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Wireless-driven LEDSemiconductor Lighting System

Teng Zhan1, Jun Ma1, Xiaoyan Yi1, Sau Wee Koh2, Junxi Wang1, Xinxin Wu3,Guohong Wang1and Jinmin Li1
1
Semiconductor R&D Centre, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academic of Science
2
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, China
3
California Technology Co. Ltd, Netherlands
zhanteng10@semi.ac.cn, majun@semi.ac.cn, spring@semi.ac.cn.
Abstract
This paper reports our laboratory's latest wireless-driven
LED lighting system, which adopted wireless electrical
energy transmission technology. Wireless power transfer
technology is the transmission of electrical energy from a
power source to an electrical load without man-made
conductors. Traditional LED lighting system sensitive to rigid
environment such as humidity, corrosive and flammable.
Combining the advantages of wireless electrical power
transfer and LED semiconductor lighting technology, the
wireless-driven LED (WD-LED) lighting system has
advantages of electrical shock protection, convenient, reliable,
portable and environmentally sound. The wireless-driven
LED lighting source will gain increasing attention in the
civilian consumer electronics market, military area and special
lighting areas. To achieve wireless electric power transfer in
LED lighting system, the wireless-driven LED lighting system
should contain LED lighting module, wireless electrical
power transfer system, LED driving circuit and electrical
energy storage system. The LED lighting module was driven
by the electrical power, which was transferred from a contact
free system. Either inductive coupling or magnetic resonance
coupling is responsible for transferred the electrical power.
Wireless-driven LED lighting system has a good market
prospects, this new technology will make these innovative
LED lighting products more available, convenient and
reliable. In this paper, we mainly research in wireless
electrical energy transmission tech, LED integrated package
tech, LED driver circuit tech. Finally, we introduce several
wireless-driven LED lighting products in different application
areas.
I.

Introduction
The 2014 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics have
been awarded, one for the invention of a new way of seeing
microscopic processes in action, and the other for the
ubiquitous LED light. Isamu Akasaki from Meijo University
and Hiroshi Amano from Nagoya University, both in Japan
and Shuji Nakamura from University of California in the US
have been awarded the 2014 Nobel prize in Physics for
developing the environmentally friendly, energy-efficient blue
light-emitting diode(LED).[1]During the course of
development, red and green LEDs have been around for a
long time, but blue was missing. In recent years, GaN-based
Light-emitting diode has been showing its superiority in many
lighting applications, such as back lighting, indoor
illumination, high-power street lighting, display and some
other special lighting. However, when the interconnecting
wires of lighting system are inconvenient, hazardous, or
impossible, some special lighting systems have higher
978-1-4799-6697-4 IEEE 2014

requirements on reliability and security, such as explosionproof lamp, water-proof lamp, under-ground lamp. In these
products, owning to higher request for water-proof, explosionproof, the new engineering design must be introduced into our
lighting system.
The concept of wireless power transfer can be dated back
to as early as year 1890 when Nicola Tesla made the first
attempt to transfer considerable amount of power without
direct connection of wires, using Tesla coils designed by
him.[2] From then on, the idea of transmitting electric power
without wires has been around for over a century. In our
modern life, wireless communication has become an essential
technology in many areas. Wireless communication is the
transfer of information between two or more points that are
not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common
wireless technologies use radio. It encompasses various types
of fixed, mobile and portable applications, including two-way
radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants and
wireless networking.
However, during the past decades, with the rapid
development of semiconductor technology, more and more
integrated circuits and electronic devices have come into our
lives. Consequently, a growing number of electric wires come
into our rooms and offices, such as electric power wires of
different electrical appliance and communication wires
between devices.
Wireless power transfer is gaining more and more
increasing attention for powering and charging electrical
devices including mobile smart phones, electric vehicle,
wearable electronics, laptop computers and biomedical
implantable devices.
Wireless electrical power transmission is the transmission
of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load
without the use of interconnecting wires. Wireless
transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires
are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. There are four
different fundamental methods for wireless energy transfer.
The electrical energy can be transferred by electromagnetism
induction, capacitive coupling, magnetic resonance and
microwaves transmission.
Traditional LED lighting system sensitive to rigid
environment such as humidity, corrosive and flammable.
Combining the advantages of wireless electrical power
transfer and LED semiconductor lighting technology, the
wireless-driven LED lighting system has advantages of
electrical shock protection, convenient, reliable, portable and
environmentally sound. The wireless-driven LED lighting
source will gain increasing attention in the civilian consumer
electronics market, military area and special lighting areas. To
achieve wireless electric power transfer in LED lighting
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system, the wireless-driven LED lighting system should


contain LED lighting module, wireless electrical power
transfer system, LED driving circuit and electrical energy
storage system. The LED lighting module was driven by the
electrical power, which was transferred from a contact free
system. Either inductive coupling or magnetic resonance
coupling is responsible for transferred the electrical power.
Wireless-driven LED lighting system has a good market
prospects, this new technology will make these innovative
LED lighting products more available, convenient and
reliable. In this paper, we mainly research in wireless
electrical energy transmission tech, LED integrated package
tech, LED driver circuit tech. Finally, we introduce several
wireless-driven LED lighting products in different application
areas.
II.

General Principle and Classification of The


WirelessPower Transmission System
In this section, the structures and operating principles of
wireless electric power transmission will be introduced first,
and also the each corresponding technical characteristics will
be analyzed.
A. Electromagnetism induction
Electromagnetism induction, also known as inductive
charging is based on a few simple principles. The technology
usually requires two coils: a primary transmitter and a
secondary receiver. An alternating current is passed through
the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field, as shown in
Fig1. Then the receiver can transfer the magnetic field to
electric power. Induction usually use an induction coil to
create an alternating electromagnetic field from within a
charging base station, and a second induction coil in the
portable device takes power from the electromagnetic field
and coverts it back into electrical current to power a device or
charge the battery. The electronic products which have the
function of wireless power consortium require more
electronics and coils in both device and emitter, increasing the
complexity and cost products. For example, The electric
toothbrush charger is an example which uses this principle. A
electric toothbrushs daily exposure to water may makes a
damage to the circuit or battery, Ordinary simple and good
electrical Connections could also seep into the toothbrush,
damaging its components. Because of this, most toothbrushes
recharge through inductive coupling.

Figure 1 Electromagnetism induction by coils

This technology can achieve the wireless power transfer


without any electric connects. It provides a safe way of
connection, the products can be all enclosed and away from
air, water or plastic in the atmosphere. However, the
transmission power and efficiency will change if the distance
between the two coils become closer or farther.
B. Capacitive coupling
Instead of using electromagnetism field induction, an
alternative way of wireless electric power transfer is to use
electric field coupling to achieve capacitive power transfer.
As shown in Fig. 1a, a typical capacitive coupled electric
power transfer system is consisted of three parts, namely
primary power transmitter, acting as a high frequency voltage
source; capacitive structure, functioning as the electric energy
transfer channel; and power receiver, acting as the secondary
power conditioner, and supply the electric power to the load.
Ignoring the harmonics generated by the inverter for
simplification, a typical capacitive coupling power transfer
system can be modeled with a simple linear circuit as shown
in Fig. 2b.

Figure 2a the structure of capacitive coupling power transfer, 2b


the simplified Capacitive power transfer circuit

As an alternative way of wireless power transmission, the


capacitive coupling system has some unique features. The
coupling structure is very special, in the coupling part, the
field is mostly confined between metal plates, and the system
employs the electric field as the energy-carrying medium.
Since the capacitive coupling is working under an alternative
way, there is very small power loss in the coupling structure
as the system is operating. Due to the capacitive structure in
the coupling part, the electric field coupler functions as two
capacitors connected in series during the operation of the
system. According to different applications, the capacitive
coupling structure can be designed to many different
configurations. [3]
Due to the unique features, capacitive can be used into
many applications, such as capacitive charge and
communication of 3D integrated circuit, biomedical device
and isolation, consumer electronics charging. Owning to the
features and special structure, capacitive coupling power
transfer can be useful in a wide of applications, such as
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charging of cell phones, digital products, biomedical device,


electric car.
C. Resonant inductive coupling
Household devices produce relatively small magnetic
fields. For this reason, chargers should hold devices at the
distance necessary to induce a current, which can only happen
if the coils are close together. A larger and stronger field
could induce current from farther away, but the process would
be extremely inefficient. Meanwhile, a lot of power will be
lost as the transmission distance become larger, because the
magnetic field spreads in all directions.
Resonant inductive coupling is the near field wireless
transmission of electrical energy between two coils that are
tuned to resonate at the same frequency. An efficient way to
transfer power between coils separated by a few meters is that
we could extend the distance between the coils by adding
resonance to the equation. Both systems should have the same
resonant frequency, the induction of electric power can be
different.

The above three power transmission methods belong to


near-field techniques. Microwave transmission refers to the
technology of transmitting energy by the use of
electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are conveniently
measured in small numbers of centimeter, these are called
microwaves. [4]Microwave power transmission is the use
of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or
the atmosphere without the need for wires. It is a sub-type of
the more general wireless energy transfer methods.
Microwaves power transmission is the most commonly
proposed method for transferring energy to the surface of the
earth from solar power satellites or other in-orbit power
sources, or sending power to the earth from space.
Microwave power transmission belongs to a long-distance
power transmission technology. It has more freedom of choice
of both receiver and transmitters, even mobile transmitters
and receivers can be chosen for the power transfer system.
However, the total cost for the practical installation of
microwaves power transmission system is very high. Due to
the working frequency or wavelengths, the power in the
transmission will interfere with present communication
systems.
III.

Figure 3 Resonant induction coupling [5]

As shown in Fig.3, each electronic device has a coupling


receiver which consists of a cured coil of wires as an inductor
and a capacitance plate. As electricity travels through the
receiver, the coil begins to resonate. Its resonant frequency is
a product of the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of
the capacitor. In the room, the emitter is the source of electric
energy. According to the theory, one coil can even send
electricity to several receiving coils, as long as they all
resonate at the same frequency. Electricity, traveling along an
electromagnetic wave, can tunnel from one coil to the other as
long as they both have the same resonant frequency. As long
as coils are out of the frequency range, resonant coupling will
not happen, since the magnetic fields around the coils arent
strong enough to affect much around them. Similarly, if the
two coils resonate at different frequencies, nothing will
happen. But if two resonating coils with the same frequency
get within a few meters of each other, a lot of energy moves
from the transmitting coil to the receiving coils, since they
resonate at the same frequency. [3]
D. Microwaves power transmission

Features and Potential Applications of Wirelessdriven LED Lighting System

The wireless/contactless electric power transmission has


been applied to wireless phone charger, wireless electric
vehicle charging station, power biomedical micro-devices
which implanted within human body. But although novel idea
or electronic devices which using wireless power technique
has been introduced every year, the wireless power electronics
is still not come into our daily lives.
Over the past years development, several standards or
consortia has been established to promote the
commercialization of wireless power technique. Many
research institute and companies are helping speed the
adoption of wireless power technology across a varied
application space and launch more commercial products.
There are several motivations or advantages for apply this
technology to the design of LED lighting products, such as the
following:
A. Advantages
The idea and interest in wireless-driven lighting system
comes from wireless electric power charging, semiconductor
lighting, lighting markets and special application
requirements. There are many advantages and motivations for
using this wireless-driven technology:
Make LED lighting products more convenient and novel
to consumers, by eliminating the wires as drive the
lighting system.
Make LED lighting products safer and more reliable by
eliminating the fire hazard and risk of short circuit with
conductive interconnections, making the LED lighting
system waterproof and explosion proof by removing the
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electric contacts and wires that connect LED lighting


module with drive circuit or grid.
Make the design of LED lighting products more flexible
by using wireless power technique, transferring electric
power to LED lighting module through air, water, glass
and plastic without any electric connection.
Improve the reliability by using wireless-driven method
to separate the drive circuit from lighting chips,

B.

Potential applications
Due to its unique features, WD-LED lighting system can
be used in the following lighting applications:
a) Wireless-driven/charging LED lighting systems

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of LED lights powered by wireless


power transmission

LED lighting system can be directly powered with


wireless electric power, eliminating the electric connections
compared to the traditional lighting products. Combining the
advantages of wireless electrical power transfer and LED
semiconductor lighting technology, the wireless-driven LED
lighting system has advantages of electrical shock protection,
convenient, reliable, portable and environmentally sound. As
shown in Fig. 4, to achieve wireless electric power transfer in
LED lighting system, the wireless-driven LED lighting system
contain LED lighting module, wireless electrical power
transfer system, LED driving circuit and electrical energy
storage system. The LED lighting module was driven by the
electrical power, which was transferred from a contact free
system. Either inductive coupling or magnetic resonance
coupling is responsible for transferred the electrical power.
Wireless-driven LED lighting system has a good market
prospects, this new technology will make these innovative
LED lighting products more available, convenient and
reliable.
In the movable light source field, the wirelessdriven/charging LED lighting systems with rechargeable
battery have a good market prospect. The movable LED
lighting products are more convenient and safety with
wireless power technique. And in the plant lighting cultivation
field, the WD-LED lighting systems may float in the air or
water without power cord, it is beneficial for designers to
design more novel lighting products.
b) Contactless-driven LED integrated chips or module

Figure 5 Monolithic integrated LED system with wireless-driven


technique

In this section, we mainly research in wireless electrical


energy transmission tech, LED integrated package tech, LED
driver circuit tech.In recent years, many researchers are
working on the monolithic GaN optoelectronic system. In the
future research, the LED chips will be designed to be smaller
to meet different application requirements. However, as we all
know, the traditional LED chips must have positive and
negative electrodes for electric connection and carrier
injection. But the electrodes take a part of area on chips,
determining the chip cant be too small.This situation will be
changed if wireless power technique is applied in the design
of monolithic LED optoelectronic devices. As shown in Fig.
5, the monolithic GaN optoelectronic device with wireless
power technique include optoelectronic technology, TSV
technology, multilayer metal interconnection technology,
LED drive circuit technology. The monolithic LED chip can
be powered without any electric connect, since a wireless
power receiver is integrated in the chip. If this integrated
technology can be achieved, it will be used in LED lighting
field, decoration field, high resolution LED TV.

IV.

Conclusions
Opportunities and challenges always go alone with the
new technologies. As the wireless-driven LED system,
different products will have different problems in the design
and fabrication of new system. According to the design of
different products and application field, suitable wireless
power transmission should be chose.
A new technology always finds its value only in that it can
be applied in practical and commercial products. In many
areas, the wireless power technique can be integrated with
LED lighting or display system, which can make LED
products more convenient or reliable compared to the
traditional form or design method.
And with the
commercialization of wireless-driven LED products, more
and more related applications will be found.
References
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2014/press.html
2. Wikipedia. (2012, August 7). Tesla coil [Online].
Avaliable:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla coil
3. Liang Huang and Aiguo Patrick Hu, An overview of
capacitively coupled power transfera new contactless
power transfer solution, 2013 IEEE 8th Conference on
Industrial Electronics and Applications(ICIEA), pp 461464.
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave_transmission
5. Vikash Choudhary and Satendar Pal Singh, Wireless
Power Transmission: An Innovative Idea, International
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