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Introduction to Ionic Compounds

Those molecules that consist of charged ions with opposite charges are called IONIC. These
ionic compounds are generally solids with high melting points and conduct electrical current.
Ionic compounds are generally formed from metal and a non-metal elements. See Ionic
Bonding below.

Ionic Compound Example:

For example, you are familiar with the fairly benign unspectacular behavior of common white
crystalline table salt (NaCl). Salt consists of positive sodium ions (Na+) and negative chloride
ions (Cl-). On the other hand the element sodium is a silvery gray metal composed of neutral
atoms which react vigorously with water or air. Chlorine as an element is a neutral greenishyellow, poisonous, diatomic gas (Cl2).
The main principle to remember is that ions are completely different in physical and
chemical properties from the neutral atoms of the element .
The notation of the + and - charges on ions is very important as it conveys a definite meaning.
Whereas elements are neutral in charge, IONS have either a positive or negative charge
depending upon whether there is an excess of protons (positive ion) or excess of electrons
(negative ion).
Formation of Positive Ions.
Formation of Negative Ions.

Introduction to Ionic Bonding:

Ionic bonding is best treated using a simple electrostatic model . The electrostatic model is
simply an application of the charge principles that opposite charges attract and similar charges
repel. An ionic compound results from the interaction of a positive and negative ion, such as
sodium and chloride in common salt.
The IONIC BOND results as a balance between the force of attraction between opposite plus
and minus charges of the ions and the force of repulsion between similar negative charges in the
electron clouds. In crystalline compounds this net balance of forces is called the LATTICE
ENERGY. Lattice energy is the energy released in the formation of an ionic compound.
DEFINITION: The formation of an IONIC BOND is the result of the transfer of one or
more electrons from a metal onto a non-metal.

Metals, with only a few electrons in the outer energy level, tend to lose electrons most readily.
The energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom is called the IONIZATION
Energy + Metal Atom ---> Metal (+) ion + e-

Non-metals, which lack only one or two electrons in the outer energy level have little tendency
to lose electrons - the ionization potential would be very high. Instead non-metals have
a tendency to gain electrons. The ELECTRON AFFINITY is the energy given off by an atom
when it gains electrons.
Non-metal Atom + e- --- Non-metal (-) ion + energy
The energy required to produce positive ions (ionization potential) is roughly balanced by the
energy given off to produce negative ions (electron affinity). The energy released by the net
force of attraction by the ions provides the overall stabilizing energy of the compound.

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Table of Contents

Covalent Bonding
Bonding in Organic Chemistry
Outside links
There are many types of chemical bonds and forces that bind molecules together. The two most basic types of bonds
are characterized as either ionic or covalent. In ionic bonding, atoms transfer electrons to each other. Ionic bonds
require at least one electron donor and one electron acceptor. In contrast, atoms with the
same electronegativity share electrons in covalent bonds, because neither atom preferentially attracts or repels the
shared electrons.

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that
generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged
cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. Ionic bonds require an
electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.
Ionic bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in their outer-most orbitals. By losing those electrons,
these metals can achieve noble gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8

electrons in their valence shells tend to readily accept electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. In ionic bonding,
more than 1 electron can be donated or received to satisfy the octet rule. The charges on the anion and cation
correspond to the number of electrons donated or received. In ionic bonds, the net charge of the compound must be
This sodium molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbital in order to achieve octet configuration. This
creates a positively charged cation due to the loss of electron.

This chlorine atom receives one electron to achieve its octet configuration, which creates a negatively charged anion.
The predicted overall energy of the ionic bonding process, which includes the ionization energy of the metal and
electron affinity of the nonmetal, is usually positive, indicating that the reaction is endothermic and unfavorable.
However, this reaction is highly favorable because of the electrostatic attraction between the particles. At the ideal
interatomic distance, attraction between these particles releases enough energy to facilitate the reaction. Most ionic
compounds tend to dissociate in polar solvents because they are often polar. This phenomenon is due to the opposite
charges on each ion.

Example 1: Chloride Salts

In this example, the sodium atom is donating its 1 valence electron to the chlorine atom. This creates a sodium cation and a chlorine anion. Notice th
the net charge of the resulting compound is 0.

In this example, the magnesium atom is donating both of its valence electrons to chlorine atoms. Each chlorine atom can only accept 1 electron befo
it can achieve its noble gas configuration; therefore, 2 atoms of chlorine are required to accept the 2 electrons donated by the magnesium. Notice th
the net charge of the compound is 0.

Covalent Bonding
Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This type of bonding occurs between two atoms of the
same element or of elements close to each other in the periodic table. This bonding occurs primarily between
nonmetals; however, it can also be observed between nonmetals and metals.
If atoms have similar electronegativities (the same affinity for electrons), covalent bonds are most likely to occur.
Because both atoms have the same affinity for electrons and neither has a tendency to donate them, they share
electrons in order to achieve octet configuration and become more stable. In addition, the ionization energy of the
atom is too large and the electron affinity of the atom is too small for ionic bonding to occur. For example: carbon
does not form ionic bonds because it has 4 valence electrons, half of an octet. To form ionic bonds, Carbon
molecules must either gain or lose 4 electrons. This is highly unfavorable; therefore, carbon molecules share their 4
valence electrons through single, double, and triple bonds so that each atom can achieve noble gas configurations.
Covalent bonds include interactions of the sigma and pi orbitals; therefore, covalent bonds lead to formation of single,
double, triple, and quadruple bonds.

Example 2: PCl3

In this example, a phosphorous atom is sharing its 3 unpaired electrons with 3 chlorine atoms. In the end product, all four of these molecules
have 8 valence electrons and satisfy the octet rule.

Bonding in Organic Chemistry

Ionic and covalent bonds are the two extremes of bonding. Polar covalent is the intermediate type of bonding
between the two extremes. Some ionic bonds contain covalent characteristics and some covalent bonds are partially
ionic. For example, most carbon-based compounds are covalently bonded but can also be partially ionic. Polarity is a
measure of the separation of charge in a compound. A compound's polarity is dependent on the symmetry of the
compound and on differences in electronegativity between atoms. Polarity occurs when the electron pushing
elements, found on the left side of the periodic table, exchanges electrons with the electron pulling elements, on the
right side of the table. This creates a spectrum of polarity, with ionic (polar) at one extreme, covalent (nonpolar) at
another, and polar covalent in the middle.
Both of these bonds are important in organic chemistry. Ionic bonds are important because they allow the synthesis
of specific organic compounds. Scientists can manipulate ionic properties and these interactions in order to form
desired products. Covalent bonds are especially important since most carbon molecules interact primarily through
covalent bonding. Covalent bonding allows molecules to share electrons with other molecules, creating long chains of
compounds and allowing more complexity in life.

Outside links

Ionic Bonding: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/22640-compounds-ions-and-ionic-bonding-video.htm

Covalent Bonding: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/22641-compounds-covalent-bonds-video.htm
Ionic and Covalent Bonding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqjcCvzWwww
Haaland, Arne; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Shorokhov, D. J. "Should Gaseous BF3 and SiF4 Be
Described as Ionic Compounds?" J. Chem. Educ. 2000 77 1076.

Bonds: http://www.youtube.com/watch?



Vollhardt, K. Peter C., and Neil E. Schore. Organic Chemistry Structure and Function. New York: W. H.
Freeman, 2007.


Petrucci, Ralph H. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Education, 2007.
Brown, Theodore L., Eugene H. Lemay, and Bruce E. Bursten. Chemistry: The Central Science. 6th ed.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

1. Are these compounds ionic or covalent?

2. In the following reactions, indicate whether the reactants and products are ionic or covalently bonded.

b) Clarification: What is the nature of the bond between sodium and amide? What kind of bond forms between the
anion carbon chain and sodium?



1) From left to right: Covalent, Ionic, Ionic, Covalent, Covalent, Covalent, Ionic.
2a) All products and reactants are ionic.
2b) From left to right: Covalent, Ionic, Ionic, Covalent, Ionic, Covalent, Covalent, Ionic.

2c) All products and reactants are covalent.

Ionic compounds and ionic bonding

When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the nonmetal atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.
Consider reactions between metals and non-metals, for example,

sodium + chlorine sodium chloride

magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide
calcium + chlorine calcium chloride
In each of these reactions, the metal atoms give electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal
atoms become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions.
There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between these oppositely charged ions, called
an ionic bond. The animation shows ionic bonds being formed in sodium chloride, magnesium
oxide and calcium chloride.
There are many ionic bonds in an ionic compound such as sodium chloride, arranged in
giant lattice structures. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.

Ionic bonding
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sodium and fluorine undergoing a redox reaction to form sodium fluoride. Sodium loses its outerelectron to give
it a stable electron configuration, and this electron enters the fluorine atom exothermically. The oppositely
charged ions typically a great many of them are then attracted to each other to form a solid.

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between
oppositely chargedions. These ions represent atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known
as cations) and atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions). This transfer of
electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is
a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature,
e.g. molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42. In simpler words, an ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from
a metal to a non-metal in order for both atoms to obtain a full valence shell.
It is important to recognize that clean ionic bonding in which one atom "steals" an electron from
another cannot exist: All ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding, or electron
sharing. Thus, the term "ionic bonding" is given when the ionic character is greater than the covalent
characterthat is, a bond in which a large electronegativity difference exists between the two atoms,
causing the bonding to be more polar (ionic) than in covalent bonding where electrons are shared
more equally. Bonds with partially ionic and partially covalent character are called polar covalent
Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution, but typically not as a solid. There are
exceptions to this rule, such as rubidium silver iodide, where the silver ion can be quite mobile. Ionic
compounds generally have a high melting point, depending on the charge of the ions they consist of.
The higher the charges the stronger the cohesive forces and the higher the melting point. They also
tend to be soluble in water. Here, the opposite trend roughly holds: The weaker the cohesive forces,
the greater the solubility.

1 Overview

2 Formation

3 Structures

4 Bond strength

5 Polarization effects

6 Comparison with covalent bonding

7 Electrical conductivity

8 See also

9 References

10 External links

Atoms that have an almost full or almost empty valence shells tend to be very reactive. Atoms that
are strongly electronegative (as is the case with halogens) often only have one or two missing
electrons in their valence shell, and frequently bond with other molecules or gain electrons to
form anions. Atoms that are weakly electronegative (such as alkali metals) have relatively few
valence electrons that can easily be lost to atoms that are strongly electronegative. As a result,
weakly electronegative atoms tend to lose their electrons and form cations.

Ionic bonding can result from a redox reaction when atoms of an element (usually metal),
whose ionization energy is low, release some of their electrons to achieve a stable electron
configuration. In doing so, cations are formed. The atom of another element (usually nonmetal),
whose electron affinity is positive, then accepts the electron(s), again to attain a stable electron
configuration, and after accepting electron(s) the atom becomes an anion. Typically, the stable
electron configuration is one of the noble gases for elements in the s-block and the p-block, and
particular stable electron configurations for d-block and f-block elements. The electrostatic attraction
between the anions and cations leads to the formation of a solid with a crystallographic lattice in
which the ions are stacked in an alternating fashion. In such a lattice, it is usually not possible to
distinguish discrete molecular units, so that the compounds formed are not molecular in nature.
However, the ions themselves can be complex and form molecular ions like the acetate anion or the
ammonium cation.
For example, common table salt is sodium chloride. When sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) are
combined, the sodium atoms each lose an electron, forming cations (Na+), and the chlorine atoms
each gain an electron to form anions (Cl). These ions are then attracted to each other in a 1:1 ratio
to form sodium chloride (NaCl).
Na + Cl Na+ + Cl NaCl
However, to maintain charge neutrality, strict ratios between anions and cations are observed so
that ionic compounds, in general, obey the rules of stoichiometry despite not being molecular
compounds. For compounds that are transitional to the alloys and possess mixed ionic and
metallic bonding, this may not be the case anymore. Many sulfides, e.g., do form nonstoichiometric compounds.
Many ionic compounds are referred to as salts as they can also be formed by the neutralization
reaction of an Arrhenius base like NaOH with an Arrhenius acid like HCl
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

The salt NaCl is then said to consist of the acid rest Cl and the base rest Na+.

Representation of ionic bonding between lithium and fluorine to formlithium fluoride. Lithium has a low
ionization energy and readily gives up its lone valence electron to a fluorine atom, which has a
positive electron affinity and accepts the electron that was donated by the lithium atom. The end-result
is that lithium is isoelectronic withhelium and fluorine is isoelectronic withneon. Electrostatic interaction
occurs between the two resulting ions, but typically aggregation is not limited to two of them. Instead,
aggregation into a whole lattice held together by ionic bonding is the result.

The removal of electrons from the cation is endothermic, raising the system's overall energy.
There may also be energy changes associated with breaking of existing bonds or the
addition of more than one electron to form anions. However, the action of the anion's
accepting the cation's valence electrons and the subsequent attraction of the ions to each
other releases (lattice) energy and, thus, lowers the overall energy of the system.
Ionic bonding will occur only if the overall energy change for the reaction is favorable. In
general, the reaction is exothermic, but, e.g., the formation of mercuric oxide (HgO) is
endothermic. The charge of the resulting ions is a major factor in the strength of ionic
bonding, e.g. a salt C+A is held together by electrostatic forces roughly four times weaker
than C2+A2according to Coulombs law, where C and A represent a generic cation and anion
respectively. Of course the sizes of the ions and the particular packing of the lattice are
ignored in this simple argument.

Ionic compounds in the solid state form lattice structures. The two principal factors in
determining the form of the lattice are the relative charges of the ions and their relative
sizes. Some structures are adopted by a number of compounds; for example, the structure
of the rock salt sodium chloride is also adopted by many alkali halides, and binary oxides
such asMgO. Pauling's rules provide guidelines for predicting and rationalizing the crystal
structures of ionic crystals

Bond strength[edit]
Main article: Lattice energy
For a solid crystalline ionic compound the enthalpy change in forming the solid from
gaseous ions is termed the lattice energy. The experimental value for the lattice energy can

be determined using the Born-Haber cycle. It can also be calculated (predicted) using
the Born-Land equation as the sum of the electrostatic potential energy, calculated by
summing interactions between cations and anions, and a short-range repulsive potential
energy term. The electrostatic potential can be expressed in terms of the inter-ionic
separation and a constant (Madelung constant) that takes account of the geometry of the
crystal. The further away from the nucleus the weaker the shield. The Born-Land
equation gives a reasonable fit to the lattice energy of, e.g., sodium chloride, where the
calculated (predicted) value is 756 kJ/mol, which compares to 787 kJ/mol using the BornHaber cycle.[1][2]

Polarization effects[edit]
Ions in crystal lattices of purely ionic compounds are spherical; however, if the positive ion is
small and/or highly charged, it will distort the electron cloud of the negative ion, an effect
summarised in Fajans' rules. This polarization of the negative ion leads to a build-up of extra
charge density between the two nuclei, i.e., to partial covalency. Larger negative ions are
more easily polarized, but the effect is usually important only when positive ions
with charges of 3+ (e.g., Al3+) are involved. However, 2+ ions (Be2+) or even 1+ (Li+) show
some polarizing power because their sizes are so small (e.g., LiI is ionic but has some
covalent bonding present). Note that this is not the ionic polarization effect that refers to
displacement of ions in the lattice due to the application of an electric field.

Comparison with covalent bonding[edit]

In ionic bonding, the atoms are bound by attraction of opposite ions, whereas, in covalent
bonding, atoms are bound by sharing electrons to attain stable electron configurations. In
covalent bonding, the molecular geometry around each atom is determined by valence shell
electron pair repulsion VSEPR rules, whereas, in ionic materials, the geometry follows
maximum packing rules. One could say that covalent bonding is more directional in the
sense that the energy penalty for not adhering to the optimum bond angles is large, whereas
ionic bonding has no such penalty. There are no shared electron pairs to repel each other,
the ions should simply be packed as efficiently as possible. This often leads to much higher
coordination numbers. In NaCl, each ion has 6 neighbors and all bond angles are 90
degrees. In CsCl the coordination number is 8. By comparison carbon typically has a
maximum of four neighbors.
Purely ionic bonding cannot exist, as the proximity of the entities involved in the bonding
allows some degree of sharing electron density between them. Therefore, all ionic bonding
has some covalent character. Thus, bonding is considered ionic where the ionic character is
greater than the covalent character. The larger the difference in electronegativity between
the two types of atoms involved in the bonding, the more ionic (polar) it is. Bonds with
partially ionic and partially covalent character are called polar covalent bonds. For example,
NaCl and MgO interactions have a few percent covalency, while SiO bonds are usually
~50% ionic and ~50% covalent. Pauling estimated that an electronegativity difference of 1.7
(on the Pauling scale) corresponds to 50% ionic character, so that a difference greater than

50% corresponds to a bond which is predominantly ionic.[3] Ionic character in covalent bonds
can be directly measured for atoms having quadrupolar nuclei (2H, 14N, 81,79Br, 35,37Cl or 127I).
These nuclei are generally objects of NQR nuclear quadrupole resonance and NMR nuclear
magnetic resonance studies. Interactions between the nuclear quadrupole moments Q and
the electric field gradients (EFG) are characterized via the nuclear quadrupole coupling
constants QCC = e2qzzQ/h where the eqZZ term corresponds to the principal component of the
EFG tensor and e is the elementary charge. In turn, the electric field gradient opens the way
to description of bonding modes in molecules when the QCC values are accurately
determined by NMR or NQR methods.
In general, when ionic bonding occurs in the solid (or liquid) state, it is not possible to talk
about a single "ionic bond" between two individual atoms, because the cohesive forces that
keep the lattice together are of a more collective nature. This is quite different in the case of
covalent bonding, where we can often speak of a distinct bond localized between two
particular atoms. However, even if ionic bonding is combined with some covalency, the
result is not necessarily discrete bonds of a localized character. In such cases, the resulting
bonding often requires description in terms of a band structure consisting of gigantic
molecular orbitals spanning the entire crystal. Thus, the bonding in the solid often retains its
collective rather than localized nature. When the difference in electronegativity is decreased,
the bonding may then lead to a semiconductor, a semimetal or eventually a metallic
conductor with metallic bonding.

Electrical conductivity[edit]
Main article: Electrolyte
Ionic compounds, if molten or dissolved, can conduct electricity because the ions in these
conditions are free to move and carry electrons between the anode and the cathode. In the
solid form, however, they typically cannot conduct because the electrons are held together
too tightly for them to move. However, some ionic compounds can conduct electricity when
solid. This is due to migration of the ions (in particular Ag+ and Cu+) themselves under the
influence of an electric field. These compounds are known fast ion conductors.

Ponema - ang pinakamaliit na unit ng makabuluhang tunog.

0Ang pag-aaral ng ponema ay binubuo ng segmental at
Segmental = ay ang tunay na tunog at ang bawat tunog ay
kinakatawanan ng isang titik sa ating alpabato.
Suprasegmental = ay ang pag-aaral ng ng diin (Stress), tono
(tune), haba (lengthening) at hinto

2 Sa pakikipagtalastasan, matutukoy natin ang kahulugan, layunin o

intensyon ng pahayag o ng nagsasalita sa pamamagitan ng mga ponemang
suprasegmental o ng mga haba, diin, tono at hintosa pagbibigkas at

* ito ay ang pagbigkas nang mahaba sa patinig (a, e, i, o, u ) ng bawat
* maaaring gumamit ng simbolong tuldok (. ) para sa pagkilala sa haba.
* mga halimbawa ng salita:
bu.kas = nangangahulugang susunod na araw
bukas = hindi sarado
2. Diin
*tumutukoy ito sa lakas ng pagbigkas s isangpantig ng salitng
*maaring gamitin sa pagkilala ng pantig na may diin ang malaking titik.
*Mga halimbawa ng salita:
BU:hay = kapalaran ng tao
bu:HAY = humihinga pa
LA:mang = natatangi
la:MANG = nakahihigit; nangunguna
3. Tono
* nagpalilinaw ng mensahe o intensyong nais ipabatid sa kausap
* Tulad ng pag-awit, sa pagsasalita ay may mababa, katamtaman at
mataas na tono.
* maaaring gamitin ang blg. 1 sa mababa, blg. 2 sa katamtaman at blg.
3 sa mataas.
* halimbawa ng salita:
Kahapon = 213, pag-aalinlangan
Kahapon = 231, pagpapatibay
talaga = 213, pag-aalinlangan
talaga = 231, pagpapatibay
4. Hinto
*ito ay ang saglit na pagtigil sa pagsasalita upang higit na maging
malinaw ang mensahe.
*maaring gumamit ng simbolo kuwit( , ), dalawang guhit na pahilis ( // )
o gitling ( - )
* mga halimbawa ng salita:
Hindi, siya ang kababata ko.
Hindi siya ang kababata ko.
May dalawang uri ng ponema: ang segmental at suprasegmental.

1. Ponemang segmental

Ang ponemang segmental ay binubuo ng ponemang katinig at patinig.

a) Labing-lima ang orihinal na kasama sa palabaybayan ngunit isinama ang impit na

tunog o glottal stop (?) sapagkat ito ay itinuturing na isang ponemang katinig dahil
napagbabago nito ang kahulugan ng isang salita. Ang dating bigkas nito ay malumi
o maragsa.

b) /p, b, m, w, d, t, l, s, n, r, y, k, g, ng, h, ?/ ang bumubuo sa ponemang katinig

ba: tah - housedress
tub: boh - pipe
ba: ta? - child
tub: bo? - profit

c) Ang ponemang patinig ay lima : a, e, i, o, u.

d) May mga salitang nagkakapalit ang ponemang /u/ at /o/, gayundin ang /i/ at /e/
ngunit hindi nagbabago ang kahulugan ng salita.

babae - babai
kalapati - kalapate
lalaki - lalake
noon - nuon

e) Mayroon din namang mga salitang itinuturing na hiwalay na ponema ang /u/,
/o/, /i/, at /e/ dahil nagbibigay ito ng magkaibang kahulugan at hindi maaaring

uso - modern
mesa - table
oso - bear
misa - mass

2. Ponemang Suprasegmental

Ang Diin, bilang ponemang suprasegmental, - ay lakas, bigat o bahagyang pagtaas

ng tinig sa pagbigkas ng isang pantig sa salitang binibigkas.

Halimbawa :
sa salitang /kamay/, ang diin ay nasa huling pantig na /may/
-ay isang ponema sapagkat sa mga salitang may iisang tunog, ang pagbabago ng
diin ay nakapagbabago sa kahulugan nito.

1. Hiram lamang ang /BUhay/ ng tao.
2. Sila /LAmang/ ang /buHAY/ sa naganap na sakuna, kaya masasabing