,
hair.
Denounce.
(F. L.) O.Y .deno77cer ixovcipilus,
L. demmtidj-e,
to declare.
L. de,down,
Depletion. (L.) Depletion,
?i.ntxa^iYfully; nuntidre,to tell,from nunthis, a ing;' Blount.
Formed, in imitation of
See Nuncio.
ion,
from L. depletus,
Der. denunciatmessenger.
repletiofz,
pp. of deplere,
nojnindre,to

nonien^

name,

name

nomin'^stem

of

"

Noun.

see

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

from

L. pp. denuncidttts.
(L.) L. densus, thick.+Cjk.
thick.
SacriSs,
Brugm. i. " 85 1. Der. co7i-

to

dense.

plorer. 'L, deplordre,to


L. de, fully
; plordre, to

Dense.

empty. L.
See Plenary.

de, away;

"

Deplore.

(F.-L.;^rL.)

"

Dent
; see Dint.
with suffix -al
Dental.
CL.) Formed
from L. dent-, stem
of
(F. -al, L. -dlis)
dens, a tooth, cognate with E. Tooth..

ticulus. double

cry

de-

over.

"

out, wail,

of

tooth. (L.) L. denlittle


dimin. oi dens, a tooth.

of the pres. pt. oi deponere,


stem
deponent-,
to laydown, also (inlate L.) to testify."

"

O.F.

lament

i. " 154.
Deploy,
open out, extend. (F."L.)
F. ddployer,
to unroll,unfold ; O. F. desL. dis-,apart; plicdre,
to unfold.
ploier,
A doublet of Display.
to fold.

dentated, furnished with teeth.


L. dentdtus, toothed.
L, dent-,stem
dens, a tooth.
denticle,

fill.

plere, to

(L )

Brugm.

weep.

to

"

Deponent,

who

one

testifies. (L.) L.

dentifrice, tooth-powder.(P\ L.) L. de, down ; ponere, to lay. See Position.


L..dentifricinm
dentifrice.
(Pliny)." Depopulate. (E.) From pp. of L. de"

F.

"

L. denti-, deck
to rub,
fric-dre.

stem

of

dens, a tooth

populih-e,to laywaste ; in Late


of people or inhabitants.

L. to deprive

Orig.to
of
multitudes.
L. de,
means
by
ravage
; populdre,to
fully
populate,fill with
ixova.popuhis people; see People.
dentition. (L.) L. dentTtionem,
ace.
people,
of
of dentitio,
teeth.
L.
to
cutting
dentitus, Deport. (F. L.) M. F. deporter,
oi
teeth.L.
cut
to
to forbear,
dentire,
denti-, bear, endure ; se deporter,
quiet
pp.
decl. stem of dens,a tooth.
oneself.
L. deportdre,
to carry down, remove
to lay bare. (L.) L. deniiin Late Latin.
Denude,
; with extended senses
O. F. deportement,beddre, to make fullybare. L. de, fully;Der. deportment,
haviour.
nfiddre, to lay bare, from nudus, bare.
% For the varying senses, see
See Nude.
F. deporter.
dentist. (F. L.) Y.dentiste. Coined
from L. dent-,stem of dens, a tooth.

"

"

"

"

"

Denunciation

Deny.

(F.

denier,earlier form
to

Denounce.
see
Depose. (F.-L. rtwoT Gk.) O. F. ^^M. E. denien.
M. F. poser,to displace.O. F. de- (L.de),
from ,"
deneier.
Y,.denegdre,and F. poser, to place,of Gk. origin,
as
under Pose,
Much
confused
de, fully;negdre, to shown

L.)

deny fully.L.
"

"

"

^f

with derivatives from 'L.pdne7'e,


lo place.
deny. See Negation.
lit. a thingto be givento
See below.
Deodand,
God.
Obs. F. deoideus,God ; Deposit, vb. (F.-L.)
(L.) From L. deo,^2L\..
Med. L. depositdre,
to entrust.
to
datidum, neut. of dandus, to be given,positer,
L. deposituvi,
from dare, to give.
a
lay down.
thing laid
"

"

des- down,
Depart. (F. L.) O. F. departir,
L. dis-,
partir,to divide,to part from.
"

neut.

of pp.

of

depdnei-e
; see

ponent.
De-

"

from ; partire, to
away
Cf. L. disper tire.

Depend.

(F.-L.)
depend, hang on ; Cot.

part ;

see

deposition. (F. L.)

Part.

O. F. deposia
depositioneni,
depositing.
to lay
depositus,
pp. of depdnere,
(above).
-

tio}i.-''L.ace.
O. F.

"

L.

L.
to
^^/^"^r^,
down
to
dependere,
136
"

DEPOT

depot,

store.

DESIGN
F.

(F.-L.)

Derrick,

depot\

kind of

(Du.) Orig.

crane.

^V-.. depositum,
O. F. depost.
a
from
a
Dutch
thing laid the gallows; and named
of depositus,
clown (hence, stored)
hangman ; see T. Dekker, Seven Deadly
; neut.
Sins of London, ed. Arber, p. 17. Du.
pp. of deponere; see Deponent.
M.
E.
deprauen. Dierryk,Dirk, Diederik ; answeringto G.
Deprave. (F. L.)
"

"

"

O. F.

"Y.. deprdudre,to
depraver.

make
Dietrich, A. S.
de, fully; people.'

vitiate. L.
crooked, distort,
p?'dutis,crooked, depraved.
"

Deprecate.
to pray
deprecdri,
"

L.

de,

away

'

Dervis, Dervish,

(L.) From
against,
pray
precdri^

peodric,ruler

of

pp.
to

to

L.

the

Persian monk,

ascetic.

(Pers.) Pers. darvish, poor ; a


w
dervish,ho professed
poverty. Cf. Zend
driyu-,poor (Horn).
Descant.
(F. L.) Orig.a variation

remove.

See

pray.

of

Precarious.

"

O. North F. descant [O. F. despp. of L. in a song.


the priceof. L. de, chant\ a kind of song. -Late L. discantus,
to lower
depretidre,
down
kind of singing.L. dis-,apart;
a refrain,
; pretium,price. See Precious.
L.
and
From
of
See Cant
canius,
a song.
(L.)
Depredate.
pp.
(i).
to plunder. L. de, fully
M. F. descendre ;
Descend.
(F.
L.)
deprceddri,
prie;

Depreciate. (L.)

From

"

"

"

"

ddri, to rob, from prceda,


prey

see

Cot.

Prey.

L. descendere,
lit.to climb down."
de, down ; scandere,to climb ; see
"

Depress. (F. L.) O. F. depresserL.


Scan.
(Godefroy)."L. type "^depressdre
; from
L. depressus,
of
to
Describe.
deprimere, press
pp.
"

down.

L. de, down

"

premere,

to

(L.) \..describere,ioviT\i

describe

down,

press.

fully;

pp.

descriptiis

Deprive. (F. L.) O. F. depriver (whence description).L. de, down;


prive scrlbere. to write.
See Scribe.
(Godefroy).Late L. deprivdre,to de"

"

"

of

office,degrade.
"

priudre,to

L.

de, fully;

deprive. See Private.

descry. (F.-L.)
discern.

O. F.

M..Y.. descry
en, X.o

descrire,short

form
of
O. F. descrivre,
to describe.
L. describere.
Cot.
M. F. deptiter;
to pro% Sense affected by O. F. descrier,
claim,
L. depiitdre,
also to impute,
to cut off,
publish; from O. F. des- (L.dis-\
destine. L, de, down ; ptitdre,to cut off, and crier,
to cry.
Der.
Desecrate.
orig. to cleanse.
depnt-y,M. F.
(L.) From pp. of L. desecrdre or desacrdre,
one
to consecrate
depute,
deputed,pp. of deputer.
; (with
"

Depth ; see Deep.


Depute. (F.-L.)

"

"

"

Derange. (F. L. and O. H. G.) F. change of sense due to O.F. dessacrer,to


from L. dis-,
deranger,to disarrange
; formerly des- profane,
apart). L. de,fully
;
"lu. dis-,
as sacred ; see
Sacred.
rangier,
apart; O. F. rangier,sacrdre,to account
to range ; see Kange.
Desert
(I),a waste.
rengier,
(F.-L.) O.F.
L. desej-tum,
desert,a wilderness.
neut.
Dereliction, completeabandonment.
of deserere,
(L.) L. ace. derelictionem,
to
; pp.
completeneglect. of desertus, waste
L. derelictus,
abandon.
L. de, away
to
desert,
pp. of derelinqiiere,
(negative);
forsake.
L. de, from ; relinquere,
to leave
serere, to join.
to
Desert
behind, from re-, back, and linqtcere,
(2), merit. (F.-L.) O.F.
leave.
See Relinquish.
lit. a thingdeserved,
desert,fern, deserte,
-

"

"

"

"

"

Deride.
to deserve ; see below.
(L.) L. derldere,to laugh pp. of desei-vir,
down, laugh at; from
de, down, and
deserve. (F.-L.) O.Y.desej-vir.-.
to serve
derisive, from L. desertiire,
ridere,to laugh. Der.
fully;in Late L., to
pp. derJsus.

Derive.

deserve.

(F." L.)

derive, also

O. F. deriver,to

"

L.

de, fully;sertnre,

to

serve.

See Serve.

drain.
L. deriudre, to
to
Deshabille, careless dress. (F.-L.)
off water.
L. de, from ; rums,
Y deshabille.,
undress." F. d^shabiller,
a
to
See Rivulet.
stream.
undress.
Y.des (L dis-),
apart,away, un- ;
to dress ; see
Habiliment.
Derm, skin. (Gk.) Gk. 8"p^a,skin." habiller,

drain

"

"

"

to flay;cognate with
Qik.hkpdiv,

". Tear,

vb., to rend.

(L.) Frompp.
repeala law, detract

Derogate.

Desiccate,

From
to dry up. (Lj
pp.
to drain dry. L. de,away
desiccdre,
;
siccdre,to dry,from siccus,
dry.
Desiderate
; see Desire.
of L.

ofL. (^^r^-

from.
L.
gdre, to
de, away ; rogch-e,to ask, propose a law.
See Rogation.
"

137

Design,
to

"

vb.

denote, to

F.
L.) O. F. designer,
design. L. designdre,to
-

"

DESIRE

denote, mark

DETAIL

down.
L. de, down; sig- to despair).
-L.
dS, (i)fully,
(2) away;
to promise.
mark, from sig'num,
spondere,
sign. Der.
design-ate.
Despot, a tyrant.(F.- L.-Gk.) O.F.
Desire, to longfor. (F. L.) O. F. de- despot. Med. L. despotus.Gk. SecrTroTT/y,
'
desirrer.
L. desiderdre,
to longfor, a master
of the house.'
The
sirer,
; lit. master
miss.
of
house
considerdre)
a
syllableSec-^Idg. *dems,
regret,
Perhaps (like
;
allied to sidus,a star, as ifto turn the eyes cf. Skt. dani'pati-,
of the house.
master
The
from the stars, to regret,miss.
is allied to Gk. 1:601%,
ttotsyllable
desiderate. (L.) l^.desjderdtus,^^.
husband, Skt. pati-,
lord,and to Potent.

ndre,

"

to

"

"

"

"

'

'

oi desiderdre

Desist.
cease.

desist.

L.

"

to stand

table.

sloping

i. "

From
scales.

pp.
L.

"

Dessert.

(L.-Gk.)

408.

Desquamation,

from stare, to stand.


still,

Desk,
M.

Brugm.

"

L.

"

(above).
to
(F. L.) O. F. desister,
also to
to put away,
desistere,
de,away; sistere,to put, also

last

de,off;squdma,
(F.-L.) O.Y.
dinner.

at

course

scalingoff. (L.)
to remove
desqiid77idre,

of L.

"

scale.
\}^q
dessert,

to
O. F. desservir,

in Chaucer, C. T., F. do ill service to ; also,to take away the


O. F. des-,
from L. dis-,
desca, a desk; cf. Ital. courses
at dinner.
L. discum, away ; servir,
from sertiire,to serve.
desco, 'a desk;' Florio.
of discus,
a
Destine.
ace.
disc,table. See Disc,
(F.-L.) 0.". destiner,to
1

deske,desk;

E.

128.

Med.

"

L.

"

"

ordain.
L. destindre,
ordain ;
to destine,
L. desoldtiis,allied to L. destina,
a prop,
support. L.
L. de, down ; and ^standre,
forsaken ; pp. of desoldre,to forsake.
to cause
to stand,
from
derivative
of
make
stand.
to
Cf. Cretic
to
de, fully
soldre,
lonely,
stdre,
;
I set. Brugm. ii. " 603.
solus,alone.
aravvoj,
Dish.

"

Desolate, solitary.
(L.)

"

"

Destitute.
left
(L.) L. destitutus,
alone ; pp. of destituere,
to placealone.
L. dispe- L. de, away ; statuere,to place,
causal of
all
lose
stand.
to
of
to
rdtus, pp.
hope.
stdre,
desperdre,
L. de,from ; sperdre,to hope ; from sper-, Destroy.
(F."L.) U.. E. destroien,

Despair

see

Desperate.

Despatch ; see Dispatch.


Desperate, hopeless.(L.)

"

"

sper-es,O. Lat. pi.of spes,hope.

destruien.'mO.Y
destruire (^ dctruire \
des- Ital. distruggere).
mm'h. type ^desti'ugere,
(F.-L.) M.E.
tonic for L. destruere,
to pull down, unbuild,
peiren, desperen. O. F. despeir-,
oi desperer,
stem
to despair.L. desperdreoverthrow
(pp.destructus).'-'L.
de,down;
struere, to pileup.
(above)
destruction.
struction
deman.
(Span.
desperado, a desperate
(F.-L.) O.F.
L. ) M Span, desperado.L. desperdtus,
L. ace.
dest7'uctidnem ; from
destruct-tis,
(above).
pp. oi desperdre
pp. oi destruere (above).
(F. L.) M.E.
Despise, to contemn.
Desuetude, disuse. (L.) "L.desuetado,
F. despis-,
of the pres. disuse.
L. distietus,
stem
to
despisen.'-'O.
pp. of desuescere,
of
L.
of
deto
out
part.,"c.,
despire, despise.
grow
use, opposedto con-suescere
;
Custom.
to look
on
see
down, look down
spicere,
from L. de(below). Der.
despic-able,
Desultory, jumping from one thing
to look down
longing
spicdrT,
(L.) L. desultorius,
on, allied to de- to another.
orig.beto a desultor ; hence, inconstant.
spicere.
hatred. (F. L.) M.E.
L. desultor,
who leapsdown, or from
one
despite, spite,
'
O.V.
horse.
horse
L.
to
;'
destiltus,
despit.
despit,despight,spight
pp. oidesilire,
Cot.
L. despectu7n,
L. de, down
of despectus,
to leap down.
ace.
to
; salire,
leap.
contempt. L. despectus,
pp. of despicere,
down ; specere,to look ;
to despise.L. i^i?,
Detach.
(F.-L.^woTG.) Y. detacher,
F. di-=^0. F. des- (L.dis-'),
see
to unfasten.
Species.
F.
tache,a nail,tack ; see Tack.
Despoil. (F.-L.) O.".despoiner{". apart ;
detachment.
Cf. Attach.
to despoil.L. despoliare,
Der.
to
d^pouiller),
O, F.
to strip Detail, a small part. (F.-L.)
plunder. L. de, fully; spoliare,
of clothing,
from
also retaJle,
or a
spolium, spoil; see detail,a peece-mealing,
O. F. detailler,
Spoil.
by parcels
selling
; Cot.
(i)to to cut into pieces. O. F. de- (L. de-^,
Despond. (L.) L. desponda-e,
Tailor.
to cut ; see
to
promise fully,
fully
; tailler,
(2) giveup, yield(hence,down
as

in

despair,

vb.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

138

DETAIN

DEVOIR

verb (which is from the sb.


Der. detail,
in E., though in F. it is the other way).
Detain.
(F. L.) From a tonic stem
L. detinere,to hold
of O. F. detenir.

O. F. deus

(F. deux),also dous,two.

"

L.

of duo, two.
deuce
(2),the devil. (LowG. F.men
L.) Low G. de dims ! the deuce ! (BreL. de,down ; tenn-e,
back ; pp. detentus.
Worterbuch) ; G. der daus ! Orig.
deiejttion (from the pp."). an exclamation
Der.
on
throwing the deuce or
to hold.
it
L.
two
at
From
as
a
delectus,
was
Detect.
dice,
losingthrow."
(L.)
pp.
L. de, O. F. dous,two (above).
to
of detegere,
expose.
uncover,
See Tegument.
to cover.
(L.-Gk.) Late L.
Deuteronomy.
away ; teget-e,

duds,ace.

"

"

"

"

"

Detention
Deter.
from.

"

to frightensecond
deterj-ere,

L.

(L.)

L.

"

deuteroftomiujH.
Gk.
a
SevTfpovufiiov,
of
the
law.
Gk. devTepo-s,
giving
second ; vufi-os, law.
frighten.

Detain.

see

to
de, from; terre7-e,

"

Devastate.

See Terror.

Deterge,

wipe

to

off.

(L.)

L. deter-

uastd?'e, to
uastdre, to

(L.) From pp. of L. deL. de, down


lay waste.
;
lay waste, from adj.ziastus,
"

wipe off. L. a-?, off ; tergere,to


from the pres. pt. waste.
wipe. Der. deterg-ent,
Deteriorate.
(L.) L. deterioratus, Develop,

gere, to

"

unfold,open out. (F."


O. F. desd^velopper,
from de, away,
V eloper,
desvohiper. O. F. des- (L. dis-),
which
from ; with comp. suffixes -ter-io7\ (So apart ; and the base velopor volup-,
This base reprealso in-ter-ior from m.)
sents
appears also in envelope.
miner.
Teut. zvlap-,
in M. E, wlappen,to
as
Determine.
(F.-L.) O. F. deter'"'L,.determinare,to bound, end."
wrap up ; see Lap (3),"Wrap.
\a.de,down, fully;termindre,to bound, Devest, to unclothe, (F. L,) From
M.F,
to devest, "L,
from ter7?iinus,
a
dis-,off;
desvestir,
boundary; see Term.

to
deteriordre,
pp.
Formed
worse.
deterior,

oi

make

worse.

"

L.

L. and

to

F,

Teut.)

"

"

Detest.
loathe.

(F.-L.)
L.

uestire,to clothe. Doublet, divest.


Deviate.
(L.) From
pp. of L. ^1?-

and

Der. pre-determine.
M.F.

to
detester,

of the way.

to
to execrate, impretiidre,
detestd^'i,
cate

go out
d
own
the
ness.
witto
tiia,
by calling
gods
way.
devious.
L. de, down ; testdrJ,to witness,
"

L.

"

de, from

evil
"

from

of

a witness.
testis,

Dethrone.

from ;

M.F.

(F.-L. a"^Gk.)

O. F.
desthroner,*to unthrone;' Cot.
(L. dis-')^
apart; L. thronus, from
"

des~

Gk. Opovos,a throne.

the

way

(L.)
with

deui-us,goingout
L. de,
-ous.

suffix

"

iiia,
way.

Device, a plan. (F. L.)


deuise {devys,
^O, F.
devise).
deiiys,
"

devise,a device,also

See Throne.

L.

division,

"

M.

E.

devis.

Late

L.

ment,
Detonate,
explode.(L.) L. deto- dmisum, diutsa,a division; also a judgfem. of
device ; orig.neut. and
ndtus, pp. of detondre,to explode. L. de,
to divide ; see Divide,
fully
; tondre,to thunder.
pp oi diuidere,
devise, to plan. (F, L,) M.E. ^"gDetour, a windingway. (F. L.) F.
O.F.
detour, a circuit ; verbal sb. from F. uisen {devisen). O. F. deviser.
sb. (above).
ditourner,to turn aside. F. di- (L. dis-),devis or devise,
to

"

"

"

"

"

"

aside,apart ; tourner, to \.ViXn. See Turn.


detracDetraction.
(F.-L.) O. F. tion.

Devil.
"

L.

GV..

"

deoful,
deofol.

K.'6.

(,L.-Gk.)

diabohis.

derer,
Sid^okos,the slanto throw
SmjSdAAeiv,

the devil. Gk.


oi detractio,
^-Y^. detractiotiem,
ace.
slander.
Gk. Std,through,
withdrawal
of across, traduce,
; hence a taking away
one's credit. L. detractiis,
iSdWai',to throw; see Belemnite.
pp. of detra- across;
"

"

"

here, to take
de, away
Trace
(i).

L.

also to

away,
;

trahere, to

Devious
Devise

disparage.
"

See

draw.

see

Deviate.

Device.
;
void.
quite
Devoid,
see

(F.

L.)

"

M.

E.

Detriment.
(F. L.) O. F. detriment. deuoid ; due to deuoided, pp. of deuoiden
L. detrunenttim, loss ; lit. a rubbing {devoiden),
O.F.
to empty.
desvuidier,
O. F. desto
desvoidier, to empty out.
away.' L. detri-tus,
pp. of deterere,
from
rub down; with suffix -mentum.'^l^.
dis-)
t
o
de, (L.
; voidier,
voide,
empty,
down
See Trite.
to rub.
vuide,adj.empty; see Void.
; tei'ere,
to thrust
Detrnde.
(L.) L. detrudere,
Devoir, duty. (F.-L.) M.E. deuoir.
M.F.
down.
L. de, down; t?'udere,
to thrust.
devoir, O. F. deveir,to owe ;
to owe
Deuce
(i),a two, at cards. (F. L.) used as a sb. L. debere,
; see Debt.
"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

139

DIAPASON

DEVOLVE

Devolve.

L. dnwluere,

(L-)

roll

to

"

of devolve

was

'

transfer.' Der.

to

the pp. devolutus.


Devote, vb. (L.) L. deuotus, pp.
"L.
to
devote, vow
deuoue7'e,
fully.
to

Devour.
s.

pr.

separate."-

to judge.
5ia,apart; Kpiveiv,
crown.
Diadem, a fillet,
(F. L.
-

Gk.)

"

M. E. and O. F, diademe.
L. diadema.
Gk.
fillet.
Gk.
a
diddrjfxa,
Sm, apart,
Se-w,I bind,allied to Skt. da, io
across;
bind (whence^(7wa",
a garland).
(y'DE.)
"

"

"

of

de,

See Vote.

vow.

to
SiaKpivdv,

Gk.

ion,
devolut-

from

fully
; uouere,

Gk.

tinctiv

L. de, down
down, bring or transfer to.
uoluere,to roll. % A frequentold sense

ii. " 707.

Brugm.

(F. L.) O.F. devorer (ip.


devoure). \-..deuordre,to consume,

Diaeresis,

"

mark

(')

of

separation.

a
(L. Gk.) L. dicere sis.'^QV. dtaipeais,
a taking,
dividing.Gk. 5i-d,
apart ; dlpeais,

"

"

L. de, fully
eat up.
; uordre, to gulp
from alpeiv,
down.
See Voracity.
to take.
scientific determination
of
Devout.
(F. L.) yi.Y.. deuot {devof)
Diagnosis,
,
also spelt
disease. (Gk.) Gk.
devoute.
O.F. devot,devoted.
tinguishin
disa
a
didyvojais,
"Gk.
L. deuotus,pp. of denouere ; see
Devote.
Sid,between; yvivais,
from yvuuai, to know.
A. S. enquiry,
Dew.
(E.) M. E. deu, dew.
"

"

"

"

"

deaxv,dew.-f-Du. dauw, Icel. d'6^ (i^en. Diagonal.(F.-L.-Gk.) F, diagonal.


L. diagondlis,
Dan. dug, Swed. dagg,G. thau.
to
running from corner
doggvar),
Gk. Sia'^ojvios
Teut. type *dauwo-.
Perhapsallied to Skt. corner.
(the same). Gk.
an
dkdv, to run, flow ; Gk. OUlv,to run.
5ta,through,between ; yojvia,
angle,
allied
the
L.
to
Knee.
Dexter.
on
see
dexter,
bend,
knee;
right
(L.)
yovv,
hand side, right.
+ Gk. 5f "toy,right,Skt.
Diagram. (L. Gk.) L. diagramma,
a scale,
dakshina-,on the rightor south, Goth.
gamut (hence,sketch,
plan). Gk.
a
taihswa, right hand, W.
dehen, right, hid'ypap.p.a,
plan, gamut. Gk.
figure,
out by lines,
describe.
to mark
southern,Gael, and Irish deas (thesame). 5iaypd(p(iv,
The Skt. dakshinaGk, did,
to write.
is orig. clever ; cf.
through; ypAipnv,
L. didlis,
Dial. (L.) M E. dial. Med
Skt. daksha-, able,daksh, to be strong.
ing
to a day ; hence a plate
for shewDey a governor of Algiers.(F. Turk .) relating
the time of day. L. dies,
F. ^^y. Turk,
uncle;
ddi, a maternal
day. Brugm.
in Algiers,
chieftain. i. "_223.
an
officer,
afterwards,
Mod.
of a language.(F.Arab.
slave
a
Dialect, a variety
Dhow,
ship(?).
f.
F. dialecte. L. dialectus,
ddo, but not an Arab, word (Yule).Orig. L.-Gk.)
Gk.
did\(KTOs,
languageunknown.
{., discourse,language,
I discourse.
Gk. diaXeyoixai,
Di- (i), prefix;apart. (L.) L. dJ-, dialect.
Gk. did,between ; \iyeiv,
shorter form of dis- ; see Dis-.
to speak.
Di- (2),prefix;twice, double.
(Gk.) dialogue, a discourse. (F. L. Gk.)
twice. + L. bis,bi- ; Skt. F. dialogue.L. dialogum,ace. oidialogus.
Gk. hi- (for5is),
Gk. SiaA.070?,
Gk. biaa conversation.
dvis,dvi-. Allied to Two.
Dia-, prefix.
(Gk.) Gk. 5m, through, Xiyofxai^I discourse (above).
the line measuring the
Diameter,
between,apart ; allied to Di- (2, and to
breadth
thickness through. [ F.
In
all
words
Two.
across
or
%
nearly
beginning
meter
with dia-,except dial,diamond, diary.
L.
Gk.) Mid, F. dia?netre,'a diaGk. hidL. diatnetros.
Cot.
;
Diaibetes,a disease accompaniedwith
f.
Gk. Sid,through; fxirpov,
excessive dischargeof urine. (Gk.) Gk.
a
^"Tpos,
a
Sia^TjTTjs,
; cf. f^erpuu^ to measure.
pair of compasses, a siphon, measure
"

"

"

"

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

M.Y^.dia(F,-L,-Gk.)
diaiiiant,altered form of

Gk. dia^aiveiv,
stand with
Diamond.
to
legsapart (likecompasses or a siphon).viant."0.".
adamant
Gk.
;
Slo,,apart; liaivav,to go; see

diabetes.

"

the
"

Come.

Diabolical.
devilish.

Gk.

"

(L. Gk.)
"

the devil ;
5ja/3oAo?,

Diaconal,
(F.-L.-Gk.)
didcondlis

from
,

see

see

diaconal.

a
^

a
didconiis,

(Gk.)

"

of

belonging to
F.
L.

"

Devil.

Deacon.

Diacritic.

\^.diabolic -us,
Gk.

devilish.
dia^oXiicus,

also Ital. Span, diamante,


so
See Adamant.
G. diamant, demant.
whole
octave, harmony.
Diapason, a
cord
(L. Gk.) L. diapason,an octave, con-

Gk.

deacon.
Late L.
deacon ;

note

with

its octave.

"

Gk. hia-

Tidawv,concord of firstand last notes of an


Gk.
octave, lit. 'through all the notes.
of
fem.
bid,through; Ttdawv,gen. pi.
Tray,
all (xopdcvv
; see Pan-,
beingunderstood)

dis- prefix.
SiaKpiTiKos,
140

'

"

DIFFER

DIMITY

'
find di(zta used to mean
a
'
and dieta for a day'swork
'

office or

duty

Differ.

'

journey ;
day's
'

'

and

Ducange.

M. F.

CF. L.)
-

(L.)

ings,

L.
differer.
-

differ

From
pp. of L. dtlalike stones.
L. di- (for
oi lapis,
stem
dis-^,
a stone.
apart ; lapid-,
Dilate.
(F.-L.) O. F. dilater,to

ruin.

to

daily piddre,to

L.

scatter

"

widen.
L. dildtare, to
L. didif- widen.
differre, carry apart,
Cf.
bear.
Defei\
See
to
tude.
Lati(fordis-),
(fordis-),
ldtns,\)xo2,^.
ferre,
apart ;
apart;
ee.
A. F. dilatorie.
Der. dilat-ory,
Difficulty.(F.-L.) W.^. difficult
O. F. dlfflcnIte.'-'L.
ace.
a perplexity.
Dilemma,
difficultdtem,
(L. Gk.) L,
of difficultas
VikQ /aai/tasdilemma.'^ G\i. dikTjfifia.
a double
(.for
'^difficiliias,
tion,
proposiL. difficilis,
hard.
is caught
or
difficulty.
for_/a"7?Va/,
argument in which one
L. dif-(fordis-)apart ; facilis,
difficulties.Gk. 5i-,twice,
two
easy ; between
double ; \Tj/j.fxa,
Facile.
an
see
assumption,premiss.
of See Lemma.
stem
Diffident.
(L.) L. diffident'^
to distrust.
diffidenSy
Dilettante, a lover of the fine arts,
pres. pt. of difftdere,
lit. 'delightL. dif\ t//^-),
to
trust, (Ital."L.) Ital. dilettante,
ing
apart ; fldere,
allied tojides,
faith. See Faith.
to
in.' Ital, dilettare,
delight.L,
to delight
Delectable.
Diffuse.
^L-) L- diffusus,
; see
pp. oidif- deleddre,
L. ^z/"to shed abroad.
{=dis-)^ Diligent, industrious. (F.-L.) O.F.
fuiidere,
of dJligens,
stem
(i). diligent. L. diligent-,
apart ; fundere,to pour ; see Fuse
make
F.
lit.
to
a
careful,diligent, loving (fond); pres.
digtier,
Dig. (F. Du.)
lit.choose
dike.
F. digue,a dike.
Flem. and Du.
to love, select,
pt. of dlligere,
Dike.
L. di- ( dis-),
to
between.
a dike; see
flfz/'^,
;
apart legere,
to

to

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Digest,

to

assimilate food.

(L.)

M. E.

See Legend.

choose.

M. E. dille. A. S.
Dan. dild,Swed. dill,G.
rate, dile.^Du. dille,
carry apart, sepaO. H. G. tilli.
dille,
dissolve,digest. L. di- (fordis-),

digest,used

as

pp.

digested.L. dtges- Dill, a plant.(E.)

"

to
tiis,
pp. of digerere,

dill,^

"

apart ; gerere,

to

Dilute.

carry.

pp. is

(L.) 'L.diliitns.-pp.oidTluer

L.
away, also to mix with water.
the obs. xQxhdight,di- ffor dis-),
apart ; luere,to wash.
(E.) M. E. dim. A. S. dim, dark.
to arrange, prepare, M. E. dikten,to prepare. Dim.
Cf.
A.S. dihtan,to set in order,arrange ; "4-Icel. dimmr, dim ; M. Dan. dim.
M.
G.
dim
Swed.
H.
from L. dictdre,to dictate,
a
borrowed
timmer,
dimma,
;
prescribe

Dight,

short for

(L.) Dight as

adorned.

; see

finger;

to wash

"

from
dighted,

fog,haze

Dictate.

(L.)
figure.
Digit, a finger,
a

hence

L.,digitus^

from countingon
figure,

; O. Irish

F.

L.)

deim, dark.

the tenth part of a dollar. (F.^


L.
dime, O. F. disme^ tenth.

Dime,

"

decinia,a tithe ; fern, of L. decimus, tenth,


M.
E.
dignitee. allied to decem, ten. See Ten.
Dignity. (F. L.)
of
sion."
ace.
O. F. digizetc.L. dignitatem,
Dimension.
(F. L.) O.Y. dimen-

the

fingers.

"

"

"

worthiness.
dignitds,

Brugm.

i. ^

"

"

L.

^/^wwj,worthy.

762 (3).

dimensionem, a measuring.
to measure
dimensus, pp. of dimetirl,
\^. ace.

L.

"

dignify. (F.-L.) O.Y.digniJier.^ off.


"

Med.

make
L. digniJicare,\.o

worthy.
"

L.

L.

di'

(fordis-^,
apart; metiri, to

See Measure.
Diminish, to lessen.

measure.

for
(F.-L.") Coined
digni; for digmis, worthy ; -Jicdre,
and E. minish',
dlfrom
L.
make.
to
dis-),
{
a
part,
facere,
L. in imitation of L. dlminnere,to diminish
lit.
aside.
to
^L.)
step
Digress,
L. (below). See Minish.
to go aside.
dig}'essus,
pp. of digredl,
tion."
See
fF. L.) F. diminudiminution.
di- (fordis-),apart ; gradi,to go.
"

"

"

diminutidne7n, diminution.
L. diminUtus, pp. of diminuere, to
lessen. L. di- ( c/2,y-),
apart; minnere,
\^.

Grade.

trench and embankment,


a trench,
(E.) M. E. dik. A. S. die,masc.
-f-Du. dijk,Icel. diki, Dan. dige,Swed.
dike,G. teich,
pond,tank. Der. dig,q. v.

Dike,

bank.

ace.

"p-

"

to

lessen.

See Minute.

Dimissory,

giving

leave

to

depart.

See Ditch.
(L.) L. dimissorius,giving leave to go
of
L.
another judge. L. dimisstiSy
before
From
Dilacerate.
pp. of
(L.)
pp.
L. di- (for
dis-)^
dilacerdre,to tear apart. L. di- (fordis-),dimittere. to send away.
to send.
See
Lacerate.
miftere,
to
tear.
lacerdre,
away;
;
apart
stoae buildto pulldown
Dimity, a white stuff.(Ital L." Gk.)
"

"

"

Dilapidate,

"

142

DIRGE

DIMPLE
'

flanell ; ' Florio.

or

(pL dimitd),silk

tum

threads.

Gk.

"

Icel. dyntr,a dint,dynta,to dint ; Swed.


dial, dunt, a stroke,dunta,to strike.
Diocese.
(F'. L. Gk.) M. E. diodiocise (F. dioche).^!^.
dioecise.'-O.V

of course
Late L. di7ni-

a kind
i^X.dimiti),

Ital.dimito
cotton

Gk.
thread,
of the woof.
"

Dimple,

"

woven

made
difxiro^,
Si-,double ;

with

witli two
a double

jjlltos,a

"

"

Gk.
a
administration,
hiOLK-qcns,
province,diocese. Gk. dioixfou,I keep
Gk. di- (forSid , throughhouse,govern.
out
cesis.

thread

"

"

small

hollow.

(E. ?) M. E.

"

I dwell,occupy, from oikos, a


; oiK"Q},
dympidl. Perhaps from a base *diimp-,
house ; see Wick, a town.
dial, diifup,
allied to dip. Cf. Dan.
a
hollow in a field ; dybbel,
a pool,
a hollow
Dioptrics, the science of the refraction
of light.(Gk.) Gk. ra SiOTTTpi/rci,
in the upper lip(Moll)ech); Du. doinpelen,
dioptrics.
to the Siovrpa,
M. H. G. tiimpfcl. Gk. SiOTiTpiK6s,
to dive; G. diimpfel,
relating
O. H. Cr. tiunphilo,
a
deep pool. Also an opticalinstrument for takingheights,
Gk. Si-d,through; base *on- (fut.
"c.
Lith. dubus, hollow ; dubti,to be holl jvv
"

"

see;
-rpa, fern, instrumental
M. E. dine, dune.
suffix. See Optics.
a scene
A. S. dyne, dyn\ dynnan, to resound. -4- Diorama,
seen
througha small
Icel. dynr, Swed.
dan, Dan. don^ noise ; opening.(Gk.) Gk. Si- (forSid),
through;
from updoj.
I see.
Skt. dhzmi-,Toaiing,
d Ava fii- a. din,dhvan, opafj-a, a sight,

to
oipofxai),

(pres.t. dumb-u).

Din,

(E.)

clamour.

to

resound.

Bine.

(F.-L.)

M.

dinen.^O,

E.

F.
L. *dis-

disner,F. diner, to dine. Late


to break
iundre, short for *disieifinare,
from
one's fast. L. dis- ; ieiilndre,
to fast,
"

"

Dip, to plunge,immerge. (E.) M. E.


dippen. A. S. dyppan, later dippan; for
causal form from the base dup-,
*diip-jan,
weak gradeof deup-,
in A. S. deop,
as seen
Cf.
Dan.
see
Deep.
;
deep
dyppe,to dip.
Diphtheria. (Gk.)

ieivnus, fasting.(Romania, viii.95.)

dinner. (F. L.) ^\.".. diner; from


O. F. disner,to dine ; the infinitivemood

leather
Bi:po.,

"

beingused

Ding*,
M. E,

as

to

dingen,

pt. t.

the

5t"J)-

Gk.

From

nature
leathery

of

the false membrane


formed in the disease.
Cf. Gk, Se^pfiv,
to make
supple.

sb.

throw

; from

beat. (E.?)
violently,
dang, jjp. dungen ; as

Diphthong,
sounds

in

one

union

of

vowel-

two

L.

syllable.(F.
"

Gk.)

"

though not found in A. S. Formerly dipthong(BenJonson). ]\L F.


i. G.
Cf. Icel. dengia,Dan. dcenge,'"^"A.ddnga,
diptJwngue.L. ace. diphthongjim,
wiih two
sounds.
Gk. 8t- (for
Cf. M.
verbs.
to bang; all weak
Dan.
SiipOoyyos,
double; (pOuj-yos,
dinge,to blunt an edge by beatingon it ; 5(5),
sound,from (pOeyyoa

strong verb

"

"

"

"

O. H. G.

From
a hammer.
a Teut.
tangol,
p.ai, I cry out.
type *denga7t-.
Diploma. (L. Gk.) L. diploma,a
document
dell.
a
or
Scand.)
deep
conferringa privilege. Gk.
Bingle,
(E.
JvL E. dingle. Cf. diinble,
in a similar S'nrXojpia,
a
thingfolded double ; also,a
Of uncertain origin.Cf. Dimple.
sense.
licence, diploma (prob. orig. folded
Dingo, the native dog of Australia. double). Gk, SnrKuos,double. Gk. Sidouble ; -ttXvos,folded.
plomatdiDer.
(New S. Wales.) Ne-v S. Wales dij2go,[Sis),
written teingo
of SinXajfia.
in 1798 (Morris).
stem
ic,from Snr\ojfj.aT-,
Dingy, dirty.(E.) Orig.soiled with
Diptera, two-winged insects. (Gk,)
From Gk. 81- {Sis),
double ; itripov, a wing,
dung. Cf. A. S. dingiung (for *dyng'i'zing,
with g as/),a dunging; from dung, dung ; from the weak grade of niTOfxai,
1 fly.
also Swed. dyngig,dungy,from dyng, Diptych, a double-folding
tablet. (L.
so
dung ; see Dung. For the pronunciation, Gk.) Late L. pi,diptycha. Gk. Sicf. stingy(allied
to sting).
trrvxa, a pair of tablets ; nent. pi.of SiSi- (Sis),
Gk.
Dingy (withhard^),Dingey, a small "UTvxos, folded in two.
boat. (Bengali.)Beng. dingy, a small
double ; tttvxv, a fold,-mvacriiv, to fold.
boat ; it has become
porated Dire.
incor(L.) L. dims, fearful.
legitimately
in the vocabularyof the British
Direct, adj.(L.) L. dlrcdus, pp. of
of the smallest ship'sdlrigere,
L. di- (for dis-),
to direct.
Navy, as the name
apart;
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"

boat

'

(Yule\

Dinner

Dint,
dunt

regere,

Dine.
blow, force.

A.S.

rule.

dirge. (L.) Formerly dJrige;

see

also dent.

to

(E.) M. E. dint,
dynt,a blow.-f

frona

'
Doof the anthem
dirige.
the
dead. L.
mens,' in the officefor

the firstword
minus

A-h

"

DIRK

DISEMBARK

diHge,direct

thou (cf.
Ps. v. 8); 2
sing,oi dirigere(above).

Dirk,

imper, Disconsolate.

(L.) Late L. disconcomfortless.


L. dis-,apart; conj-JAf/wi",
to console ; from
soldtiis,
pp. of conscldrT,

p.

"

dagger. (,Du.?) Spelt dork


See
to comfort.
(a,d. 1602) ; also diirk. Perhapsfrom Du. con- {cum), with,soldrl,
dolk^ a dagger;a word of Slavonic origin. Solace.
Cf. Polish tiilich,
Irish i/z//;r,Discord, sb. (F.-L.)
a dagger. %
O.Y.descord,
is borrowed
from E.
variance ; formed
from O. F. desa poniard,
discord,
Dirt. (Scand.) From M. E. drit (with corder,vb.,to be at variance. L..discorddre
a

"

sliiftedr). Icel. di-it.dirt,excrement


of (the same'). L. discord-, stem
of discors,
birds. Cf. Icel.(^//'v/a,
L. dis-,apart ; cord-,
to void excrement.
adj. discordant.
+
M. Du. drete,Du. dreet,sb.,drijten,
of cor, heart.
vb.
stem
L.
of.
dis-,
(^L.)
TAb-,^prefix.
Discount, verb. (F. L.) Formerly
apart:
"

"

"

"

Gk.

Hence
O. F. discompt. U. F. descompter,to reckon
Di-.
dis- in E., back or off. O. F. des- (L. dis-),
becomes
des-,which sometimes
away;
and
sometimes
de-, as in de-feat.The
(2).
compter, to count ; see Count
versal Discourse.
prefixdis- commonly expresses the reF.-L.) O. F. di scours,

Si-, apart ;

see

"

"

of

act, somewhat
For most
prefix
with this prefix,
see

verbal

an

like the

E.

sb.

"

L.

discttrsum.

ace.

of

a
discursus,

words
ginning
berunning about ; also, conversation..- L.
the simpler discursus,pp. of discurrere. to run
about.
For
L dis-,apart ; ctirrere, to run.
forms.
example, for dis-abuse,see
abuse ; and so on.
Discover.
(F. L.) M.\L. discoueren
M. F. desastre, discovcren\.
O. F. descotwrir,to uncover,
Disaster.
(F. L.)
tin-.

"

"

'

"

"

'

disaster,misfortune

fortune.'" O. F.
sinister

bad

or

Cot.

Lit.

'

des-, for L. dis-, with


sense

and

ill-

L. astrtwi,

disclose.

apart ;

disc?-et. L,.
discern ;
to

O.

see

Discern.

(L. dis-),

des-

See Cover.
"

of

L.) O. F.
dis-cernere,

Der.

ion.
discret-

F.

(F.-L.)
Discrepant, differing,

O. F.

"

F.

cover.

discretns,
pp.

"

star.

Disburse.
(F.-L. and Gk.)
take
to
out of a purse.
desbouj-ser,

O.

"

couvrir,to

Discreet, prudent.(F.

M. F. asfre,

also destiny,
from
fortune,
planet,

star,

'

desfrom

F. bourse,
a
(L. dis-),
away:
purse,
Late L. bursa, Gk. ^vpaa, a skin
(hence,a hag). See Bursar.

M.F.

of pres.
"h.
stem
discrepant,
discrepant-,
to differ (in sound)."
part, of discrepare,
sound.
L. dis-,
apart ; crepare.to crackle,

(,L.) L. discrlmindDisc, Disk, a round plate.(L. Gk.) Discriminate.


L. discus,a quoit,a plate. Gk. Sictkos,
to separate. L.
a
ties,
pp. of discrimindre,
Gk.
throw.
of
to
stem
5i/f"n', cast,
discrimen,a separaquoit.
Brugm. discrimin-,
tion.
to
See Dish, Desk, Dais.
L. discernere (pt.t. discre-ui),
i. " 744.
"

"

"

"

"

Discern.
(F. L.) F. discemer.^'L.
distinguish.L. dis-,apart ; cernere, to
L. dis-. separate.
determine.
to separate,
discernere,
us,
Discursive.
cern.
(L.) From L. discursapart ; cernere, to separate. Cf. Conof
discwrere,to run about; with
pp.
"

"

"

Disciple. (F.-L.^i
discipulum,

ace.

F.

^l..
disciple.

suffix -ive.

See Discourse.
(L.) M. E. discussed,pp.
L. discussus,
pp. of disaway.

Discuss.

of discipidus,
learner.
a
learn ; allied to docere,to

L. discere,to
driven
teach ; see
Docile.
Der.
cutere,to shake asunder ; in Late L., to
discipl-ine,
O. F. discipline,
L. disciplina,
learning. discuss. L. dis-,apart ; quatere,to shake.
Disclose.
(F.-L.) M. E. disclosen. Disdain, sb. (F. L.) M. E. disdeyn.
to
O. F. desclos-,
O. F. desdein,
sb. O. F. desdegnier,
of desclorre,
to
pres. stem
"

"

"

"

"

"

unclose,open.
L. a??,y-,
apart
"

"

L.
;

unclose.
See
close.

to
disclaudere,

claudere,to

Clause.

"

disdain.

"

O. F. des-

(L.dis-),
apart ; degn-

ier (L.digndri),to think worthy, from


seems
digntcs,
worthy. ^ O. F. desdegnier

M. E. discomfit
been substituted for L. dedigndri,
L.^
to have
de-,down).
discomfited,
disconfit,
pp. to disdain (with prefix
of
want
of desconfire,
Cot.
Disease.
to discomfit,
(F.) O. F. desaise,
vanquish,'
O. F. des-;and confire,
O. F. des- (L.dis-); aise,ease.
ease.
to preserve, make
Disembark.
to
(F.) M. F. desembarready. L. dis-,apart; and conficere,
L. con[ciini),quer. O. F. des- (L. dis-),
away ; embarpreserve, complete,from
See Pact.
to put, make.
together,
facere,
quer, to embark ; see Embark.

Discomfit.

(Bruce).
"

(F.
"

O. F.
'

"

"

"

"

144

DISEMBOGUE

river.

to

into the sea,

to flow

Disembogue,
a

DISPOSITION
as

O. H. G.

Span. dese??ibocar,
power,
Span, des- (L. dis-),esmayer,

(Span. L.)
"

disembogue.
"

the mouth, from

be

have

(G. mogen), to

magan
able