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General Scientific Researches, Vol(3), No (2), April, 2015. pp.

11-15

TI Journals

General Scientific Researches


www.tijournals.com

ISSN:
2409-9872
Copyright 2015. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

The Changes of College Students Value Orientation


for Womens Social Advancement
Young Jun Kim *
Division of Business Administration, Baekseok Culture University, Korea.
*Corresponding author: yjkim@bscu.ac.kr

Keywords

Abstract

Analysis of variance
Correlation analysis
Management architecture
Value orientation

The economic active populations of woman are growing every year.Bythe social needs, it is increasing
interests for women's social advancement.However, traditional value orientation has shown a negative
opinion about the womens social roles.This study is to investigate the value orientation and recognition of
college members for the social advancement of Korean women. Some research has been attempted for their
relationship analysis with social roles.For this, we will survey to college students and will do empirical study
to value orientation for women's social advancement. That is, this study is to see positive thinking of college
members for women's social advancement and to investigate the attitudes of men/women students in a
college course.

1.

Introduction

The womens roles are changing with social structures based on industrialization and information society. This will become the driving force for
women's social advancement basically. Also, this will change economic structures for women's social advancement women. The woman
economic active populations are growing every year. Such trends will accelerate even more depending on the economic growth and social
culture factors. By the social needs, it is increasing interests for women's social advancement.However, traditional value orientation has shown a
negative opinion about the womens social roles in South Korea [7].The women's social advancement became the impediments for harmonious
family life [2]. But, the women's social advancement has increased every year. This has a great significance in improving the womens social
position.By this, it can be a measure of the opening or closing degree of the society. And it may be a measure of the improvement degree in
women's social position.The related researches have been focused on women's employment status and occupational value until now.Some
research has been attempted for their relationship analysis with social roles.The research of women's social advancement has not yet been
performed in earnest to a single topic and it has lacked research for men attitude analysis areas as yet [8].
Therefore, this study goal is to investigate the value orientation and recognition of college members about the social advancement of Korean
women.For this, we will survey to college students and will do empirical study to value orientation for women's social advancement. And this is
to see positive thinking of college members for women's social advancement [12].

2.

Theoretical Background

2.1 The Value Orientation and Attitudes


Human have the evaluation view points when every work is dealing.It is called value that has referred to certain circumstances, certain events,
certain objects with selective attentions.The definition of value orientation is difference depending on research field and interest area of scholar.
The common points are as follows. First, value orientation is internalized through the learning of cultural artifact and individuals. Second, it is
internalized into the individual's psychological system acts as a motivation [5]. This is an abstract concept not a specific concept. Third, it keeps
all the individual behaviors by it. Fourth, the value orientation organized by individual psychological characteristics to maintain of behavior,
consistency, stability. This is necessary in order to maintain social order and social integration.This is abstract concepts to unify a person's
mental state and behavior.To measure these, we examined the influences of the value orientation by recognized forms.This study analyses the
attitude recognition using multiple item of Likert scales in order to measure the recognized value orientation [9].
South Korea had a social tradition of men-oriented.The distinction of positions and roles of the man/women were strict and
authoritarian.However, the society is changing through the modernization process rapidly.The women roles recognition is changing by its
effects.In particular, the value orientation changing and women values are changing under the influence of different historical backgrounds and
social factors over the past few years.The women's social advancement began to increase depending on the social needs in industrialization
substantially.The industrialization followed the change of life styles and value orientation. The society structural changes took place in this
process. The changes of industry structure with female labor force were capable of entering the labor market opportunities by increasing demand
for functional workforce.The economic growth is advancing along the urbanization of lifestyle and household level.The women's consciousness
is changing also [11].The technology development and the western culture influence are the important factors.Thus, social participation of
women is increasing rapidly.The social participation needs of women have been increasing also [6].
2.2 Research Problem Setting
The based on this social background, this study is to investigate whether in accordance with the change factors of the respondents, value
orientation of women's social advancement showing what effect. We have set the research problem such as the following.
[Research problem 1] The value orientation of the women's social advancement will divide by what sub-attitude.
[Research problem 2] The value orientation of the women's social advancement will be what trend or difference between men and women.
[Research problem 3] The each sub-attitude of the women's social advancement will be what difference between each variable(ex, religion,
sibling order, mother's working career, etc.).

Young Jun Kim *

12

General Scientific Researches Vol(3), No (2), April, 2015.

3.

Research Method and Procedure

The survey tools are a closed type question format as the questionnaire.The questionnaires were composed of questions for measuring value
orientation of the women's social advancement.It was composed of questions to understand the general nature of the respondents.We were used
5-point of Likert scales to the respondent attitude In order to measure the value orientation of the women's social advancement. They will answer
one of the following: <very much so><yes><usually><not><not at all>. It gave one of 1~5 score in here.The higher the score, it means a
positive attitude for women's social advancement.The contents were questions for understand the attitude of women economic activity for
attitude to women's power basically.These questionnaires were composed of questions for understand attitude to women roles in household,
attitude to economic participation, attitude to women's working, attitude to men's authority, attitude to women's power.
The extraction method of sample was used convenience sampling method and purposive sampling method. All respondents are students in a
college course currently.We were distributed to sixty-one parts of the questionnaire for this study and were excluded error answers. Finally, used
questionnaires were fifty-six parts.We were calculated variances for verifying the reliability of the measure value orientation for women's social
advancement. Pearson correlation coefficient was examined to find a correlation between each sub-attitude. The factor analysis was performed
In order to classify the sub-attitude for women's social advancement attitude. The method are used the Chronbach's alpha coefficient to measure
the reliability of this survey.

4.

Survey Analysis

The respondents divided two groups, the over of 24 age and the under of 24 age. As shown in table 1, 90.0% of men respondents were under of
24 age and 96.2% of women respondents were under of 24 age. That is, the majority of this survey was students less than 24 age.
In each religion, 53.4% of men respondents answered 'Idontbelieve inreligion'. Christian, Catholic, Buddhist and Confucian were the same
percentage. Christian women were the most common.Religion none or other religion were 42.3%. The women believed religion than men.
In the mother's working career, the men 50.0% and women 30.8% have a mother's working career. The both of men and women, mother's
working career have sales/production working career rather than clerical/manager working career primarily.
In sibling order, the youngest men or the middle men were the highest with 40.0%. Also, the youngest women were the highest with 42.3%. The
eldest men were 16.7% and the eldest women were 23.1%.
Table 1. General characteristic of this survey
Variables
Age

Religion

Mother's working career

Sibling order

Total

Men

Women

Frequency

Frequency

Under of 24 age

27

90.0

25

96.2

Over of 24 age

10.0

3.8

Christian, Catholic

23.3

12

46.2

Buddhist, Confucian

23.3

11.5

Other, None

16

53.4

11

42.3

None

15

50.0

18

69.2

Sales, Production, Other

30.0

19.2

Clerical, Manager

20.0

11.6

Eldest

16.7

23.1

Middle

12

40.0

34.6

Youngest

12

40.0

11

42.3

Solo

3.3

0.0

30

53.6

26

46.4

4.1 Extraction of Sub-attitude


In order to selection final question, it performed the following process.First, we tested total thirty-one questions.We gave a score of 1~5 point at
each point to measure value orientation for women's social participation.After calculating the average score to each questions,we extracted
twenty-seven questions using the correlation coefficient of 0.3 over between score and thirty-one questions sum.The next step, we performed a
factor analysis to the twenty-seven questions.We extracted the twenty-three questions of five factors using factor weighted value of 0.4
over.Then, it performed the reliability test for the selected five factors and overall scales. It tested the question to match the 0.7 to 0.9 level by
Chronbach's alpha. It removed a few questions for factors that came out too higher reliability.Also, it removed some questions for factor that
came out too lower reliability(ex. under 0.7).
Finally, we selected four factors of eighteen questions for women's social advancement.The each factor gave a name that can represent better
factors characteristic.In this study, it was granted a name that can be representative of the sub-questions to each factor.The specific details are as
table 2.
The each sub-attitude has shown very high correlation at the level of p<0.001 as shown in table 3.The attitude to men/women discrimination in
the workplace was the highest correlation between overall scales of women's social advancement and their sub-attitude.The attitude of home
priority role had the lowest correlation.The home priority role and social success showed the lowest correlation between each sub-attitude. Two
attitudes can know that these are conflicting concepts.

13

The Changes of College Students Value Orientation for Womens Social Advancement
General Scientific Researches Vol(3), No (2), April, 2015.

Table 2. Value orientation measure for women's social advancement


[Factor 1]Attitude to home priority role of women
(1) The most important responsibilities of women are to fulfill its roles as a wife, mother.
(2) The women have to stop working if there is a conflict in home and social life.
(3) The women have to be more faithful to family life than men.
(4) The married women have to support her husband than own social life.
(5) The happiness of women is the success of her husband and her children.
[Factor 2] Attitude to economic activity of women
(1) The women's social life does not perform if economic conditions are good.
(2) The married women are not continued her social working.
(3) The social life of the married women gives inconvenience to her family.
(4) The daughters are encouraged married than further study or work after graduating of college.
(5) The fact that married women make money would be to drop the honor of her husband.
[Factor 3]Attitude to men/women discrimination in the workplace of women
(1) The men are chief officer of department in men/women working together.
(2) The social abilities of women are inferior to men.
(3) The men must be received a lot of pay than women.
(4) The women should not compete against the men in social life.
[Factor 4] Attitude to social success of women
(1) The men do not like to women's socially abilities.
(2) The men are damaged if married women earn a lot of money than her husband.
(3) The wife should not be higher social position than her husband.
(4) The menare not really proud to social success of his wife.

[Factor 1] Chronbach's =0.7148, [Factor 2] Chronbach's = 0.7449,[Factor 3] Chronbach's = 0.7457,[Factor 4] Chronbach's = 0.7020,
Overall scales Chronbach's = 0.8745

Table 3. Correlation between each sub-attitude


Attitude

Home
priority role

Economic
activity

Men/women discrimination in
the workplace

Social
success

Economic activity

0.4737

Men/women discrimination in the workplace

0.4697

0.5396

Social success

0.3630

0.5348

0.6061

Overall scale

0.7130

0.8227

0.8327

0.7877

(p<0.001)

4.2 Comparison of Sub-attitude


The table 4 showed the average scores of the men/women sub-attitude.The value orientation scores of college students for women's social
advancement show a modern attitude as 3.28 point. In particular, the factors to men/women discrimination in the workplace have shown a
significantly higher attitude with 3.80 point. However, the scores of home priority role show the most traditional attitude as 2.83 point.That is,
both men and women recognize that women's social advancement is need as shown in table 4.Both men and women show the lowest attitude to
work in home.It means that women as well as men accepted to women role in home.It is showing some difference between men and women.
The men with 2.97 point show a relatively conservative attitude compared to 3.65 point of women.In sub-attitude, it was a significant difference
between men and women in three attitude areas such as home priority role, economic activity, men/women discrimination in the workplace.The
women showed a more modern attitude than men.In women's social success, it was not a significant difference as compared to the other subattitude.The women showed a conservative attitude than men. This was interesting fact.In particular, it seemed large difference between men and
women in economic activity, men/women discrimination in the workplace.The women wanted the economic independence.But the men are
showing a relatively negative attitude.The women showed a more serious reaction to men/women discrimination in the workplace.However, the
men are taking a positive attitude to men/women discrimination in the workplace.It meant that going to solve the men/women social inequality.

Table 4. Average score of sub-attitude


Attitude

Average

Men

Women

F-value

Home priority role

2.83

2.60

3.08

6.905***

Economic activity

3.28

2.50

4.17

13.451***

Men/women discrimination in the workplace

3.80

3.47

4.18

15.030***

Social success

3.23

3.30

3.14

0.001

Overall scale

3.28

2.97

3.65

15.546***

56

30

26

Total
(**: p<0.01, ***: p<0.001)

Young Jun Kim *

14

General Scientific Researches Vol(3), No (2), April, 2015.

4.3 Comparison of Man/Women Attitude


The men do not show a significant difference based on religion as shown in table 5.The women showed a significant difference to attitude of
home priority role, men/women discrimination in the workplace.It showed the most conservative attitude in Buddhist and Confucian group.If
religion has not, they showed the most modern attitude.The religious background of life may that to be a good significance to the social activities
later.One of recognition change factors for women's social advancement is connecting with the influx of western culture.It is very interesting
contents also.
Table 5. Comparison of attitude score by religion
Variables

Religion

Home
priority role

Economic
activity

Men/women discrimination in
the workplace

Social
success

Men
(30)

Christian, catholic(7)

2.571

3.771

3.500

3.536

Buddhist, Confucian(7)

2.500

3.571

3.357

3.094

Other, None(16)

2.943

3.688

3.500

3.536

F-value

2.302

1.461

1.373

2.277

Christian, Catholic(12)

3.036

4.267

3.967

3.250

Buddhist, Confucian(3)
Other, None(11)
F-value

2.583
3.333
5.228**

4.100
4.218
1.403

3.525
4.250
6.395**

2.958
3.318
2.204

Women
(26)

(** : p<0.01)

The men show not a significant difference to mother's working career or the working types. The women show a significant effect by mother's
working career in table 6. Mead was claimed 'The classification of roles is passed to their children through the socialization process especially.'
He said 'by home education, daughters are getting more affection than sons [8]. The women found women's basic role by own mother.' The
results of this study will also be understood in this context. The women were a significant difference to attitude of economic activity, attitude of
men/women discrimination in the workplace, attitude of social success by mother's working career. They show a modern attitude when mother's
working career is none. Beth explained that the daughter has a modern attitude if her mother has a work getting higher education.
It meant overall contents of higher education, higher employment, economic status, psychological status. Beth explained that the mother's
working career is possible [2]. It reduced a reliance on her husband. These mother's factors affect the attitude of daughter.The women showed a
more modern attitude when mother's working career is none.The explanation is possible when it consider mother's working career.We can know
that mother's working career is 62.5% by general characteristic of respondents as shown table 1.They had engaged in the sales/production
workers.This is jobbing to be a boon to the household economy.But it is a conservative attitude because wants economically enough life.The
women showed a modern attitude by relatively high working level such as clerical/managers.That is, the value orientation of women is
influenced by mother's working type rather than depending on the presence or absence of mother's working career.

Table 6. Comparison of attitude score by mother's working career


Mother's working career

Home
priority role

Economic
activity

Men/women discrimination
in the workplace

Social
success

(30)

No(16)

2.733

3.773

3.433

3.350

(15)

Yes(15)
F-value
Sales, Production, Other(9)
Clerical, Manager(6)
F-value

2.507
1.573
2.556
2.733
1.567

3.587
1.229
3.511
3.700
1.502

3.500
1.601
3.450
3.675
1.570

3.250
1.058
3.222
3.292
0.073

(26)

No(18)

3.211

4.156

4.278

3.264

Yes(8)

2.700

4.153

3.769

2.675

F-value
Sales, Production, Other(5)

4.102*
2.103

0.017
3.700

4.096*
3.500

4.227
2.167

Clerical, Manager(3)
F-value

3.200
8.477**

4.320
5.949*

4.250
6.213**

3.300
8.738**

Variable
Men

Women

(8)

(* : p<0.05, **: p<0.01)

In each sub-attitude, the eldest men showed the most modern attitude to home priority role, men/women discrimination in the workplace.The
middle men showed the most modern attitude to women's economic activities and social success.Similarly, the eldest women showed the most
modern attitude to home priority role, men/women discrimination in the workplace.These relationships are shown in table 7.However, the
youngest women showed the most modern attitude to women's economic activities and social success unlike men attitude.Both men and women
showed a significant difference to men/women discrimination in the workplace by sibling order.The professional career women seem the
modern attitude than these who are engaged in other jobs.When looking at existing research results, the eldest women with professional career
look more modern attitude relatively.

15

The Changes of College Students Value Orientation for Womens Social Advancement
General Scientific Researches Vol(3), No (2), April, 2015.

Table 7. Comparison of attitude score by sibling order


Variable
Men
(29)

Women
(26)

Sibling order

Home
priority role

Economic
activity

Men/women discrimination in the


workplace

Social
success

Eldest(5)

3.200

3.520

3.600

3.250

Middle(12)
Youngest(12)
F-value

2.817
2.250
6.782**

3.833
3.633
1.920

3.458
3.417
1.489

3.542
3.125
2.104

Eldest(6)

3.309

4.133

4.375

3.167

Middle(9)

3.000

4.089

4.028

3.159

Youngest(11)

2.800

4.255

4.205

3.283

F-value

5.027**

1.650

1.809

1.037

(**: p<0.01)

5.

Conclusion

In this study, we surveyed the targeting men/women students in a college course. And we have analyzed the value orientation for women's social
advancement empirically.The results can be summarized as follows.First, it extracted the four value orientation to home priority role, economic
activity, men/women discrimination in the workplace and social success for women's social advancement.The four sub-attitudes showed a very
high correlation with each other (p<0.001).It showed a slightly lower correlation between attitude of home priority role and attitude of social
success.Second, some respondents recognized the overall attitude score of men/women students in a college course for women's social
advancement as 3.28 point aggressively.The Both men and women showed the most traditional attitude to home priority role as sub-attitude for
women's social advancement.The men/women discrimination in the workplace showed a positive attitude to both men and women.However, the
women showed more modern attitude than men to home priority role, economic activity, men/women discrimination in the workplace.Third, we
examined the difference between men and women to employment type as sub-attitude of each variable.The men showed a significant difference
in sibling order.The women showed a significant difference of all variables in religion, mother's working career and sibling order.
As a limitation of this study, we describe the following points.First, there is difficult to generalize the results because it extracted based on
subjectivity of researcher in sampling process.Second, there is difficult to find value orientation of all students in a college course by poor
quantity of survey.Third, it seems necessary to research for comparison with other groups(ex, value orientation of married men and women,
value orientation of family members, etc.).Finally, it seems the lowest correlation between the attitude of home priority role and attitude of social
success than four attitudes as shown table 3.Therefore, it seems to need further researches of characteristic type using these concepts

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