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Ques : What is the scenario of steam power plants in

india? Discuss the advantages, disadvantages and

future aspects of steam power plants?
Electricity has been part of our lives. It has brought many
things that surely have made many wonders and life would
seem so hard without it. The use of electrical power categorized
such as residential sector includes private households and
apartment buildings where energy is consumed primarily for
space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting,
refrigeration, cooking, and clothes drying and other appliances.
The commercial sector includes nonmanufacturing business
establishments such as hotels, motels, restaurants, street and
highway lighting, wholesale businesses, retail stores, health,
social, religious and educational institutions, and government.
The industrial sector includes manufacturing, construction,
mining, agriculture, fishing, and forestry establishments. And
the last transportation sector which includes railroads and
railways where electricity is used for traction, including urban
public transportation.

Present consumption of electricity in the world

Energy is a vital factor in industrial production and the lifeblood
of any nation's economic development. In 2010, world total of
electricity production and consumption was 21248TWh.
17635TWh (83%) of electric energy was consumed by final
users. The difference of 3612TWh (17%) was consumed in the
process of generating power and consumed as transmission
loss. Following figure shows the electricity consumption in the
world. The following figure presents the world power






Shortage of electric power will not only compromise a social

comfort level but also seriously hamper the economic growth of
a nation. The relationship between power consumption and
national economic development has a great significance. Power
consumption statistics are vital indicators for gauging the
economic growth. Developing countries, in comparison with
developed countries, generally have higher growth rates of
population, energy, and electricity.
The present power scenario in the world is presented in
following list (top ten countries included).

Present thermal power scenario in India

India is a nation in transition. Considered an "emerging
economy," increasing GDP is driving the demand for additional
electrical energy, as well as transportation fuels. The electricity
sector in India supplies the world's 5th largest energy

consumer, accounting for 4.0% of global energy consumption

by more than 17% of global population. Rapid economic growth
has created a growing need for dependable and reliable
supplies of electricity, gas and petroleum products. Due to the
fast-paced growth of India's economy, the country's energy
demand has grown an average of 3.6% per annum over the
past 30 years. In August 2011, the installed power generation
capacity of India stood at 181.558 GW and per capita energy
consumption stood at 787kWh. The country's annual energy
production increased from about 190 billion kWh in 1986 to
more than 837 billion kWh in 2010.

During the year 2010-11, the energy requirement registered a

growth of 3.7% during the year against the projected growth of
5.6% (refer following figurevi ) and Peak demand registered a
growth of 2.6% against the projected growth of 6.5%, though
the total ex-bus energy availability increased by 5.6% over the
previous year and the peak met increased by 6.0%, the
shortage conditions prevailed in the Country both in terms of
energy and peaking availability. Base load requirement was
861,591 (MU) against availability of 788,355 MU which is a
shortage is 73,236 MU i.e. 8.5% deficit. During peak load the
demand was for 122,287 MW against availability of 110,256
MW which is a shortage of 12,031 MW i.e. 9.8%. Electricity
losses in India during transmission and distribution are high.
Due to shortage of electricity, power cuts are common
throughout India and this has adversely affected the country's
economic growth.
Current power scenario in India is as follows:
Total Installed Capacity:(As on 31.07.2015):

State Sector



Central Sector



Private Sector





Total state wise production of electricity through power plants is

as follows:

Capacity Addtion Targets and Achievements in the 12th


Achievement of Capacity Addition during the Current

Plan upto Jan '2015

Growth of Installed Capacity Since 6th Plan

All India yearly Coal Consumption for Power Generation


Advantages of steam power plant :

1. Initial investment is low
2. Power









transmission cost and losses are considerably reduced.

3. Commissioning of thermal power plant requires less period
of time
4. Feed water heaters are provided to heat the feed water
supplied to boiler by which overall efficiency of plant can
be increased.
Disadvantages of steam power plant:
1. Life and efficiency of steam power plant is less when
compared to Hydel power plant
2. Transportation of fuel is major problem
3. Cost of power generation is more than hydro power
4. Air pollution is major problem
5. Coal may be exhausted by gradual use.
6. The heated water that comes from thermal power plant
has an adverse effect on the lives in the water and
disturbs the ecology
7. Overall efficiency of thermal power plant is low like less

Future aspects of thermal power plants:

Increasing industrial growth throughout the world largely
depends on availability of electricity. The overall situation in the
power sector provides an optimistic view. However, insight into
the thermal power industry provides a bleak picture. Thermal
power stations mostly depend upon coal as a basic raw
material. Economists project that India has a little over 250
billion metric tons of coal reserve to sustain continued and
progressive demand for thermal power generation in the next
40-50 years. Indian thermal stations have started importing
expensive coal from other countries to maintain generation and
supply. Every thermal power station emits CO2. Suspended
Particulate Matter (SPM), fly ash and effluents create health
hazards and contribute to global warming.








Integrated Energy Policy, Aug06, Planning Commission,

Govt. of India Coal shall remain Indias most important
energy source till 2031-32 and possibly beyond
As per the Integrated Energy Policy (IEP) Report, Indian
Coal Requirement in 2031 - 32 is projected to be between
1580 2555 Million Tons.

But CIL has set a target of domestic coal production to

839 Million Tons (maximum) by 2025.

CIL target is therefore way below the annual coal


India coal demand as forcasted by Forbes:

Indigenous coal resources enable economic development

and can be transformed to guard against import
dependence and price shocks.
India is the 5th largest proven coal reserve in the world
and contributes to around 6% of global coal production.
But, there still exists a supply demand gap.
Supply demand Gap has increased at a CAGR of
38.47%from 2008 09 to 2011 12.
Under New Coal Distribution Policy (NCDP) framework, CIL
would only commit up to 50% of TPPs Annual Coal
Quantity (ACQ) from domestic sources only.
Therefore the TPPs are left with no other option but to
realize the remaining coal requirement through imports.

Importing thermal coal seems imperative if a +8% of GDP

growth is to be sustained.

USA: Worlds largest coal reserve

US leads the pack with 237.3 billion tons, i.e. 22.6% of
Global proven coal reserve.
The Powder River Basin of Montana and Wyoming is the
single largest source of coal in the US.
Montana has 74.81 billion tons of estimated recoverable
reserves, the most in the US, and Wyoming has 39.19
billion tons of estimated recoverable reserves, second
highest reserves in the U.S .
Peabody Energy & Arch Coal are eyeing the Chinese &
Indian markets.
Peabody has stated that global coal shipments to the AsiaPacific region could reach 140 million metric tons per year,
by 2015
india can therefore have a sizeable chunk of its annual
coal requirement from the US
Kazakhstan: Central Asias largest coal reserve
Survey of Energy Resources by World Energy Council in
2010 revealed Kazakhstan to have 33.6 billion tons of
recoverable coal reserves, 3rd in Asia after China &
By 2014 Kazakhstan plans to boost its annual coal
exports to 32 Million tons from present 20 22 million
Evident from the geographical proximity, India can surely
exercise the option of importing coal from Kazakhstan