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LET'S

STUDY

*\

URDU

>/"

-33

i.

An Introductory

Course
Includes
f?

Audio

DVD

iO
!V

W'4.
\

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\
l]

KVX

warn

V
t

>.

and
Syed Akbak Hydrr
Ali S. Asanm

Will

v \
i^i

v.

,\ irm

\ 'V

Ov

LANGUAGE

Let's

An

Study Urdu

Introductory Course

Includes Audio
All S.

DVD

Asanl and Sycd Akbar Hydcr

Urdu: An fnlrodtietory Course is a comprehensive introduction to the


Urdu language chat draws on a range of real-life contexts, film songs, and popular
Urdu poetry. It contains a variety of aural, oral, and written drills, which, used in
combination with ihe accompanying audio materials, will help students master
let's Sillily

the language while keeping

them entertained. Although intended primarily as a


a first-year course in the language. Let's Study Urdu provides students
of diverse backgrounds. Including heritage speakers, the opportunity to enhance.
their competency in basic grammatical structures so that they can comfortably
text for

use the language in Urdu-speaking milieus


and North America.

in

South Asia, the Middle East. Europe.

Asanl is Professor of the Practice of Indo-Muslim Languages and Cultures


Harvard University.
All S.

Syed Akhar llyder

The University

of

is

Associate Professor of Asian Studies and Islamic Studies at

Texas at Austin.

YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS

NEW HAVEN AND


YALEBOCV

at

LONDO.

LET'S
An

S.

STUDY URDU

An Introductory Course
Audio DVD
Asani and Syed Akbar Hyder

he audio

disc
at

,11

files

.ilso

on

ihis

available

yalebooks.com/urdu.

ISBN 978-0-500-11400-5

C 2008 Yale Universiiv


PO Box 20904O
I

laven

CT 06520-9040

yalebooks.com/languages
All rights reserved

Let's

An

Study Urdu

Introductory
Ali S.

Course

Asani

Harvard University

and

Syed Akbar Hyder


University of Texas, Austin

Yale Uaiversily Press

New Haven and London

Copyright

2008 by Yale University

All rights reserved

This book
that

may

not be reproduced, in whole or part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond

copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright

Law

and except by

reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers.

Publisher;

Mary Jane Peluso

Development

Editor: Brie Kluytenaar

Manuscript Editor: Noreen O'Connor-Abel


Production Editor: Ann-Marie Imbornoni
Production Controller: Karen Stickler

Marketing Manager: Timothy Shea

Cover Design: Mary Valencia


Cover Photograph: Michael Currier

Printed in the United States of America.

ISBN

978-0-300-1 1400-3 (pbk.: alk.paper)

Library of Congress Control Number:

A catalogue record for this hook


The paper

in this

is

2006939857

available from the British Library.

book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on

Production Guidelines for

10987654321

Book Longevity of the Council on

Library Resources.

In

Mernoriam

Annernarie Schimmel
(1922-2003)

who, during her

lifetime,

worked

tirelessly to bring

of Urdu literature and

its

about a better appreciation

culture

Contents
Introduction

How

to

Use This Book:

A Note for Teachers and Students


Book

XXX

Urdu Sentence

Film Sources for Songs Cited


Chapter

in

the

1.1

Word Order

1.2

Conjugation of Verb

1.3

Greetings and (> as Particle of Respect

.4

1.5

XXIV

in

the

t-tf

and Pronouns

Asking Questions

II

Urdu Postpositions and Definite and

Indcfiniic Articles

14

.6

Adjectives of Nationality

15

.7

Introduction to Possessive Adjectives

17

.8

Pronunciation

.9

Drill:

Short and

Long Vowels

19

r^ (Conversation)

20

1.10

Conversation Practice

21

Ml

Song:

Uf

2.

1.12

Vocabulary

ft \j

22

Chapter 2

2.1

Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

2.2

Cardinal

Numbers 0-10

26

2.3

The Interrogative \^f

27

2.4

The Postposition G^~

27

2.5

Pronunciation Drill

33

2.6

Jr

Aspirations

(Conversation)

33

2.7

Conversation Practice

34

2.8

Songs:

\J# >W

35

35
2.9

Vocabulary

36

Chapter 3

3.

Nouns: Gender and Plural

38

3.2

Attributive and Predicate Adjectives

42

3.3

Marked and Unmarked Adjectives

43

3.4

Cardinal Numbers: 11-20

45

Ordinal Numbers: 1-10

46

3.5

Pronunciation Drill: Perso-Arabic Sounds

3.6

r& (Conversation)

51

3.7

Conversation Practice

SI

3.8

Songs:

a~ \jfbi g

50

52

52

3.9

Vocabulary

53

Chapter 4

4.1

Possessive Adjectives

viii

62

4.2

Asking and Telling Age

4.3

Cardinal

Numbers 21-30

64

4.4

Order

a Noun Phrase

65

4.5

Pronunciation Drills

in

66

Nasals

Perso-Arabic Sounds II

67

4.6

r^ (Conversation)

68

4.7

Conversation Practice

68

4.8

Songs:

4.9

Vocabulary

[J* /&

^ il

U,

69

(J*

70

Chapter 5

5.1

The Present Habitual Tense

73

5.2

The Present Habitual Negative

75

5.3

Times of the Day, Days of the Week, and


80

Other Time Phrases

5.4

The Particle J with Temporal Words and Phrases

81

5.5

Review of Urdu Sentence Structure

82

5.6

The Verb C?(? with Nouns and Verbs

85

5.7

Pronunciation

5.8

^"(Conversation)

5.9

Conversation Practice

Drill:

88

Retroflexes

89
9

ix

5.10

J?

Songs:

CH

J <p Jj

90

91
5.11

Vocabulary

91

Chapter 6

6.1

Postpositions

96

6.2

The Oblique Case - Oblique Forms of Nouns

97

6.3

Oblique Forms of Demonstrati ves

6.4

Oblique Forms of Adjectives

101

6.5

Oblique Forms of Pronouns

102

6.6

Note on

6.7

The Interrogative j/ and

6.S

Note on

6.9

Pronunciation

y t

*&

103

its

Oblique Forms

I~

6.13

116

Conversation Practice

6.12 Songs:

Perso-Arabic, and

115

II

6.10 /^(Conversaiion)

6.

105

107

Drill: Aspirated,

Retroflexive Sounds

00

1 1

<_l <c)&l ifJJ

Vocabulary

Chapter 7

7.1

Expressing Potentials with

7.2

sjS

with

t^

Compound Verbs

122

7.3

Further Uses of JlX

123

7.4

The Present Continuous Tense

124

7.5

The Comparative

125

7.6

The

127

7.7

Persian Adjectival Elements

7.8

Expressing

7.9

Cardinal

Superlative

128

More or Less

Numbers 31-40

132

132

7.10 Aggregatives

7.11

134

The Future Tense

140

7.12 Pronunciation Drill: Diphthongs

7.13

Response

30

140

Drill

7.14 /^(Conversation)

142

7.15 Conversation Practice

144

7.16 Songs: {j!

f7.17

2^

f P \i

145

4-

&J

-4

146

& d*S (&

146

**

,46

Vocabulary

Chapter 8

w-

8.

Formal Imperatives (with

8.2

Informal Imperatives (with |*J

8.3

Least Formal Imperatives (with

8.4

Negative Imperatives

'

50

151

52

52

8.5

The

8.6

Use of

8.7

Further Uses of ti?

8.8

The Past

Participles

8-9

The Past

Habitual Tense

Infinitive as Imperative

and

L/tyr'

152

with Imperatives

153
155

of tit

I58

160

8.10

The Past Continuous Tense

8.11

Cardinal

8.12

Pronunciation Drill: Doubling of Consonants

164

8.13

r^

165

152

Numbers 41-50

163

(Conversation)

8.14 Conversation Practice

8.u
US Songs;
-

167

__r \f a'$g
;'.v iJX

--.

'

168

168

I6S
8.16

Vocabulary

169

Chapter 9

9.

as a

Temporal Marker

73

9.2

/ as a Direct Object Marker

174

9.3

as

an

176

9.4

in

Verbal and Adjectival Constructions

9.5

in Infinitive

9.6

Infinitive as the Subject

181

9.7

/in^U
in e%M

182

Indirect Object

Marker

+ *_ Construction

J$

178

180

Constructions

XII

9.8

y with Abstract Possessions

9.9

Special Object

Forms

9.10

Stem + -//<

9.11

Noun-Verb Agreement

9.12 Cardinal

186

88

190

in

192

Urdu

193

Numbers 5 1-60

Time with the Enclitic

J l~

194

9.13

Expressing

9.14

/^(Conversation)

198

9.15

Conversation Practice (I)

199

9.15

Conversation Practice (2)

199

9-16

Songs:

<^* CU^

(^)

?+.

200

it

201

+. t?

?
oh *

<_ (j>

2%

201

202

9.17 Vocabulary

Chapter 10

10.1

The Verb lf "To Know"

204

10.2

Kft f** Construction

206

10.3

The Verb 1 and Knowledge of Learned/Acquired

10.4

The Verbify, "To Ask"

10.5

The Verb fy with C-~ and

2I3

2 *5

0.6

The Verb C/ with <Z~ and

0.7

Indefinite

1 0.8

209

2U

217

Pronouns and Adjectives

Fractions and

Skills

22

Mass Measurements

xiii

10.9

Telling

Time

in Fractions

223

Numbers 61-70

225

10.10

Cardinal

10.11

r^

10.12

Conversation Practice

10.13

Songs:

(Conversation)

<-

tf J?

226
227

<

mF

229

Vocabulary

10.14

Chapter

11.1

The Interrogative Ur

1 1 .2

The Interrogative

.3

Expressing "To Have"

235

.4

The Possessive Adjective ty

240

233

234

)?

11.5

The Reflexive Pronoun

11.6

Noun +1)0

243

11.7

Adjective +1/0

244

1 1.8

Postposition or

.9

Oblique

Adverb +

Infinitive

11.10 Cardinal

i)

242

244

+ \)b

Numbers 71-80

11.11

^^(Conversation)

249

11.12

Conversation Practice

250

xiv

11.13

\Jt%{$

Songs:

251

f \>fii *

252

$f$vf ^-X

252

\J$

11.14

253

Vocabulary

Chapter 12

12.

Simple Past Tense

256

12.2

The Simple Past Tense of Intransitive Verbs

258

12.3

The Case of

"To Go"

260

12.4

The Case of tjt 'To Be, To Happen, To Become"

261

12.5

Relatives and Correlatives

265

12.6

The Particles (j* and {f

270

12.7

The Interrogative U*y

273

12.8

Repetition of Adjectives

273

12.9

Cardinal

Numbers 81-90

276

Clf

12.10

/^(Conversation)

276

12.11

Conversation Practice

279

12.12

Songs:

\J

(^

/ J?f

28

-/&> ifiJf? <-/*

281

2- {*

4
12.13

U> \Sj

*/ \f h

281

282

Vocabulary

Chapter 13

13.1

The Simple Past Tense of Transitive Verbs

XV

286

5
8

*%f

13.2

The Case of C^ <fe;

13.3

Negating the Simple Past Tense

288

13.4

The Present

292

13.5

The Past Perfect Tense

13.6

Cardinal

13.7

/^(Conversation)

297

13.8

Conversation Practice

300

13.9

Songs:

Perfect

288

Tense

295
297

Numbers 91-100

J-/U

300

Jgxjftjitjg

-S*l j\)\

teJg

301

302

13.10 Vocabulary

Chapter 14

fc-0

14.2

Verb Stem

14.3

The Oblique

4.4

305

Constructions

14.1

* \$ Construction

308
31

Infinitive +!<:-> Construction

Compound Verbs
(A) Verb Stem + Aspect Indicators:

cfe5*

<tb

ffe )

*Cs

312

l^ljvl^C?

(B) Verb Stem + 1 1 Construction

31

4.5

Introduction to the Subj unctive

31

4.6

P*>

323

14.7

(Conversation)

326

Conversation Practice

XVI

14.8

*t

14.9

&\ J/ w^

-Jv 9t

Songs:

326

^^ \f

JJ&i$% *M

327
329

Vocabulary

Chapter

332

15.1

Condition-Result Clauses with ./' and

15.2

Expressing Presumptions and Suppositions with the Verb

15.3

Expressing Compulsion with the Verb

15.4

t/

336

339

342

Passives

15.5

Passive Intransitive Verbs

346

15.6

350

15.7

>^

15.8

Conversation Practice

15.9

Songs:

as

a Rhetorical

15.10

351

(Conversation)

f
<z~

Particle

Jl >* J

tlf

yLt

355

? UL> JL

356

/ - vUt /
'

357

cJ *ZJ ol >j OL dJJ

358

359

Vocabulary

Chapter 16

16.1

6.2

16.3

The

362

"Izafa"

Some Common Uses of

366

Present and Past Participles

Present Participle and ?J Construction

xvii

371

16.4

Present Participle and

16.5

Present Participle in the Narration of the Past

16.6

Past Participle and

16.7

The Uses of y

16.8

Emphatic Negative Assertions

378

16.9

J^(Convcrsation)

379

Construction

l*lf

vJ

374

375

Construction

jjf

377

16.10

Conversation Practice

16.11

Songs:

^\jt2Jitf2~3J

381

$ /J? j/tf Oi^r^t

16.12

372

382

Vocabulary

Reading Passages

Reading Passage

One

Reading Passage

Two

"J

387

\jf \J* </V*

388

Reading Passage Three

Reading Passage Four

c/.>

Reading Passage Seven

Note on

->l

L^'^"*

Reading Passage Five tffjP

Reading Passage Six

- jZ*

f?

p3

4~

3
(j !?

i~

a*

389

./->

'

^90

tT/f

393

y>y

394

-/L>'

396

the Calendar

Urdu-English Glossary

441

English-Urdu Glossary

xviii

Introduction

A member of the Indo-Aryan


in

many parts of the South

family of languages,

Urdu is spoken by over 1 50 million people

Asian subcontinent. Designated the

one of the national languages of India, Urdu

official

language of Pakistan and

also routinely spoken as a first or second

is

the Middle East, South and East Africa,

language in South Asian diaspora communities

in

Western Europe, North America, and Australia.

Tn recent decades,

Urdu has been glamorized by

Bollywoods India's massive film industry, which routinely commissions prominent Urdu writers

and poets

Urdu
dialects

to write scripts and

emerged as a

compose song

lyrics for the

when

the fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries

of it (Gujri and Dakhani) were used

in

western and southern India for poetic

II (r. 1

it

finally

gave

way to British colon ial

adamantly sought

who had developed a special

in

fondness for

the regional kingdoms that patronized

rule over most

new patrons. Whether

resilience in the face

received a special boost in northern India from the

759- i 806),

As the power base of the Mughal empire and

of the subcontinent, Urdu

Hyderabad or

in the Punjab,

it.

Urdu eroded

writers

Urdu demonstrated

of political upheavals.

Although Urdu has developed

spatial,

releases every year.

in

literary

Mughal em peror Shah Alam

marked

it

language

first

compositions. In the late eighteenth century

and

many movies

into a

language with a great

literary

and

cultural history, its

temporal, and etymological origins are fraught with acute ambiguities, not to mention

bitter controversies.

The word Urdu

itself is

reference to the surroundings of Delhi's

Red

of Turkish origin and means "camp," most

Fort, al times referred to as

xix

likely

urdu-e mu'alla, or

"exalted eamp."

b'or

many centuries, the area around the Red Fort was an

power for Turko-Pcrsian dynasties originating

It

accomodated various

others Indie.

linguistic

and

in Central Asia, including the

cultural traditions,

Toward the end of the eighteenth

important center of

some of which were

llustrious

Persianate and

century, the hybrid language of this area

be referred to as zaban-e urdu-e mu'alla, or "'the language

"Notwithstanding the use of the term

remember

Urdu

Red

came

to signify

Fort.

to designate a specific language,

that as late as the n ineteenth century,

came to

of the exalted camp." This expression

appears to have been truncated over time and simply became Urdu, which then

the vernacular or local language spoken around the

Mughals.

what we today

refer to> as

it

is

important

to

Urdu was also known

as Hindi, Hindavi, Gujri, Dakhani, or Rclchta ("mixed language"). Historically, the linguistic

spectrum encompassed by the Urdu/Hindi/Hindavi/Gujri/Dakhani/Rekhta framework has not

"been a rigid

one and the boundaries and definitions of these

dialects

have been relatively

fluid.

This wide spectrum not only incorporated Persian vocabulary and a few Persian grammatical

elements (Persian being the official language

embraced elements from vernacular or

at

many courts

local languages

in pre-colonial

South Asia) but also

such as Dakhani (spoken in the Deccan),

Gujarati, Avadhi, Khari Boli, and Braj.

The emergence of more rigid


British colonial policies

definitions of what constitutes

Urdu

is largely

and the growth of religiously based nationalisms

and earEy twentieth centuries. As a

result,

in

a consequence of

the late nineteenth

many aspects of culture that were common

to both

Hindus and Muslims, including language, came to be perceived exclusively through religious

lenses.

Many came to

reflected

believe that Urdu, because

it

was

written

an Islamic orientation. Thus, a language that had to

xx

in

the Perso-Arabic script,

that point

been spoken by Hindus

and Muslims

became

alike,

and

its

scrip! learned

by

inextricably linked to South Asian

all

peoples regardless of their religious orientation,

Muslim identity. Such a narrow association of the

language with Islam alone overlooked two important

facts; first, millions

of South Asian

Muslims did not speak Urdu, and second, many Hindus were counted among
writers,

and devotees. In the eyes of the religious

language written

identified

in the

nationalists, Hindi,

greatest poets,

on the other hand,

the

Devanagari script and drawing vocabulary from Sanskrit, came to be

with Hindus. Notwithstanding these narrow demarcations distinguishing Urdu from

Hindi, Premchand, a renowned author

who has been

claimed by partisans on both sides of the

Urdu/Hindi divide to be one of their own, declared: "In

the

its

same language. When they have common verbs and

my view, Hindi and Urdu are one and

subjects, there can be

no doubt of their

being one."

Many a

writer in South Asia has continued to challenge the constraints that have been placed

on these languages by freely mixing idioms. In response to the religious nuances that have come

to surround

both Hindi and Urdu, a handful of leaders (including Mahatma Gandhi) and writers

(Sajjad Zaheer for instance),

who were interested

promoted the use of the term "Hindustani" to

in fostering

refer

to a

Hindu-Muslim

unity,

have

mode of Urdu-Hindi defused of any

religious charge. Unfortunately, the forces of communalism in

contemporary South Asia have

been so strong that this expression has failed to gain wide currency.

A lthough in many respects Urdu and Hindi are almost identical


Urdu is written
Devanagari

identify

in the Perso-Arabic script

script.

Those persons and

whereas Hindi

institutions

is

gramatically, in today's world

written in the Sanskrit-derived

who wish

to focus

on differences tend

to

Urdu more with the vocabulary of Persian and Arabic, and Hindi with vocabulary from

xxi

Sanskrit

We should remind ourselves thai these distinctions between Urdu and

certain perspectives quite arbitrary

and the inexorable speculations as

these languages differ from each other can continue endlessly to

This book attempts to steer a middle course

in

to what extent, if any,

avail.

the Urdu-Hinds divide in that

most part* words and expressions that are mutually

speaking communities. In writing this book,

no

Hindi are from

intelligible to self-identified

it

uses, for the

Urdu-Hindi

wc have become convinced more than ever that

languages are open-ended networks. In a language such as Urdu, cultural and temporal variations

pave the way for growth and development. Expressions that are commonplace in Hyderabad,

India,

might be seen as archaic and even quaint

such as

all

this, it is

Over

in

to pursue

the language. Nor

more advanced

the highly Persianizcd form of Urdu that

we have included sample reading

the

in

and grammatical nuances. Nevertheless, we hope

a strong enough foundation

who are interested


and journals,

Karachi, Pakistan. In an introductory book

impossible to cover all the variations

the subtle lexical

students with

in

many years we have labored

to

is

is it

possible lo cover

(hat the course provides

study. For those students

commonly used

in

newspapers

passages at the end of the book.

produce

this book,

we have

been deeply grateful to

our wonderfully patient students for having tolerated earlier incarnations of the present work and

for their invaluable suggestions,

We also owe a special

debt of gratitude to the following friends

and colleagues who are responsible for many improvements

in this

book: Gaurav Shah,

Ponda, Lata Parwani, Naseem Mines, Shafique Virani, Neelima Sh.uk la-Bhau,

Amjad

ALinani,

Alex Keefe, Herman van Olphcn, Shahnaz Hassan, Danielle Widmann, Sunil Sharma,
Bard,

Azhar Abbas, Carla

Ameek

Amy

Peticvich, Hussein Rashid, and Michael Currier. Special thanks to Bill

xxii

University of Texas, Austin, for carefully reading the entire manuscript and suggesting

Tony DiBartolo, and Margaret

corrections that have improved the book and to Bill Countie,

Keycs of Harvard's Media Production Center for their patience

that

accompany this course. This book would not have been

many

in

recording the audio materials

possible without generous funding

from the Consortium for Language Learning and Teaching and the enthusiastic support of the
Consortium's executive director, Peter Patrikis.

In addition to dedicating this

book

to the late

Anncmaric Schimmel, we

also wish to

dedicate this work to our past, present, and future students with the hope thai our efforts will

inspire

them to continue their study of Urdu and enable them

trans-temporal cultural traditions that

to first-time students

Urdu embodies so well.

to experience the trans-national

We have given every consideration

of Urdu, that their experience of learning

and enjoyable. "We hope that those who use

many consider the most romantic

in

this

the world.

book

will

and

this

come to

language he both rewarding

appreciate

a language

that

How To Use This Book: A Note for Teachers


The overall objective of Let's Study Urdu
writing, and speaking

Urdu

instructional settings,

it

is

in

is

to

make students comfortable with

may be

everyday contexts. Although the book

class that

Depending on

which students master the material,

the speed with

meets 4-5 times per week for

of this book, particularly chapters 15 and 16, to the

first

we suggest that students spend

fifty

language

is

who

is

in

it is

proficient in

Urdu grammar and

a variety of

week)

minutes per session.

possible to extend the use

semester of a second-year course. For

at least

an hour to an hour and a half

outside of class reviewing the material and completing the relevant exercises.

that a teacher

used

reading,

specifically designed to fulfill the needs of a first-year (26

American college-level Urdu

each classroom session,

and Students

The book assumes

and speaking the

in reading, writing,

preseni in class to provide guidance for students. In our teaching experiences,

have noticed

that the information

from

book

this

is

communicated more effectively when

students read assigned sections before coming to class.

designed so that students can study

homework and devote

we

Keeping

this in mind, the

much of the grammar explanations on

their

book

own

is

as

the time they spend in the classroom to hearing and practicing the

language. With this approach, the amount of time that the teacher needs to spend explaining

grammar can be kept at a minimum, with classroom contact time being devoted to
interactive

and learner-centered

will help students

activities.

Tie

'I

book

is

fostering

accompanied by an audio component

develop their reading, speaking, and listening

that

skills.

This book assumes that students have a working knowledge of the Urdu writing system and,

as a result,

the

it

uses almost no transliteration,

companion volume

to this

To attain mastery of the Urdu

book, Let's Study Urdu:

XXIV

script,

we recommend

An Introduction to the Script (New

Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).

Format

Each chapter is divided


introduction

examples

il

each section usually devoled to the

of a particular point of grammar or idiomatic construction. After

lustrating the relevant

exercises, labelled as

meant

into several sections, with

Reading and Translation

to reinforce the

and Translation

grammar, students aru called upon


Drills

and comprehension

writing skills as well as recall of vocabulary items.

Urdu

Urdu within
the

complete the relevant

in that

section.

skills, the

If the translation exercises

Some sections of the book

syllabification

aspirated,

and reinforce grammar

The

first

eight chapters

Drills that are designed to help students understand

and develop greater competency

and nasal sounds

include English to

are done orally, they can assist students in generating

limited contexts so as to improve speaking proficiency.

book also contain Pronunciation

While the Reading

Substitutions emphasize

translation exercises that help students develop their writing skills

and vocabulary.

of

and Substitutions. These exercises are

grammar that the student has learned

Drills stress reading

to

a series

in

as well as those letters

pronouncing retroflexive, dental,

of

Urdu

palatal,

borrowed from Arabic and Persian languages-

The penultimate components of each chapter are the contextual dialogues, JT^ (Conversation)
and Conversation Practices, which integrate vocabulary with the grammar units introduced
the various sections of the chapter, These dialogues also help in the development of reading

communication

skills.

As the book advances and students

and vocabulary, the dialogues flow more naturally. The

increase thctr

r^

in

and

command over grammar

(Conversation) sections of each

chapter are connected to each other by a soap opera-like drama featuring two characters, Raj and

Nargis, and their families.

As

the Raj-Nargis

romance unfolds from chapter to chapter, students

XXV

arc exposed to the language as

the ongoing

it

is

spoken in a variety of everyday contexts. At the same time,

romance keeps them wondering and

anticipating what will develop in the next

chapter. These contextual dialogues are followed by popular Songs, taken for the most part from

Bollywood,

India's

thei r entirety, are

renowned film

romantic

The rationale for

sections.

in

industry.

theme and their selection has been

this activity

is

and

comprehension

skills, to

of Urdu grammar, to enhance pronunciation through

to provide exposure to a very significant element

the Subcontinent or in the diaspora.

or in

keyed to the grammar

carefully

fourfold: to develop aural

appreciate certain flexibilities and nuances

singing,

Most of these songs, whether in excerpted form

of South Asian

culture,

whether

in

We recommend that every class session devote at least 5

minutes to listening to and singing these songs. Students are not expected to totally comprehend
the songs since they often require a

been exposed.

of it from

the

Bollywood film

in

which

it

appears so as to be exposed to

in their entirety

from various websites on the

lists all

also found in the

After Chapter

broadcasts,

which they have not

new vocabulary

visual context.

we have

To

included a

for those

who wish

Internet.

Every chapter ends with a Vocabulary

to locate the lyrics

of the songs

items introduced in that unit. These vocabulary items are

English-Urdu and Urdu-English glossaries that appear

6, the

its

of the films from which these songs are excerpted,

We hope that the list will also be helpful

section that

to

We recommend that after students have mastered a song, they watch a video clip

facilitate the identification

list.

knowledge of Urdu-Hindi prosody

at

the end of the book.

book contains several Reading Passages based on radio and television

newspaper

extracts, popular jokes,

grammar points of the book and are designed

and

recipes.

The passages

integrate major

to further strengthen reading

of culturally authentic language.

xxvi

and translation

skills

Suggested Teaching Strategics

Although the book provides plenty of mechanical and structured exercises and

activities,

teachers

and students are encouraged to

creative

manner. The Reading and Translation Drills are not only tailored to enhance reading

and translation

exercises.

skills,

but they

utilize the material in the

may also be

used effectively

They may also be creatively transformed

into

book

in dictation

in

an open-ended and

and aural comprehension

games. For example, the words

composing one of the sentences included in the drills may be written individually on separate
index cards to create a "jigsaw" puzzle that students need to solve by reproducing the original

sentence with the various components in correct grammatical order.

controlled activity,

may

lead students to bring in

competency of the

in the

script.

in

The Translation

exercises

may be written

classroom to assess grammar, idiomatic usage, spelling, and

The Jr

students with basic situations

(Conversation) and Conversation Practice sections present

which they can reproduce through role-playing

activities that bring

new vocabulary words and grammar structures from previous chapters. They can form

basis of skits

which can be presented "live"

creative in developing scenarios based

Many of these strategies


elicit

also

on video. Students

may also be

lend themselves to group activities or students working in pairs to

class can be divided into groups, with each group

creating situations or exercises that expand

Groups may

in class or recorded

the

on vocabulary from the songs.

numerous creative responses. The

in class.

less

new vocabulary words, an exercise that can be

particularly effective when they are working in pairs.

by students on the board

The Substitutions, a

upon

the material that the students

have encountered

compete with each other on the basis of vocabulary acquisition and

degrees of comprehension. Activities based

on students working in groups or pairs should aim

xxvii

at

maximizing peer-facilitated learning mat ensures in-depth mastery of the material.


Bibliography

Barker,

Muhammad Abd

ofWorks Consulted

al-Rahman, etal. Spoken Urdu:

A Course

in Urdu. 3 vols. Ithaca:

Spoken Language Services, 1990 [1987].


Barker,

Muhammad Abd

al-Rahman, et

a!.

An Urdu Newspaper Reader

Ithaca:

Spoken

Language Services, 1986.

Bhatia,Tej.

A History of the Hindi-Hindustani Grammatical

Bhatia, Tej,

and Ashok Koul. Colloquial Urdu. London: Routledgc, 2000.

Jain,

Usha. Introduction to Hindi Grammar. Berkeley: Center

Studies, University

Kalsi,

A.

S., et al.

Tradition. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1987.

for

South and Southeast Asian

of California, 1995.

Modern Urdu

Texts,

Urdu Short Stories. London: School of Oriental and

African Studies, 1991.

Matthews, David

J.,

and

Mohammed

Kasim. Teach Yourself Urdu. I>ondon:

McGraw

Hill/Contemporary Books, 2003.

Matthews, David

J.,

and Christopher ShackLe.

A Selection of Twentieth Century

London: School of Oriental and African Studies,


McGregor, R,
Nairn, C.

S.

Outline ofHindi

Grammar.

Urdu

Verse.

991.

New Delhi; Oxford University Press,

1999.

Introductory Urdu. 2 vols. Chicago: South Asia Language and Area Center,

University of Chicago, 1999.

Naim, C. M. Readings in Urdu: Prose and Poetry. Honolulu: East West Press, 1965.
Narang, GopiChand. Readings in Urdu Literary Prose Madison: University of Wisconsin,
.

South Asia Center, 1968.

Platts, J.

A Dictionary of Urdu,

Classical Hindi,

and English.

1st

Indian edition. Delhi:

Muiishiram Manoharlal Publishers, [1930] reprint 1977.


SchimcK, Ruth Laila. Urdu:

An Essential Grammar.

Shackle, Christopher, and Rupert Snell. Hindi

London; Routledge, 1999.

and Urdu since 1800: A Common Reader

London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1990.

xxix

Film Sources for Songs Cited

in the

Book

Film (Year)

Chapter

Lyricist

Chaliya(\960)

Qamar J alalabad

Awara (1951)

Shaitendra

Shree 420 (1955)

Shailendra

Chaudhvin ka Chand

Ishqpar Zor Nahiih

Kabhi Kabhi (1976)

SahirLudhiyanvi

Dil Se Mile Oil (1978)

Am

Beqabu(\996)

Rahat Indori

f-

ft

y e J*

tJf *-?

#i?l

#/ 4
tMJ

Private recording:

Shakil Badayuni

960)

Anand Bakshi

970)

Dil hat ti mantaa nahiin

(1

99

it

KJianna

Faiz Anwar

Gaurav Shah

Naseeb (198!)

Anand Bakshi

Saajan (1991)

Samcer

Aan milo sajna (1970)

Anand Bakshi

Love Story (1981)

Anand Bakshi

Private recording:

Chhalia ( 1 960)

Qamar Jalalabad

Aashiqui(mO)

Sameer

Alburn recording Aryans

Jai

Mbhra (\994)

Anand Bakshi

f-$

utuJt

44*$

xxx

Gaurav Shah

Walia

V^ l of\

Aradhna(\969}

Anand Bakshi

^e^W

Saajan(m\)

Samcer

10

*ttfd

Bobby (1 973)

Anand Bakshi

10

Jftifag

A'Aor (1972)

Santosh

-4om mi/a sajnaa (1970)

Anand Bakshi

5Ao/fly(l975)

Anand Bakshi

Sangam <1964)

Shaiiendra

(Hz$f(l965)

SahirLudhyanvi

.4/-0<//wmi(1969)

Anand Bakshi

11

tr<?U&

11

kfi u? fdf

11

Jf Jtx f> di tokjd


uf' tA>

12

liX

*-'

Anand

12

$1*J'&j&\J*?*-j

12

u %/ <A Cr?

7W(1999)

Anand Bakshi

{f dffij*~j

KabhiKabhi(\97G)

SahirLudhyanvi

Shree 420(1955)

Shaiiendra

Jurm (1990)

lndeewar

13

\$J

ijt

13

j/i ** J%

14

lj* ^\ /<-*

[4

J Shifty

W
IS

15

15

16

16

16

x\j}

tjjr\jkji{ji

f lv
^_vt-

tf

v/f'

U64-

b/^AeW

jtfcJi^^ulJtf$jJ

^igi-T^^fl^^

tf/J^/tfuiii
J&htfjihliS^f

4WW*K* ^e W&ritf fe 55 ( 967)

Shaiiendra

Dharmatma (1915)

lndeewar

Dilwale Dulhaniya

Aij/w> Atao

995)

Pyaar Hai (2000)

Anand Bakshi
Ibrahim Ashiq

Shakil Badayuni

MughaUAzam (1960)
Muqaddar ka Sikandar ( 978)

Anjaan

Pakeezah(\91\)

Kaifi

Gmcjn(1979)

Makhdum

Azmi

Mohiuddin

XXXI

Chapter
1.1

In

Word Order

in the

Urdu Sentence

Urdu the normal word order in the simplest sentence, reading from right

to left, is as follows:

Verb

Subject

lam
Urdu sentences thus generally begin with the subject and end with the verb so that
elements of the sentence

fall

Verb

Complement

Subject

O*

eft/*

l&

The complement can be a noun

am American.

or an adjective:

Verb

Complement

Subject

sentence

(J^f which can

is

other

between the subject and the verb.

When such a

all

am

beautiful.

put in the negative, the verb can be replaced with the negative particle

mean either "no" or "not."

3
Negative Particle

Complement

Subject

uf
am

For a more emphatic lone,

\J5

not American.

can be followed by the verb:

Verb

Negative Particle

Complement

Subject

am

not American.

For an even more emphatic tone, the negative

particle

{JJ can come

after the verb:

Negative Particle

Verb

Complement

Subject

a*
am

1.2

The

first

J-

(definitely/certainly) not

Conjugation of Verb

Urdu verb we will conjugate

is

the

Conjugational

am

(inTormal) are

You (formal) arc

(to be),

Forms

You (least formal) are


You

and Pronouns

most common verb: itf

Singular

Translation

Kitf

American.

<4

Form

Pronoun

He/She/It

v/W

C~

is

Plural Forms

Wc are

jt

You

are

if

You are

\Jt

They are

fi
A

\J~

is

the

most

common

first

is

first

#/ft*

person pronoun, although

pronoun fi in contexts that require a

\J~

some people use the first person

plural

person singular pronoun. The use of r- in place of

generally considered a mark of humility, though in

some instances, under the influence of

English id iom, the substitution is used to connote the "royal we." In several regions of North

India,

people use fi

in

the (J~ context quite

commonly.

-U*

&/&

am American.

-u! <//'
I

am American.

We are American,
y

is

the least formal of the second person pronouns and should not be used unless one

intimate terms with the addressee or unless an insult

is

intended.

young children and sometimes servants as well. Interestingly

In

some regions,

this

pronoun

is

It

is

also used to address one's mother.

.<_

You

\h *

are good.

is

commonly used

used

is

on

to address

when addressing God.

|*

is

the

persons

terms.

It

common second

person pronoun.

who are younger than you


is

also frequently

It

can be used

in

addressing one person or several

or a person or persons with

whom you are on fairly familiar

employed to address individuals of a lower social

status than the

speaker, e.g., servants, taxi drivers.

You (singular) are Indian.

You (plural)
is

are Indian,

the most polite and formal second person singular and plural form.

one person, <

'

expresses respect. Thus,

when you speak to a person

when you address a person older than yourself,


for any person to

"you" (plural).

whom you want to show

On account

._-

respect,

When

'

of its use both for respect and

is

few times or

for the first

should be used. In general

addressed to

'

can be used

also used to express plurality,

plurality,

the meaning of i*

'

i.e.

is

dependent on context. For example, the following sentence has two possible meanings:

You (respectful) are a student.


You
Note

In highly formal

speech y--

'

can sometimes be used as a third person pronoun of respect

meaning "he or "she." This usage, which

</

0f (see below)

, is

religious personalities.

are students.

is

even more formal and polite than the use of plural

only used for persons accorded the highest degree of respect, such as

Example:

He (highly

honorific)

is

a very famous professor.

when used as pronouns can be

"they." Again,

when used

in

either singular or plural,

meaning "he,"

"she," "it," or

a plural context, these pronouns can connote respect for a single

individual:

-c-fss*s
S
r
i

He

is

professor.

-Ul/^ssts
He (respectful) is a professor.
They are professors.

The

latter

example is ambiguous because {jt can be used

for a singular subject

with respect or for a plural subject


1.1 - 1.2

Reading and Translation

Drill

who is spoken of

-c-jxt''A/ft

Translate into Urdu:

1.

He

2.

She

3.

They

4.

You

5.

We are doctors.

6.

Brooke Shields

7.

Anita

8.

Sean Connery

9.

We are human.

10.

He is not Christian. He

Fill in

Indian.

is

is

Pakistani.

are Russian.

(least formal) are not

is

is

a student.

very famous.

not famous.

is

very handsome.

is

Hindu.

the blanks with the appropriate form of fJt

_r

"

and

1.3 Greetings

[$

as Particle of Respect

Urdu does not have a uniform mode of greeting. The manner

is

contingent upon a variety

in

which one person greets another

of factors: the age and gender of the two

speakers, prior

acquaintance or intimacy, their educational background, and the region in which they are

located.

play a

At times, the perceived religious identity of the person who is being greeted may also

part.

As

a result, the several forms of Urdu (and Hindi) greetings carry overtones of social

and religious

status, regional identity,

affiliation.

The following are a few commonly heard

expressions:

kJjl

1)

you])."

(literally,

"respect") and

\J

f wM

These greetings, which are formal

"[my] respects are presented

in tone, are religiously neutral in that

between persons of different or identical religious

said

(literally,

affiliation.

they can be used

Depending on context, they may be

by a person of a younger age, or of an inferior social status, to an older person or one with a

socially superior status.

They are often accompanied by a gesture of respect

moves his/her right hand to the forehead. Sometimes the gesture


and the act

called *fe/

is

the

same rank or not

if

'

age

[to

fc_/b T

some people

a difference

'

and

y/

associated with the culture

Delhi,

flfr" ("presenting greetings"). If both greeters are of

^'->

'

is

also

Sfi J

2"

(literally,

"may you

or

live long").

For

represent a formal and contrived set of greetings

of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Urdu-speaking

Lucknow, and Hyderabad

wb

rank or age, then the person with the superior rank or

in

with a nod and the blessing

w^'->

which the speaker

used without any words

intimate with each other, the reply to these greetings

If there is

may respond

\~&3 " or "LV

itself is

in

(India).

aristocracies of

Hence they choose not to use it as they

outdated or old-fashioned. In contemporary Pakistan

feel

it is

p^ {\if("saiaam alaikum") and

its

f~ J('W alaikum

response r*iV

salaam") have

come to

replace

J^l

f >-J>\

and {J*

as

the standard formal greetings.

2)

p^flr

p^ {fc {"salaam alaikum")

(pronounced "as-salaam alaikum") or

Arabic greeting meaning "peace be upon [with] you."

in

South Asia and, indeed,

("

wa alaikum as-salaam")

all

It

is a

common

p*J

ultra-conservative circles

in Pakistan,

note, however, that notwithstanding the tendency in contemporary South

Asia

polarize greetings along religious lines, historically this is not a greeting that

limited to Muslims. Hence,

continue to use

ZZ-

3)

is

it

non-Muslims

in

all

over India as a form of greeting.

Hindu friends and neighbours. J C~s


]

to this

greeting

is

the same:

It

is

in

some

important to

to politicize

front

4)

is

and

was exclusively

Some

is

consider

in India

it

use

to

it

be a

as well

a s lightly more formal form of it.

when

The reply

or >-*' . These greetings are all-purpose and cover a range of

usages such as "good morning," "good afternoon," "good evening," and also "goodbye."

saying of C~-

friends.

customary "Hindu" greeting, although a large number of non-Hindus


greeting their

r-

some regions of South Asia and elsewhere still

when greeting their Muslim acquaintances and

commonly used

Muslims

(*lr

is

where

has become a marker of Muslim religious identity.

it

an

("wa alaikum salaam") "may peace be upon you as

As mentioned above, this greeting has become prevalent

well."

greeting between

over the Muslim world. The reply to this greeting

or fit*

is

The

accompanied by a hand gesture: the greeter joins the palms of both hands

in

of himself or herself.

j$

and (J^ "hello" and "hi" are informal greetings

educated and those

identification. In

who want a transrehgious

modern-day India,

it

is quite

common among

the "English-medium"

greeting which avoids any specific religious

common

to hear, especially in urban areas, the

5) After the initial

This inquiry

exchange of greetings,

may take

that is entirely in Urdu/Hindi.

of a lengthy conversation

greetings "hello" or "hi" al the beginning

it

is

customary to inquire about health and well-being.

place in an informal or formal

manner depending on context.

In

more

informal contexts, and perhaps becoming increasingly widespread under the influence of English

forms, the phrases

?i$ dL

frequently used. Equally informal

condition/state?" This has the

are:

i/*T

wX^

<J~" or

response uses the echo

6)

The

the ubiquitous "S

is

n
"L% *-$ f*

compound "(J ft

if "

literally,

"what

is

[your|

am fine"). A

(literally, "I

*Jw

slightly

more colloquial

**\f

\J**

Urdu speech requires the use of polite and even ceremonious

etiquette of formal

^)js = noble; literally, "[your)


Urdu dictates that

Jk

C-

"how are you?") are

(literally,

same nuance as the American slang "what's up?" Usual responses

language. For this reason, the question "

formal

v'^sr {"

"ox"^si

#/

?<

-'

/"

noble disposition?")

is

&

'A

= disposition, temperament;

frequently employed. Again, eliqucitc of

the reply should be modest, simple,

and even humble so that one does

not actually say

you

how one

is.

" (literally, "kindness,

Thus, the typical response

kind of you to ask").

to

"&-#/

One may also use

"thank you" as a reply. Sometimes variant expressions such as


"

&'/*"

am
7)

\/i6\/"

fine thanks] to your prayers")

The asking of names can

("What

is

your name?")

phrases are

is

.c.

g>r* which also

"-

thanks be to God) or*_UJ

may also be

U
=

\$r*

"

"

thank

means

or

ij^ (Hindu) or

Jwl

'-

(Ui = prayers,

"[I

heard.

also be informal or formal.

The informal". <- L/(*t 9 kf*"

most commonly heard. In formal contexts,

employed:"^

"(Jty/"

- lib/ lS '-^" (literally, "there is God's kindness/mercy (God

(Muslim); kindness -

is

\f^i>/f\ * yf

"

or

1^

polite

if ft

and respectful

J-

<{^'"

(literally.

"What

is

your noble (*-#/") name?" or "What

is

Humility and modesty require the response to begin: "*

is

ft \j" (literally, "My name

8)

Before taking leave Of a person, one

may formally

"please give permission (to leave]"). Just as there

speakers meet, there are no consistent

(literally,

or politely ask: "

On

among Urdu speakers, regardless of religious

Consequently they wilt use either

the other hand,

some Muslims

since they consider the

word "Im"

"J^T /"' "

feel that " JiiU

to refer to

\j&

affiliation.

The

particle

whom one
validity

("we'll

is

is

(>

tn India continue to

can be attached

*-*^"

the standard form for saying

With the unfortunate growth

some

to

a Muslim

meet again") or "(3^

not a strong

As a

" ("bye").

enough "Islamic"

greeting,

result of right-wing religious

"JSJU^I" has become ubiquitous throughout Pakistan.

non-Muslim Urdu speakers

" (literally,

"god" with a small "g." Hence they prefer to use

"&j\pj%i" ("may Allah be your protector/ keep you").

influences,

^JUj

words of parting, either. Traditionally " i^U

of religious nationalism, these words of parting have been associated by

identity.

no uniform greeting when two Urdu

is

"God be your protector, God keep you") has been

"goodbye"

9)

(jf) name?").

your auspicious

In contrast,

Muslim and

use "JijU '-."

to (J^ (yes) or

\J2

(no) to indicate respect for the person

addressing. At times, the use of this particle by itself suggests affirmation of the

of a statement or command:

Is

he a student?

Yes, he

is

a student.

10

No, he

is

Yes, he

not.

is.

J. can also be added as a suffix to nouns or proper names as a mark of respect,


"Gandhijii," or

(/.A

if >*

"Baapuujii, father," or J-t"l "Maataajii, mother."

1.4

Asking Questions

There are several ways of asking questions

1.

e.g., {j.

in

Urdu:

With a questioning intonation:

Are you American?


With this option no interrogative word

rise in

tone

used and the questioning intonation consists of a

when pronouncing the complement.

"American"; hence the intonation will

2.

is

With the interrogative

word U

In this

rise slightly

example the complement

when

is

the

slight

noun

the speaker pronounces this word.

at the beginning of the question:

Are you American?


This

is

ifcan

the simplest

way of turning

a statement into a question.

Most questions that begin with

be answered with either "yes" or "no"; hence this type of question

yes-Or-no question.

3.

With the interrogative

word if at

the

end of

11

the statement:

is

commonly called a

You are American, aren't you?


There

is

an implication

trying to confirm

4.

in this question that the questioner already

knows the answer and

is

it.

With the interrogative word or words immediately before the verb:

What are you?


Note that although the

literal

idiomatic English. Only the

Sometimes

literal

meaning of if is "what," it cannot always be translated

in

U may also have an

into

example no. 4 can be translated into English as "what,"

idiomatic

meaning in Urdu that

is

not readily apparent

in

the

English translation Thus, the sentence in no. 4 above could, depending on the tone and
.

intonation

of voice with which

it

was said, be a rhetorical question "What are you?" or "Who are

you?" implying that "you are nothing." Awareness of such nuances develops gradually through
familiarity with the language and

5.

With the use of

fjy

like

is

its

cultural contexts-

Jif

another intenogativcword.lt

means "where." Like if it usually comes right

before the verb:

Where
1.3 - 1.4

is

he?

Heading and Translation Drill

12

tg

_r

M
Translate into Urdu;

1.

Arc they students?

2.

No, they are professors.

3.

Where am I?

4.

Is

Nargis heautiftil?

13

ULjT J.fL

5.

Yes, she

is

6.

Yes, she

is intelligent, too.

7.

Where

Amit?

is

beautiful.

1.5

Urdu

The word

"at" in the

and

Postpositions

above sentence

is

am

Definite

at

a preposition.

verb

It is

called a preposition because

Urdu does not have prepositions.

instead postpositions. In other words, the equivalent

noun and not precede

Indefinite Articles

Harvard.

before the locative noun, Harvard. Unlike English,

the locative

and

of "in" or

"at" in

locative

noun

is

subject

articles "a," "an,"

and

"the"

because Urdu does not possess distinctive definite and indefinite articles.

Thusy2* can be translated as


of/*

(j) will follow

am in/at college.

Note in the previous examples, the Urdu equivalents of the English

nature

has

am in/at the house.

is

comes

it:

postposition

are missing. This

Urdu

It

it

"a house" or "the house."

by placing the numerical adjective

J* w-X
-(Jjf ifi

for

One way of emphasizing the

one "t-I" before

a house or one house

C^o^Li thiamin a college.

14

it:

indefinite

1.6 Adjectives of Nationality

Many

adjectives of nationality can formed by adding "lj" to the country's name:

ijfo

'$&>&

\2p*SJk

6&i

tJl^H Pakistan

$L>Jk

iS

<itif

iff

1/

kfl

l^/jjy

(J*jJ%

Russia

India

Bangladesh

\*f& China

(^'y' Iran

Two important adjectives do not follow this

pattern:

\^*/\

America

/*'

y/\

England

$Cf*\

Note: (J[y*' in place of

to United

(yll^ Japan

C^V*'

is

also acceptable.

Kingdom. The adjectives

oC&l and

^Uu

0%^

"Britain" can also be used to refer

refer to English as

an

attributive

adjective rather than as an adjective of nationality. Thus:

_*- l)C&l
1.5 - 1.6

i^)r<t

These pants are English

Reading and Translation

Drill

?^. ji/J- t$f^6

15

,r

_r

Translate into Urdu:

Where is New York?

2.

New York is in America.

3.

Is

4.

No, America

5.

Where are you (informal)?

6.

7.

Where

8.

Are Raj and Nargis

9.

Yes, they are in the house.

0.

America beautiful?

am

is

not beautiful. Canada

is beautiful.

in a (one) house.

Where

is

is

Lisa? She

Harlem?

is at

the university.

in the

Is

house?

Harlem

in

New York?
16

1.7

In this section,

we

Introduction to Possessive Adjectives

wilJ introduce only three possessive adjectives.

A more detailed discussion

and the grammatical construction of these adjectives will be included

adjectives in

Urdu, as

in

English,

later.

Possessive

come before the nouns they modify.

Verb

Complement

Noun

Possessive Adjective

=-

&

r*

My name is Ali.
The three possessive adjectives introduced

in this section are:

My= <X
Your (formal)

= I^T/Y^T

His/her (formal) or their=

wl / If /'
1.7

Reading and Translation

17

Drill

Translate into Urdu:

name

is

2.

Her name

is

3.

Their house

4.

Are they Pakistani? No, they are definitely not Pakistani.

5.

What

6.

They

7.

Your house

8.

It's

9.

Where

10.

She too

His

is

Amit.

He is American.

Devi. She

Indian.

in Pakistan.

is

their

is

work?

are all students.

is

They

are Iranian.

beautiful.

your house.

is

Dacca? Dacca is in Bangladesh.

is

Sikh.

She

is

a professor

at

Panjab (t

19

&) University.

1.8

Pronunciation Drill; Short and Long Vowels

Column

Colt imn 2

*SJ*

^^^*

C*g

^jj>

*<,J

isy

**

r*

r^

Vf

kr

CfJ

(1

y-

c>

c>

IV

IV

iSs

r>

gt

e?

Ju-

ijij

eb

tfr

1*

Jl

,/JJ*
y

*A

c/u

cA

*s*0

IS-

Ijj

c^u

&*

f-

ju*

-^

.ft

^f>

>

r*

vertical line above the letter "ye" is

occurs occasionally in certain

functions simply as a carrier

a sign

words of Arabic

and

is

(J

The

for a special letter, "alifmaqsura, "

origin.

not pronounced.

It

is

pronounced as "aa.

Hence the

"

The

last syllable in this

which

"ye"

word would be

pronounced

"saa. "

Other examples

"fatwaa, "= legal opinion based on

are: lj~-

Q)l "adnaa," = \ov/\y; ($P

Muslim jurisprudence.

1.9

?^

"iisaa,"= Christ;

^(Conversation)

Ul4/

f t V T _^
J

,/)

ft

i^

:i/0

'

Cambridge

20

**SomerviJIe
** Kirkland Street

1.10 Conversation Practice

Amit:

how are you?

Hello, Sheila,

Sheila; Fine, thanks.

Are you Indian?

Amit:

No.

am American.

Sheila:

No.

am Japanese. My house is in Tokyo.

Amit:

Tokyo! Tokyo is very

Sheila:

My house is on Hito Street.

Amit;

What is your job

Sheila: I

in

am a student at Harvard.

beautiful.

Are you American?

Where is your house

in

Tokyo?

Tokyo?

am a professor in Tokyo.

am

at

Tokyo University.

Amit:

Good! We'll meet again. Goodbye.

Sheila:

Goodbye.
1.11

Song

-ft

l* \X

,jr*

Jt-* tJ

tjlossary for

V%

= to cheat,

to deceive

J i*s= to everyone,

to

all

fiy= greetings
21

Song

.fjsf

1.12 Vocabulary

Note: The gender ofnouns

is

indicated in parentheses:

-masculine; f- feminine

J^

again, then

_^

all

also, too

\J*

~y*'

America (m)
American

lily*'

U^>'J^

Bangladesh (m)

jj / ^jr^s

beautiful

J&4

Britain

*%

China (m)

Chinese

jt^f

Christian

condition, slate

jt.

(m)

ju$

Dacca (m)
disposition, health

6*

(m)

***} V-A

how are you? (formal)


(lit.

t/*j*\

your noble

disposition?)

doctor (m/0

a&

England (m)

22

zsi

English (nationality)

English (adj)

Mi

iSz/t

English (the language)

\SzA

famous

J&*

fine

J?

gentleman,

sir,

l^t?

mister

give permission to leave (got to

<,^u

run)

good;

\k

all right; o.k.

goodbye

(lit.

God be your

*|p Ijp

protector)

greetings/hcllo/hi

to a

Muslim

<\^Ji\

Q*iV

(reply in

f^W

<\J

pi)

r*

parentheses)

he/she

b)

K/l/Yc/l

his/her (formal)

)'j&

Hindu

^tC**^

house (m)

human

being (m)

l^L-*!

J.
my; mine

Ljf

i*

in

23

r*lfr*

\&jUtf hI&sjOj

India (m)

dkr-s'x*

Indian

intelligent, clever

(m)

e/'<<

Iranian

dyi

Japan (m)

c#

Iran

Japanese

\S*&

Jew

eftp,^

Muslim

name (m)

fc

auspicious

rt

name (m)

(formal Hindi)

noble

^./0

name (m)

(formal Urdu)

ji

no, not

>,J

noble, honorable

office

(m)

on
Pakistan (m)

e*Nj

Pakistani

jt-4

Russia (m)

J>S

Russian

if,;

24

&

see

&A

you soon (lit. we will meet

again)

Sikh
student (m/f)

thanks (m)

thanks

(lit.

kindness)

(f)

MJ
ift/lfcf

their

university (f)

very;

*4:

many

we
what; also interrogative particle

where

work/job (m)

you

least formal

informal

formal

your (formal)

25

Chapter 2
2.1

*/

and

Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives

M function as both demonstrative pronouns and adjectives. As demonstrative pronouns

they signify, respectively, "this/these" or "that/those," their meaning depending on context. In

this chapter,

they are used only in their singular form. Examples:

-<zJs m

This

is

That

is

This

is

a house.

That

is

a shoe. -eZ-fc

a boy.

girl.

~<_(j./

,-

As demonstrative

adjectives,

"this/these" or "that/those."

and

modify both singular and

They are placed

directly before the

plural

nouns and also mean

noun they modify.

In this chapter,

they will be used only with singular nouns. Examples:

Jvs*

This boy.

That

girl.

~0 J M
~^A

That shoe. JTJ?

This house.

2.2

Urdu numerals are


So 45

in

Urdu

is

Cardinal Numbers 0-10

written from left to right in their

Pd.

In this section

we will

number

begin with the

26

form, just as the English ones are.

first

ten numbers.

4/

i)

Aff

ft

^U

>T

</j

I*

10

2.3

^)?

is

The Interrogative

an interrogative meaning who/which-

encountered so far

I",ike

&f

the other interrogative words that

\}J*U^\ the preferred position of l^)jf

is right

wc have

before the verb.

Who is Raj?

*+.&/&
Who is that boy?
If

c/V

is

the subject of the sentence, then

it

is

placed at the beginning of a sentence.

fee'/
Who is it?
2.4

CL~

in

Urdu can be translated

The

Postposition G-~

as "from" or "since."

27

When

appearing with an interrogative word,

^- appears after
qualifies.

is

Like

it.

\JZ.

cl~

is

a postposition

An interrogative that frequently

and occurs after the noun or interrogative

uses the postposition Z~-

is

thus "since when."

Where

Since

He
CL- may also be used

is

he from?

when has she been here?

has been there since

after locatives

(lit.

for)

two years.

such as "here" and "there."


here = (Jlgl

from here = L~ (JljC


there = (j[j

from there

d-U^i

My house is far from here.

His/Their house

is

Note also the following idiomatic usage:

far

from

close to

J3J 1 x

x = wl Jt/

Z8

near [from] here.

w^

or

"when."

it

^- w^

2.1 - 2.4

Reading and Translation Drill

?"

_<_ if t)

29

2.1

Replace the phrases within brackets

in the

2.4 Substitutions

following sentences with the Urdu equivalents of the

English phrases listed below.

-a* {*- ji }jt


from

New

York

from California

from Pakistan
from India

-UW

(<=-

J^rr ){jt jig) jt

from Mumbai,

in India

from Tokyo,

Japan

in

from Montreal,

in

from Chicago, in

for

30

two years

Canada

Illinois

_r

for

one year

for three years

for four years

_^_

(^ Ju i/j XuS^) -0
for nine years

here

for eight years

there

for seven years in

for six years

one office

at Harvard

not very near from there their school

far

from the office your house

near from

New York

her

not far from the university

2.1 - 2.4 Translations

1.

What

2.

This

3.

Where

4.

Ali

5.

Where

6.

He

7.

How long have you been here?

8.

We have been here for ten years

is

is

is

is this?

a horse.

is

It is

my horse.

Ali from?

from France.

in

France

is

he from?

from Paris.

31

work

my job

-r

Boston

Is

10.

No.

1 1.

Who is Sheila? Sheila is a student.

12.

Where

13.

This

14.

Their house

15.

His heart

It is

is

far

from New York?

9.

not very

far.

She

from Japan.

that shoe?

girl is

is

very

is

intelligent.

near

New York.

not here!!

2.1 - 2.4

Answer

is

the following questions in

Questions

complete sentences.

?4_ jiu firs' -Tj/

32

-a

2.5 Pronunciation Drill - Aspirations

Column 2

Column

c/

<

$/

*/

irftf

&J

ttV

J*

c?

\f/

1'/

&?

B*

Jte

V&

llf

t\f

HT

ft

Vr

fl/

0/

tirf

DA

cT

ik

Jlf

c^

Jif

J^

Jl/

JK

ty

Jy*J

J>J

f>

r*

c#

fly

r"

/
/

2.6

M
A

4^^

-t

(Conversation)

33

4
4

^.o^jt ,\ J^y.

-f- **/*>

Ttff

/% U^ {/

-U-*

- ^/jf 4>l

-L/j* <=-

__ i/Oiiy /#**

Jlr J"T

wt

jb

&g& _ jT _j<

:J}
:^i

'V.

j/

!li

:l/0

:^i

^,y
y

~c~ jjy

^. w

yy
2.7

who

Rob:

Hello,

Stranger:

Hello, hello.

are

Conversation Practice

you?

My name is Jay. am a tourist officer here.


I

Are you from

America?

am from

Rob:

What?! No.

Stranger:

Yes, yes. Canada

is

Canada. Canada

very famous.

is

close to America.

What do you do

[lit.

what

is

your work]

in

Canada? Are you a doctor? Are you a computer software engineer?


Rob:

No,

Stranger:

Rob;

am a professor. How

have been a

long have you been a tourist officer?

tourist officer for

nine years.

have been

in

Delhi for ten years.

low long have you been in Canada?

have been

in

Canada

for

seven years.

34

Is

Jaipur far from here?

Stranger:

Jaipur? Yes, yes. Sir, what

Oh no!

Rob:

Are you

Rajasthan.

You

really

(U

'9

is

Jaipur?

) a tourist officer? Jaipur

are not a tourist officer!

You

is

very famous.

are a vagabond!

Ft is

in

Where are the

police?

am a

Stranger:

Yes,

Rob:

Goodbye!

vagabond. Goodbye,

sir!

(Rob runs from the stranger)


2.S Songs

(Jjf

w % erf

on

Jlu

ifjw

Jt>j^
Glossary

\JiJ^

revolving, turning, wandering

CjlrT= sky, heaven (m)

(0

for

= on (a

if*

A=

'yfc*=star(m)

35

'

\j (r

J; t/

<c_

ternale ^0rrn <*-)

yet, still

+ tM

J/ Ju .

Songs

4r

tjj

2.9

Vocabulary

boy (m)

rs

eight

far

jsi

five

ii

four

from

e<=^ ij

from where

&

girl(f)

hat(f)

6J

head (m)

heart

&

(m)

uk

here

is/

horse (m)

near

y
one

pants, trousers (f)

president (m/f)

JJ^

red

Jl)

seven

shoe(m)

fc"

36

*/

since when

Six

sky(m)

cA-i

star(m)

ue

ten

j/j

that,

those

there

i^j

thing (f)

this,

these

g*

rf

three

vagabond, wanderer

jjijf

(rn)

when

ei/

who

tfj!/J\>>

year(m)

tf

yet, still

/f

zero

37

Cbapler3
3.1

All nouns

in

Noons: Gender and Plural

Urdu are either masculine or feminine. Within the category of each gender there are

two more categories: marked masculine nouns


"boy") and unmarked masculine nouns

"house");

in

the letter "alif

those ending in with any other sound

marked feminine nouns - those ending in "ckoTH ye" {J

unmarked feminine nouns

- those

ending with any other sound

remember that most nouns

guideline you should

with

those ending

O are feminine.

that

end with

There are important exceptions to these

0* ) (yogurt) are masculine whereas

**% (air,

wind) and

Ui

- (

'

( e.g.

e.g.

jL

O*

(e.g.

V/

(c.g.y*

\j/J "girl") and the

"thing").

are masculine

rules:

As

a rough

and those that end

(water),

C?^

(brother),

(world) are feminine.

Common Marked Masculine Nouns


boy

shoe

dog

r
*r

banana

The word
words

letter

is

final

long "aa" vowel that

indicated in

is

normally indicated by the

some words by the

are usually considered as

letter

"choTii he"

fl.

letter

vOf
38

at the

end of

Therefore, nouns ending in this

marked masculine nouns. For example:

rent

"alif

wonder, wink, charm

Note:

The noun

"choTii he"

it is

precious Stone

^Z

song, melody

*?

Jf

(place)

is

one of the few exceptions

to this rule.

Even though

it

ends

in

a feminine noun.

Forming Plurals of Marked Masculine Nouns

To form

the plural of marked masculine nouns the final "alif

Nouns that end


in the

word

replaced

is

changed to "e"

boys

-s

shoes

fc

Sl-

bananas

4r"

final position,

he" in the singular

may

also

may retain

be pronounced as

this letter in the plural since this letter,

V" Alternatively, the "choTU he" may be

by a "baRii ye"
rents

f~f*

C--s,

wonders, winks, charms

f
S,

precious stones

^-~

songs, melodies

39

"baRii ye"

dogs

in "choTii

i.e.

fit

Common Unmarked Masculine Nouns


office

house

house, buildings

name
year

Forming Plurals of Unmarked Masculine Nouns


Unmarked masculine nouns
their singular counterparts:

in the plural are written

i.e.,

they

and pronounced in the same manner as

in

show no change. For example:

Singular

Plural

office

offices

t>

house

houses

name

ft

names

Common Marked Feminine Nouns


girl

bread

hat

sari

Forming Plurals of Marked Feminine Nouns


Marked feminine nouns,

{J*

at

that

is

those that end

in

"choTii ye," form their plurals by the addition of

the end of the singular noun:

40

girls

breads

hats

U\f&/d dis-

saris

common Unmarked Feminine Nouns

thing

night

world

table

Forming Plurals of Unmarked Feminine Nouns


Unmarked Feminine Plurals are formed with the addition of (_

to the singular

things

iZ3

nights

(J- (/

worlds

di \? J

tables

\XX

noun:

Summary of endings ofsingular and plural nouns


Type of noun

Marked masculine

Unmarked masculine
Marked feminine

Unmarked feminine

Ending
"aa"

in

'

singular

or

Ending in
,r

any except "aa"

e" <i_

no change
M

"ii"

any except

41

iaan'

{j

"ii"

plural

"eh"

(Jl

Jm

3.1 Translation

Urdu and provide their Urdu plurals and gender:

Translate the following words into

1.

house

7.

boy

13.

hat

19.

night

2.

human

8.

girl

14.

dog

20.

orange

3.

actor

9.

horse

15,

apple

21.

room

4.

office

10.

shoe

16.

bread

22.

photograph

5.

student

11.

thing

17.

carpet

23.

store/shop

6.

work

12.

year

18.

banana

24.

table

3.2 Attributive

The attributive adjective in Urdu, as

and Predicate Adjectives

in English,

comes immediately before the noun

noun

adjective. In

after the

good boy

follows the noun or pronoun

it

modifies

Urdu, a predicate adjective occurs in a sentence whose main verb

noun/pronoun

it

modifies.

attributive adjective

On the other hand, when the adjective

it

modifies but before the verb.

predicative adjective

noun
Attributive

42

it is

is

a predicate

t.K

It

comes

That

is

a good boy.

Predicative

That boy

He

is

is

good/fine.

-<Jif 1*1

3.3

am

good.

ji

good/fine.

Marked and Unmarked

Adjectives

Urdu has two kinds of adjectives: the marked adjective and the unmarked adjective.

Marked adjectives
Marked adjectives agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify.
masculine singular noun, they end in "alif f

plural

noun; and

in

"choTii ye" lj

in

"baRii ye" *1~

Good office

f>

14'

Masculine plural:

Good boys
Good offices

H^'j
f*

<j

Feminine singular:

Good girl

when modifying a

masculine

when modifying a feminine singular or plural noun.

Masculine singular:

Good boy

When modifying a

(?(jH
43

Good

% Q*l

things

Feminine plural:

Good

girls

\j\f$ (f*\

Good things
The marked

kJ
m

% J^i

predicate adjective, like

with the noun/pronoun that precedes

This boy

is

its

attributive counterpart, agrees in

it.

good

girl is

By

-ijt <fD ^L--/

-L- \#J

These boys are good


This

number and gender

-^(T' J *

good

These girls are good

-{Jt [)*\

Unmarked
Unmarked adjectives are those that do

not

end

in

\Jf\J

J^

Adjectives

one of the marked endings: "alif

',

"baRiiye"

^-, or "choTiiye" {j. Regardless of the gender or the number of the noun they modify, they do
not change their form.

Masculine singular:

&jf^?

Handsome boy

vs

Clever shopkeeper

tib&QJ

j\s*yt

w^ J

Red apple

if

Masculine plural:

Handsome boys
Clever shopkeepers

Red apples

~S C^jr^A

J~b

(J&S

As''ft

w^
44

ijv

Feminine singular:

\$$ CsJr*!?

Beautiful girl

AP&

\$Jg

Clever wife

wlXJj

Red book
Feminine plural'.
Beautiful girls

QVs

CZsJ^f

jt-5*

Clever wives

>Jf-#

jffi JiJ

Red books

3.4 Cardinal

Numbers 11-20
t

J\f

II

ir

Note:

the

The spellings of numbers from 11-18 end

same way as they would have been

if

in

"choTii he"

they ended in "alif

number and gender of nouns they modify as they function

45

as

'.

o.

>M

ir

**

ir

u-*

16

J^

wfa&

IA

U&\

to

ut

t*

These numbers are pronounced

They do

unmarked

not inflect to agree with

adjectives.

Ordinal numbers 1-10


Ordinal numbers usually act as marked adjectives and decline in number and gender according to
the

noun they modify.


Masculine singular

Masculine plural

Number

Feminine

singular and plural

&

\f

<-/

!$/

second

tA

third

fourth

\A
04

.%

ift

ui4\

u4k

u4k
t*

seventh

dj'\

eighth

uu

&

oj

ninth

O^y)

\jjf)

Us>

tcntli

From number
\J^3

<

sixth

u^

ijt/1

<

fifth

i&V
jjr

u$\s

\J^5

first

7 onward you can see a pattern of attaching the suffixes (?vaah" "ven" "vim*')

(Jb

remains (rue with

to the

all

number

in order to get

numbers higher than seven.

its

ordinal form.

When

With a few exceptions,

these suffices are added to the

this

numbers

11-18 which end in a "ckoTiihe" one has the choice of retaining or dropping the "choTii he." For
example:

eleven

tj\J

eleventh

0^ J %

46

<*

U^^

3.1-3.4

Reading and Translation

Drill

10

tt

-e J> i&

tf

^ *_*

_<j?

u^

-$.

fcf w

4/

-t- J*I &>J Jf'

-f-

fcf.

lK <3"

.JU Jg

g-

-r

rf

t)f

J*

_l^ .JU cg * -wt> *(^ J

-^ .JU.

c^i

^J Us

_<_ l c<< j>>

?*.

(ft

f\f
-

if-

j>

-0

\/

\/ '\f

*-&&&
/
t

^
47

-ul

UX

--

-^

ijfi

(fi *

*/*%

AA*

J*

_^

3.1-3.4 Substitutions

Substitute the adjectives and/or

nouns

in brackets

with the

Urdu equivalents of the English

words indicated below:

-^

(i) aye J*
handsome
intelligent

tall

famous

good

48

-I

intelligent

tall

young (small)

good
yellow

expensive

cheap

-^ (Jtl) &g

-f

.^ (t0 do

(Hf )

-i

second boy

He

third doctor

Alt

fourth student

yellow

good
expensive

cheap

black

round

expensive

bcautifiit

49

sixth student Michelle

-^XfoUXu
inside

above

fifth

small

round
3.5 Pronunciation Drill: Perso-Arabic

Column

Column 2

Sounds

Column

'/"

lijltf

&$

i/

*y?

f\

Ml

^u
&

dM
J*

J7

*-/

\}frt

bJ-

r^

tjJri

JG

ji;

of*

'J*

Jfy

k>?(

c^C

uif

50

,'

rawSSvmt

-Z

3.6

-t# i o,<

Jr^

(Conversation)

-<p-

u?

(S'/tf

-t|

-Sar ?J

J< v

^<4

_<-.

?l

-i$

//

ij7

-c/fc

-Mi

J.

cv

4- c

\J$

^ ^^

:t/y

HAi

oifo

:DU

%#-

!c^ *JU e/&

3.7 Conversation Practice

Tourist:

This store

Guide:

Yes, but

Tourist:

Is it

is

very good.

(J1 ) this

is

an expensive

clean?

Guide:

Yes,

Tourist:

What

it

is

clean and very big.

are those big yellow things?

51

store.

The

fifth store

efljj

u&j

:llls

^ ^ C>^ _^ [fe^

^ 4/yf jt q?J

-''-iy*

over there

is

cheap.

Guide:

These

Tourist;

Are the oranges expensive?

Guide:

No, they are very cheap. The apples are also cheap. This bread

arc delicious oranges

and those

are delicious red apples.

is

also

delicious.

Tourist:

Who is that beautiful girl

Guide:

That

Tourist:

Is

Guide:

No, she

Tourist:

Maharashtra

is

Dixit.

She

the picture?

is

an

actress.

She

is

very famous.

she Punjabi?

many
Guide:

Madhuri

in

Yes.

is

from Maharashtra.

is

in India.

beautiful actresses

The

Mumbai and Bollywood are

in

Maharashtra. There are

and handsome actors in Bollywood.

actor in that picture over there is

Shahrukh Khan.

He too

is

very

famous.

3.8 Songs

(r

55

Glossary for Sgn^s-

JA

round, circular; a circle (m)

<-*- dear one

cover; case; sheath (m)

Jih

holJow

ft*

A.)-

see (informal imperative)

3.9

Vocabulary

above
absolutely, completely

Mm

actor

&*

actress

apple (m)

banana (m)

big

BK

black

wr

blue

book(0

UsC

bread (0

6iJ

carpet (f)

ocV

cheap; inexpensive

b~-

wJU

clean

cow(f)

Mr

delicious

dog (m)

53

'^

eighteen

eighth

lV?

eleven

**

expensive

*$

fifteen

u*4\

fifth

first

fourteen

fourth

y%

fruit

Ji

(m)

J^

hospital (m)

JJS)

inside

6fi

job/work (m)

mad,

ecstatic;

JO

crazy

,/w

Maharashtra (m)

*,tj

night (0

U%>

nineteen

jrj

ninth

wfyr

orange (m)

picture/pholograph (0

room (m)
M*

JZ

round, circular; a circle (m)

54

\f$J

second; another

off

seventeen

{J$ ^

seventh

[^&*/fcJ S5

shop/store

shopkeeper/store owner

tflj

&fo)tllh&tfj

sixteen

sixth

small

table (f)

tall

tea(f)

<UU

tenth

J'^

third

Ij4

thirteen

0y

twelve

twenty

u%

white

-j^

wife(f)

t&gf

world

Ui

(f)

yellow

Jr

55

Chapter 4
4.1 Possessive Adjectives

The

postposition

in

(and

its

forms

Urdu functions roughly

follows

a noun

noun/pronoun

or

is

like

a pronoun.

Z ) arc used

and

"of or "apostrophe

When

it

lo

s, 's"

follows a noun or

form possessive adjectives

in English.

a pronoun,

in

Urdu.

Like a postposition,

the tf and

its

it

preceding

transformed into a possessive adjective or an adjectival phrase:

vr

[nolin] [possessive postposition]

[pronoun]

(your house)

In the

above sentence

Dw

'

is

a possessive adjective. In Urdu, possessive adjectives are marked

adjectives that reflect the gender and

number of the

item(s) possessed.

The gender and number

of the possessor has no impact upon the possessive adjectives. Possessive adjectives,
attributive counterparts, precede the

nouns they modify. Thus,

masculine singular* the relevant noun/pronoun

In the

is

the possessed object

followed by the possessive particle

Your shoe

IT JZ

All's shoe

tf

if

Radha'sshoe

t*J?

is

If:

'

t Mj

above examples, because tTi^ the possessed object

the masculine singular form of the possessive particle

56

if

like their

is

(?.

masculine singular,

if the

it is

possessed object

preceded by

is

masculine

plural, then

If the

it

is

preceded by the masculine plural form of the possessive particle

possessed object

Your shoes

Ali's shoes

L- -

Radha's shoes

Z~-

is feminine

^L-

u^T

{f

*L- \f>$J

singular or plural, then the possessive particle \j precedes

Your thing

\j

it:

w'

Ali's thing

Radha's thing

Your things
Ali's things

Radha's things

When
forms.

(3

*~

*w follow pronouns, they have special forms. Below

Only the pronoun

*-*

'

does not change

its

is

form with the possessive

list

of these special

particle.

J.

lA

J-

if

>

57

1/1/

a?

Swi

Cm

i\a

id

+
*

(singular) 03

(singular) 09

(singular) 03

(plural) 03

t.

53

(plural)

(plural) 09

(singular)-/

(singular)v

(singular)

(plural)^

(plural)^

(plural)^

f
f
f

4.1

Replace the words

in

brackets with the

Substitutions

Urdu equivalents of the English

listed

below:

his

her

our

your (formal)

their

my
your (informal)

its

his

her

-^ i* && (fi/f)
my
our

your (least formal)

their

her

my

Jr

his

Ravi's

Stephanie and Lisa's

your

-ui otft Ufa? 0$ ut


Amitabh Bacchan's
Madhuri

Dixit's

our

their

her

4.1

Reading and Translation

GO

Drill

-*

d&t if *

-if

-^

&Af

-r

*4tf

Fill in

B Ufcfc LfV

the blanks wilh appropriate possessive adjectives and then translate into English.

-<~

<my)

~c|

(our)

(his)

<z~

U^s"

&J&? Oft US
ttt
-^
citlf

~l jJt^A** L/UJ

(their)

-'

-r

~r
-r

(our)

-t4

(her)

lP * c#T

J*

(your, least formal)

(my)

(your,

most formal)

(your, informal)

-^ wpy c^<
*4j* ifi

fi-

C/M * J^

61

U ^7

,,

-,

\J *

dS**"**

-*
-J*

4.2

Note

Many

people in South Asia, as

about their age to be polite or in good

inquiries, students

Asking and Telling Age

in

many Western nations, do

taste.

Although

it is

not consider direct questions

crucial to learn

how

to

make such

should be aware that this kind of question should not be undertaken casually.

Generally speaking, asking the age of young children or people younger than one's self is

considered acceptable. For older persons or people

become a

whom one does not know well this may

sensitive issue.

A sking Age
The sentence pattern used to ask a person's age

is

as follows:

V^_

Possessive adjective

declined to modify a

feminine noun.

The possessive

adjective

is

declined in the feminine form because

the noun for "age"

feminine.

What

What

Alternatively,

is

is

your age?

his/her age?

one may ask age by using a variation of the expression

years." In this case, the

word

JU

is

followed by appropriate form of

the subject. For example:

62

Jv" '- "how many


tJ<Z~<D agreeing with

i
IS

How old are you? [lit. how many years are you?]

How old is he/she? [lit. how many years


Telling

The usual pattern

is

he/she?]

Age

for telling one's age is as follows:

verb agreeing with

(J<^-<0

# of years

subject

subject

agreeing with subject

and

(masculine singular)

Sheila

is

(JL-*

am 20 years old.

10 years old.

We (masculine plural)

are 15 years old.

One may also tell age by using the noun

less

with the appropriate possessive adjective, but this

common.

am 20 years old
_ c. JU-

Sheila

is

[lit.

my age

is

20]

J,/ 6 &

10 years old [lit Sheila's age

is

10]

is

4.3

Cardinal Numbers 21-30

Ji

rr

U*

rr

l%

rr

J&

r&

J*

ri

o*-&

r^

\j\h

TA

o#\

4.2

4.3

Reading and Translation

uT

r*

\y

Drill

,^_ % Ju J$\ *"

v^L//Lr v r
-Jjr

if

JU

?<p

t/4 it

l//

(/cTt

~f- 1( Jk i/f &u


?*-

_r

Jls U$4 fy <*/

-Ul - \jy Jj? sfti ij


lf

?+.

// ifwi

\S/& JV

-tf- (J (JU- {/!

64

J*

_tf_

-=_

if Ju-

\j&\ Joe

c^

tTjw- of"

n+.

tf*

j*

13 iTc/f

6 df

$ Ju Jy f ? .\/

Translate into Urdu:

older sister twenty-one years old?

1.

Is his

2.

My sister and 1 are twenty-five years

3.

How old are you?

4.

These are twenty-eight delicious oranges.

5.

Are these thirty red apples?


4.4

Thus far we have learned that nouns

adjectives

Order

old.

in

a Noun Phrase

may be preceded by various elements

\ofaU 'Ou-''^), attributive adjectives KJ^ftt

and numbers.

They may sometimes be preceded by

interrogatives that frequently

(how much,

interrogatives as well.

or sort of, how). (Note:

"aa" ending, as in the case of marked adjectives,

depending on the gender and number of the noun that follows.)

or

demonstratives

\m

*v*

Wj

may change to

When

more of these elements, the following order should be observed:

65

U:

<),

Examples of some

precede a noun incLude i*)j (who, which), t-'V (which one),

how many), and Ur (what kind

interrogatives; the

( \fi)X

including possessive

noun

is

fc*{

are marked

"i"/"

or "e"

preceded by two

Noun

Attributive Adjective

Demonstrative,

Possessive Adjective

Interrogative,

Number
Examples:

That clever son of mine

-o jj
Nargis'

(Note:

JJ> is used here as

(lit

tj-

my that clever son) is here.

Jyf

6v

>>

two younger sisters are pretty.


a predicate adjective

and hence follows the noun.)

4.4 Translation Drill

Translate the following sentences into idiomatic Urdu:

1.

Which

beautiful daughter

of his

is

an actress? (use if *

from

2.

Nilufer's second blue carpet

3.

Those two big black dogs of yours are no good!

4.

These seven-year-old yellow photographs, on the

5 All

6.

is

for

which)

Iran.

table, are

mine.

of Reshma's elder sisters are very tall.

How many of Raj 's crazy friends are in America?


4.5 Pronunciation Drills - Nasals

Column

Column 4

Column 3

Column 2

e*

Jj

UM

J>

(JfS

Jj

U\>

J*.

&

Jf

J\
S6

tt

zA

uk

Jb

J&

J}

(J*

Jt>i

fa

J?

lA-

Jffr

Ur

Jk

Jtf

jaf

Jtt

OH

0%

Perso-Arabic Sounds

Column 3

*&

&
Jbm

Column 2

U
Column

m
P
&9

J*

<*>

**M

J$l

jjs

Ot)

J9

J
tff

&h

dbr

r*i

/i?

c/yir

*#

^k?

<M>

f&

<*

A-

IM

^-v

/*

3'
jjfi*

4.6

-d

f,

<=-

J^

3r^

(Conversation)

".^

JU \f-& ifj

l/l

ok i# Jx

jf ybf

-'

Jk

^x

6 JU i/i /^ -f- IfJU" lA V <f- ^ Jt" 0?4 j

:&)./

c/;

:i/0

'

if

JU

I/***)

.J/* (/ !o*

U^

if

JU Uf

L*

-t^ -C^

_<p

IT

JU

i/^'l

(/

=8*
4

?^_

-u%

efue |*

-c^

W4 /*Y&i

>;<

<j*

U&

i^

if

Off

fff l\f

^ u* -t^

4.7 Conversation Practice

Steve:

Hello. I

Seema;

Sheila

am Steve. am from New York. Where is Sheila?

is

not at home.

am her sister Seema and this

Who is he?
68

is

our

little

brother Babu.

-j/

my friend Amar.

This

Amar. Dimple

very beautiful*

his cat Dimple.

Steve:

This

Secma:

Hello,

Amar:

She

Babu:

Seema:

Where

Steve:

She

Seema:

Amar,

Amar:

No, no, I am from Bangladesh.

Babu:

Is

Amar:

Bangladesh

Babu:

My sisters and I are from India.

Steve:

Well! We've got to run. We'll meet again. Goodbye!

Seema:

Yes,

Babu:

Goodbye,

is

is five

also

is

is

years old and she

is

How old is she?

veiy smart.

is

am five years old and I am very smart!


is

Dimple from? She

from Afghanistan. She

are

not an Indian cat!

is

is

an Afghani

cat!

you from Afghanistan?

Bangladesh far from India?

we will

is

very close to India.

It is

a very beautiful country.

There are no good cats in India,

meet again. Goodbye!

little

Dimple!

4.8

Songs

$~ &fl$j

d ii

#*\$X

dd

jt* 6y

dd

f-f-

d/ ( * if &&4$
69

\$y** if*

ft

!,>*

ty*

!,/*

Uf

<#

if'

1)3 if-

<J*> O"

<u.jZ

^'f

Glossary for Songs

CP
\

\J

= existence (0

\y

~ eye (m)
m

^a)j

lJ5

.J*^

heartbeat

(0

= flame, spark

(m)

= kohl, collyrium (m)

r*

= dew, dew drop

= curl, tress (f)

fjfi

= companion, bosom friend (m/f)

= hem of sari,

veil, or

shawl (m)

4.9

= coquetry,

flirting

Vocabulary

age(f)

$K

brother (m)

but/however

\Jy

1/

car(f)

\$/t

cat(f)

L^
1LI*

country (m)

70

(f)

(m)

danger (m)

./*

daughter (f)

elderly (adj.); elderly person

o^ij

friend (m/f)

ghazal (love poem)

&/

(f)

$*(

how much, how many?

4n
d

life (f)

moment (m)
more, additional

j,<

(adj.)

old (thing)

jj
f

only

pen (m/f)

&

poet (m)

sister (f)

i^fi*

sometimes

story

aw

(f)

L*

thirty

this

much

Pi

twenty-one

twenty-three

iA
u*

twenty-four

utf,

twenty-two

71

twenty-five

u%

twenty-six

J*

twenty-seven

ij&

twenty-eight

j*\}\

twenty-nine

uf)

what sort of, what kind of,

young

(adj.),

how

youth (m/f)

youth, youthfulness

*?W
dif.
jj>

(f)

72

Chapters

The Present Habitual Tense

5.1

Verb Infinitives
All verb infinitives in

Urdu end

in

t.

For example:

to read/study

to

to

go

fc*^

tlf

LV

do

Urdu Verbal Stems


In order to derive the

dropped.

stem (sometimes also called the root) from the

The stem of fc*-

is

thus ./

that for

tv

is

U, and

infinitive,

that for

%J

is

the ending t

is

The Present Habitual Tense


To conjugate verbs that

indicate actions that occur in the present or are habitual or frequent, the

suffixes

suffix is

determined by the number and gender of the subject of the sentence. Thus

<<i

are added to the verbal stem to create the present participle.

verbal stem if the subject

suffix for the

for

*tr,

both feminine singular

tense

and

is

masculine singular,

plural subjects.

To complete

if it is

The choice of

masculine

t*

is

the

and

plural,

the tense the appropriate present

of the tfi verb also needs to be added. For example, the stem of the Urdu verb "to read or

study"

&5

is

In order to say "he

(since the subject is

is

reading or studying"

we add

the suffix

masculine singular) to get &** which grammatically

73

is

F to the verb

stem

the masculine

present participle.

subject "he."

The

To this
result

The present habitual

is

is

added

the present tense of the verb


- C>> M

the sentence

which means "He

tense does not denote that the subject

or process (e.g. he/she is reading). For this situation there

continuous, which will be introduced

CO-njUgational

forms of the verb

in

&

Chapter

in

7.

tyt corresponding to the

is

currently

reads/studies." Note:

engaged

in a particular act

a separate tense, the present

is

The following table

illustrates the

the present habitual:

Verbal Infinitive: b*!?

Stem;

Urdu Feminine

^>v

English

Urdu Masculine

Singular

-jjM (jT> jt

-- (jT> ?
-i*

J*> r

-1$ 3%

1?%

-t$ $*%

-yt (jl

-l <?" ^'
-t U W

You (least formal)


You

,u>f t>>

study.

study.

(informal) study.

You

(formal) study.

He/she

(informal) study.

You (formal)
They

_^o>y
-**tl ?
-ttf

2t> w-T

studies.

We study.
You

iji

^>

-jf&fcr*

study.

study.

Note: In Urdu, the verb t(f, "to go" does not need a postposition "to."

7-4

~Ul

-c| 2E-2 H

We go to college.

Do you go to
5.2

In

The Present Habitual Negative

negative sentences, the negative particle

habitual verb

the movies?

and the auxiliary (the form of

ij$

is

placed right before the conjugated present

%&

is

dropped unless the tone

J>% d$
I

For

still

emphatic:

J"-

don't study.

don't study (emphatic).

more emphasis, the negative particle may also be placed after the verb.

In

is

case the subject

is

do not study at

all.

feminine plural, and the negative particle

feminine present participle

is

nasalized:

_(T*

J?

She does not study.

do not study.

-cA J

They (feminine) do not study.

-lA \J f
75

U%

precedes the verb, then the

"We (feminine) do not study.

The feminine
follows

Here

is

it,

plural present participle loses this nasalization

e.g.,

list

-\J? tT>

when

the negative particle

of common Urdu verbs that you should memorize:

to eat

L'Lp'

to drink

tqJ

to stay or to live

to

go

to

come

to

do

to

work

tf

iff*

to write

to sing

to

dance

fefc
r

to play

to

understand

to give

fe-

to bring

CiJ

to take

to see

fc*

76

-5

iJJ

5.1-5.2

Conjugation Drill

Conjugate the following verbs in the present habitual tense (assume that the subject

is

masculine):

<

(singular)

(plural)

M
I

Conjugate the following verbs in the present habitual tense (assume that the subject

is

feminine).

(singular)

(plural) o?

77

Conjugate the following verbs

in the negative present habitual tense

(assume that the subject

is

feminine).

*t

cj/

(singular) 09

(plural) oi

f
5.1-5.2

Reading and Translation

Drill

_^

-U?

-^

78

Cf v

c#

t-uT

21.

u&

ry

w//m
fj*

J*

J"

-cJTe^

uk

u* -*- *J*

_i^

2-(f 0\>

\M *

v s

hh

-0* t/fi Ut?>Ut

.^

Z_/^

-1

fdxJLftf

M*^ fctf t* ^ r V

.^ t$t uw

c"^

yj

&
(A

Ji

79

5.3

~< ti/

-ig

Uf ** u[> f

wT A/

Times of the Day, Days of the Week, and Other Time Phrases
Times ofthe Day

morning (f)
afternoon

(f)

evening (f)

night

(f)

day, daytime (m)

Days ofthe Week


Sunday (m)

Monday (m)
Tuesday (m)

&X

Wednesday (m)

*sJ/*

Thursday (f)
Friday (m)

S aturday (m)

Z*q
Other Expressions of Time
/ T

today (m)

j
j

tomorrow (m)
yesterday (m)

day after tomorrow (m)

day before yesterday (m)

Uf~i

every

every day (m)

<i)i

fig A

every year (m)

O^A

sometimes

if

nowadays

b'

The

Particle

S has many uses

say here that certain

marked by j

in

/with Temporal Words and Phrases

Urdu.

We will discuss these uses in great detail later. Suffice to

time expressions are marked by (or followed by) /

with the exception of

also

every month (m)

5.4

particle

J> J

&A

every week (m)

The

''

(morning), are marked by

after these expressions

may be
81

Similarly

all

All times of the day,

the days of the

week

are

variously translated as "on," "in," or

However, none of the other expressions of time introduced above (such as

"during."

JU-

*\J<&

use /.

go

He

to

school in the day and work in the evening.

plays golf in the

morning but

studies at night,

tA u^ dh fj&t u\f2

The

girls

do not go to school on Sunday.

am very busy these

days.

My family goes to Pakistan every year.


Note: The short "a" vowel at the end of the words for Friday and Saturday,

changes

of nouns

to "e"

in

when marked by s For


.

explanation, refer to the discussion

and

&%,

on the oblique case

Chapter 6,

5.5

Review of Urdu Sentence Structure

The normal word order in an Urdu sentence

is:

Verb

Locative Phrase

Temporal Phrase

Subject

Any change
sentence

^Z

is

in this

order usually implies that the element placed out of normal sequence

meant to be emphasized:

82

in

the

The temporal phrase JiJ

the

f
t

"every day,"

is

emphasised in

this

sentence by being positioned at

beginning of the sentence before the subject.

5.3 - 5.5 Substitution

Substitute the phrases in brackets with the

and Response

Drill

Urdu equivalents of the English words

indicated

below:

on Monday
on Saturday
in

the

morning

in the evening

every night

on Friday

on Thursday
every year

hUU*

0> (&

JL

on Tuesday
every week

on Wednesday
in the

83

afternoon

jr

on Thursday
every month

tomorrow
today

Fill in

in

the evening

the blanks with the appropriate form of the present habitual tense:

7> fo A U^

(go)

(j

(studies)

/(&

(come)

Jl/3

(dance)

J"

(J?

J*

Jk ^X

-d

)sj jl

Jl

\JX>
1

oj

/f
jjyl

Jjl

<L

t^/y/H (j^

(understand)

(read and write)

-J

Jfaf Bl/'

jS

(live)

>\a

C^< <J>^

(work)

<\g

S)J

\JL ~.{JS

Jl*

kf J}

(jl

-~

-A

(play)

fjt

\$SJ -(studies)

Jy

jrf

(come)

jf

f*tA/&

(give)

u?

&fr

mffil

J* j JU

iJ

\$9J

jft\

<
84

tfcv

(is)

.(is)

-1

Cj>

Jl

\J0

- lr

U$l Ojj<

(sing)

f-

jst

\$*J

fe/

jr

*Z^M

ly

*&$fi*1 \Jy

&

SJji

h^U
(ji

hj

\J* Ujft

J$

J* -(understand)

(live)

f jQ\ji

Kf

$Jj\

\Jt

&/

$$\

JU"

-(are)

-(go)

-(sing and dance)

-(eat)

{J^ J

99 -(don'tread)

</*> * J&>*

-(do work)

fyfufffriy IT

\mSr

fyj

(drink)

J*\

Answer the following questions both orally and in writing:

?<c-

V *-V

5.6

In this section

1.

we will

_*f

_r

~r V

-*

Ul/ *s*"

/**/*

If

The Verb U?lf with Nouns and Verbs

be discussing two uses of the verb t? U, to want, to desire.

Cft with a noun:


The noun becomes the object of Cflf , that

verb

is

the object which

inanimate object of verb

85

is

desired:

subject

want

2.

fruit.

Cfl> with a verbal infinitive:

The verbal

infinitive in this construction

a* ty
verb

that in

unchanged.

<-*

verbal infinitive

Note

becomes the object of Cf If

want

to eat.

such a construction only the verb Cf If

To form the negative,

subject

the particle iJ*T

is

conjugated.

may be

The

verbal infinitive remains

inserted before the verbal infinitive

with the auxiliary of t>? being optionally retained or not for emphasis:

(cjjf)

tl/

U?

jt

verbal infinitive

negative

subject

tkjg

verb

For additional emphasis, the negative

(la*)

g$

verb

may be placed between

the verbal infinitive and verb:

uif

1*1/

jt

negative

verbal infinitive

subject

For even more emphasis, the negative can be moved to the end of the sentence:

negative

verb

5.6 Substitutions

verbal infinitive

subject

and Translations

Replace the phrases within brackets in the following sentences with the Urdu equivalents of the

English phrases listed below.

-a* ty

(r

r ttf)
21

fruits

22 apples
23 houses
24 things

(u

3gjfi

U$M 4*

want

Cp) 4/

they

25 pens

want 26 oranges

you (formal)

wants 27 hats

she

Raj and Nargis

want 28 mangoes

Ujt

2}J*

C*fc

Xr*)

want to sing

want to
want

you

play

(least formal)

you (informal)

to drink

ty

wants to go

do not want

to

go

cinema

want to

87

(fJf>

Rob

(-C0(>

read

newspaper

give

that thing

drink

water

take

30 books

New York
Steve and

stay at

jr

wants to understand

-$,

-'

Steve

Amber

home peop le

-<"

want to

live

in

Bollywood

you (formal)

Translate into Urdu:

We want to sing every evening.

2.

My friend and

3.

He wants to come to America;

4.

She wants to understand Chinese not

5.

AH of them

6.

7.

Do you

Rishi

want

food in an Indian restaurant.

to eat Indian

he does not want to

R ussaan.

want to read the newspaper

in the

morning.

want to go to the movies but Sheila wants to stay


(formal) want to

the White House.

want

work

in the

to eat

live in India!

in

the house.

White House? No,

don't

want to work

in

dinner and dance in the White House.

5.7 Pronunciation Drill: Retroflexes

Column

Column 3

Column 2

vV

&

i/

&

us

Hi,

i}/ \jf

ttf

r%

iV

88

j*

Repeat the following sentences to practice rctroflcxive sounds:

kfo

-<$-

\k

tis* s%

~^ifi \Si/\$

5.8

<4

\&

jr

^^ (Conversation)

&s fart/V* $-

t\jtf j -<p >AJ *S-

-i

r>j

r jftjtf &*}

jftjtf^)

89

Aft -j_

tu

<*}!*

J?

?c

z~fft ok,

v T V yc %-* *f LUff* (=- &*>)

'-jy*

^ jj$

V-*

-o <y% j-v^. jl

./}

bfAa *Js ti/ji (tot

_u* $Stf i/>

**

-\jx

u&

\je

(Te*^

5.9 Conversation Practice

Have a conversation with your partner about his/her activities


evening, and night.

You should have at

least

in the

morning, afternoon,

6-8 questions for your partner and vice versa. All

answers should be in complete sentences. Your conversations should incorporate as

many of the

following vocabulary words as possible:

Be creative and

feel free to bring in other

vocabulary that

we have encountered

so

far.

5.10 Songs

~2fjf.fr j?~

lJT

^ j/ 4

Glossary for Songs

&f r
>\ =

rites,

customs of love

memory, rememberance

'

tears

(m)

1/1^ = breath

(f)

(f)

)Uj^ = storm (m)

5.11

afternoon

Arabic

Vocabulary
>&->->

(f)

J/

(f)

tu

to bring

J5r**

busy

to

buy

chess

to

(f)

tT

come

ft

to be convinced, to listen, to

obey

91

6a 4

(r

L/5

mad, insane

crazy,

dance

*%

day(m)

Ul

to

day before yesterday; day after

U**<

tomorrow

definitely, sure

J)'/*

difficult

J?

do

1/

to drink

to

61/

to eat

evening

p?

(f)

every

every month (m)

every

-4sJ?

^*7>7

week (m)

**

every year (m)

Ir
<M

eye(f)

fc^f/lfr <>'i-

family (m)

fare, rent

<diA

-&U/J

every day (m>

-1/

(m)

food(m)
Friday (m)

to

give

fej

82

go

to

tu

happy

Jf

hobby/hobbies (m)

0?

hundred

know

&

to

less

to live or to stay

lot,

very

uj

much

"42

(m)^

love

&? /(m)yL-

l/mf Jt/j^

to love

mango (m)

memory, remembrance (0

Monday (m)
morning

/(f)

(f)

newspaper (m)

j\J>\

now

l.1

occasionally,

now and

then

J*

people, folk (m)

place/vacancy

to

(f)

play

Ct

^3J

rupee (Indian/Pakistani

currency) (m)

93

Saturd ay (m);

week (m)

Zfy

*6

to see

to

sing

to study/ to read

fc*./

Sunday (m)

JS\

sweets

(jt^

(f)

to take

J J**

temple (m)

that,

which,

who

(relative

pronoun and conjunction)


these days

Thursday

Jfa

nowadays

+IS*

<f)

today (m)

tf

tomorrow/yesterday (m)

J
J>

Tuesday (m)

to

understand

water (m)

Wednesday (m)

a>j$

when

w3

(relative pronoun)

U%

why?

*
i

wine/alcohol (0

to

*7*

fe/HT

work

94

to write

yogurt drink

t-**V

(f)

(j

95

Chapter 6
6.1 Postpositions

Unlike English, Urdu does not have prepositions. Instead

prepositional counterpart in

it

has postpositions: that

Urdu comes after the noun or pronoun

postpositions consist of only

one word and

it

modifies.

is,

the

Some

are called simple postpositions while others consist

of more than one word, hence they are called compound postpositions.

Common simple postpositions include:


\JH

at, in

on

^--

from, by, with, since

/
until,

Compound

up to

*-**

postpositions are usually

Some important examples

formed with the

include:

jZ*-~A

near

l/t

concerning, regarding, about

far

particle C-~ or occasionally with .

from

JfV

with

e-

before

after

96

on top of

y.

under

L-

tZAs t

across, in front of

^5

behind
*<;/^-

near, close to

beyond,

*i

because of

tf^-

Pronouns that precede compound postpositions beginning with

possessive

forms as discussed

~j', hence j

U*

'

^~

V-^' ^-~

inside

Note:

/t-X-C i

front of, ahead of

in

*i-

4y

6.2

in

Chapter

4.

i-

Thus, the pronoun \J~ before

Similarly, the pronoun \J~ before

$5 O

^--

^9

assume

their

j6 \s ^- becomes
becomes

The Oblique Case - Oblique Forms of Nouns

Whenever a noun or a pronoun

is

followed by a postposition, the noun/pronoun (and

its

modifying adjective) goes into the oblique case. Without the postposition, the noun/pronoun

and adjectives modifying

reflect the

them are said to be

in the

nominative case. Some nouns/pronouns

oblique case by slight changes in their forms while others remain unchanged.

Exception:

Some pronouns

followed by a compound postposition use their possessive forms

and not oblique forms. See section 6.6 below.

Oblique Forms of Nouns

Masculine Singular Nouns

When

a postposition is

used after a marked masculine singular noun which ends in

97

final

"alif

',

is

the "a/if

is

changed

either changed to

ye" d^.

to "baRii

If the

noun ends

"baRiiye" or retained and pronounced as

Nominative:

the boy

vJ

Oblique:

on the boy

J /

Nominative:

child

Oblique:

on the child

a "choTiihe," the "choTii he

"e."

Forexample:

%~

/ j. /ZL

Unmarked masculine singular nouns


their form in the oblique.

in

(i.e.,

those that do not end with final "alif

do not change

Example:

Nominative:

office

j*>

Oblique:

in the office

(J~ ~p)

Masculine Plural Nouns

When

masculine plural nouns go into the oblique, the suffix "oh" iji

Marked masculine nouns which end with "baRii ye" ^_


ending before taking the "oh"

a)

(J-? suffix.

attached to them.

the nominative plural, drop this

Examples:

Marked

Nominative:

boys

t J

Oblique:

with the boys

j 1/

b)

in

is

Z-

\Js s

Unmarked

Nominative:

offices

fJ

Oblique:

in the offices

{J

Orf 3

Feminine Singular Nouns

When

feminine singular nouns are followed by a postposition, their form remains unchanged

98

regardless

a)

of whether Ihey are marked or unmarked. Examples:

Marked

\jj

Nominative:

girl

Oblique:

from the

b)

girl

CL- \js

Unmarked

Nominative:

(able

fi

Oblique:

on the table

J }
Feminine Plural Nouns

AH feminine plural nouns take the "oh" (pending


suffix is

a)

added

to the singular

Note: The "oh" {J^

form of feminine nouns.

Marked

Nominative:

girls

(Jf '

Oblique:

from the girls

*-

Nominative:

tables

4-y^*

Oblique:

on

J (J>X

b)

in their oblique forms.

0*LJ

Unmarked

the tables

Summary of Oblique Form Endings for Nouns


Type of noun

Singular Oblique Ending

Marked masculine

"e" <L-

"oh" \J>

Unmarked masculine

same as nominative

"oh" \J3

Marked feminine

same as nominative

"oh"

Unmarked feminine

same as nominative

"on" {J}

99

Plural Oblique

Ending

6.2 Drill Exercise

Give the nominative

plural, singular oblique,

and plural oblique forms of the following nouns:

i}J

-r

V-*

ffjb

Jfjr

$jfj\

J*

1l&

v-r

-1

jlrf

Jl/jA

t *

J&

trt

jr

J1

(J

JC

fc&j

63 Oblique Forms of Demonstratives


When

(this) is

followed by a postposition,

followed by a postposition,

{Jl and that of

is

its

oblique singular form

oblique singular form

is

(Ji.

is

boy

Oblique Singular
on

boy

this

i*&

that

boy

on that boy

iff

<^tr

Nominative Plural

Oblique Plural

these girls

with these girls

L#*

J\s .

those girls

with those girls

t^w

Sir

100

\j\.

When

M (that)

The oblique plural form of

C^- Examples:

Nominative Singular

this

its

00 di

o$

u'<

is

is

6.4 Oblique

Forms of Adjectives

Marked
a)

Singular Masculine

Adjectives

These adjectives change the word

final "alif"

'

ending

"baRii ye"

to

-~ in the oblique.

Nominative

this

good boy

that big

b ) Plural

Oblique

with this good boy

house

in that

Masculine, Singular Feminine, Plural Feminine :

These adjectives do not change their form

Plural

Masculine:

Singular Feminine:

Plural

big house

Feminine:

in

^U <-

the oblique.

j&V'

^- {jJ

j4\s-

~ Ox>'

Unmarked
These adjectives do not change their

the following

&

\ji/

form

examples with the adjective

in

(J?

I?

with the good boys

'

'

with the good

girl

with the good

girls

Adjectives

the oblique, regardless

of number or gender. Study

j\^^ (intelligent).

Masculine Singular Nominative

CL~

Masculine Singular Oblique

Masculine Plural Nominative

GL~

Masculine Plural Oblique

K?

J \^**

j\ftf

Z-/

j\syt

\)j? Afft
\js J\P tf

Feminine Singular Nominative

101

Feminine Singular Oblique


Feminine Plural Nominative

U30

Feminine Plural Oblique

6.5

When

certain

J\>*

Oblique Forms of Pronouns

pronouns are followed by postpositions, they assume a special form. Here

of the pronouns in their nominative and oblique forms.

Singular

Nominative

Oblique

J.

99

~>

ifi
Plural

Nominative

Oblique

f
,r

01

Ul

102

is

list

6.6

As we have learned previously,

{j

Note on

<

<<L-

*%

*o are particles indicating possession. The gender and

number of the object being possessed determines which form

Z-

is

o for masculine singular,

used:

masculine plural, and \j for feminine singular and plural. They function just as

for

postpositions after

nouns, as they put nouns into the oblique case.

the boy's

name

the boys' names

Wh in preceding

girls'

2-~ i^Jy

|"*t

the girl's thing

the

^-S

ft o

t[jZ

things

(j

(j

(j./

0-%^

*-~ <v, certain pronouns, however, take the possessive form instead of the

oblique:

J.

'/

Wr"

tjg

\$X

cT

ut

6/:

cT

*x

tfV

=c

if

\$M

6.4-6.6

Reading and Translation

Drill

^&.7ifutJ.
103

-u? $7

if-

jC\

ut

f
_r

-X

S Hr&M,

Fill in

literally

meaning "on the store," idiomatically implies

"at the store."

the blanks with the appropriate form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective.

(ihefruitseller)

(thefruitseller's)

(my)

~C~

&>&

ffl

--

lf ftf_

(my)

\%

~u 6*($iJfaf$

oJ-%

(that

book)

(that book's)

?-

-u{?

(these books) ?<-

-QH

Oj'

104

/*>_
UltfC

?^_ L/Vt _

(these books)

(good boys)

?J_

If

J\s .

C?

'_

t/*L

?L# l/ft <C

(your [informal])

(good thing)

(these

?_

good things)

-^

1/ stf

? $/ (j

(me)

(you [least formal])

\jjf$

-If

4^

-(J^ (jfA^

<{J$

*jj$

6.7

tff in

its

The

J1

///

-*^

?<i-

J^ (X J*We~

Interrogative t^r

and

Its

- ,A

Oblique Forms

el/ 10

Who

Who

this

is

boy?

that

is

gentleman?

Which gentleman

In the

-C^

nominative form means "who" or "which."

?^

When

- ,(V

i^fi/S J^

(at these stores)

(me)

- ir

-'^

(that big house) -(^/t ^-_/* 9j\ (J-

(our office)

-''

\$f goes into the oblique,


oblique form,

it

its

singular form is

may mean "whose," "whom,"

Whose book
?_

y^

If

105

is it?

{/' while

its

oblique plural form

"which.," or "what."

is this?

(/^

is

fcp.

Whose house

is

that?

Whose (plural) newspapers

are these?

With

whom (plural) do you sing?


~ f*

In

which book

is this

?. c3j

(/^^

thing?

At what time is the class?


In the last

example we see

explicitly present.

that the oblique case

can exist even when a postposftion

(The Urdu sentence does not have a postposition for "at"

Since the postposition

postpositions are often

is

implied, this form is

left

known

after the

not

noun ij}.

as the implied oblique. In idiomatic Urdu,

out after temporal and locative nouns but their existence

nevertheless assumed. This assumption is evident in the fact that the

to

is

noun and

is

adj ective related

time and location of an action go into the oblique case without an explicit postposition.

At what time does he go home?

It

is

assumed

recommend

that

<JU}

many

followed by a postposition, V, but the rules of idiomatic Urdu do not

that the postposition

interrogative adjective

In

is

0*

be explicitly

illustrates,

locative expressions, the

the

same rule

stated.

noun

is

But as the use of the oblique form of the

&&3

applied.

106

that

it

modifies

is in

the oblique case.

He

yJ

is in

goes to the office.

the oblique case with the postposition

-^

^0j

has been changed into

2_ vf\'J

after

it.

Ufa

frU

He goes to

L/~or./ implied

the post office.

because of the implied postposition which puts

it

in the

oblique.

Note that

\J"

can be followed by

< *% (depending upon

\j

the object

it

is

modifying)

when inquiring about the possessor of a thing:

Whose house

is

that?

Whose fruits are those?

Whose thing
6.8

The compound

preceding

it

^L *L

can

mean

Note on

"for," "for

is

that?

2L cC

the sake of," or "in order to."

will be in the oblique case:

He comes for Ali.

<# ji

tf .
He comes
t-

for this girl.

uf'}
107

Nouns and

adjectives

He comes
In addition to

nouns and adjectives, verbal

for

good bananas.

infinitives

instances, the infinitives will take the oblique case.

will

become tfL*r

can also occur before

2~

ZL-. In such

For example, tt will become

i W,

etc.

He comes

[in orde ] to eat.

+ tf'<L
She comes
Exception: Several pronouns followed
owed by

[in order] to

^ c

dance.

do not go into

the

oblique case. Instead

they assume the possessive form.

for

me

for

you

for

you

<Lt

^L. ~j*

d^jty

'Lt

tAi

'LL

tL~

for us

See also section

The

r C jC

6.6.

i_ construction also has two common idiomatic usages:

therefore

< \J\,

^L

why

(/>

Do not confuse the two aforementioned


for this

for

one

whom

C L-

\J\

L*

u'

*d~

idiomatic expressions with:

108

J--

(
fi

6.7 - 6.8

Reading and Translation

-O*

-U*

Drill

4/ ft t.

Jlf Ujf

if

~T JL

<^

i/

?tf_nb^

^^

(/'

'/

c/
_^ jT i ^ c- &i

?*_

frf

~<z-

&

*>>.

<l/

&-%

*4~tt&fM

109

0'

Jr

-<*

C 1 L-ai
?tl u*cr l 4^/1 4
-*# iffji j*<r -jf
i+.

<->'

**

-e-

-$.

Ml
-/>

f*

\J\

O'J

&/. e*X>

t u/i _u

_z

6*

_/ {/I

_A

jm ji

_9

"

?> *-M
**-\/L' oh
-at %f f JA 1

-gt t\ j%

d'

V f /^^J'\jW

110

\X

Translate the following into Urdu:

Ashok comes here every day

2.

With

Whose houses are those?

4.

Sheila and Sunita go to the club to dance every night, but they don't drink alcohol

5.

Docs he bring food

6.

buy

7.

go to London every year to watch

8.

With

9.

What time is their class every day?

10.

We come to

1 1

Because of love, there are

whom

does he

this car for

whom

to eat.

come?

for

them every day?

you (your sake).


tennis.

do you sing? With crazy Raj?

Harvard

[in order] to

study but go to that office

tears in Nargis' eyes!

111

[in

order] to work.

6.7-6.8 Substitutions
Replace the phrases

in brackets

with the

Urdu

equivalents of the English words indicated below.

you (least formal)


him

them

me

you (informal)
us

them
that girl

us

those girls

those boys

*r

you (formal)
the Pakistani president

that

112

boy

me
you (informal)

them
his friend

that

our house

their thing

their things

that

window
this

those houses

^ftt

i/f -if

( k0 (^

you (formal)
those boys

this

building

my

brother

our

113

-A

their

my
his friend

us

house

that building

this

market

these houses

those houses

that big building

this beautiful

_l t-/(jj}

hJti

{/*-& W'O

twenty-five

this big building

seven

my house

twelve

our

JA

stc

cs-

41

friend's

house

i/t

X&J? WO Jr
these buildings

our office

that big store

114

Jr

her office

twenty-eight

.*.

market

this poet's

house

Pakistanis

our friends

that car

Aishwarya Rai and Salman Khan

whose house
whose things
whose

store

whose newspapers

6.9

Pronunciation Drill: Aspirated, Perso-Arabic, and Reiroflexive Sounds

Column

Column 2

#/

115

cfs

\j*)h

ftf

&X*/

tfV

c/Ui

tfju

<&M

JyY

\$A

tfV

iJLf

>

J*

iA

J*

ijd

J*
6.1

J*"^

(Conversation)

wv r.j.^_^
**.
?.*

HftfaH*

ift

Ju ;/-(/? <LM (^
hj

ft

_^_ *X?

<\ki

-U-tf

(jlf

ft U tlf

J?\s

c/' J!w >7

w^
*

^ u/< (

LUfJ\,

J"

fj*

-U*

?&lv

i-jl/
t

b"

Jlf

:&j

fyb

Z-di <d$

*/>

U*f.*V

;&j

\f\ <jt

+**f
116

y
y

J"-

J^ 7
J
u&ifclkfMif\jA u* &% J\s
**

:&j

Sj

?_

i\f.

GL.

C <Ly jt ^i _u>?

*_/

^f-

***** uii tAj?

jt\ <l.

j* l <(

-u#

<tx

ft d** ut -$-

j\A (

j$

6.11 Conversation Practice

How are you?

Andy:

Hello, Jane.

Jane:

Fine, thanks.

Andy:

These are apples, bananas, and mangoes. These are

Jane:

Thanks so much.

Andy:

No.

It's

What

in front

Is

is this?

there a

fruit seller's store

of my office, behind

for

you.

near your house?

that big building.

117

J? y

W J? -U[ <U\

^ $J &fyt (

-+.

'U

\jf >

o\

%ju

1 -'

<\f

:J}

Jane:

Do you go

Andy:

No,

Jane:

to get fruit every

day?

go every week. Why?

want to go with you. There

is

whom do you

my car.

With

00

_ {<

efpi

tit

(r)

a problem [fault: y'-^] in

go?

go with my friend Ashok. He

Andy:

Jane:

Do you want to go with me now?

Andy: Yes, I want to buy oranges as

lives

above my apartment.

well.

6.12 Songs

$.

&

cT

JVj

Ofi'u

118

(*^U

fi^~y^

'C^l^ C^l"'

Gu^)/ J, ix

Glossary for Songs

\f

llf

Jy =
\}y,

6Us<

to

attachment, friendship, love

lover;

&bt = ignorant,

(f)

C/ ijt

one with burned heart (m)

foolish

to sigh

amuse, to cheer, to distract


6.13 Vocabulary

<&

after

L/'-/t

angry; upset

any;

some

(adj);

^
*

someone (noun)

to ask

H-l

bad

*V

because

**

-*-

< -^*

because of

bed(m)
119

ii

before

jH

<^ Zl

behind

beloved, sweetheart (m)

j-jf* i--

building (f)

*i^L-

<jV

chair (f)

clock/watch

(J^c*

(f)

to explain, to cause to

fcUf

understand

fault,

blemish,

(jf/

(f)

for the sake of, for, in order to

fj

friendship (f)

(jf))

\}h

fruit seller (m/f)

Jv

I \)b

garden (m)

/l

heat, hot weather (f)

in front of, across, facing

inside

king (m)

life,

^'>

soul; sweetheart; energy (f)

(^1^

Mahabharata Indian epic

C^-zl^lf'

market/bazaar (m)

J>j\*

t^

to meet

120

ij*

/v^7 /Jj$ <

near

jt

news (f)

now
*

on top of

j&Jk

post office (m)

reason

(f)

-9*

jt

regarding

to say, to

tf

speak

to sleep

test, trial,

^azL

U&l

examination (m)

therefore

ZiTl

time (m)

J$9

under

U/

who

i/

window (f)
with (in the

company of)

J\s

why

(uJ>4-

for what reason,

121

i/

Chapter 7
7.1 Expressing Potentials with fc*'

The verb t^"


verb before

(to be able to, or can)

be able to study

*"* >2-/

to

be able to eat

t**'

Note that when conjugating

is

never used by

itself.

It

always needs the stem of another

it:

to

which

is

U*

this construction,

only the verb P** changes.

The stem of the verb

attached to fc^ does not change under any circumstances.

can go to Harvard.

They can read a book.

?* .

&(

<\/

Can you dance?


Verbs which combine

t^

with the stem of another verb are called

7.2

In order to

compound

verbs.

\J$ with Compound Verbs

form a negative sentence with compound verbs, there are three options:

The particle ij*f precedes the compound verb

122

block;

2.

The particle {J%

is

placed between the verb stem and fc*"

3.

The particle {J%

is

placed at the end:

The gradual shift of the negative particle to the end of the sentence corresponds to an increasing

emphasis

in

negation.

Hence example 3

is

the most emphatic.

7.3 Further Uses of J3*

In addition to

being a conjunction meaning "and," jjt can also

Would you

like to eat

mean "more" and

"further."

more?

?l if $ ** >f T
Can you sing more?
7.1-7.3

Reading and Translation

Drill

j J} J'J Qx & \ id ut

-Ut

-U?b u?

123

0% t)J Jjf ***

\%

>

f ui if d nJ m

?/f

1A The

4-

in

^~

present tense form

(for masculine plural subject),

of fc-tf agreeing with the

ati

if'-'

U~

%%J

\j (for masculine

\$J (for feminine singular/plural

Masculine

-0*

a studying.

$J #>

You are studying.

~3i \$J &5f

You are studying.

*y'

You are studying.

-t <

He/She is studying.

-<-

-<-,

~L%

1
iS ** **&

-<f- tfO

^>

subject)

subject.

Singular

Feminine

-0*

<\f

Urdu by combining the following components:

+ the appropriate form of the participle of the verb

singular subject),

Present Continuous Tense

The present continuous tense is formed


the verb stem

j>I

\f ty

&% U~
V

-- \j *>>
~f?

&~J &%

>-/

'

f
'

*> M

^-/

jPfirraf

-(^ $/
-J*

-L#

(/<-/

if**

-C#

>> /

We are studying.

^/

You are studying.

&% ^'

li*-'

*>%

You are

'

-J* <p~<

-*
^a-/

(**

-u/? *j~J a>% *-^

studying.

-C# ^-^ *%

They are studying.

To form a negative sentence with this tense,


and drop the

-t

place (>V before the beginning of the verb block

t^ auxiliary unless you want to be emphatic.

studying).

124

-if'J

0^

\J$

69

(She

is

not

7.4

Reading and Translation

-0*

-Urnrfs

and

"of

iS'j

4> 6> -6

-<

expressed by saying, "x

the biggest

is

bigger than y,"

of all." The postposition n Z~ n

are used in English.

t'Asji J".

*<jf

U*

-*"

0* &> tfut

The Comparative

comparative and superlative expressions of adjectives are

the comparative is

is

dr

7.5

form "x

iS'J

J\JX'Jt Jd U*'& % d$ & &


-U*

In Urdu, all

Drill

is

Thus,

wh ile the superlative follows the

used

in

The comparative subject appears

125

in relative terms.

Urdu

in the

same sense

in the beginning

as "than"

of the sentence

or phrase and that which the subject

being compared

is

to follows

it

with the adjective agreeing

with the comparative subject.

-=_ ik

^ ^V

&

adjective agrees with subject

object of comparison

subject

Ali

-^

is

bigger (older) than

&

adjective agrees with subject

^&

object of comparison

subject

Sheila

Remember that

is

Mohan.

is

bigger (older) than Ali.

a postposition, so the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives governed by L-

will be in the oblique case.

Those boys are bigger (older) than Ali.

-^ (a
Ali

is

a. utt ui

&

bigger (older) than these boys.

7.5 Substitutions

those apples

those oranges

that fruit

these bananas

that

126

boy

that beautiful girl

Harvard's students

Albert Einstein

those

windows

those carpets

those pens

that

book

7,5 Translation

Translate the following

comparative statements:

1.

Radha is more

2.

Steve

3.

This

4.

He

5.

My shoes are more beautiful than the shoes of those girls.

Canada

7.

This picture

$.

Is

9.

These apples are more expensive than those apples.

10.

Those carpets are cheaper than these

is

beautiful than Sunita.

brighter than Ali.

girl is better

is

older than

is

than that boy ((,/')

me {!%).

cleaner than the U.S. because there are fewer people and less trash.

is

better than those pictures.

your (most formal) room bigger than

7.6

In order to

my room?

carpets.

The Superlative

form a superlative statement, the pronomial adjective (i->^)

127

is

used before C-~ and

.
.

the rest of the sentence structure remains the

same as

-^ A?* a.

it

would

tf

in a

comparative sentence.

\j

My son is the brightest (of all).

My girls are the brightest (of all).


-^-

G-

09

He is the oldest (of all).


7.6 Translation

Translate the following superlative statements.

1.

This

is

the most delicious thing.

2.

This

is

the

3.

That is the cleanest room.

That is

Is

6.

Ghalib (>-J t)

My sister is the most beautiful girl.

8.

Those are the most difficult books.

9.

This picture

0.

most expensive carpet.

my oldest

boy.

he your best friend?

Our house

is

is

is

the world's best poet.

good but those pictures are the most beautiful.

the largest

7.7 Persian Adjectival

It is

quite

common

adjectives are

Elements

for Urdu to use the Persian comparative

formed by the addition of the

and superlative adjectives. These

? suffix (for comparative adjectives) and fS suffix


128

(for superlative adjectives).

be attached to adjectives

The use of J* and / S

of Persian

suffixes in

Urdu

is

limited, for they can only

origin.

good

r
jrf

better

This

girl is better

than that

girl.

worse

/-*

worst

ti//>

He is

the worst servant.

The Persian adjective oJ^J>i


o^J>d

is

a commonly used Persian adjective meaning "favorite."

Tom Cruise is
7.7

Sheila's favorite actor.

Reading and Translation

-*.

-Ui

129

/%*

Drill

* ^ 4 jU*
*~

U& dl $

_^_

sj,

e^

?^ 4> wtf
.^a/jus

j\

ir

Ji.

_r

rf <i/

^4> ^ c^' i-i> &sf*vH <x ~&f-i4


/i

7.8

In order to express

Js.

"x

is

more than y"

Expressing More or Less

in

Urdu, the expression

This

is

In this class there are

A similar construction is used to express

"x

-cThis

used.

Example

more than that

more boys than

is less

iff

less than that.

130

in that class.

than y," but instead of 6)1 J,

fe.
is

tA) -~ is

is

used.

9 f *- u*tfift

-t
Both 9>LJ and

can be combined with the comparative

W it W

J"~

J suffix as seen

in

the following

examples:

Students in this university are mostly American.

The price of this book


Note:

JjUandf

is

even

than that.

less

rarely use the i^f/ suffix to express the superlative,

7.8 Translation

-tf %-j

J)

4.7

?c/f

^Jt 2^j

J)

f^ JA iiif-^i -vft JJ^


JV f {/' c-5&f U\>

M c-!&*f\ ^

'4

_^

-J 'J

-\f

-&t

tliJ c^f-

JJ
*
-

'&

-^ (e- Ja_ A

/ l4

:^

1^.

<*

M AX 4< j/tdC - Q*/


--

7.8

\f

Reading and Translation Drill

fc- '&jf x#
131

jt

jfttf)> [SAP

>yf

1$

$-J Jt

-l

7.9

d& J)

,45

fr^^^v'

<jui

u/y

U e-

-/' i

d^i-*

2^j

Jj {** 4>i

u4 '>/

-r

Cardinal Numbers 31-40

rr

l/-*
*****

</**

rr

t^ n

t/*V

(/fa

7.10 Aggregatives

In order to indicate total plurality in

and

ten,

Urdu, the suffix [Ji

is

added to the numbers between two

with the exception of six and nine:

both (special form)

OJ

all three

all

four

\j$j^

all

five

uA
132

r*.

The numbers

six, nine,

j&

all six

all

seven

\Jw

all

eight

\JST%

all

nine

V *L y

all

ten

(J^->

and numbers larger than ten are expressed

being repeated and separated from each other

by the postposition

in

such a construction by

(3 \l-~

depending upon the

gender of the noun that follows- the numerical adjective.

~s

oj\s

In order to

iL- bj\s

otlAJs s;U

(j

oj[S meaning all


,

express indefinite plurality, the suffix {JJ or

\,J) is

eleven girls or boys

added

to the

number.

indefinite plurality adjectives are:

U~*

scores of

0^

hundreds of

\J*X

lM>r

thousands of

0^ v

hundreds of thousands of

tens of millions

\J)J)J

of

-Jl .

\jhi jV t-to

Both can

live

with

us.

All three of those girls are beautiful.

-Ul lt Uifj> S tSi 0\>


All nine girls dance over there.

133

Common

-t# 2^>

C$ 0>fi

jt JCj/

Hundreds of boys study at Cornell.

All hundred boys study at Cornell.

Note the difference between the


plurality and the

last

two sentences. The first sentence expresses

second one expresses

indefinite

total plurality.

7.10 Reading and Translation Drill

?* c~j

~<ji

7.11

The simple present tense

is

Ju

iA-

&% <j> u$ <

>j\\

ffdfc

oh* ( if

The Future Tense

frequently used to express the immediate future;

134

u\9 -u\

The regular future tense

1st

O*

suffix:

plural), i

2nd suffix

(J

formed by the addition of two suffixes to the verb stem:

(1st person singular),

(2nd person r

is

go there or I'll go there (immediate' future).

6 (2nd, 3rd

person singular), t/Ost, 2nd, 3rd person

).

(feminine singular or plural),

(masculine plural),

(masculine singular).

The suffixes used depend on the number and gender of the subject.
The following example will make

this

more clear:
verb;

fc*>

stem: o>S

Feminine

Masculine

Pronoun Subject

Singular

*%

*>

fa

&n

>;

Plural

&%fa

&X

Sn

^n

fa

*%

135

f
'(

/*

There are three verbs that have irregular conjugations

in the future tense

on account of

modifications in their verbal stems: to take, to give, and to be.

U- to take
Feminine

Masculine

Pronoun Subject

Singular

Si

ft

&

ut
1

Si

fi

r*

fttfg*

Plural

Bfi

Si

fi
Ml*
fe J

Feminine

- to

give

Masculine

Pronoun Subject

Singular

/.

ti

&

C
136

L>

>

Plural

-j/LTj

r*

L>,

4;
L,

J-,

t-tf- to

Feminine

be

Masculine

Pronoun Subject

Singular

/-

tin

u"~

S*

/-

<&

V
lEtfg*

Plural

L
L*
L*
L*

UtfUtfjf

if*
j/jf

ifNote:

is

The

future tense

of tjt can

also

(*

?
1

8Jf**

be used to indicate the

used as an auxiliary verb. For example,

wSt \Jw

137

suppositional, particularly

when

M means "He will be there" (future) or "He

it

must be there" (suppositional). (j>? (JU >

studying at the university."

be going to India."

We will

Im

jV If

cX \j<t&

\JO^sM

JM

"That

girl

-^y* "The American


f

discuss the future suppositional

7.11 Reading

6$

in

and Translation

must be

President musi

greater detail in chapter

5.

Drill

?/^ ^~?

j$*

JZ

jffi

^(vegetable) tj*

~>

w? </

nti u'uer

-^ l^ WU

138

d"-

MS

, t/J

*s

c J[

\f'

jt cjf

-Jr. J. &l /jV\

00 m

\J$ >AJ

-^
*

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

1.

We will go to the cinema tomorrow.

2.

What will you (informal) do tonight?

3.

Will

4.

Ali will cook tomorrow and

5.

Will

6.

Tonight

7.

Will they buy a newspaper today?

8.

He will

give a

9-

He will

not be able to give his house for the party.

10.

Where

11.

Sir,

we be able

to eat at

your house?

we will

eat with him.

Madonna sing on Saturday?


I

will read

lot

a book and write a

of money

letter.

for this horse.

will those beautiful girls

be tomorrow night?

your son must be playing tennis right now.

139

12.

Everyone

in that

house must be sleeping.


7.12 Pronunciation Drill: Diphthongs

If*

J*

J.

J-

cX

eX

Jf

by

by

bf

bf

tij

tij

jii

j?.

j?.

jf

*>S

s,f

*J
7.13

Response

Drill

Answer the following questions.

?ut z

w?c# 2^ &t
140

(f

jT

>sA
-

J\
t?

^ wT ^3j <L <Jt

,\S

w
<j/

J"

_1

?^. &if*,jfjet

y c-

*** u

i?j l/!

'/ dip-

_A

>5

J*

,*
_ir

J*

4- \fm/ fit tjhi rf ^

_IA

M
V^ ^j

^- r -0*'

f- i/

&t"

tf-'

^l*

-'

-*'

,J'-'

^ y^ V

ej? *tf^/ i/k

*Lif\ffrf

141

6/T

-n
_r*

_n

7.

-t- i/s f !f_

gA <^< ijii

14 ^^(Conversation)

(j*f

U ^J f\ff -- J& ^

'.if}

2^

:bh

&&* Jb *-x

'&&

# 7

fa f\$ *~ i* if wj

142

-J$jti </

Jt

-J.

Ufa tf ^

-t

dw

6^ U^w

\LJ\f-

-Ms (i^

*!*

" JS&

-' if-'

l/

^*> $0*J

a 'us

JV wT

f'

Ul

^ u^

(W if &*/ * -ftf Ju aA* / -U-* t^ lW l


-<f-

l\Jat

s-

c^

143

-if*

:i/0

<S*

*&*>

if

**k

-t-dtiw^^-? 6k-

-at

\$jt !t4

ft

J;

-6k

&i,

7.15 Conversation Practice

Telephone conversation

Reshma: Hello. This

is

Reshma.

Who is speaking?

Mummy darling: Reshma! It's me, your mother! am

speaking from the hospital.

Reshma: Greetings!

Mummy darling! What are you doing at the hospital?

Mummy darling: You know that Sunil

is

in the hospital.

He

will

be here

for three days more.

Reshma: When are you coming home?

Mummy darling: 1 am going to the market first {^L.


v

if

Reshma: Can you buy me something from the market?

Mummy darling: What do you want?


144

and then

will

come home

Reshma: Oh!

Mummy darling! You are the best mother? Can you buy me some sweets and

chocolates?

Mummy darling: Reshma!

will not

buy you chocolates and sweets! You know that too many

sweets are bad for you.

Reshma:

In

my opinion, they are very good for me. They give me life!

Mummy darling: Absolutely


better than sweets.

Reshma: Yes,

not!

will not buy

you

trash!

will

buy some fruit for you.

Do you want some mangoes? Mangoes

want some very sweet mangoes and some sweets

are

your favorite

Mummy darling.

Will you buy

fruit.

do with you?

me some sweets?

Mummy darling: OK but you will eat them after dinner.


Reshma: Thank you,

Mummy darling. You are the best mother

in

the world.

love you very

much! Bye.

Mummy darling: Bye, my crazy daughter!


7.16 Songs

jl

f?

<u?

/ c*\j if tf *\Jt <u\


j

145

t\f

fT

is

also.

Mummy darling: Oh my dear v{jj[%) Reshma! My crazy daughter! What shall


Reshma:

Fruit

J/ jl

jt 9 tjif

^ i/i r^

f.

(r

A&*1 %f
<r
<.

& 0*5 f>


tij tf-

&v'

Glossary for Songs

Ufi-

0>

t-Uj =

there (emphatic form of \J\*

to decline, sink,

fade (as sunset,

where (relative pronoun)


7. 17

Vocabulary

\5&f

ath ete/player (m/f)


1

to bathe

tif>

<

t/tP

to be able to, can

best

/*

better

u/A*

both

146

life, etc.)

box (m)

|J

to change

fcJ^i

to cry

tjj

clothes (m)

to

come along,

to

go along,

set out, to walk, to

to

embark

to cook

t&i

door (m)

l)hj>

father (m)
* *

>

/-

father-in-law

4-^

favorite

JA

flower (rn)

forgive/excuse

me

)fizf^i\f

c*V

forty

grandfather (maternal)

tt

grandfather (paternal)

u>

grandmother (maternal)

lit

grandmother (paternal)

t>t>

grown up, elder person

J*/l*

(m/t)

d*

holiday, vacation (f)

human

being,

man, person (m)

eUSlttfjX

hundreds of

U9f*/v*j
147

hundreds of thousands of

husband (m)

less

letter

(m)

to listen

to

be made,

become

to

to

built, created;

make, to build,

to create

CI*

Ushf

millions of

money, cash, wealth; coin (m)


mother

mother-in-law

iA-

more
narcissus (f)

to

open

or

to pick

up

ttff
*-

poor person (m); poor

(adj.)

to reach

ready

rich

scores

of

148

service (f)

cj <lT <{$X q$4

sister (f)

a respectful title for sister or


anybody older to whom one
wants to

show

reverence

shut up; be quiet

something;

ytj >-4

some

sorrow (m)

Ju4

studies, education (f)

swift, quick; hot (spicy), fiery,

sharp

that

is

to say,

i.e.

thirty

thought, idea, opinion (m)

thousands of

trash

(m)

wife(f)

worse

*A

worst

c^>

149

Chapters
Formal Imperatives (with

8.1

The honorific imperative

is

used for people

who

CU*

Stem:

end

C-2*^ as

Imperative:

\J>

in

0,

a <

is

inserted

pronoun.

between the stem and

Imperative:

y
In

many situations the use of this

jp

two

C (ie), e.g.,

ti becomes

2.

Please read this book.

3.

Please

$z

imperative conveys the sense of English "please."

Please study.

- jf\

Please eat.

-~U*

apples.

Please eat

come with me.


150

or if-

.)

^ L

'4~>

Translate these sentences using- the honorific imperative:

is

vowel can be

Irregular verbs are:

Infinitive:

It

ok

J?

\h

'

- (ie) to it (In Urdu, the

Thus one may write the imperative of

written cither as long or short.

In stems that

'

are referred to with the b*

formed by taking the stem of the verb and adding

Infinitive:

2S

4.

Please bring a box with you.

5.

Please look.

6.

Please lake more food.

7.

Please work better than

8.

Please give a chicken.

9.

Please drink some

1 0.

Please go home!

A more formal

this!

tea.

imperative than the aformentioned one

formal imperative. This imperative

is

is

formed by the addition of oto the

only used in situations in which great deference

is

implied.

8.2 Informal Imperatives (with

The imperative used to command those

addition

who

are referred to

in

of J to the stem:

There are two irregular

imperatives:

Change the following formal imperatives

into informal ones:

151

r)

the

r form

is

formed by the

tt

if

_r

t4f>

-r

8 J Least

Formal Imperatives (with

The stem of the verb acts as the imperative

to

be used with the

do

k^J

-)

give

t4

<L

take

fcU

eat

(1

drink

t/

fcj

i*

form.

8.4 Negative Imperatives

In order to form a negative imperative, insert

^>^

or

right before the imperative word:


!

Don't read (formal)

!^> C^
-5U

Don't go (informal)!

Don't come (least formal)!

8.S

The

infinitive

*V ^

Don't do this (formal)!

'

*ZS

The Infinitive as Imperative

of a verb can also serve as an imperative.

of the imperative in contexts

-'

when degrees of formality

152

It

connotes a neutral or impersonal form

are not regarded as necessary.

Give two sen of meal.

n
Don't drink

this water.

Dont sit here.


8.6

Use of 0\/f and hi with Imperatives

When we encountered 0\j?

in Chapter

\i\jf is used with the postposition ^Z-,

Kindly do
The expression <L

alternative

rl$%/f or

Ji/

is

work/Please do this work.

(jly/may also be used

or "a

instead of

c^{ji/f

as an

11

hi

can act as

its

counterpart in

with the connotation of "just" or "please just.'* Idiomatically

use corresponds to the English expression "would

"slightly"

was one of "thanks." However, when

usually used with formal imperatives,

informal imperative constructions

its

implication

acts as the adverb "kindly."

it

this

expression for "please, kindly.

Whereas 0\*jf

1, its

you mind?" The

literal

meaning of

little bit."

-9)

wOm hi

Please just give that book (informal).

8.6

Reading and Translation

Drill

~ti* ok. e-

oV

hj

is

J ok
Fill in the blanks

ijj

with the appropriate form of the imperative of the verb indicated in the

parentheses.

(read)

0$?-.#

(don't go, formal)

tifof

(give, informal)

-r

*JJ

-r

L% M 2L d-jifl

t/J

-<*

._

(don't drink, informal)

(don't eat, least formal)

(write, informal)

._

&/*

***

l/&

-**

< U*$k

-'*

._

(give, formal)

(take, formal)

Oty <=- 6\jf

(read, least formal)

(cook, informal)

<~<'

*-<r

Summary of Imperative Forms


Impersonal

&

Least Formal,

Informal,

Less Urgent

of

\S
154

Formal,

Infinitive

"

Note:

d/

tf

4*

if

Of

&

L.

cJ

&

<)

>

Gender is not marked

if

in imperative forms.

8.7 Further Uses of

We have already encountered


an auxiliary verb.

Ctf

is

ijt as the "to be" verb and

fcff

its

use in the habitual present tense as

also used in the sense of "to become, to take place and to happen.

What can happen here/What can be done here?

What takes place here?

it
What
When vtf
statements

is

used with

its

is

going on?

participle forms,

tL-y? '{jyt <vyi

Nowadays

is

, it

indicates generalities or

of fact.

There

is

there

(generally) a lot of heat.

(generally) a lot of filth in

New York.

Are there (generally) good students at Harvard?

155

Is

the food in India (generally) good?

8.7

Reading and Translation Drill

-i 2-X

aM

jf

tit

-<-.

^#

frji

j^

(f

*->i;

j St jf ffj*
156

|*f 5,

2-* cist iAik/'

--

?4^ C^

e^

\&

_r

(>t^ tl/'

tfc*

tuT

<i/

tfju

ti/

-jt

(S

-o

-eg 2Li ;'>/

J> t

is^s

,1

_*_ (J.*

vU^ U

<c_

l.^

Jo

-id As. j>\-Z-\/*s

JH
-<z-

-*_ t*j<

_(^ 2_j*
?<sL-

157

;)<

1^

Jk} os

,?.

<=^ (Jl

!(/^

>w

vij cl, 3L

IT^ fc-" <z-

m)

{fh

x?>

tf

-1

Of

8.8

The Past

has two past participles, each of which

The verb

fci?

function.

We will discuss the w

participle

and

its

participle

various forms,

/
/
/

j
J
j
0?

is

here and the ft

participle in

It

associated with a special

meaning and

Chapter

12,

The

(feminine singular), and

(masculine plural), \j

(feminine plural), are used for "was, were."

Feminine

t^

Participles of

{jT

declined as follows:

is

Masculine

Pronoun

lA

You were

She/he was

Ml*
m

Translation

was

We were

f
*

You were

4L.

They were

You were

Examples:

? rfff&tj J

9)

Where were they last night?

Ten years ago

was a

student.

-/ 4 X % "
That thing was on the

Yesterday morning

at

table.

eight o'clock the girls

156

were

in

school

past

l^anid

its

variants are also used as auxiliary verbs in various past tense constructions.

function exactly like

^-

in the present tense.

Examples:

He used to

J?

They

\j

work.

ffta

He was working.

J f/fln
She was able to work.
8.8

Reading and Translation

f/

Drill

iV# 4 ^ <J

_r

-O
-if ;e

-J! 2

159

U^V wp tf>"
&r

tf

c^iA- **> t/

*&&$&$

-r

..
.

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

Were you

He was a very bright

Rita Hayworth was our favorite actress.

4.

Were you

Last week Raj was working in the restaurant.

a doctor

20 years ago?

at Sheila's

student

many

years ago.

house with your friends

8.9

The past habitual tense is formed

in

last

week?

Now he is not there.

The Past Habitual Tense

a manner similar

present form of the auxiliary verb >?

is

replaced by

to the present habitual tense

its

except that the

corresponding past form.

Present habitual:

~\Jyt V*!? {jZ

-<_ bJftfOfy

study.

He works there-

Past habitual:

Jtf

t>^

Jtf

tV fv{j\* w He used to work there.

This tense

fj

is

used to study.

used to denote regular or habitual actions

in

the past.

The conjugation pattern

follows:

Feminine

Masculine

160

Pronoun

is

as

8.9

Reading and Translation

Drill

JL Ut J\s i-M

JL

JL

2^1-

\k

"&? J$

J? Of

'

J$ /\

t>

<s-

u &.

i Zjfu&ttfe-

161

f\A

<

iM jC\

& cf <M-

*?>

6J A

4* iff"?

<\f

-r

8.10

The past continuous tense

is

the past. Again, this tense

is

the present form of $Jt

is

used

The Past Continuous Tense

to describe actions that

formed

in

replaced by

the

same way

were

in progress at a particular time in

as the present continuous tense, except that

past counterpart.

its

Present continuous:

~ J>f

Vj

&% JZ

^\jff$n

am studying.

He is

working.

was

studying.

Past continuous:

J?

\j

&/

\JL

J>\tJ{u

He was working.

The conjugation pattern

is

Feminine

as follows:

Masculine

if [$J

#%

\J

if

\5i j

&%

0y*%

\$j at/

jf

(fid

U?

\$J

*!/
b
*s

\i

^ ^>

Pronoun
Jt.

>fb3

**"*
&f"%
,r

L^

\#J

IP'S

&$~s*%

162

8.10 Reading

\j

and Translation

\j

l*

Jj

CL-

<P Jif.

%uX'<L uff

-I?

8.11 Cardinal

J-/

l?-**

If

'/

|L

tf- -?J (X

^ <=-

-f*

l/U

(/>

j/f

^vr4fc

n *l#

-if

$j J?

Uf

Numbers 41-50

163

Jljf s3j i/i

dh dJ Mi 4<

-^- f->

-if

Drill

XJ

-f

-r

8-12 Pronunciation DriU: Doubling of Consonants

C-j

Vj

JO

lK
164

iA^

rr

<J%>

ra

tZ-yr

J-Oc

jit*

fA

\f$

1*9

uTk

a*

&>

8.13 ^^(Conversation)

-& ok f <i& i/?


-S ok r r# r -<y S
!J|

^X "f- in
-4J

Ultf

ok

y7

<r- l&"

If

-Ofi&^&t-u-io'jz>o

-j%

J) f -^

\j yi

iM

-6%
lJ$/&

'\f-c-

t/<;

<U[ -*-

-<J^ 'C^

-J
:

</;

c/l/v !\&j

-u?

Jo'~

t\f-o\ >o[

I? I/O

-ji

0? d"~Jtf

!(?

J4

--if

-&J

J-G

:bh
:tfv

~i)x

jtfa/ju J\s

hfjs

js\

JU ii

cl.

1-1/

ij b'lf-ut Jut* iw <i?


165

so

If

(Us

js\

~<z-

M *V m

-<$-

b/, iAj

?<.

d~

<jS

jt

2_ c/ *$.&&*& Mi.
->/

?<.

aJ>L\*

^c

t#

b'i

M .y M (

\J

-V <d

hS%

Jj

^CT u _d?l$

-.t/j

d Jh JLi dp d JL lJ(*

dd ji _^ m? ** *
J*

jt

J2 *%

'if' >

<3j~c

*sf/fiSJi

t-f-Jr

'Jijf

d d>

& 1/1/7* >\Hj -d? tfi - *s

Jif&sj
166

Jil

6X 'iA*

'3

~_W

&*

<z~

*to

~Ut

tf*t

^ wT

if j)

-X &\* Jl 4 jf f

J-Q

8.14 Conversation Practice

Ali:

Sunita,

Sunita:

Is

Reshma:

Yes,

you

sit

here.

Reshma, you

the food (generally,

it is

over there, and

I'll

sit

by you.

good here?

t*.tf )

(generally) very good,

sit

was here

last

week. The chicken curry and

biriyani are delicious.

am vegetarian-

Sunita:

But I

Ali:

You can

Reshma:

Yes, they are also good for your health.

Waiter:

What do you people want

Ali:

No, we will drink

don't eat meat.

eat lentils, bread, and yogurt. Lentils are (generally) very good.

Iassi

to eat

and drink? Would you

and we will eat chicken

like to eat

papad?

curry, biriyani, rice, lentils,

vegetable curry, and yogurt.

(/

&

some onions and pickles. Are the

Sunita:

Also, give us

Reshma:

A lot of red peppers are not good for your health.

Waiter:

In our pickles there are

Ali also eats a lot of spices.

no red peppers. Would you

167

pickles very hot?

like

some bread with your

food?

Ali;

Yes,

we will

take both bread and rice.

8.15 Songs

&.

\S? <l-

<& +. ^j>? &( \f

2-\?\t

168

'<*.%

C jC\ o\

#t*

x j?

as

Glossary for Songs

ijZ

= emphatic

form of

f*

(see ch. 12)

L- = selflessness; being beside oneself;

\$$r

ecstasy,

"only to me/us"

\Ji = special object form of fi (see ch. 9)


l

$?

'

= keep on constantly coming

j*U goblet, cup (usually of wine) (m)

oj^.

^2 - just as
f

l**~

idol; beloved, sweetheart

(m)

madness (0

face (m)

sweet

UT = past tense (feminine plural) of verb Clf


8.16 Vocabulary

H &&

airplane (m)

although

qfi'tf

army(f)

b*

chicken

tf

apprehend

to catch,

<$/

(f)

child <m)

childhood (m)

cold (adjective)

\M

cold (noun,

M~

f)

>[$>/

cook(m)

iS,A

curry (m)

c/u

cfafit/

chicken curry

169

meat curry

\y \s

% >j^^j

vegetable curry

(JT L^

dQ/*

to die

ty*

dream (m)

l^

enough!

\J+

fear(m/f)

yj

to fear

tji

to fear

tvi <~x

fifty

i/lg

guest (m/f)

^k'

health

(0

rV

hot

hunger

(f)

knife (f)

to laugh

last, past,

ty
tH?

previous; back; latter

^/

lemon/lime (m)

'.^

lentils (I)

(Jb

lover (m)

\JZ\t

being a lover

(f)

meat (m)
meat eater (m/

jj*

f)

170

<.

#33}

milk (m)

mischief (f)

&j\p

necessity (f)

&Ji'f
&ji/ y

necessity/need for x

,P

noise, uproar, disturbance (m)

h
a*a

onion (0
out, outside

papad (crispy appetizers) (m)

pepper

&A

(f)

pickles (hot) (m)

please, kindly (with

'

CJ"6\/

forms)

*- i)ty

A/ iV
(with

relatives, family

rice

hi

forms)

As&i

members (m)

(m pi)

rice

salt

to

<JU

w/ meat or vegetables (f)

J?

(m)

scream, yell

season (m)

{'

to be shy, recitent

sick,

ill

(adj.); sick

person (m/f)

ciHcness. illness (fl

171

X
\^rt

to Sit

song(m)

JP <tftksj*

to speak, to talk,

iJ^A,

converse

spices (m)

iiL-^/>l^*

sunshine, heat of sun (f)

fi>

time, age; world; fortune (rn)

^U

thief(m)

v<

thirst

(0

vegetable

*Jk

6*

<f)

6 j\& j> 6

vegetarian (m/f)

woman (t)

a*jf

yogurt (m)

\9

172

Chapter 9

The postposition

in

Urdu has several

We will systematically discuss the most important

uses.

uses in this chapter.

9.1

Temporal Marker

as a

As we have seen in previous chapters, days of the week and most of the times of the day are
marked by

to

mean

"on," "in," and "at"

go to school every Monday.

?<4 2-k tfr f(&

Docs he go to the cinema in the evening?


Note that

among the

times of the day only

9.1

"morning" does not use the postposition

Reading and Translation

-jt

173

'.

Drill

J// *,*/*. J) f

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

We can

1.

on Saturday because we are busy on Friday.

play tennis

2.

My friend drinks wine every evening.

3.

Can you

4.

What arc you (informal) doing tonight?

5.

Why are both of you going to school on

read books every morning?

9.2

When

the direct object of an

as a Direct Object

Urdu sentence

-OX

--

Although

it

is

subject

f&lfi

object marker i verb)

send that boy.

- direct object - object marker

necessary to use 3 with a direct object that

is

below that yean also mark a direct object when that object
emphasized. If no emphasis

is

intended, then

You buy this


(subject

/ marks such an object.

send Ali.

direct object

Marker

animate or specific, then

is

0?*
I

(subject

Sunday?

carpet,

is

is

/ - verb)

animate,

we can

see in the example

inanimate but needs to be

not employed after inanimate objects.

{emphasis on object)

inanimate direct object - object marker / verb)

-4"*^
You buy this

c^i?

carpet, (object not

174

emphasized)

(subject

9.2

inanimate direct object verb)

Reading and Translation

jl
-\fi

tie

ji

Drill

&j & < L.\f f

?.*

L-l/Zu^

c)i

& -/: jj/2


.

$ fjps

"{

<if

f u? /j#j f -J?

f& r r *? ^ d&*
^U
/W*5 B ^ /

4r>J
*tg

-o

JJ

fei/

fefc/

-r

'

***> c>< f -\ji


f ~f- ft <S* &k *

/(J*/**

j fd^S

J\

9.2 Substitutions

-JM

ilk

f&J

lA

-'

that beautiful girl

those clever boys

your friend's brother


his friend

.<_

& f<Lh Ji
that

175

vagabond

those famous actors

our daughter

your (least formal) doctor

those newspapers

the best book

these big expensive houses

his red

9.3

When a sentence has both

as

shoes

an Indirect Object Marker

a direct and an indirect object, only the indirect object

He

gives

a book to

is

marked by /,

Ali.

{subject- verb-direct object-indirect object)

The above word

order

indirect object. In

is

Urdu

the usual order in English in

is

the

word order

is

which the direct object precedes the

reversed, with the indirect object usually preceding

the direct object.

(subject

indirect object marked

if the sentence has temporal

by

J direct

object

- verb)

and locative elements then they are placed between the indirect and

direct objects.

In the evening,

(subject- indirect object marked by

he can give Ali the book

S - temporal phrase -

176

there,

locative phrase direct object

verb)

This order

may slightly change depending upon

the element

of the sentence

that needs to

be

especially emphasized.

By placing / r*l?

at the beginning

9.3

of the sentence, the temporal element is emphasized.

Reading and Translation Prill

?j*

CP-/

i_j 4*1 /(j*

Jjf 2^ *^J

jjjj

(*

*l/

J*

/^P ^T r|/
JT

Translate the following sentences into

He

gives

me money

2.

Can you give

3.

They give food

every Monday.

the poor

to

Urdu:

money tonight?

my friends every Thursday.

177

4.

What can you

5.

give us?

can give you the world.

9.4

In

Urdu the

in

Verbal and Adjectival Constructions ~J>1

logical subject of certain verbal

f JZ$

"pleasing"

English

is

is

and adjectival constructions

a predicate adjective used

in

constructions

sometimes marked by

which the

logical subject in

marked by 2 The verb (L- or ij?) agrees with the grammatical subject in Urdu.
.

Ali likes this book. (Literally: This book

*--*

pleasing to AH.)

is

yP^= grammatical subject in Urdu, if = logical subject in English)

US * f ^

-*!\H

in

is

like these things. (Literally:

= grammatical

These things are pleasing to me.)

subject in Urdu, \J~ = logical subject in English

In the sentences above, the verb agrees with the grammatical subjects in

and not with the

Urdu ("-^U and

logical subjects in English. In the past tense, the auxiliary

forms* replaces *- following the

agreeing with

agreeing with

<*

f*&

liked this fruit,

[/*

The boy
(verb [)

\tf, in its

same rules of agreement.

j? jH J^

(verb

marked by J)

= grammatical

subject in Urdu)

liked the book,

^\J= grammatical subject in Urdu)

-U? JH OUi" full?


178

l$)

appropriate

The guests

liked the vegetables.

\JvJfa

{verb (J*T agreeing with

grammatical subject

Reading and Translation

9.4

in

Drill

-c- xi

wU

^j)ji>i 01

-l?

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

Madonna very much

like

2.

Some

3.

Do you (least formal) lake these big buildings?

4.

like biriyani very

5.

don't like meat, but

6.

Did Reshma

people like tea more than coffee.

much

like the

like

but

can't eat rice.

sweets very much.

Chinese food?

179

Mi

d$ jH >

j? j

jSVu

ff
-^ j% ** tf j? f A
j% *r $P& o / r r ,f
-ut Ji&ti

Urdu)

/eft

$M fk

H tSuEig

*jU

je

f&

-r

7.

When Ravi was

8.

He

is

in India, he did not like watching Indian movies.

my favorite

actor but

9.5

3 marks

he cannot sing well. His voice

in Infinitive

not very good.

^ Construction

+ C-

the logical subject of "the infinitive

is

"

construction which conveys that something

"has to be," "is necessary," or "must be done."

_*_

fc*>

/J*

AH has to study.

_^

Of

Rahim
At

times, the verbal infinitive

Urdu-Hindi the

f(j

has to go.

may have an object.

In

such a situation, in some dialects of

infinitive agrees with that object:

Ali has to read the book.

In

the above sentence, the verbal infinitive fc-* has been declined to lj

object of ***> is feminine. In order to

make

a negative sentence,

^/?

is

i?

because

used.

Ali doesn't have to study/read.

Ali doesn't have to study/read {emphatic).

In the past

and future tenses, the verb

is

replaced by the auxiliary L^ or

Rahim had

to

180

go home.

%3t\

ta-*C-\ the

Jjt
Rahim

Ur/ff- J

will

have to go home.

AH had to read the book.


In

0%

the last sentence, the verb ij

agrees with the gender of

its

object

i'1/

9.6 Infinitive as the Subject

In

the "infinitive

+ C-

" construction, the infinitive can also act as the subject of the sentence.

It is

If an

adjective

predicate

is

of the

necessary to study/studying

necessary.

inserted between the infinitive and <_, then the adjective

becomes the

infinitive.

good to study/studying

It is

In the past

is

and future

tenses, the auxiliaries t^

It

and

good.

replace

^-:

was good to study/ studying was good.

Jfst \ii
It

IFJf

is

will be

b%

good to study/studying will be good.

9.5-9.6

Reading and Translation

Drill

-^
?<i-

181

b*%

l*%

atf.

&$

&1 / J-

& ff*

.^

if

ok

fjg,

"J crjy <fff$


*

i/fefi

i/(

Ju-

&
*

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

have to write these three essays (papers) by tomorrow.

2.

Do you have to

3.

4.

What do they have

5.

She doesn't have to cook.

6.

What did you have

have to go

read your friend's letters at this time of the night?

to school

to

to

on Sunday.
do tomorrow afternoon?

do all day yesterday?


9-7

in

^-jf Constructions

%-[? constructions are similar to "the infinitive

+ dL.

182

" construction in that the logical subject

in

such constructions

is

also

marked by jf

iJg

is

an impersonal verb form

ihal

may be

preceded by either a noun or a verbal infinitive. In case of a noun, the construction means that

ihe

noun

is

desired, wanted, or needed

by the

Jim wants

(logical subject "Jim"

-2ft
In this

Aj,

/^>

book,

marked by

Jt

object desired

is plural,

then

i^Jg

love,

marked by /)

Q\p may be optionally nasalized:

Do you want
In the past tense, the

W J\

world everyone needs

(logical subject "everyone"

If the

For example,

logical subject.

these clothes?

construction uses the past auxiliary I/. Since the logical subject

marked by J the past auxiliary will agree


,

in

number and gender with

is

the desired object

Examples:

Raj wanted an apple, (the auxiliary

Nargis wanted some

In order to

it

\J~

agreeing with ^l-^U')

convey the sense that something "ought to" or "should be" done, a verbal

placed before

between

saris, (the auxiliary

W agreeing with *-*")

^Lw. The

and

logical subject continues to

the impersonal

^}f
183

be marked by j

infinitive

is

which cuts off agreement

~2*U t*

/ J*

Ali ought to study/read.


>

The

little girl

In

some dialects of Urdu-Hindi, the verbal

its

object, if it has one:

jgft

ought to sleep now.

infinitive is

made to

agree

m number and gender with

0r> -cr/J*

Ali ought to read the book,

(verb &*- agreeing with

The shopkeeper ought

its

object

^^

to sell these fruits.

(verb CC* agreeing with

its

object

{J?

In the past tense,

\tf is

added

at

the end of the sentence. This auxiliary will agree

gender with any object of the verbal

infinitive.

in

number and

Examples:

-IS *)g

Ws /

Ali ought to have/should have studied.

jl ^y

& JC /juts*

The shopkeeper ought to have/should have sold these fruits.

t^U

constructions

may be

put into the negative

by using the particle ijJ

Placing fjZ1

toward the end of the sentence increases the emphasis of the negation. Example:

184

A college student should


9.1 Reading

not drink alcohol!

and Translation

Drill

-M* tu o\> / J.

^tffl ff
Jft k% M\ 3*j A /^l
'^ $fd$ j\s Ct-jZff
Jf

jfytf ji fah f
fft cd*

/f

l/-tf- J*- *

J4

id$ *

A V

-O^U

yji

jtf>

.J<

/ J*^ elf
_r

J? Q\r

jfij c. of^ **/ fjJ*J

ti JSt

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

He ought

2.

We ought to eat but we have to go

3.

Sunil ought not to have fallen in love with Nargis!

to write these papers (essays)

now.

there.

185

4.

Both these houses are expensive. Would you

5.

6.

Wc ought to wash

7.

would

some

like

salt,

our clothes..

The guest wanted some more

alcohol.

Sheila's brother wants five shirts.

9.

The patient

0.

buy them?

onions, and bread.

8.

like to

(sick person) ought to

Rahim should have sold

have drunk this medicine.

this beautiful carpet yesterday.

9.8 J with Abstract Possessions

i marks the
"worry"

possessor of abstract nouns such as "tiredness" (\y

(/),

"leisure"

(C^/) and

Chapter

"happiness" ((.T-^),

so on. In this construction, the verb agrees with the abstract

noun being possessed since the logical subject

further in

),

in English is

marked with J

We will discuss this

when we consider expressions of possession.

-^ J*

am tired.

Do you have free time?

We are very worried.

Sunil needed

In the last

money

(lit.

Sunil had the need for money).

example above, the past tense auxiliary {J


>

abstract

noun <*>J)f

186

is in

the feminine agreeing with the

9.8

Reading and Translation

_^ cF ff
_^_ \S? **s

\$J

If

U* 6 A

if'

Drill

M\4 ^j \*Jo\>f
f J-

.-

\j

-fsffiS-?'

&u%

&&

\jt

ffih^

~d$ *s) /J- j <j/<j? J.


.<*#

^Jy*

&/.

bl~f &*J es.f&ij'

-if ^ji/1 ^. \&>)


!?i/

187

f/ifa

^4~

&? \\ L.1 ok. /$?

Translate the following sentences into Urdu;

My friends

2.

3.

Are you (informal) happy today?

4.

No.

5.

6.

The

7.

Did you need more books from the

can play tomorrow because they have free time (leisure).

cannot work because

am very

tired.

am worried because tomorrow evening 1

have some free time today and

patient

ought

needed the best doctor

books from the library

last

(lit.

to

play tennis.

had need of the best doctor).

library last night?

(lit.

did you have the need for

more

night?)

9,9 Special Object

When

have to go to school.

certain pronouns in the oblique case are

Forms

combined with J > they generally have a

form:

f*

A/*

cJ

/>

fm

ttf.i

/</

of
188

special

The use of these special forms

is:

considered preferable in idiomatic Urdu.

have to work.

Both these sentences are grammatically correct, but the second sentence

that

the combination

of pronouns and postpositions

is

only possible

is

when

more

idiomatic. Note

the postposition

immediately follows the pronouns.

9.9

Reading and Translation

Drill

-<p tU

\Jjp

&f

-+.>%*+ J?
tut

JZ^ /wf

J d< &sj \$LJft


189

.[/

cJ

J?

Translate the following sentences into

He has a

2.

Do you

3.

To whom will you

4.

5.

Do you (informal)

6.

lot

Urdu using the

of work but he has to go there.

(informal) have free time?

him

will send

in

(least

formal) give this book?

have a cough?

home

last night!

9.10

this

We don't have free time.

the evening.

should have gone

When two actions

special object form.

am very sick today

Stem +

are performed consecutively

y/Zl

by the same

subject, the sentence is

formed

in

manner:

stem of the infinitive of the

The enclitics
verb

is

or

first

verb

divide the

J lc +

conjugated form of second verb.

two actions and can be used interchangeably unless the first

%J or a complex verb formed

with

tJ

If this is

the case then only the enclitic

be used.

Having danced,
(subject

The second verb

is

verb

stem

sing,

enclitic verb 2)

conjugated and agrees with the subject.

Having done work,

190

watch T.V.

L-

can

The "stem +

J " construction occurs in one of the common Urdu phrases used to express

"please/* Instead

of using

"having done a kindness")

*=^- (JL^/.for "please" or "kindly," the phrase

may be

used. In formal Urdu, the verb tL/*

(lit.

-J (Jl//

(lit.

"to order, to

command")

is

commanded

a kindness") being employed as a very polite equivalent of the English "please."

sometimes used instead of fcr

!?>-l

resulting in the phrase

y &*

it|l

a.

Please fasten the child's seat

If 0{yf

(lit.

"having

i&

belt.

Combine the two sentences in the following manner and then

translate

them

into English:

Example:

Having eaten the food,

-<Z-C
*

191

go home.

J&U

t>> J&
IT*

-<Z-

9.10 Reading and Translation Drill

-4_ J

9.11

m? J^M f\.) jty

Noun-Verb Agreement

in

Urdu

In Urdu, if there are several inanimate nouns, the number-conjugation

the last object

in

the series.

192

of the verb will depend on

-<z~ J>i &f. $sj


I

The end verb

is

C-

jiS

like rice, dal,

instead of ijt because {jiJ

<Jb<J*Jf s J-

and bread.

is

singular. If the series

of nouns has animate

beings, then the verb will be in (he plural:

like Ali, Rashid, Ravi,

9.11

and Gita very much.

Reading and Translation Drill

*JlJi&t u\c&

^ $k* ft/I

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

Damon, Brad

Tom Cruise. Which actors do you

1.

Sheila likes Matt

2.

Please give Neil and

3.

Do you

4.

Do you (informal)

5.

We don't like Amitabh Bachchan. Our favorite actor

<>.

Mallar liked that blue

7.

Abid has

(least

to

Pitt,

and

like?

Dimple apples, oranges, and milk.

formal) like chicken curry and rice?

like

Lata Mangeshkar and

Muhammad Rafi? WTio are they?


is

Shahrukh Khan.

shirt.

buy some pens and books from the


9.12 Cardinal

store.

Numbers 51-60

01

9.13 Expressing

The verb l,

"to strike,

1
'

is

used

used, t^ is only used for

and *L~ for

It's

It's

For expressions

all

0,

^<_

In this construction,

hour \%

one would say "having struck

J }L

~\Jt

8,

\f*

is

&&

61

djfr

az

Q)3\&\

dh

tf

&<\

lfV~

are

wXl

enclitic

J }c-~.

minutes."

O^ \Ji f%Jft

-t# o^r U? *

t>

C and then followed by the number of

before the hour, the postposition ij

with the verb C, The postposition <J~ puts the infinitive Cf


9:40

J/IL

combined with the

it is 1

arc added to the stem of

To express minutes

&r

_ oJJ

-(J?

eleven o'clock.

5:20

d%

other numbers.

indicating minutes past the

*r

to express time in phrases that are equivalent to the

one o'clock.

8:10

minutes.

Urdu

the Enclitic

In order to express complete hours, the past participles of

English "o'clock.

In order to say 8;

in

Time with

dLZ

used instead of

into the oblique.

-Ut %1& *J$ JZ&r \Jj


194

is

J ltL~

There are twenty minutes

(literally:

To state that something will occur or take


"at,"

when a specific number of minutes

is

jS?

The

is

4-

used

i/i

is

in its

oblique form,

i.e.,

Z-. Example:

&

will depart at ten o'clock.

jtv L- jTi tfj

train will depart at

one o'clock.

airplane is arriving at five minutes past ten.

The

airplane

is

arriving at five minutes to ten.

To express a.m. or p.m., the time of the day

is

stated with

if

appropriate:

Come at two p.m. (lit. two o'clock in the afternoon)!


Sometimes the possessive

Z may also be used

Where were you going


To express exact time,

the

word

u*

is

used for

generally not explicitly used but

(Note: past participles in above two examples arc in the implied oblique)

The

is

mentioned. With other lime expressions involving

implied. Consequently the past participle of

- i/jrt

the striking often.)

place at a certain time, the postposition

complete hours (or fractions of hours), the postposition

The train

in

in this construction instead

at ten o'clock at night (at

of

10 p.m.)?

used before the time expression:

Our

little

daughter wakes every morning at exactly 4 o'clock.

9.13

Reading and Translation Drill

J?

_fc* jbj

cl.

MA

qw J, jt . jl

6^ J.j 6u$ ii -
s* -

-ut c-j

jV

til

4W o^

Jtt-cfJ'^ *ftf 'V

t>j^fc*\j *>} if1 -c-

196

yij Old'

rf

_r

Write out the following times in Urdu:

1.

1:00

11.

ll:39p.m

2.

2:10

12.

12;40a.m.

3.

3:17

13.

1:43

4.

4:20 p.m.

14.

2:47 a.m.

5.

5:22 a.m.

15.

3:49 p.m.

6.

6:24

16.

4:51p.m.

7.

7:25

17.

5:52 a.m.

8.

8:28 p.m.

18.

6:54 p.m.

9.

9:32

19.

7:55

10.

10:37

20.

8:58 p.m.

Translate the following passage into English:

fJ&/*
m

\$j

-f-

a>*s

KJ tff JJ fm* -^

Jt JZjfif

,jyt>

os

-^

LV

1^>

& \f

cK" iS/ 6i> - U

^Y
197

4#

~f-

fcf

^ ~U* &J

fys

jrffi/

,y

^- iSp

\fi

% **^ ^

9.14

P" (Conversation)

*x \f ^>
hJj*

t/^Jr L'-^

Iji

^'

(jty

-Us<

jtf-

db*.

^ -f-

<^

<zS-

/if

*$ &f J\s <-j (


(f

Offr

U*~

i* eft

198

'O

'^J~ J

**

'*/)

U\ '0\

&'

~f (t^Jn J

*
9.15 Conversation Practice

(1)

Create a dialogue with at least 8-10 sentences, using the following words and constructions:

M
infinitive

infinitive

*wf

verbal stem

9.15 Conversation Practice (2)

Madhu, how

Anil:

Hello,

Madhu:

Fine, thanks.

Anil;

No,

don't

What are you doing here? Do you come

come every Sunday, but I have to do a

done my work,
Madhu;

Yes,

are you?

lot

to

work even on Sunday?

of work today. Having

can play tennis with Ashwin,

also don't have a lot of free time. Having done this work,

199

have

to

cook. There

Anil;

Would you
health.

Madhu:

is

no food

in

the house-

with Ashwin and mc? Playing tennis

like to play tennis

is

good

for

We play tennis at five o'clock.

like tennis

very much but

ought to study. Can

play with both of you

tomorrow?

Anil:

Yes,

we can play tomorrow.

have to go.

am

meeting Ashwin at ten minutes

to five at his house.

Madhu:

Take these. These are very good sweets.

Anil:

These sweets are very good. Can I give them

Madhu:

No, you eat these.

can

Ashwin?

to

make more for Ashwin tomorrow.


9.16 Songs

**- ***

**

^ dk % v

~,

ft ft fj

^ {fk

ft ft U?

d*

&* ji\ <Jx


f9 (9

200

(i


*~\S*2*

(r

******* ft*
(

Cf.

up *f-

(^ up
(

t e t

t)?^_

14

^X 4

j4 ty fc

201

^/i

t e t

e)

/f &

/tf|

% .

(^ jp ?

(-

J-

//
f(

>i

^ AJ ^ *?

Glossary- for Songs

\J fi = understanding,

\J = (lower bud (0

awareness (m)

Jbr, = glow, shine; freshness (m)

{*/ ~ youthfulness; adolescence (m)


\J

= fervor, zeal, ardor (m)

\J i)

= fault, blemish (m)

{jytJi=

1^1/

Af

(**t-X-=

intoxicating; stupefying; perplexing

denial (m)

J*/ ~-= restless, uneasy, anxious

= confidence,

trust

6J6i = promise (m)

disreputable, infamous

rV my beloved

(f)

(Persian)

9.17 Vocabulary

tf

to call/invite

to

come

(m)

g/- desire, wish (f)

hold; to seize

J\^m = spring season

= consent, agreement (m)

J&{ = refusal,

= arm; sleeve (f)


to

&

out, to arise; to depart

byt

to depart, to set out

j\f

cough (i)
to enter (formal Urdu)

til

fever; wrath;

jftjl

o^

essay/composition (m)

steam (m)

y(T-

Jf

girlfriend (for girls)

J\

hand (m)
happiness

Jku

(f)

hour (m)

202

in that direction/in this direction

intention

(m)

'

Jj\ ffjl
fciL/J

h^-""*

intoxicating

<z -/J

late

leisure; free

time

iJi^

'

(f)

medicine (I)

<&L

pleasing

\$Mt*M.

poor thing/fellow (f/m)

fj^v

quiet/silent

to sell

to

*"

send

shirt(f)

to sit

down

*i

(formal Urdu)

sixty

some, few; scanty,

stroll,

walk, tour

little;

less

jC

(f)

to stroll, to take a walk, to tour

tiredness (f)

voice, sound, noise

to

wake

to

wash

worry

J*3

(f)

I? If /B*

up/rise

(f.

'

CxJ

or rn.)

203

Chapter 10
10.1

The verb

w'lf

the generic form of the verb "to know,"

When the

The Verb tlf, "To Know"


is

used

in the

following instances:

subject desires to express familiarity/acquintance with a person.

When the subject expresses knowledge about a general fact or an area/field

2.

When t'U

is

used

in

j Remember that j
.

cases in which

is

its

object

is

animate or specific, then the object

a postposition and nouns/pronouns marked by

it

or a

is

skill.

marked by

will be in the oblique.

-Ok OU /&li* j*
(subject

- object object marker /- verb)


I

know Salman.

(subject object

-LM
I

In the last

object marker y verb)

know

Olf

this

boy.

<JA j$

know Urdu and

vJ jt

Hindi.

example, Urdu and Hindi are inanimate objects, so they are not marked by J

Important note: The verb llf should not be coniused with the verb tlf "to go."

is

c/U while that of tlf

means

"1

go." Similarly,

is If.

Thus (JjH Plf \JL means

"I

know" while

K\Jty U means "1 will know" and

204

The stem of

\Jjtf

Dlj5lf tj~ means

t*lf

Hf

jZ

"I will go."

10.1

Reading and Translation Drill

?Ut 2LU

<!J2

-<L\ \J$

fjsfft

^_U

!(/ cflf

i-e

i#V

VU

<\f

M -j3*

ft

ft \/t

?t# 214? tfe/f

*J A/

JV

^ w .f

^J <*Z 6m <^'

U>3^ d\ <s"f (fH e'\A of


10.1 Substitutions

these girls

that beautiful girl

your brother
his family

?. <L\*

ji f({)

these players/athletes

those students

205

-r

our daughters

this clever girl

Hindi

German

Gujarati

Bengali

names of these people


this

10.2 tjt

ist

famous poet

and the auxiliary verb

a restricted context.

fc/f .

In

name

{&* Construction

comparison to

primarily denotes knowledge

It

names

that clever boy's

f r*\ or "to be known," is a complex verbal formation,

fj*^

their

fc-lf ,

formed with the predicate adjective

the construction tfi

of one specific

fact or a

fr**

is

used

in

group of

ascertainable facts such as:

1.

times of the day

2.

prices of things

3.

names of people, etc.

fc-

\f,

being a more expansive verb "to know," can often replace t.K

usually not possible. In t>f

fs9^

(****'* ,but

constructions, the logical subject in English

the reverse

is

is

marked by 1

Do you know the time?


(Note: Although

object,

and JZJ)

translation

w
is

'

is

the logical subject in English, in

Urdu

it is

actually the grammatical

the grammatical subject, with which the verb \,yt agrees.

of the example above

is:

"Is the

time

known

206

to

you?")

The

literal

fJ*

tug

ft

\j\f\j\*\Jf

Does he know their names?

In

is

the

example above, the verb fc#

is in

the plural because the grammatical subject

don't

know the

Similar to the ttf

'

y9*

knew

that

It

too

/^

is

used:

he was worried.

construction, but perhaps

, meaning "trace, clue, hint; address."

i/j

price of this thing.

the past tense, the appropriate form of the auxiliary

in

Urdu (p*C)

plural.

-*/ f-y *

In

in

is

more

colloquial,

is

one

that

employs the word

used with the verb ijt with the logical subject

information.
English being marked by /to indicate knowledge of a specific fact or piece of

Do you know where

is

the Shalimar garden?

Sir, I don't

may also be used with the verb l^, with


verb "to

come

to

know.

the logical subject in English marked by

know."

When

will

we (come to) know

207

about this matter?

r, as the

10.2 Reading

and Translation

Drill

-/ (^ U? &A Sif/u^ *& U<


.*=_

fj*

t+ f>*

-f-

lM*m

2Q8

h* SJ\s Y1 /j.

6^t-

-^

ft

Jf

lT^i *_,i* /vr <ur

f>*

&J tfodr

~<~

f>"

&i

ffl

/^ *c4

iJ-

_r

10.3

The Verb

We have already encountered

and Knowledge of Learned/ Acquired

6J

t i in

its

sentences that denote the knowledge

logical subject in

English

is

meaning

"to

come." 1

of a learned/acquired

also used in constructions in

is

skill.

In such a construction, the

marked by J thus becoming an object


,

Urdu or the

with the grammatical subject in

?<^

in

Urdu. The verb agrees

logical object in English:

know Urdu.

>$*
/

frf IV

Skills

/wf
<l/
v
*

Do you know how to play sarod?


In

the first sentence, the verb

is

feminine because

second sentence, the verb

is

masculine because

the

tv^ r "to play sarod/'

is

its

grammatical subject (Urdu)

its

is

feminine. In

grammatical subject, the infinitive J9y^

a verbal noun in the masculine. Note that the grammatical subject of 1

can either be a proper noun, 9Jjl t or a verbal noun, tl^. Sometimes, the agreement

will

vary depending on the definition of the grammatical subject:

?^

rf

\$#f>J

to?

Do you know how to


The grammatical subject

the

of the verb

in the

sentence above

is

<\S

drive a car?

tl^ ij)c

/'driving a car/ hence the verb is in

mascul ine.

Do you know how to drive a car?


Jn

the second example, since ijip

and

in that

case so will the verb 1

is

feminine, the infinitive ti^ can take on a feminine ending,

In the past tense, the appropriate

209

form of the auxiliary l^

is

used.

Raj used

10.3

to

know how to

dance.

Reading and Translation

Drill

trf

-<f-

?^tf tsf

..
-i>

fc-T

tlf

.^

fc-r

tj/^ ^r

Iff

<uj, J.

lf({/u?

ti%

?U^

<Jf

Jyjs

t-r

Ul
cri

;/ u/

tife-

^ J\ _J

10.3 Substitutions

how

to dance

how

to

how
how
210

<\f

-<=_

J ^/r> r

-^

to

swim
cook

to eat

Uf_
will

used to

t-T)

know

how to

know how

used to

will

(tJ)

know

to

/t/y

read this book

cook Indian food

little

Chinese

know how to make yogurt

10.3 Translations

Translate the following into idiomatic Urdu:

Do you know my favorite -actor?

2.

3.

Excuse me,

4.

My grandmother (maternal) used to know the famous actor Dihp Kumar.

5.

6.

Does Nargis know how to make spaghetti with Indian spices?

know who Javed Akhtar

is,

but I don't

do you know where

sir,

know that Amitabh Bacchan

10.4

When &?J

"to ask"

is

is

is

taller

know him

than you (informal).

Hi
I

*-

if

animate or

is

if*

followed by a <=

ask him.

indirect object -- marker

I will ask that

The direct object,

poet, isn't he?

The Verb C^V, "To Ask"

-u*

(subject

He is a

the post office?

used in Urdu, the indirect object

(subject

(personally).

CL~

verb)

woman,

indirect object marker - verb)

specific, is followed

211

by ij~

*A

Ifthe object

is

not

.r

vL Zl

animate or specific, the use of \jZ

am asking him

(subject

is optional.

<;

about All.

indirect object marker i- animate direct object object marker

\ji

^~jL I

-verb)

j? c^y ijt^A
I

(subject

--

&\ aO ^t

used to ask

indirect object

10.4

him about

tf

j-i \Jt

this matter.

marker i- inanimate direct object verb)

Reading and Translation

Drill

~c- l^y ft t\$& -jt


-<=.

i^y

ft

off

)j\tz- /
o'i

*-

(m
|

-tf* (J<y

J& u$ S

G< if

o'i

* h <^ u/-

a*4 Jy

c-

$ if jiot'uf
1

^ ^ r^' ^ J'^

J^ wT< c y>-.^c^l c//

212

7
a-

4** w

-r

10.4 Substitutions

That

girl

These boys

My brother
Your clever friend

4~h cdSncdLfM

ajx&h

that girl

you r brother

boy

these doctors

home

my father

Irnran Khan's address

that athlete

that

that vagabond's

10.5 -The

Verb l^ with

C~ and /

The meaning of certain verbs changes depending upon the postposition with which they are

used.

1)

t* + postposition

^ to mark the object means "to meet":

meet (with)

They meet

(with) those girls.

In the

above sentences, the object (of meeting)

2) fc*

+ postposition s to mark

its

Ali.

is

marked with CL~.

logical subject in

213

English means "to

get, obtain, find":

-r

-u!

find

God

there.

& stZ A/1

He gets those

Where do you
In the

things.

gel (hese books?

above sentences, the logical subject in English, that

obtaining, or finding something

is

is

the person/thing

marked by / Note that the verb

in all

who

is

getting,

the sentences agrees

with the things that are being obtained or found.

10.5

Reading and Translation

Drill

-O*

?l

-.

few

J &. t& & & \f- iuU f if J


-s

*d

uif

[ft o\i

<u?

& tf *** * it M f- 'f


1+.

v.

fok.

J&

.ajffjCjk J>i
214

-r

ku tfjic

c^.c- <J\

-& ejfb USf-V

tft/0

*&flJ*

Translate into Urdu:

We are meeting those boys today.

2.

Can

3.

They get

4.

What can you

5.

Those girls want to meet Shahrukh Khan.

6.

Where

7.

Raj used to get sweets from this famous sweet shop.

meet that famous professor?

all

will

those beautiful things

(informal) get in Canada?

find medicine for this illness?

10.6

When

the verb

in India.

t? means

The Verb

tfwith C- and /

"to tell," the person to

whom something is being said

or told

is

usually

marked by GL~.

1 tell

^U*

\gf&\ jT'
I tell

When the

object of v^ is

them.

marked by J then
,

them

it

c-

erf

a thing.

means to call

something negative, but not necessarily so.

215

the object something, usually

What do people call you?

-U7

2&H for* wT J>


People

call

your lips

What is this thing called


10.6 Reading

rubies.

in

English?

and Translation Drill

-Jtf tflti ^ ^ Jl jt

-^

Translate the following sentences into Urdu;

Why are you telling me these things?


216

if US

^*

*=-

^M

_l

go there."

2.

Tell him, "don't

3.

What

4.

What does he tell your friends?

5.

What does he call your friends?

is

"love" in

Urdu?

10.7 Indefinite

{}j

Pronouns and Adjectives

can be used as a pronoun or an adjective and, depending on context,

may mean "someone,

anyone, any; approximately."

Somebody

When

(J j

is

is

used as a pronoun in an affirmative sentence, then

a particular person. (J J as a pronoun subject

singular too.

playing over there.

When

\Jj

is

used with

is

\J$ , then

it

means somebody* anybody,

usually singular, hence the verb remains

it

means nobody.

Nobody was over there.


(j.y

may also be used

as an adjective, as in the following sentence:

?cIs

Do you
The oblique form of

J/

is

<J

\j

7 (>f(jyV

some man coming?

need any book from the library?

'.

You ask someone concerning this matter.


217

or

Before specific numbers i}jf

In this

case

its

oblique form

The

may also be used as

is

the

an adjective meaning "some, approximately."

same as the nominative:

price of this shirt

was approximately three hundred rupees.

Among these fifty apples, approximately four or five will be


Note: Following idiomatic usage, the noun

oblique form because a specific

j% can

also

^J"

number -- t/L^

second sentence does not adopt

precedes

There

as an adjective

is

it

little."

something over there.

means some or a few.

There were some boys playing over there.

When

f<g is

used with {J3

it

means "nothing."

There

When

used with ij

it

is

nothing over there.

means "anything at all, anything whatsoever; nothing at

fife

Mummy darling,

{*-

M A^fJ^Ai

do you want anything at

218

all

its

plural

it.

be used as an indefinite pronoun or adjective. Depending on context,

"something, anything; somewhat; some, any; a

Jr

in the

rotten.

{/

from the market?

all."

may mean

10.7

Reading and Translation Drill

V o^J'if^f

JZ&VJ U[> &/ if


j

0( jt c- ifji v

-^ if (iffif& -^

f J

ft a* U^c

ot/c
-ul U Jjy d"~ d> wf
-m uz

ifr

aj*

&% Hi

it

219

um - u/>

t/f

<\f

4V

Translate into idiomatic Urdu:

Do you need some work?

2.

The poor boy

3.

Can anyone take (use verb

4.

Is there

5.

6.

Because of air pollution,

is

so sick

any need

on account of love

that

he cats nothing

tlf *-~) this chi Id to the hospital?

at all.

He is somewhat sick.

(CWV^) to go to Delhi?

think that at night you will not be able to get any taxis from the hotel.

will not stay in

10.8 Fractions

Los Angeles.

and Mass Measurements


Fractions

Fractions used to express quantity in

Urdu

are as follows

ft

quarter

half

*4

3/4

\y

1/4

numeral

1/4

numeral +

2 1/2

jw

220

numeral + GL-jis

numeral + 1/2
(except for 11/2 and

Note:

<i

Uo
[lit.

1/2, see

above)

and )J are only used as adjectives with nouns and not with numerals.

quarter less than]

is

used before numerals to mean three quarters,

3/4 kilo mangoes

quarter less than two).

[lit.

Please cut 3 3/4 yards

-&$g $sj
T

quarter less than four].

[lit.

ifJ*

&

want half a bread.

eft ilu tfe ui

d?

We want 3/4 cup of tea.


Note;

Z-Vand^'\s

can only be used with numerals and not with nouns.

want 5

Do they

1/2 kilos of apples.

want

3/4 kilos of meat?

Review of Fractions from 1-4


a

1/4

SI

1/4

Ir-

2 1/4

sj

\y

3 1/4

\y

1/2

UuTrjrjl

1/2

*i

21/2

fjw

3 1/2

ate**

3/4

jy

3/4

L.J

2 3/4

cX ,Ly

33/4

A *Ly

jCi

*J

(^4

221

-/If

Note:

Numbers

larger than four follow the

same pattern to express

fractions as for the numeral

3.

Mass Measurements
In the

previous chapters

we have seen that mass nouns in Urdu (O*) are treateo

** singular

entities just like their English counterparts:

This water

Similar logic

is

followed for other nouns like {J

-+

is

/? (vegetables).

ifi \$J?

This vegetable

The above sentence expresses

good.

is

good.

the opinion that a specific type of vegetables^ in

mass quantity,

is

good. If you want to express that more than one kind of vegetables are good, then ijyf' should

be expressed

in plural

form:

These vegetables

As far as

specific

(different kinds) are good.

measurements are concerned, the words used to express measurements

immediately precede the thing that

is

being measured.

-Jj

dfe

One cup

J&

(of) sugar.

Two spoons (of)

salt.

Note that Urdu disposes of any possessive postpositions that are the equivalent of the English

222

of
10.9 Telling

Time in Fractions

12:45

1:00

1:15

1:30

1:45

2:00

2:15

-t| _

jj Ir-

2:30

-at _

jw

2:45

-L* 4r

d 2-4

3:00

-m^rd

3:15

-Ul

3:30

-c _

The pattern

is

regular

As we have seen
of o'clock.

in

^ v? ir
\J>

<*Jt"

from 3:30 to

2:30.

Chapter 9, the past participle of C (\f-l~)

As long as

the base

number

Note that 30 minutes past the hour

is

is

1 ,

time

is

is

used as the Urdu equivalent

expressed as l^, that

used.

-L?
Write out the following times

in

S)

the singular.

expressed through dZ-jKs except in the case of 1 :30

{&/>) and 2:30 (CSU'J). To express am or pm, times of the day such as

&ij are

in

is,

*Ly

CO ;&

Urdu:

223

i)

1:45

pm

(J/

J&

)),

C^-, and

5:45 pm, 6.30 am, 7:15 am, 12:45 am, 2:30 am, 2:45 pm, 1:15pm, 8:00 am, 1:30 am, 11:45

10.9

Reading and Translation

Drill

~&b Jjb
*lft

-ty

?t|

^ LV

J<

off

& it
j/&i

lift

T*
in

jf% f J*

mil

f ,J tf

// <uiT J.

^it ZJU / wT 4/

Answer the following questions

pm

mm Jfe 4 u/ 4/
r

'

complete Urdu sentences:

?c 2Llf /(/" l hi 6\

224

-'

^Tl/ /"student" Ui J

-^

^ c/~

jr

jL/y 4 Jui Jm^ vT

jf

*$

?<rf --<

fig

10.10 Cardinal

Numbers 61-70

y<

11

yi

(Jrts )Jrj,

ir

**4

if

jja

ia
11

O>0 jry

1^.

fr%

1A
^19

225

10.11

?<f-

^l/

- *F J ^f fc*f,J? (J" f ^t >\f-j

jj m -a* &\
iu*

iT&o

h}
\S~

fdf lA

<U[ 'U[

S c- fk* f&i <j/~l ef&

4' ***

d*' ASjs Jd't <

fj*

1*1

^(Conversation)

<=- l/f
-f_ I*

-f,

vie-

J^S* -U 4_*i (/(

**S lfc~

liX -l

226

^V

f A/\th

f*

t/

:J

-uO

JQ

L?

(c.
r

-c-\f*

&?

if'

Mj -# (f <-> && /k*J (


\U

-0* J7 !f

^'

iji '(/'

i?f

&J fj\ J*

ef

."

<U?

t-r

jlJwJ)

fjP

60 $M\tf. -u?

i#

&j

<i/f

ury

A f -u* &% ^;if

-Jjf 0% J\s

!%

&J

W, -t^

:(/0

-_V [f
i/L

\J.

10.12 Conversation Practice

my friend Seema. We are going to buy paan for Seerna's mother.

Anil:

Hello Usha. This

Usha:

Yes,

Seema:

How are you, Usha?

Usha:

f ine, thanks. Anil, do you know

Anil:

No, I don't. But Seema knows how

Usha:

is

know Seema. She

have to go

studies with me.

to Shehla's house.

how

She

to drive a car?

to drive a car.

is

very

227

ill.

Where do you have to go?

But her house

is

very faT and the bus

always C-%\) leaves


Seema:

know

Shehla. She

is

late.

a good friend of mine.

Can we come along with you to

Shehla's

house?
Usha:

Of course.

Anil:

Do you know the address

Usha:

Yes,

it

Anil:

OK,

let's

is

I have to buy

some fruits
of the

for Shehla.

fruitseller's

Can we

all

go to the

fruitseller's

shop?

shop?

near that big hospital.

go after half an

hour.

Seema and

will

be here with the car at 4:30 pm. Be

ready!

10.13 Songs

L.if if,

\A-J*

i/'

-^

ut J^ i/'~ if>

cSj \S/' d~*

U* tfuzw

(# iff*

e- lf>

if

fjL JU js

<=_

if &

jfft

&S/L-J0 $/f~ifr i/f


228

a.

&

jii

tT y

>U JTi

^_

If

,_>

(^y tr

IT

>j*

o-^

Glossary for Songs

^iy =

&J =

a lord, prince, governor (m)

season

uS^V ^f/%

fyy*

= wave (f)

i)hj -

(f)

(/"=season

filled

with intoxication C^-?=

flow, flux, going

life,

(0

existence; livelihood (m)

,?= song, melody (m)


10.14 Vocab. ulary

address; hint, clue, trace (m)

to

air,

come

to

know;

I**

to find out

Hi

wind (f)

J*^

aerial

J^A*

air pollution (f)

ju
Jv

tM

to be/become upset, angry

birthday (f)

11%

(r

to call (something a

name) (use with /)

ty

cup(f)

Jt,

date/history (f)

fjJs

to drive

tlU

to drive a car

tLb (jjtf

^V

to find

generally, often; most;

many
0>

half

IpJttfaS

(numeral* half)

JLj\s

it

kilogram

to

know

tSi fjfc* ffc-W


j

life,

lifetime; afso

age

(f)

yf

to lose

manner, style (0

Z/s

minister (government) (m/f)

/ })

prime minister (m/f)

Jjs

nobody

{jtf (jj

nothing

\jti

J^

\y

one and a quarter

&%j

one and a half

owl; fool ; stupid (m)

y\

230

permission

&> j\?

(f)

to give permission (to leave)

lo

Ifc

play (an instrument)

0>U(
tl^

ct~C

price, cost (f)

^Jfi-'*

purpose, intent; motive (m)

quarter

51

question (rn)

numeral

\J\y

less than a quarter

L- J

(m)

seventy

somebody/anybody; some

{jy

someth ing/anything

c^ I

speech, word; thing (abstract);

matter; affair (0

uf
^

to spend time, to pass time

spoon; sycophant (colloquiai)(m)

to steal

tf

7V

sugar (f)

{?

sweet

U^

to

swim

\,jZ

temperament, health

(f)

&

three-quarters

true (adj.); truth

(m)

231

two and

1>U*

a half

232

Chapter 11
11.1

The meaning of
noun

tt

is

depends upon

modifying,

it

The

Interrogative

Its

When

location in the sentence.

its

can be translated as "what kind

can be translated as "how."

U?

oblique form

is

of."

When Ur

appears before the

appears before the verb

it

often used adverbially.

What kind of girls

are those?

What kind of boys were those?

?+.
How

i/j*
is

tfL,r

your daughter?

How wil
Note that

U: when not being used


,

and gender with the noun

it

he meet you?

adverbially, acts as a

marked adjective and agrees in number

modifies.

11.1

Reading and Translation

Drill

<V &X &*\

?c^
233

uirtr

i/4

-<

\-

".-

11.2

V" "how much, how many,"


,

number with the noun

it

like

Uc

The

acts like a

O"

<s.

if\0'it

Interrogative ffi

marked adjective and agrees

in

gender and

modifies.

How many girls are in your class?

How many patients were there in the hospital?

How big is their house?


t*'

can also be used in an exclamatory manner.

i+. in

&J*&\

Their house

11.2

is

so big!

Reading and Translation

*t *Hr

btf
234

tVfe

Drill

tf ^* i/i

-j

lot c^-s)

if dfl *

lig jj&
I*-

Jfo

141

UZ

lf~'f&+%tj8r{fidkr*i

1J.3 Expressing

constructions depend

*?*J

ftt&jstJ$

"to have." instead,

Urdu uses

convey the corresponding meaning of the Engl ish


the nature

'

three

"to have."

These

of the object possessed.

Expressing human relationships, legal ownership, and parts of the body.

In

on

POa/j*

"To Have"

Urdu does not have the verb equivalent of the English


different constructions to

<-

such

a construction, the possessive adjectives or possessive postpositions {}

with the logical subject in English-

The appropriate form of the verb

future tenses) agrees with the object being possessed.

fc-tf

have two boys,

235

--

L- <0

are used

(in present, past, or

For example:

(possessive adjective -- object of possession

<

verb)

have ten

fingers.

The poor boy has no

one.

That man had a house.

4*

\fat

\f\idfd*

&

Next year Hussein too will have a wife.

.3

Reading and Translation

Drill (1)

-u?

jk

^ <

.^ j^t wii

-1L \jC
236

t>jj>

erf

\5m

\J\

-f

2.

Expressing possession ofmaterial, movable objects.

In order to express possession of material, movable objects, the postposition

is

its

used with nouns or pronouns representing the logical subject in English.

tenses, agrees

possessive forms

\Ji

or "near'

The verb t^,

with the object being possessed. Note that several pronouns adopt their

when used with

(^/L

That

Z^. For example \J\t~ +(J~ = \J

woman

(logical subject in English

has a

\J"%

<L

lot

tLy

of money,
object of possession

verb)

Do you have these things?

only had two books.

Tomorrow you
11.3 Reading

will have sweets in the shop?

and Translation Drill

-*/

237

M/

(2)

jfl L/t

<-/ <<^

&

in all

-3- wlT'i/S

\<jt Jjjr

3.

c^

t/t

^_x Eft l^

ji

ti/^'

cf- tf ui

<

fVi/

Expressing abstract possessions.

As already discussed

in

Chapter

9, the postposition

/is used with the subject

in

order to convey

abstract possessions.

have a

lot

He has

of work.

fever.

We were worried.

They did not have any

On account of not sleeping, they

are tired

238

free time at

(lit.

all.

they have tiredness/fatigue).

Do you need this thing? (Do you have the necessity of this thing?)
Note;

&JIJ*

isfeminine, hence the possessive particle preceding

expressionists

&J3/

x, to

(J

11

.3

it

will

always be y. The

have need of x.

Reading and Translation

Drill

(3)

.f.

-*_ fid

j-

/j> y*

ft?

239

/i%f

|*l

erf

c><

/VT 4jT

-J*

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

have three brothers and one sister.

2.

Do you (formal) have two eyes?

3.

Bill

4.

We will

5.

They have a lot of work, but they ought to go

6.

Nargis will also need

7.

The

8.

Do you have a need

9.

10-

Excuse me,

11.

The

Gates has a

have a

of money. People say he

lot

lot

of free time.

sir.

\&js/*j to

for a lot

not spend

it

man

in the world.

QtJy)

in

doing useless

things.

there.

have her teeth examined.

of love

in

your life?

about these things.

Do you

sell

combs? I don't have one;

landlord in this village has a

11.4

When

the richest

have a fever but has a cough.

patient doesn't

was very worried

We should

is

lot

&'

The Possessive Adjective

is

meet

want to buy a good comb.

of land and money, but he does not help the poor.

the subject of the sentence is also the possessor

declinable possessive adjective

of a noun

l'

in that sentence,

used:

my (own) professor every day.

She meets with her (own) daughter.

240

then the

ought to do

Our boys will play

my (own) work.

football with their

(own) friends.

Note: l' immediately precedes the possessed object and agrees in

possessed object.

l' is also

number and gender with the

used to emphasize the possessor/owner of nouns. In such

circumstances, (' follows the possessive

This

is

noun or adjective:

his (veiy own) thing.

The White House is not the president's (own) house,


11.4

it is

the house of the

Reading and Translation

Drill

--&??

241

American people.

M iff

fcJ

t>

-d?d? -H u*-Vfy Su< /erf


The Reflexive Pronoun if

11.5

if is a reflexive pronoun that refers back to the subject of the sentence in


that

manner similar

to

of the English "self or "selves."

\jJH C>> if JL
I

myself study.

-U% 2- If Ufa >?

They themselves go there.


11.5

Reading and Translation

f&

Drill

J2

\j

f if jt rf #

<H

tj

0\i if

.^

tlf

wf J/

if /cfi

~- t*> if fi/t
-<z_

& #% if w offi*

'jfyii

J? Vfj Jt

U ^j^?
242

i/'

<

f*% *} &j

H *f & fOk

Jt

Translate the following sentences into English:

We will eat with our friends tomorrow.

2.

This

3.

Madonna herself is

4.

Do you (informal) yourself study at Princeton?

5.

6.

We do not cook meat in our house.

7.

Do you yourself know how

8.

Abid himself was helping Nilofer.

9.

Their

10.

In his childhood, the old

1 1.

Please stop (prevent) your children from playing with the flowers in the garden,

is his

(very own) idea.

singing tonight.

used to go to India with

life

my family every December.

to

play the piano?

was so busy that they themselves could not rest.

man had

his (very

11.6

When the
seller

suffix

iihfijb/th

is

own)

hair

and

teeth.

Noun +iih

attached to an oblique noun,

it

frequently signifies the doer,

or user of that noun. In the case of place names, a construction with U *J indicates the

resident

of a place. Several of these expressions with this suffix have idiomatic meanings that are

also listed here.

Feminine

English

tjv

fruit seller

(jlj

\$X

vegetable seller

Jlj

Z->T

(Jlj

Jlj _l~

shoe

seller

tonga driver

243

Masculine
i)h

U?

lib (j

jf

lib

l-

lib

JLtT

6b

V$

villager

6b J*
U'-J

f9

6b

6->

fUnJff

wife, husband

one

who does work,

tikj*

servant

a Delhi resident

-t|

^y

<LU

f%

0(*

J^

^ Uk

c^

Many fruit sellers

l)b

live here.

What does your wife do?

The newspaper man used to come


In

some

instances, the addition

of the I/O suffix

to a

our house every day.

to

noun may

result in an adjective:

like tea with milk.

11.7 Adjective +l)'j

The suffix

vh can be added to adjectives in order to avoid ambiguity or to lay emphasis.

an instance \)b, like the adjective to which

it is

attached, will agree with the

noun

it

In such

is

modifying.

j*

6j 6^

Please give

You would say this

Ji)

me that red

if you are pointing to the red hat

11.8 Postposition or

The addition of the lib

A
hat.

as opposed to hats of other colors.

Ad verb +

lib

suffix to an adverb or postposition transforms

244

it

into

an adjective or a

noun.

Does he

stay in the upstairs

_^ J?

She

is

the girl

&A

who was/is

room?

outside.

_^ c *& A if lib #f
God

(lit.

The One Above) watches us all the time.

-Z-tfujiV- 6b
Please

show me the sari that

11.6- 11.8

-,<.
is

underneath.

Reading and Translation Drill


0)

-ji &.
-Jn

U> finite

tvj <z-

I)

s><

-Oi 2* J&yi &?. Jh Jl/\

?c &-*

j&

Lj>

tftfi

g*

a/

?/<tf Ljt 4/ LAi art

1^.

245

j%

6j\<> lib

Ju *

f*J >y

-f

I (tot {$ db jJA
*Cf v lA a-/Lb A ( Af
-<f- \j

-o

si

fjfc*

fu>y &

jj &j *s
.. 2Llf

h}

if'i

/(*/<

11.9 Oblique Infinitive

When

the suffix lib

the first usage

it

is

attached to the oblique infinitive

indicates the performer of the action

-Cft

The

2^j U\>

it

jyj

\^J>

_a

LJhM *-*> U^4

can be used in two different ways. In

of the

over

lib

am

+ Ub

infinitive.

U* f|

fruit sellers live

J?

ifi

there.

Where is your worker going?


Note that lib will decline according to the number and gender of the performer of the action of
the infinitive. In the second usage the oblique infinitive used with the lib suffix is used to

denote immediate future or actions about to happen or take place. In such cases, the conjugated

form of \,yt follows the

Ub

suffix.

The suffix will agree

-OK
\

Ub

in

number and gender with the

Lb ttfPiJH

am about to go to India.

246

subject.

She
Note: In the

either as

last

"She

is

example above there

is

about to work" or "She

If the oblique infinite

vh

about to work.

ambiguity

is

construction

relative clause, beginning with

is

in

meaning. The sentence can be translated

a worker."

is part

of a phrase,

"who," "which," or "that" as

it is

may be appropriate:

_ Jj Lj Ufitik\
In this airplane there

best translated in English as a

fy.di*

were people who were going to Bangladesh.

He thinks that the health of a person who eats meat is


11.9

t/'

Reading and Translation

-t|

generally not good.

Drill

U <U % 6* \U

U Lji Lrf (
\M

^ok fu*# Lj>2- J/

247

'if

a/.

-'

Translate into Urdu:

He is

2.

That

3.

4.

His family has money and they are about to go to Las Vegas.

5.

Many workers will

6.

They are about to

7.

There

8.

The woman who drives the red car used

9.

The train from New York

a Delhi resident and he doesn't like

fruit seller will

not be able to

sell

Mumbai. He ought to go back.

shoes.

am about to buy that white hat. Do you like it?

is

lot

not be able to go to work tomorrow because they have the

sell their beautiful

house

more heat and sunshine

in

in

Lahore.

the big

room

that

is

upstairs.

to live in that big red house.

will be arriving late.

11.10 Cardinal

flu.

It

is

about to leave

New York now.

Numbers 71-80

248

L\

J*

LX

Lr

L?

ft

L&

7*

(^

L.L

jft

L/\

(if ti) tftf

if'

A.

11.11 ^^(Conversation)

-<p

vir-v^i

f\X^.

^ _^_ ^iJ ^^

-lf%

ji

v"0

J -f- ft & b'f U[

-if'

[$/:

&1 -&h

&f-

^x & Jb\ji J\si-j\fd3j\* i/t iff


f ^}
*?
'U\ 'U\
ft &4 ~ji <**} A f -0* tPjf
&s-f{ti
^Jf' Jk%\J?&- \
^Jlf

i$tf i/l

_<_

-_

Jit *L.

tlf

lit

?^_

\j

f(ttf &>>> j/'V

?t -

>j

'/if-

LX> JC? if}

tv

'US
:blj

J%*

^ &h)
t *

J \$ft ute <W -r J/

^//

iji/ '2C uk

jf\d$ j muz

if-

j!.

(.<_/?

'<?-

*& WJty
>}

249

_tf_

J~-

j hi J JS

>j>

/ Jb' -i^f &r &Vl% j* i_& <d> %-' wT


-# r/^f b>

uJ&tJt

*/

8k

Ol

>*'

fjk

ifljt

ifi

/-'

-<f-

^ J?

j6

_ul

:fe

JUl

*&& -^^ J%* ^X if* J

fa >?

^ <& & ^ J&f*ft

J"-

'/&

-uz

^JMi/tf -*- ^ **,JkP * Sit


jlj/ j*/1 *&l tfuf j*

iQg

'U-J

e^.Jl^f, -0\

vfyftfi

j4 6#*~

Ljff&i

*-*

-<z-

LJil nJto

vS ~&- -w*u fii <j\

t&j

f& -<&4r(f & * <J% Sea

11.12 Conversation Practice

Doctor:

How are you doing today?

Anil:

have a stomach ache and severe cough.

also have a fever. Since yesterday

diarrhea.

Doctor: Please open your mouth.

Anil:

Yes, a

Does

it

hurt here?

lot!

250

have

Doctor:

take) rest.

Anil:

think

you have

Drink very

the

little

flu.

I'll

give you medicine. Drink a

m ilk for two or three days.

It

is

of water and get

(literally,

not very good for your stomach.

Do you have a daughter?


name

Doctor: Yes, her

is

Reena.

Do you know her?

Anil;

Yes, she

is

in

my class. Sometimes both of us study

Doctor:

You ought

to

come

with them.

Anil:

lot

When

Thanks. Can

Doctor: No, no.

to our

will

house sometime.

you be

able to

come to your house

We arc free.

in

the library.

have two sons and you can play tennis

come?

Friday evening? Are you busy at that time?

Eat dinner with us. What would you

like to eat?

My wife

is

from

Hyderabad. She cooks Hyderabadi food very well


Indian food very much, but

don't eat meat. Also

don't like very hot food.

Anil:

Doctor;

We also don't eat meat. We arc vegetarians. Don't worry. My wife only puts a little

like

pepper

Anil:

in

our food. So we'll meet you Friday evening. Get

Thank you and good-bye. We'll meet

(literally, take)

lot

of rest.

again.

11.13 Songs

?>

^>

?/*,)/?

/*k ifVf <0\ <U[

&d

I
251

U^iJl $

-c^ak

fy

*& iSj! *& &X

dlf

J/

CI?

ue

'(If

"-;'

liX

4 w
I*'

252

\ji \f\fi
!U
H^ft fjf jfjf

!(?

fojPt4& %

Glossary for Songs

^y. = excuse (m)

b**J =

($T =

heart, soul, spirit;

V =

River Ganges (0

to fade, to sink, to decline

%j) = to break
\>Ji% = to abandon, to give up

C>%
j\

= victory

(f)

K=
f

loss (f); also necklace

(m)

>* enmity (f)

KXs*

River Jumna

(f)

= union, confluence (m)


= to

tease, to torment

11.14 Vocabulary

to

become well

blood (m)

cold (illness) (m)

comb(f)

to

comb

condition

(f)

iff
&iy

cough

0\X

cough (f)

tfV

dangerous

Jitf

to

mind;

intellect

(m)

'

to

have diarrhea

\*S

U&

ear (m)

id

tf

eighty

examination (medical),

'i?'**

investigation (m)

to

tl/^bS

have something examined

(medically)

finger (0

0)J'J

flu(m)

to

go back, return

hair

Ok

(m)

help(f)

to help

to help

C*P

land

JK

landlord (rn)

leg

(m)

mouth, face

nose

{J&tAxgJ

,z*lJ9

(rn)

Jt

(f)

offspring, children (f)

-fJM

pain (m)

J
\j%/

patient (m/f)

254

A$

to pour, to place, to

put

tM

reduced

to be

*ff

to reduce

rest

CA
\f(&

(m)

to rest

self (reflexive); oneself

fi

servant (m)

<&>/

sherbet (beverage) (m)

stomach (m)

*m.

to stop, to prevent

fa

teeth

ygfti

(m)

Jg,

thief{m)

toilet/excrerneni/stool

Jto.

(m)

town/city (m)

J!

until

V*

urine (m)

useful, profitable

useless/unemployed

./

cfe<

worried

255

Chapter 12
12.1 Simple Past

The simple

Tense

past tense indicates an action thai has been completed.

1,

went home.

2.

saw

the movie.

In order to form the simple past tense in Urdu,

it is

know whether the

essential to

transitive or intransitive. Intransitive verbs are those that

verb

is

cannot have objects such as verbs of

motion. Transitive verbs, on the other hand, have objects (for example, the verb "saw" in # 2

above). In addition, there are a few verbs that are transitive

A notable instance is the verb

counterparts are treated as intransitive.

vein, there are a

chart

few transitive verbs

English but their Urdu

in

Urdu whose English

in

ClJ "to bring."

In the same

conterparts are intransitive.

The

below should make these distinctions clear.

Common Intransitive

Verbs

to forget

V&

to

come

to bring

CJ

to

go

to be afraid of/ fear

to fight with

to cry

to smile

to reach

l-T

<^x

d_x

to speak

^x

to live

I*

%j

to live

Ui

t\P

to get

&

to rise

IVJ

256

talk to

to

tfi

tfi

up

awake

to

be constructed/ become

iV

to bathe

to

to climb

ti

dance

fc*

meet x

to

fet

Intransitive

when object

is

not expressed and transitive

is

expressed;

KA

to lose

to

when the object

win

to understand

Common

w*.

Transitive Verbs

open

i^>*

to say

tf

to ask

l^Cy

Hi

to buy

t-4-v

tf

to sell

to see

bd

to sing

to eat

6W
fcl/

to

to

do

to drink

to

7.

wash

fc/\>

todiyx

fc

if ft

l^v

to

to read

t*>

to clean

to write

b4

to fix/repair

to

keep

Note: Urdu has a substantial

work

number of verbs created by adding

t>? ) to an adjective or noun to create a verb. For example, the

work"

is

created by adding the verb

by adding

tJ

to the adjective

transitive verbs, those with

t/J?

ts

hjU.

to the

noun

r*0

a "verbalizer" (usually

Urdu equivalent of the verb

the verb "to clean"

While constructions with is

is

and

"to

similarly created

result in the creation

tif produce intransitive verbs, for example, til

257

i_iU

of

"to be

clean."

12.2

To form the simple


participle is

formed

The Simple Past Tense of Intransitive Verbs

past tense of intransitive verbs, the past participle

in

is

used.

The

past

the following way:

verb stem

(masculine singular subject)

verb stem

+ ^(masculine plural subject)

verb stem

+ y (feminine singular subject)

verb stem

+c (feminine

plural subject)

Examples:

t>t

"to dance"

stem:

Feminine Singular

&t

Masculine Singular

Pronoun

J--

u>

tt

mt#

Feminine Plural

Masculine Plural

Pronoun

U&i

2_C

jSt

4_t

jtft

Uft
If the

stem of the verb ends

s~X
in

f,

or

i,

then the consonant

past participle.

258

03/m

is

inserted for the masculine singular

tlJ

tr

"to bring"

stem:

"to sleep"

stem;

Masculine Singular

V*

_d

Masculine Plural

t-r

&

Feminine Singular

&

Feminine

uf*
If the

stem of the verb ends in

then

it is

iif>

Plural

shortened

in

the masculine forms.

No

add

added for the formation of the feminine past tense.

Ix

"to live"

stem:

y-

Masculine Singular

&

Masculine Plural

Feminine Singular

J-

J?

Feminine Plural

12.1-12.2

Reading and Translation

Drill

-U

-tiff

c-> \J\>

/'

u~

l# im*
_r

t^4
259

t*l

ViS~1$?

<\S

?&

fcf

^T J>

A.

(Jylrt

jr

_^ a^ i/"^ / (/i kr
4-* _"

JU

>j

.J/- gi

J& ijrf jft


_r

-CD*

*-

C-

vUL iJfc iTv/f

tuft fc#U<f
- tJ
12.3

An important intransitive verb,

^^

The Case of

JU
tie

>J

eL

<^M

lib

"To Go"

CU, has an irregular pattern of conjugation.

Feminine Singular

Masculine Singular

SiA

fu

f}

^
y m
Feminine Plural

Masculine Plural

off

rr

260

vT

\Js/

rJ

12.3

Reading and Translation

Drill

Jt ll

yf\ \f\

-//* jc &>

-^ c^> |J j^y
j? u?u\>

The verb t>? mean


means

<&-

<=-

jji

J. j? [fH

U~

The

past participle forms

CM &k> 6m

of fc.K when

it

t.ri

when

means

it

"to

Plural

Singular

Feminine

_r

Jl>

happen, or to become. The past participle forms of

'{J

become" or "to happen" are

Masculine

,&Zl

/;

The Case of tit "To Be, To Happen, To Become"

to be, to

"to be" are 1/

H &* f *-& &* ^- d^ V f

^JfjfkJi

12.4

L')

>Jt

i-^it

(j-tf

{ K

Study the examples below illustrating constructions meaning

261

"I

became happy," "You became

happy," and so on:

Feminine
-(|jtf

Masculine

Jp jt

~6*

J} 3

m*

(/> (

Jyt

-2-x

{// jt

J? f

-2^x [}}
0-* (//

Jrt \Jfut*

5^/W

-t/* l/>

f*
A

-</if t/i f
.*_*

*J\

J> ^r

-iyiij? hi*

Other examples of the use of CjK

are:

Jn
Work

(<4o\>

took place there.

J*

W L%

A spectacle happened here.


12.4

Reading and Translation

Drill

J\ cm/\^

(Jjj

u^ u!

L/j/2 iSuef4/

lU*'\/e-

-fr
262

< j*

t/1

*^ wi

j*

llfZ

-Ji jf
Jig

*.

if

J?

/ J- ja jf

-off

Air w^l

-*

<y

?^y r

263

J j? u

t/f

9y

_2-j> **s

&U

*S* J*

J* Un

l/i

u\>

erf

vr

6$

Jfet,

/J- if V c% cA

Jj ^s

iLiJ /%, *Jf*

-t^si
Jit

-i/*

i/'>f

my /

iLSs

j^>

iu>/ y

y *S>

L Jb k\

l/i

(/I

^y'is

uj/

.{/

tfo

\/i3 Vji

(}J

tfj/^

tS

,Ji,

tTc/y

JLtf if/arf n ftf 6fC- tT*JG

J*

lT> c^J $j/S m

/</

c^"

J'

^ jux
r

JLx

\j$

J} f^JU.

/ X 4/J u fjg%

<&

Zl

Jit

*\*

&?. /\e J\> jt

Jf

A i X/\ Jjf u 4/
Ja M Hbji Mi

Jm
264

j\f.

d<%s fyj

f> /'j%

-if

..

Translate into Urdu:

my friend, became very happy.

Having seen

2.

Did you and your brother become

3.

Those

4.

Did those

What time did you (formal) wake up yesterday morning?

6.

Did that man

7.

Those naughty boys climbed

8.

Did they take a bath

9.

10.

What happened

11.

became very embarrassed

12.

don't think he

girls

reached

ill

in India?

became worried after seeing that thief.

bright students

go

to

London?

get up from there?

Mumbai

in this

this

that

mango

tree.

house?

morning but my friends reached Mumbai

in Raja's

last

house yesterday afternoon?

in front

of my

family.

became upset yesterday.


12.5 Relatives

and Correlatives

Relatives and correlatives are used to create clauses that frequently join

two sentences which

have a common noun, pronoun, adjective, or adverb. These clauses agree


with each other.

The

night

in

number and gender

relative clause usually precedes the correlative clause but this order is quite

flexible.

265

correlative

relative

Who is the man who is singing?

t+ \j U) ^
<f

^/()
correlative

relative

Who is that who is singing?

--ps/Vyf

(u^)-f-J-'

Your home
The following chart
Interrogative

sf/tf
oblique;

\J l{J

who/what?

lists

the

common

where your heart

Correlative of

Correlative of

Proximity

Distance

oblique;

C^(/!

this/these

&

oblique; C^'/t/'

oblique: tf'l\J'

that/those

who/that/which

now

since then

until

when?

t*

then

from

until

now

Relative

now

when?

is.

of interrogatives, relatives, and correlatives:

when?

since/from

sets

is

ifVCuur)

until

then

when

from the time when

as long as

*r

UU

o\>

&

where?

here

there

where

/M

f)S

A*

266

in

which direction?

in that direction

(hither)

(tither)

(whither)

tf

(whither?)

tf
how much/how many?

which direction

in this direction

much/this

this

many

that much/that

in

many

as much/as many/the

extent to which

U
how, what kind

U4

of, in

like this, in this

manner

that which,

like that, in that

manner

what manner?
12.5

Reading and Translation

of such

kind

Drill

J?

\j

J w>Uy \fi

w^ <$

-Q

\j

J Jjjs v *j>

*JL <z-j

\j

Kj

^>.

y fi\*i

j
J&

\j

j/u

\Jfi

>- <$~J

-9 sjf&fj* fs\

*'

<. ^-j

If

f-

\M.

ft

/>

_r

-if

44 d$ at *~

U& & ** <H iif

<=-

00 &
_r

267

-&il u

Jt jt

-J? JJ J* u
~U>

iF

&?>

'Ul

-+. J* ft

-t^ ^_j

jrft&j&P i>" Jd
-li*

d$ Uk US

\fi iff

fyf ~<

\}f <CJ

/J J_% z

2^ tU >_J

<jt

2^

jii

'f-

/>

^_

/u>3

>^

<f_

if-

blfc

/'jiyfbk

,/ b* *</*>

>u!$'lA *iJ

\f'

US

&

\fi if'

-^<j?Ut

268

J>

Translate into Urdu:

My house

is

2.

He who

my friend

3.

The

4.

The

is

in that direction in

which you are going.

not your friend.

is

things that are pleasing to those girls are not pleasing to me.

receipts for these bags are right there

where you are looking.

you cannot get the kind of carpets

that

you want.

5.

In this country

6.

7.

Ever since Lata has come to America, she has become vegetarian.

8.

will

meet you there where no one comes or

Until her beloved

goes!

comes back home, she will cry

for

him day and night!

Combine the following sentences using appropriate relatives and


Example:-*^- C^* \$/

-<f-

"*-"

c^

Jl

\S/

fc Ci>

.<-.

$J *%

j#

*--

/h

&j &%

correlatives:

becomes

\J\*

0$

Jte j *~ v

m Ja uy

269

in

combination:

F.

jV & jH

~r

H -M*

-*

-Ul 2-x

12.6

The

We have already encountered the emphatic particle O'


-(Jjt \j
I

When if

is

used

in a

negative sentence,

too

it

Even

The enclitic particle


it

[J* is

it

is

if'

(f

which means

"also" or "too."

jt

am going.

corresponds to the English "even."

Jtot

iS must immediately follow the word

and if1

Particles if'

ji

if jt

I will

not go.

meant to emphasize.

used to emphasize any element that precedes

may often not be easily translatable

it.

Used

in this

manner,

in English:

This .year (emphatic)

will

go

to Pakistan.

This year / (emphatic/myself/alone) will go to Pakistan.

This year t

_tf
This year

will

go to Pakistan only (emphatic).

#%

eM U^J^Wl

will definitely go (emphatic) to Pakistan.

Note that J* can sometimes correspond to the English "only."

In this house, only you work.

Q* can

also

come between the noun/pronoun and the

270

postposition that follows:

h~"
This

is

This

is

your (emphatic) book.

or

When

(j* is

combined with

certain pronouns,

as

j?

uf

uf

has a special fori* 1.

it

1*
J'

*5

*-

J
1*

tf

+
tf

*-

ifl

es

J'

t/I

tfl

ss

tf

Si

ji\

4-

Ui

J*\

*f

far as

adverbs are concerned,

(J<

when

{f< is

combined with them

meaning different from the one they have when

right

\$i

As

jwwr (emphatic) book.

here

right there

is

in

a special form, they have

written as a separate word:

Ur

only here

{$

(Jt)

only there

if Ujfl

only

right

now

0'

right

then

O*

'

Q\&

now

$ %^A

only then

i$ *-J

271

12.6

Reading and Translation

Drill

-(/ ifj $ (

-(?

-t-s

$>

-4^
Translate into

Urdu using (/<

Those people have no free time.

2.

You (informal) alone are my God.

3.

In the big house, there was a small child.

4.

/only was anxious/worried about the exam.

5.

Give your heart only to

6.

Sir, the carpet

7.

Only here can you buy such beautiful flowers.

is

r-^ /tf ^r r *

*>>

ciT- (J-ti/'

as,

right there.

272

is?

& *% if 00 *

for emphasizing the italicized element in the sentence:

1.

shop

Uss

12.7

The interrogative L^i

acts as

The Interrogative

Of

a marked adjective meaning "which one" and can precede both

nominative and oblique nouns. The basic difference between {J J (including the oblique forms

and }) and

l^J isthatU*y

is

used to inquire about a particular thing amidst

if.*,)*
Which

many things:

u//v

(out of al 1 these) fruit

do you

like?

Which thing do you need?


12.7 Reading

and Translation

12.8 Repetition

When

Drill

of Adjectives

non-interrogative adjectives are repeated, the repeated adjectives take

form:

That nightingale used to sing very sweet songs.

273

on an

intensified

This sentence could also be expressed

as:

Jit *&*#*
Similarly:

-u! U.Z

if\ J-

uif

In their house, there are very good things,

could be expressed as:

The repetition of interrogative adjectives conveys a sense of variety:

Where

"all" will

you go

in

Pakistan?

Who "all" lives in their house?


In order to repeat

Of

the forms

Of i*)Jjf &ffl /{*)/ arc used instead of Of

of.

Which are (all


12.8 Reading

the) girls

you

like?

and Translation

-ul 2L

Ji 4j

Drill

-UJ ij\t
-ut $'$.

274

*< l

\$% \Sk

L>i L-4

&*"

i/f

ut ijcsM
\

oh

erf

?t# 2.>

J) Jir'tL/dfuZ

^ *r% W U3 i/fuSut
Translate into

Jjl

>j>j\

uA

rT

Urdu using repeated adjectives or interrogatives:

me in the market?

What

2.

He has very beautiful

3.

That

4.

What need

5.

Whom "all" will you meet with

6.

Where "all"

"all" will

you buy

for

houses.

woman has two very small


is

there to

will

children.

buy very expensive clothes?


in Delhi?

you go when you tour Pakistan?

?ui

Z-/l/-?

tf.

\>t j

? t

df jM

*i

275

-J _*

-i

y^ Ufa

-r

&jt /^f

-*

df L-\rf'c-\
d\> "Jt Z~i

U3 did"-

12.9 Cardinal

Numbers 81-90

[fU Ar
tfljjg

Ar

if it

a<5

(ft A1
tf-

A^

\S\jk

AA

i/iy

12.10

(y *Jl jl*

_tf_

^^

J^f <=_(/(_

if-

^^ (Conversation)
</

^ tf

^U t^

?^_

i*j

as

(/ j\&

itfr>jv

^ a^<

276

^
W'l

50 'I/O)

f(i -Jl

aft vr ,i/

-a

J>i*

*^

y *

r^Z/d/

*//

-.

Uutf

J\

)), l

_c

J)

a^. sAf. jf*

&1 \fe

J<

;Jf
:&l

~\J

Scf/j 'd ~ -/<?-

<=_- e)i jjf

_<_

ij'j yi

)l%y

cfy/i t/ UfV j>j

\\J

:ifs

jsj

-4f. LV

u& 3to 3^j ut efi

ji

&j

f^ J^ U- <U cA

:</>

jmf&t &->

vO

jib

JUy: '^U

-&-2-l*- Uf) *JJ& &Jc St-

-if

4 H-H

iS-fa

\jj\,

(j'

Jj

?<c_

277

/>"

Jo

-4m

-^
?<=.(>-

dJ *

i> ytfjst jt &

Mil*

-^ tt jf' o^. <l ^Lfc* j^fr M ^--^

J Ju

-J

_*vC- u_i?

-tf .MB*

\^

WSHg-jSjaf J#
jj(

&

(J^j

<\S

f? ,fyj _<p

-U* X4 &?.

o4

'-</}

A fryfi J* 2^y^' W'U^

=&0

t^StfjJ

fisr

-<4

^Uj(

cT-^ r^: o\> -c-

l&^^JA At*

<:-% *s.

i*

ijcy

u^ /(&

ij&sM

?c

j:

iS **/%

01 cTJf

flfef

^j ^ s-f*A ^c
278

a u|

(?j

<&/-

--

1/"

'V

:</0

^'^

-w^U^jv y j\?
-c# 2~J

<L**j

y c/

c3i

yr

y^ -<p

:fMj

hj^ c^< y ^

if*
:&k

Notes

t^ytf Humayun, Mughal Emperor, died


:

1556.

vt* h--^*: Qutub Minar; victory tower in Delhi

built in the 13th century

by

the ruler

Qutub

ad-Din Aibak

lv

U \J&J^

Nusrat Fateh All Khan, renowned qawwali perfomer; died 1997.

?U)I QTjJI (*\& Nizam ad-Din Auliya, famous Muslim mystic of Delhi; died 1325.
:

3/

j\\ Amir Khusraw, a Persian poet

who

lived in Delhi, popularly considered to be a

pioneer poet in Hindi; disciple of Nizam ad-Din Auliya; died 1326.

w^Jfc

\j/a Mirza Ghalib, a prominent Persian and Urdu

poet; died in Delhi in

869.

12.11 Conversation Practice

such a beautiful restaurant. "Who

Anil;

This

Sonia:

The woman who

is

is

singing

is

is

Anuradha. She

together in college.

Renu:

the beautiful

Really? To which college did you both go?

279

is

woman who

is

very famous. She and

singing?

used

to study

Sonia:

We went to

Amherst College. As long as

was

in college,

used to

her every

listen to

week.

Renu:

Did your parents

Anil:

No, both our families used to live

United States at that time?

live in the

in India at that time.

Only both of us were

in this

country.

Renu:

My family used to live

Waiter:

What would you people

Renu:

The food here is very good, (use emphatic C?)

Anil:

What "all" do you

Renu:

Their dosas are delicious.

Sonia:

don't cat meat.

Anil:

would

Renu:

will get a

Sonia:

After

like

India five years ago, but

in

live here.

like to eat?

here?

would

also like their tanduri chicken.

like a

dosa and a mango

lassi.

like a plate of tanduri chicken.

we

dosa too.

eat,

we ought to go to a

Madhuri movie but

movie. Yesterday

did not have a car.

Yes, I like Madhuri very much. Is the theater very

Renu:

No,

The theater

For this reason

is

very near. But there

we ought to

was about

My brother was

Anil;

no.

now they also

is

going to

12.12 Songs

go

to the

New

new

York.

from here?

always a long

go before 9 o'clock.

280

far

to

line in front

of the theater.

ji js

c- jt

_?.

<ji g

.j\j>

a-

n $' */ fan ut &

d*

$ J i( 0\>;

X^

U Lv l/fe

Glossary for Songs

C^T* a/jv = forehead radiant as Venus

C/L/=

beautiful

sacrifice, offering

{$= alley

(f)

(/ = flower bad

Uif-/ w&; =
281

(f)

rejoicings,

merriment

(f)

(r

^~

*-^i

CV

t^
C/

= elegance, smartness;

CJl

coquetry, playfulness, flirting

(f)

curvature (m)

= world

tank; place for

Zl) i^=

(l^,

(m)

{$[

= tamarind

molasses (m)

(f)

&* = sour, tart;

(m)

drawing water (m)

without

y = raw sugar,

to win, to conquer

art, skill

ii^*r = well,

harsh

{jh = queen (f)

9>*J

*2*j= season

&

(3t->

= intoxicating

J&j
(

(f)

= to

= promise

= ripe;

(m)

perfect; strong, firm; pure

Mpj = thread (m)

#= unripe, raw;

life (f)

rough; unstable; weak;

pass, elapse

12.13 Vocabulary

d^ s

action/deed; mischief;

movement;

airport

(f)

(m)

(If

Jljf

animal (m)

answer (m)

artist

(m)

ashamed, bashful, modest

to

be ashamed, bashful,

etc.

baggage, luggage, goods (m)

besides, moreover, in addition to

brave, courageous

282

brittle

'

capable, able, skillful;

Worthy 01 (with

to cause or

oblique infinitive)

make listen, to

tell;

to narrate

celebration (m)

fc*

to climb

cold (weather)

(m

or

(m) ilf

f)

'

&r

to enjoy

fed

up

*J*

vl^Jj

to flee, to run

tfk

away from

JcJJ

fort(m)

grave,

/ (f)

tomb (f)

yT
V'y*

grave/tomb shrine of Sufi

holy

man (m)

\$M

heavy

C^

Hindu devotional hymn;


worship (m)

historical

homeland (m)
independence, freedom

invitation; feast, party

O A/

(f>

i&fir)

(f)

mausoleum (m)

9j*

283

[$>/

0 J *s

millionaire (m)

minaret (m)

Mirabai
famous

Hindu

j\&*

0^j

16th century (?) poetess

her devotional songs lo the

for

deity Krishna

4S

mischievous

mosque

1)

mountain,

hill

Mughal dynasty that ruled


the

(m)

India from

J*

I6thtolhe 19th century

nightingale (m/f)

J*

ninety

tJi
{iSAMOfW*

place (m) (plural)

Premchand

-- prominent author of

%\"-C

Urdu-Hindi narrative prose; died 1936

w/l 1/

prince (m)

qatvwali

spiritual-mysticaJ

song recited

\j>r

by Muslim mystics (l)

queen, empress (0

li'-'W
>lfa

queue/line (0

\JA>

rain(f)

t^ \Ji\

to rain

284

to raise/nourish; maintain

VI

to protect

<

receipt (0

back

to return/come

revered person/ respected elder

several;

tftjiti

Ja

some; a few

skill, art, craft

(m)

*?

to smile

Sufi

- a Muslim mystic (m)

tree,

plant (m)

to wait; to stay

work out,

1/
ijjs

weight (m)

to

i>**

to exercise

t/JjJJ

'

Chapter 13
13.1

The Simple Past Tense of Transitive Verbs

Subjects of transitive verbs in the simple past tense are

particle puts the subject

pronouns go

with

L-

puts

J. This

noun subjects

into the oblique.

Pronouns as Subjects

into the oblique, in the case

The

third

of pronouns only the third person

person plural pronoun "they" has a special oblique form

\J*f\ or (Jj^J instead of the usual

fcjj

or

(*tf,

U-> <i-

saw

You (least

particle

and any modifying adjective into the oblique case.


>L~ with

Although

marked with the

ifc

\A> i V

formal) saw

wO

You (informal) saw

W- > ^ *~*

You (formal) saw

'

He/she/itsaw

U->

-Li/'

We saw

l&

<L

W->

You (informal) saw

Ut J

You (formal) saw

u>

TTieysaw
Note: the oblique forms of the interrogative

c// "who"

(J^fplural).

286

before

(^

^-f
<i-

L-U**

<L are U" (singular) and

Verb Agreementfor Transitive Verbs


*

The particle ^~,used

to

mark the subject of a

transitive verb in the past tense, cuts off

agreement between the subject and verb. Instead the verb agrees in number and gender with the

object, if

it

is explicitly

mentioned. For example:

In the

saw

the book-

above sentence the past participle of the verb

object, "book,''

is

is

in the

feminine singular form because

feminine singular. In this tense the gender of the subject

agreement for transitive verbs. Similarly,

in the

is

its

irrelevant for

sentence below, the verb participle

is in

the

masculine plural form in agreement with the object "shoes."

In case the object

is

saw your shoes.

not explicitly mentioned or

masculine singular form as

its

indeterminate, the participle uses the

default form.

In case the object is

is

marked by

saw.

/ (as, for example, is mandatory for direct animate or specific

inanimate objects), then the verb participle also remains in the masculine singular as the particle

cuts off agreement

between object and verb.

saw

the boys.

287

In

saw

the book.

both sentences above, the verb agrees with neither the subject nor the object because of the

particles <L~

and

Jr

which mark each of them respectively. As a consequence, the verb adopts

the default form - masculine singular.

13.2

The Case of

W <t;J <ts

Three of the most commonly used transitive verbs have irregular past participles: Us *\ 5*\J

Masculine Singular

iL

Masculine Plural

*U

'Lj

iL <~> <2L

<_J <L/

Feminine Singular

\J '(J^

Feminine Plural

\J~ 't/-

<\J+*

Examples:

worked.

(The verb agrees with object

f*!?,

masculine singular.)

He took the things.


(The verb agrees with object c/2j feminine plural.)

JL4->)z~> <-)(<.

L J* ^_x

My father gave me clothes.


(The verb agrees with object *i_-J% masculine plural.)
,

13.3 Negating the Simple Past

In order to

negate the simple past tense,

\j%

is

Tense

placed right before the verb.

288

o\>

We did not go there.

Placing \J3

did not see those

after the past participle results in an

He did

girls.

emphatic negation:

not eat the food

at all.

13.1-133 Reading and Translation Drill

*^

_r

-tt*f

UlTJ-

*'^f> c-tfz-il-

U*f>

u Ar^

erf

erf

-r

W6

-t^

l**

-dj

AfctS

U3 &

erf

/# i/l 1-

L &fc /cj cg

** *-

iSM Sj%

^jr

pr^>

4/

^&'-> 1- cr"

/A

<id$

ell

t&

L.

^J i/l

A L-

.6

*$ Si/* <-*/& J- # J-/


JSd,
Translate the following sentences into Urdu.

Pay special

attention to transitive

verbs.

my friend and I came

Yesterday,

2.

Did you dance with your friend

3.

Having seen the ghost,

4.

He went home with

all

the

from school at 4:00 pm.

last

Saturday?

boys were frightened.

his brother.

290

and

intransitive

5.

When did you wake up this morning?

6.

In

7.

Did

8.

At what time did they

9.

10.

1.

my opinion, you did not do a


thai

don't

but

did she dance?

washed the clothes but

don't

know; there was a

Did you (informal) drink tea? No, I don't like tea.

14.

They asked

15.

What

16.

London

7.

Where did

big

crowd

at

me a question

but

did not reply

(i.e.,

give an answer).

did you write in the letter?

very expensive.

the president

bought only two things.

of America give his speech

last

night?

On T. V.?

18.

His friend gave him a

19.

Did they

20.

We cleaned our house because my brother is coming home tonight.

fix

Change the tenses

the party.

did not dry them.

13.

fever.

understand?

is

a high

reached Islamabad at 3:30 pm.

12.

"all"

He had

reach Islamabad?

(least formal)

whom

of work.

boy smile? Poor fellow, he was very sick yesterday.

know about them

Did you
With

little

lot

lot

of things for his birthday.

(iJ \*f ) your

in the

telephone?

following sentences into the simple past tense, inserting *i~

necessary, and then translate

the movies tomorrow" will

them

into English.

become

L L"

For example; <^lf l^


3

(J

/*

"We went

to the

1 J\s
291

when

\J r* "We will go to

movies yesterday."

gut %J f

jt

?f>

13.4

The simple past

The Present

&u <J>

if

vf 4/

_^

Perfect Tense

tense is used to denote past actions that are completed. If these completed

actions are connected to or have bearing

upon the present, then the present perfect tense

is

used.

Simple Past Tense:

He came from India.


(Action completed in the past)

Present Perfect Tense:

OS

He has come from India.


(Action completed but

In order to

form the present perfect

still

relevant to the present)

tense* the past participle

of the verb

is

followed by the

appropriate present tense of the verb Ctf that agrees with the subject of the verb (in case of

292

intransitive verbs) or the object

of the verb

(in

case of transitive verbs).

Masculine

Uxtf

have come

You

(least formal)

a* i$T\A

Ut

c-6H

have come

You (informal) have come

jf

*&?

SJfj*

jt _T >Ji

You (formal) have come


He/She/It has

Feminine

ttfjfyf

*-&

come

We have come

iSi-lp

You (informal) have come

xZjf

You (formal) have come

if i-1 fH if

*&!?
J! i

\&SJS*

ul

Note: for the feminine plural, the feminine past participle

is

not nasalized,

Examples:

Intransitive Present Perfect Tense (verb

agreeing with the subject)

All has gone out.

-l

V
&

UiL.1^1

They have come

fA &

Sheila and

j J> l

4r

Reshma have gone out.

Transitive Present Perfect Tense (verb agreeing with the object)

Raj has bought books from

(lie

shop,

(verb agreeing with feminine object

293

&f

wl7

e.g.,

if!

0' l Js

b mi

'<L

&. AMj L. if}

Nargis has given

Reshma milk to

drink.

(verb agreeing with masculine object a>)SS)

13.4 Reading

and Translation

?^

cT> Jil

f^.
-f.

294

Drill

\JL> fh

tM|i L. ~i

<if

fa* {jxti L. y a/

i/j^ > gi

% J'* i- i*

-c-

// 43 ^->~ Jil .L^i .$& ctoA /<=13.S

As

in English, the past perfect tense

i-ufi

The Past Perfect Tense

emphasizes actions completed

at a

given point

in

time

in the

past.

-I? tf

<f&

Ali loo had come.

Raj had eaten the sweets.

As

in the present perfect tense, the past perfect tense is

verb.

formed with the past

However, instead of using the present tense of the verb

fctf

construction uses the past tense auxiliary form of tyi namely,

participle

and

its

auxiliary

participle of the

as an auxiliary, this

U, and

its

variants.

have to agree with the subject of the intransitive verb

the transitive verb:

Hit and Ranjha had lived in this

village.

j$ u/y r

j>\

jCi l. rftj

Hir and Ranjha had eaten a mango.

295

Again, the

or the object

of

13.5

Reading and Translation

Drill

J? y* \f bt L.
AS
si? \p*

-if

fe

-</

aj

tj

Jfe

JU*

296

*$

L- ^c/j>\

eA &4
Jtf-

^x

<$/

^r ,/? .1/

i.

iA if2-

o" -u^

J.

**& *P wi -a? &

*yf

^J^C *H*iUiJl

JB

L.

dk Ut

& ju-

u^

(4M?> i/jt <a

\$*>\{

l/%

uwtf u i- J-Xj

?/

j?

&* jf O^jI

\J\$

\p% y

e-

fjt-d t/%

.Jfc iSil A\4L

ujZ

of

13.6 Cardinal

Numbers 91-100

-i

.si

U\

_sr

A^JiZ-Ar

M
<-4e M

t-'flj*.

*-M -Si

U&

.sz.

<-.}& _S\

y
^^(Conversation)

13.7

(o Jyi

i/tJj l^-/ ^' if >

_L/? ^_ll

f _(^

<Lb \Ji/

tf/j*

fij)

1_U

V^
i^i

_ i**

(/

*$

<6>k

't/

V T ^ _^U (^

t**

^^

*^

^^

J> /( -c| <^ 1 1/>

-if**

297

2^:1)0 if3/
J

fcfc

fu
:/0

>" JK

If

^A

i?ft* if j

j>\

-&\r 0*

jit

fy/1 \$M( -ox

t<* \$ij

&>

.ijf {si> J'l

f -<r- >& 'W ?# tJ '<L

(*/ tf^ Bfc

'->'

Jtofy k. yj \S^/>\ i-c-

\J\> J>l <z-

J? l?

jf

tf-yy* tU jJ5

^\* ijl

< ^>

Ju </-i 2^>

tjti

./tf

j -l^

;c/0

^ Oif- dr*

L L.s Jj f -\f

-f)

iff)

# e4 ft b'

-<$-<**

iuy

^ -^U ^

// b* c/L^

yfl* lT^'

:U'i

tT=

**-"

->

/ v *>k f * \A

298

-<f-

&/* tJ*y#

'-f}

tv cl.

cii

-^

tu y ats

uu& 'V

-<p

(^ -<4 <u\

!^_

^Or

41 -/if//

UU

i- l/J&^l

?J,

Jk

j*C\$JL

j?
<**

^y^ y &T

l^

tf->'->

2^j &>l

^uk J^ Yr
^-U
M
**

w->l-

r i-

\f\

t-j)

udf

d/

299

it'

1*

f**'

if

i-U

UkC U*

.^ ^iy><^
-Jzj

fcf

V J" ^

if

^r

:d.,

4r

1^ - *
1

~ r '^V/ ***

6'v

^
'&>

JeL-t>\M.f

&*fj& &v r uk

fig

-ifs

:J,,

'^

Jm ff
J* 6

j*\

J> Jo

cs-

ft

$j *;)&?: j&j

/ji a j?

t$j*\Hj

if-<z~ tu

&

j>

jib tSJg

13.8 Conversation Practice

You are watching a

Mother;

Anil!

Anil:

Yes,

Mother:

Did you eat the delicious samosas that I made?

Anil:

Mummy!

Mother;

No.

mummy.

am not

First eat these

(chocolate) in

Anil:

Mother:

Milk

I did

good

hungry.

samosas and then drink this milk.

for

is

your health. Look

all

is

It

my favorite show.

has bournvita

ate

two oranges and an apple.

your brother drinks five glasses of milk

the girls like him. Sunita Auntie told

the most

handsome guy

did not know that.

Anil:

Really!

Mother;

Just drink one glass right

want to watch TV. This

You know that.

every morning and

your brother

my work, washed the clothes, and organized my room.

it.

don't like milk.

is

of TV. Did you do your work?

lot

will

now

in school.

now drink six glasses.

otherwise the

13.9

Songs

6i if of' ,jy

cow

will not be very happy.

f 41 &/^

Ay %

300

me yesterday that

1 lUl.

*~

JA J
A

? Jj

Jl J> <-jS

d &1

o*

& J"-J^

^ M u//i

=-

J^A ^ >*u iftf jtJ\ft}jt As,

U&fty ff *- U&* UraX'j

Glossary for Songs

U"= little, tiny, young

j\/ 1 = promise; agreement; acceptance (m)

\$J=

2*J = road, path (m)

fairy (f)

*/" chariot (m)

0y* = goa

Af"/ x = riding on

\ss~S=

{J

= courtyard of a house (m)

tlj

301

*>

destination (f)

love; happiness, joy (f)

path, road

(0

\>f \\Jf

tb*

& = friend, lover (m)

- to blossom, to flower

= to hum, to

\^& =

sing softly

*/* (> = to be content,

to

be

satisfied

is J

to shine,

direction

13.10 Vocabula

u
tolj

to be affronted, to feel insulted

uf

beautiful

mind,

to cause to

to

(f)

bad, evil, wicked

brain,

glow, glimmer

Im

intellect (m)

be

Oit

buiiL, constructed

have X

ft*

built

/x

**

to cause to laugh

clever, cunning, sly

court

y^ijf

(f)

criminal (m)

(/

crowd

(f)

cupboard, cabinet

to

iSaM

(f)

L-U^

dry

facts,

information

^1$**

(f)

tf

to fight x

C-x

to forget

&**

ghost (m)

,&

government

(f)

302

a*^*

*k

to govern

to increase, to enlarge, to extend

(intransitive)

to cause to increase, enlarge

(transitive; causative)

interest (interesting)

iff*

(0

joke, wit; taste (m)

journey (m)

to

make a journey,

juice, nectar

late,

t/>

to travel

(m)

a long while; a long period

of time,

interval; lateness (f)

to delay, to

to

come

be

long time

late

lawyer, agent (m/f)

to live; to be alive

to lose (a battle, contest,

game)

J*

mail
moon (m)
moonlight

v
(f)

Muslim ritual

prayers

to recite

(t)

b> JU

namaz

303

oath(f)

to swear

to

^\J Jr

by x

open

otherwise

poetry; a couplet, a verse (m)

to play the role of x

prison, jail

bJx

(m)

to recognize; to know; to

*V

perceive; to discern

to repeat, to double, to fold

tlyj
*

memento, souvenir (m/f)

sign,

special

&>l

/(m)tli*;

i/a

speech, recital, statement

to

(f)

.<?

(0

tS'J

give a speech

splendid, stately, grand

JJ&

theft (f)

d^

umbrella; canopy (f)

village

utf

(m)

waiting, expectation

to

(SX

Mi

(m)

t/M-i f

wail for x

*4

wonderful; surprising; strange

Ail

zoo (m)

304

Chapter 14

W Constructions

14.1

t*

is

an

which

it

intransitive verb

is

being used.

which has a wide variety of meanings, depending on Ihe context in

The range of its root meanings

attached to," "to be fastened with or

His picture

is

hung

include "to be connected to," "to be

to," "to stick

or adhere to."

hanging (has been hung) on the wall.

How many stamps for (literally, are attached to) a letter for India?
In addition to the

above examples, there are

many

idiomatic expressions and constructions with

t*, some of which are introduced below.

(A)

l* can be used to convey

appear). It is also

in Constructions wiih

feelings, sensations (hunger, thirst, fear),

employed

in constructions

and perceptions (to seem, to

involving objects that strike or

arrows, wounds). In these constructions, the logical subject in English

verb agrees gramatically with the feelings, sensations, or objects.

Jj* 4
I

felt

hungry
?tf

it

Car

at five o'clock this

\h

morning.

& f( if

Did AH seem nice to you?

305

is

hit the

body (bullets,

marked by

and the

It

seems

to Raj that Nargis

is

After drinking tea

The criminal was

tO can also mean

some

reason.

will feel better.

struck by the bullet.

"to require," "to take (time)," "to cost" in constructions

subject (in English)

displeased for

is

marked by /and the verb agrees

came home

It

late

because

took

it

will cost a lot

Mow many hours will

it

logical

number and gender with the object:

in

me two hours

of money

where the

in

the Immigration office.

to eat in that restaurant.

take to reach Islamabad from here?

(B) Oblique Infinitive* t-0

When

t-V

follows an oblique infinitive,

of the action associated with the verbal

it

conveys the sense of the commencement or beginning

infinitive. In this construction,

remains as the oblique infinitive and the verb

Although the "oblique

infinitive

and past continuous ones,

it

is

t**

agrees

fc* construction"

common

to find

Raj began to

it

work

in

the verb of action always

number and gender with

occurs in

all tenses,

used in the past tense.

in the

306

same

hospital.

the subject.

except for the present

The children began to

cry from (on account ot) fear.

We will begin to work there tomorrow.

Every day that woman begins


14.1

to

cook after coming home from the office*

Reading and Translation

307

Drill

J^ *4f*Ao*sif\ /y j# Ju^

Translate into idiomatic Urdu:

We are (feeling) very hungry. We have to eat now.

2.

What all seemed

3.

All

4.

How long (lit. how much time) does it take to go by car from

5.

The girl began to

6.

The

beautiful to

my friends began to go

rich lady

laugh a

you

in

Agra?

home.

lot after

Boston to "New York?

she heard the joke.

asked the washerman Kl^/'jJ

how many days

it

would take

to

wash

all

the clothes.

7.

Excuse me,

The boy was wounded

!.

9.

It

10.

sir,

can you tell

in the head,

to,

(f)

am not feeling well. I want to go home and

"to finish" is

can,"

(wound

a ticket to Benares would cost?

it

wi**j;

to

be

wounded = t-vJ^j),

seems to me that in India mangoes are cheaper than apples.

14.2

Wf

mc how much

sleep.

Verb Stem+ tf Construction

an intransitive verb which

is

never used by

itself.

must always be preceded by the stem of another verb.

indicates the completion

In

Like the verb fc "to be able

such constructions,

of the action denoted by the verbal stem which precedes

doing something). Like the "oblique mfinitive+ fcO" construction, fe$

308

is

found

it

fc-lf

(i.e.,

finish

in all tenses.

except the present continuous and past continuous. Since

it

is

primarily a completive auxiliary,

it

construction
occurs most frequently in past tense constructions. Translations of "verb stem +fe"

often incorporate the

word "already"

to indicate the

sense of completion.

Raj had already read (finished reading) this book.

That boy has already drunk (finished drinking) his milk.

Jt$f Jf far
Our servaat will
14.2

fO/A U*

finish the

house work by three o'clock.

Reading and Translation

309

Drill

Translate into Urdu:

2.

3.

4.

5.

had already finished eating when he came to

The mother asked her

son,

"Have you already read

The student had already written

Have you already seen a movie

When he had already

left,

6.

When the teacher reached

7.

When Shahrukh Khan

my house.

then

his essay

in

and given

remembered

his

had already

left

my shop,

9.

When Nargis and

10.

When the doctor examined me,

infinitive

Raj arrived at the zoo,

in

is

an actor?

name!

it

was

Infinitive

gone home.

recognized him.

already closed (to be closed= ft#

the fever had already

The Oblique

of a verb

to his professor.

the school, the students had already

The naughty boy had a Iready climbed up the tree.

The oblique

it

which Shahrukh Khan

8.

14.3

book?"

th is

come down

(use ts\ or

^ ) Construction

combination with the verb t^J

is

used to express the idea of

allowing or permitting someone to do something as well as giving permission.

always appears

in its inflected

form while the verb

!<;;

A).

agrees in

The

infinitive

number and gender with

the

subject

Let the sick child sleep!

My father will allow me to buy a car.


The oblique

infinitive

(g ) construction is

considered to be transitive. Therefore, in the simple

310

past tense, the subject of this construction

is

marked with

with the verb ^c ) agreeing with

the object

-tfi

^> \J *Jff&

They did not

let

L-utf

the girl read the book.

(verb agreeing with object "book")

143 Reading and

f lJ*

_c^

Translation Drill

2^;

Jl#

^j i i^i -v

.4- j

Jg&JlA

jCf JWl <*4V

[f'/l\

J?'*-

/^ *-*i-df

L.5J

A ; u ij

$>/ 4<-&> (wretched)^ (W\

.^ Z-J ^U^ /Uf i-rf Uf V' ^V ^


fej

311

..

Translate into Urdu:

Wc

wil not ai low our children to play outside in this cold.


1

house with

When

2.

go

They can play

inside the

their toys.

to

Dubai,

my friend lets me

stay in his house.

It is

a splendid house with a

pretty garden.

have heard that India

is

a beautifu I country. Let your daughter go to India.

4.

His father does not allow him

5.

Did you

let

to stay outside after

1pm.

the traveller see those photographs?

14.4

(A) Verb

A compound

Compound Verbs

Stem + Aspect Indicators: &t> <b*$

'fc# 'tl^

<&

<td

verb combines the stem or root of a principal verb with the conjugated form of an

auxiliary verb. Frequently, the auxiliaiy verb loses its original lexical meaning, serving instead as

an aspect indicator that connotes a nuance or aspect of the action of the

an aspect indicator verb

suddeness or that

indicators;

it

may

which an

It is

act was performed, its

was done foolishly. There are only a handful of verbs

some common

are listed below.

indicate the intensity with

main verb For instance,

aspect indicator verbs and the nuances with

that can serve as aspect

which they are

associated

necessary to keep in mind the following points concerning an auxiliary

verb serving as an aspect indicator:

a)

The aspect

indicator verb,

example, the verb

Instead,

it

which acts

"to take"

in

when used

an auxiliary mode, loses its original meaning. For


as an aspect indicator

no longer means

"to take."

indicates that the action of the principal verb has taken place for the subject's benefit

312

or is in

b)

some manner directed toward

Only the aspect indicator verb

the subject.

inflects; the

stem of the main verb remains unchanged.

As

auxiliary verbs, aspect indicators can be in any tense, except the continuous.

c) In the past tense, aspect indicator constructions are treated

marked by

i ) only if both the aspect indicator verb and the main verb

d) Since there are no equivalents

difficult

(i.e.,

subject will be

are transitive.

of aspect indicators in English, accurate translations are often

without some elaboration.

Common
Cj*, "to take":

1.

as transitive

When Cz

is

Aspect Indicators

used as an auxiliary verb with the stem of another verb,

conveys the meaning that the action has taken place for the subject's benefit or

is

in

some manner

directed toward the subject:

He read this

book

(for his

own

benefit).

The patient will drink the medicine (for himself)-

2.

(<:->,

"to give":

&

as an auxiliary verb with the

stem of another verb conveys the

meaning that the action has been done for the benefit of someone other than the subject or

directed

away from the

subject:

-t/j *>>

u^iT

read this book (for

L~ jt

someone else).

Rich people should give away

their extra

313

money to the poor.

it

3.

Z\ff,

"to go":

CU may

denote several aspects including the total completion of an action,

the transition from one state to another, or an action that

That

man

is

taking place as a process:

fell asleep.

Will you reach there by tomorrow?

- 1/ j_u f ? Lbjst
The boys from the
t^,

4.

"to fall"; This denotes a

village ate

up the spicy

biryani.

sudden or violent change of affairs

or

a sudden downward

motion.

That boy

On
5.

O?,

"to sit":

This

is

fell

down from the tree.

hearing his talk,

similar to

\j

since

burst out laughing.

it

also denotes sudden action,

fcap further

implies that the reasons for the action are foolish or senseless.

He lost his

books.

-fit j J>
The young girl
6.

fOj "to pour, to throw down":

64

cried (without any

good

reason).

Also indicates a violent action and further implies

the action has been completed.

314

that

Did you throw away that book?


(B) Verb

Not -all auxiliaiy verbs

in

-*

instance, the verbs fc^

respectively, ability

It is

compound

to..."

tl Construction

verbal formations function as aspect indicators. For

t^ are considered grammatically to be modals indicating,

and

and completion. The verb tl as an auxiliary verb also functions as a modal.

used to underscore physical

completion.

Stem +

ability or capacity to

perform a particular action

Stem + tL constructions are best translated

They commonly occur in the

as "to

to its

manage to..." or "get a chance

negative. Jn the past tense, the subject of this construction

not

marked by

We weren't able

account of love. Raj cannot (manage to) sleep.

On

regret that

Unlike the verbs fe and

own, in which case

it

(could not manage) to sing this song.

could not manage to

means

tel

this truth in

a timely manner.

the verb tl can be used in a non-modal context, that

"to find" or "to get." In this situation,

transitive verb, with the subject

being marked with

in

did

you get from

315

this

on

functions as regular

the past tense.

?jLlT> if ^ft Jl <L


What happiness

it

is,

work?

its

is

14.4 Reading

and Translation

Drill

?jf

-ty

"4r

% Jiff Af

& Ut? Jf* *4f *. A L J Jiijt

4 /c
316

j^j

cT'j (J"

_r

lip
-\y.

a / o>}^

<-**

-lllj

Translate the following into

d> J-

/&J ^J?lg

H &* dJ J\

A f jJbyf

Urdu using appropriate aspect

We have cleaned the house (for our own

2.

Have you

3.

We are not hungry.

4.

All his friends died (abruptly).

5.

He

6.

Look

7.

Will you be able to take

8.

The traveller came home and

9.

Nargis ought to have her blood tested (to get

10.

The cunning thief stole

11.

12.

Because of a bad cough, he could not (manage to) eat his food (use

13.

He is so busy

someone

j'\

indicators:

written the lelter (for

L-j%

benefit).

else)?

Please eat these sweets (for your

own

benefit).

lost all his best toys (foolishly).

(for yourself)-

have nothing

all

all

in

your toys

in this

small box?

fell asleep.

tested

a B/

<(^

&X).

the traveller's money.

understood what he had to say (use

that

my hands.

&\

(J l/') (completely).

he will not get a chance (use

mother.

317

I'l)

to

go to the

CI).

hospital to see his

4.5 Introduction to (he Subjunctive

The subjunctive form of a verb

is

commonly used

possibility, desire, or wish. In addition,

it

is

in situations expressing uncertainty,

used in a variety of other circumstances, some of

which are described below. Subjunctives are formed


tense except the suffix (j

<L- t% of the

future

is

in a

manner similar to

that

of the future

dropped.

PtoWl

Singular

ft

Unlike other tenses, the subjunctive form of the verb distinguishes number (singular and plural)
but not gender. For the negative, the subjunctive uses the particle

verb.

jj g J tl/w
Perhaps he

Common
I

is

-l>

not able to cook food.

Uses for the Subjunctive

Asking Permission (with first person)

May

[should, shall]

May [should,

shall]

318

see?

we go?

usually placed before the

May [should, shall]


2. Suggestions/Indirect

cut the vegetables?

Commands/Reporting of Commands/Polite Imperative

Please

come

to

our house.

-ufVei/jf.-*
V
Please eat

Let's

go to

some food.

the

market

Tell father that he should not eat too

3.

many sweets.

Desire/Wish

-yij testis \Ja

May you live for

125 years (A

y\y(

common blessing that the elderly in South

Asia give).

May God grant you (give you) success!

May you remain happy, my daughter!


4.

With specific adverbs and phrases denoting desirability, contingency,

possibility:

-^1?

Perhaps

319

suitability,

doubt or

Perhaps they

t/o

- //

oniy/would that...

If only

Jv - so

may come here,

we are able to hear Ravi

Shankar.

that....

~o
I'll

>

go

CO ^/'i- May God

to

/e* &k

Mumbai

so that

rf
I

A #% (f

can see Salman Khan.

will that...

-uff ukc \f (J) 4-Jvt


May God will that he may come here tomorrow.

-a/ J> \$M (J)


May God not will
Z*l?

J>

May God forbid

J ^-

^Jt

that our daughter cry.

*-""&'-

//

is

appropriate

/\j\ &\} J is
something happen to you.

that

that....

J& OV -T (J) *_
It is

yz

\jZ

Up -Godforbid (may God not will that)....


-tf J*

lJ\-

let

it

not be

appropriate that

^s\y

you sit here.

that..,,

-tJg
Look,

let

It)
it

fcvf

tf

not be that this

320

Jt

/ # a U !>
young boy

falls

down.

J &L\ff

J x

- it

is

necessaryJbr x

It is

J C~ vh[

B x

- C/

'

''

necessary thai

read this book today.

my intention that T read that book by tomorrow.

is possible thai...

It is

S U*1

- it isx's intention that....

It is

to....

l^l^ \jt -i want

possible that

we [may] dance.

that....

want the elder boy


1

4.5

to

become a great athlete.

Reading and Translation

Drill

?uX /^ f

321

jt.\f

-of > / uy\Sdi Jb

-2_lf jf

322

>fc.

\f'u

Jtv? \A

w (J)

rxAs \A

-A

Translate the following into

Urdu using subjunctives wherever appropriate:

May we see that?

1.

we may see Michael Jordan. All the famous people have come here.

2.

Perhaps

3.

If only

4.

5.

May God will that you can come tomorrow.

6.

It is

7.

This seat

8.

Tell our driver that

9.

The guests are hungry.

10.

It is their in

1 1

If only all the people of this village were millionaires!

we are able to study Urdu

would

like to

go to India so that

possible that

is

in India!

can work

in

the fields with the farmers.

we may meet that famous artist

empty. Please

sit

here

he should not wait


Shall

we

J^^

l>

tomorrow.

)-

for us.

eat?

tention that from today they wi 11 not drink alcohol.

14.6

(^

i^(Conversatioa)

4L.J

l#-

K/T <-,

(jj)

Phjf$ -Us ifs (&- us -* $j $1 ^> a f


e* &lS<A) f)\

/jt

ut

&?

JJ>*

a*->

if

-S$

<**

\Hj j*

(JiJ

'4>*

&;

.&

ti

w <s+ & ~& 1% X> Jt*@l~ijf -U?

-Qi/ftf \Jl

0&&1

ut ty&sjk \fjL

'_

wU 'x

'>j

:$

-U& *% J?
J

j/x J?[

J"\

>

ti

{2iX>

?Ut Z^j *lj

_4\

J- s> &f f- <o\ <o\ &

f bt {/}

v <c-tu

vtJ

J)

$$& fa

>M

<6>j &tO

(jljC

*k

tTcrf j* Uty

-lis

& &h <f 4 Uk -f- /*

V M*

U*f -t4

*l| =c/0

Ur / \f M -0* tr/c-i/sui <2&bf

324

&->

uk

U^ JJ >'J 6^4 Uk ^Ji -tf/yCi (?-**. jsf.

Jfci

/ijl t&

\Hj <Jj

WH l% '/-f- i&M'+#*f if\


-Jt

jTi

Jti

1$
dp

^\f

$b

^yt

-&.J

wf -^ J# {$ Af dfy & if & -JJn &

-^ ^if tP

^ JU

j* Ju-

-.&;

UJl ^ ^c/ x' ^ Uk >

g,f

jt <f>j

\fjtjf

*gfj

-I:'-*'

.^

sji

fata* 6 OK-/ f

^ yV\ jy

325

j*y

rr

\jt ,\

4j

Notes

(^y'> \JtT

ij^lf JJ

Shakil Badayuni, Urdu poet and lyric composer, died 1970.

7,\s\ Sahir Ludhianawi,

Urdu poet and

lyric

composer, died 1980.

jy j IjXzj: Rabindranath Tagore, Bengali poet, winner of Nobel

Prize for Literature, died

1941.

14.7 Conversation Practice

1^.

tf/\f\f Ji

14.8 Songs

326

JsJj

/ofJ l^- r

00 J\

\y

V4 ; J"-o>s?# f(

y l/>>$3 toss fTjZXJ

\jM

del

to.

\3\

!j*

327

C^l4 cjk

mi

Aj

sU

^ Jw^l^i

jury jO^

-^

ib

(];j

i^i

c^i

4^ *f e-/*

-+&V wi cf r
Jj vx^ (J* (J l_/> l/
j*

-Jr

v*

1&

^x

l/V oi :

_a_ Of 1^1

,ytj

^.Jf.

Glossary for Songs

tirt=

to

go wrong, turn bad;

break

to

down

ty= gold

(m)

'y ft = fellow-singer (m)

lfe'= elegant,

\% Z x =

v*f

v^ )j is

u~,

except for x

to accompany; to support

ft resplendent, glittering;

flashy

ii^ J =

bright;

U/'J m

the earth; earth, ground, soil (f)

gr

peace, security, safety (m)

&>)* = hatred
tl^

showy; colorful; merry

to efface, obliterate, abolish

i&= world, universe, earth

(rn)

&

meeting, assembly (m)

beautiful, pretty; splendid

C* ^ =

to appear; to seem; to be seen

true

*-jj

^* =

chest,

= heart;

to praise

bosom, breast (m)

soul;

mind (m)

1z/jy= sun (m)

t> =
iy

y'-

\jJvL

328

blue

ty= magic, spell; enchantment (m)


earth, soil, dust; dirt, filth (f)

<*-*?

C-T

(f)

= fair,

charming, smart; playful

sky; heavens

(m)

precious; dear; beloved

14.9 Vocabulary

agricultural field

-/

(m)

i^rt*

appropriate

to break (transitive)

ti?

to break (intransitive)

OS

cheeks/countenance (m)

j\s'j

darkness (m)

Uf-c

democracy (f)

C^rJtC

,Vf

emperor (m)

Ji;

empty

down

\X

farmer/peasant (m)

iM

to

fall

fat

to finish

tn'i

to fly; to cause to fly;

to tease, to

make

forbid

an

fun of x

God willing (may God


God

(may God

will that)

not will

ju

<(J)^.

<(J)

<-/a
; lA

great

work

e#

(f)

hard working

329

i%

0\

J/l

,><>

that)

hard

/r

Mr

lo

work hard

henna (f)
to hit

if only

J*

living

ijti

lover

(O./'Ww/

//>*

marble (m)

once

j*

x&

perhaps

plow (m)
possible

lo

for x to

if

remember

tf

remember

>i
m

signature (m)

ft

so that

sorrowful

success

(f)

successful

+*

fefc.

to tease, to annoy, to torment

*r

to think

to throw

time (period of); period (m)

ijhs)
330

t 0^ Wi

during this lime/period

toy(m)

Mf

traveller (m/f)

)^

wall

(f)

Mj

wedding (f)

(ijL"

whole, entire;

all;

the whole

'

J \f

wonder (m)

wonders (pi)

^T^t

museum
would

.y*

that ^if on ly

wound;

>rr

>r

{J
ui*-

injury (f)

331

Chapter 15
15.1 Condition-Result Clauses with

Clauses stipulating a condition are usually marked with

"result" clause that begins with

that

marks the

J\

go to Lahore, I

at the beginning

"result" clause

"if and frequently precede a

'condition" claust

ijftL^^r jt?
If I (will)

Although the word

?. Example:

'result" claust

. uiu

J\ and ?

is

r^%

jxti

jtfi

will bring cloth for you.

of the "condition" clause

may be dropped

at times, the

obligatory. Various verb tenses (present, future, past, or

subjunctive) can occur in either "condition" or "result" clauses depending on the degree of

certainty implied.

The use of the subjunctive (as opposed

to indicative tenses.) indicates a greater

degree of uncertainty or likelihood of fulfillment of a particular action. The examples below


illustrate the

usage of verb forms (subjunctive and indicative)

in various

sentences to convey

degrees of certainty/uncertainty:

Purely hypothetical (use of subjunctive in both "condition" and "result" clauses, indicates high

degree of uncertainty concerning both the condition and

should go to India, then

If I

2.

More certainty than

above

its

may see

fulfillment)

the Taj Mahal.

"condition" uncertain; "result" certain)

332

If I should

3.

go to

India, then

will see the Taj

More certainty lhan #2 above (fulfillment of "condition" more

Mahal.

likely or certain, "result"

certain)

If I

go to India, then I will see the Taj Mahal.

If you are

going to India, do see the Taj Mahal (for sure).

At times, the "condition" clause may contain the simple past participle of a verb. In this context,
the past participle often functions as a future conditional, indicating

fulfilled in

the future. Note: the past participle

If I (ever)

is

a condition that may be

not used in the "result" clause:

go to India (in the future) then I will see the Taj Mahal.

Improbable or contrary-to-fact conditions (irrealis) are expressed by using the present

participle

of the verb in both "condition" and "result" clauses:

Jtj if fyrt 2Jg


Had we gone to
If the

speaker wants

we would

India,

to indicate a definite past

then the past participle of a verb followed

d&*& (>

have seen the Taj Mahal.

time for conditions that are impossible to

by the present participle of ta* may

both die "condition" and "result" clauses:

Jfm u6

&ft?

(tji

\fyr*JH

Had I gone to India, I would have seen the

333

J>A

Taj Mahal.

fulfill,

also be used in

Had wc met each

If we

*Note on usage

we would have

other last year,

gotten married.

had talked among ourselves, we would have become

'f})

*X

describe reciprocal action

'

friends.

used to describe action involving two persons; {JZ {J?

among more than two


15.1

used to

persons

Reading and Translation

Drill

f*s* Jm y o* fa J- A
-J?Utft*J- Ml uz- jjsL /\ wT ft
-<.
J Jij/i y z, dW A
.. \SJi & c5j a 7 tr llh J4 ? A
-ijf

tig

-f % y

% OA {

-Lx ^fj: ct&i y LJ'cy Jl f


-4'<f <J

fa ? 2-*

Jfcg

-4J

ff

eflfi

t/ifJi

fJ. y ji/ iiu m L r? A

^x ? urV
-s

^K it

/ 1/
-2LU

i/t

fc r*

J>

i> ^_/fy

_2Cb
334

<u iX
-j

c/f

r/

tr>

-r ^
ifi

jJLfyA

j&lL3$jrj 6>/

-r

?Z_* -c-jjs. /\ (

L*x J$ \

\J"i

-f*il/f J* /Vfy t*

\f ft j:

1*L 2Lb

~y

Atfjn

(A

-a

f j-l 2-Jt f<

uf<-/ dp m

if

-1

At atf M * l. f-

-*

M */&$ Sort

utf

isjfa-j

>j)j\

erf

fj\\f 4 s# J* >f

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

go to that store, then I would buy the red

carpet.

If I should

2.

If I

3.

If all of you

4.

Had you played with the boy, he would have

5.

If you play with that boy, he will like you very much.

6.

If you had been

7.

If she

go to Washington, then

come

to

bom

will see the

White House.

my house, please bring food

in

with you.

liked you.

America, you would have become the president of this country.

would have spoken Urdu

well, she

would have been the prime minister of

Pakistan.

8.

If you read Ghalib, he will teach you

many things.

335

9.

If you say so,

10.

Had you been

able to write Hindi, you could have taught


this class.

will

cook the food.

15.2 Expressing Presumptions

Through the future form of the verb

and Suppositions with the Verb

t^

a speaker can also express presumptions and

fcjf

suppositions. For example, the sentence:

J* < ftjLut M
Those women

will be at

work, (future)

can also mean:

Those women must be

at

work, (supposition)

Similarly, the sentence:

There will be a

lot

of noise there, (future)

can also mean:


There must be a

Note the use of the English "must"

in the

lot

of noise

there, (supposition)

above sentences indicates probability or likelihood

rather than a sense of obligation or duty.

Presumptive and suppositional forms of various tenses can be formed by replacing the <_
/Jt
auxiliaries with the appropriate future

Present continuous tense :

suppositional form:

Present tense

~Ut

--. si t^,j

a,!/

4Z-

Examples:

fc.tf .

<Z~j a>l/,j>

-C# 2J^zX

suppositional form:

form of

Those boys are studying,

-7 03 Those boys must be studying.

-$

\J\

JLjl 2-.J&\L-lL$\J\

They talk
ti

to this boy.

They must talk to this boy.

Present perfect tense -<:

suppositional form:

Jftf

\f 4(^

& J *N

%{*&& Ra

The following table provides

has gone to work,

must have &one

l0

work

a review of the future tense forms of ijt :

Pronoun

Masculine

Feminine

dfWi <f*

(few)

0*

J.

&

s*

&

Lx

t*

g/0)

/,

L*
L*
L
L*

(Jm*

yi*

/1S.2

f-

<

vf
*

Reading and Translation

Drill

_*

2-1/ JiU

- J* ii>
337

JV JUf

J*

tA

</

J* m f^JXrf l. u*& 4 J
w

JL* '. JS? /ft

j>

-* ^ Jyf J J,u _T ^ * J" UJC ./


15.2 Substitution Drill

Change the verb forms

in the

following sentences so that they agree with the substituted subject

or object.

fruits

sweets

mango
yogurt

Xl~ii)

4jfi(

j*

(id

Akbar's sister

Anita's brother

338

Radha's girlfriends

my cat

Raj's father

our family

your mother-in-law

their servants

(hat

handsome boy

those famous filmstars

our youngest daughter

his eldest son

15.3 Expressing

The infinitive of a verb employed


subject

is

Compulsion with the Verb

in conjunction with t!/

forced, compelled, or cannot help but perform.

construction

is

similar to the infinitive

+ C*-

is

used

The

(infinitive +

fcJ'

) is

to indicate actions that the

subject

construction introduced

an important difference in the nuance of the two constructions.

used for compulsion that

is

fc>

is

marked by

in 9.5.

The former

/ . This

There is, however,

construction

external to the subject while the latter (infinitive

+ *~) implies compulsion that stems from the subject, for example, from duty and obligation.

Compare the following examples:

.^
Hussein has

to

tr>

CI?

&1(8rt

f&E*

go to Islamabad, (forced by external circumstances)

339

Hussein must go to Islamabad, (from a sense of duty, obligation)


For transitive verbs, the
forms of

infinitive

may or may not agree with

t must retain agreement with

object(s).

Examples:

J> t$/ty /cAs- **


Due

to poverty,

they had to

Tomorrow Shafique
For

intransitive verbs

will

objects) in number and gender, but

if if*

sell their

house,

have to wash the clothes.

and transitive verbs with no object, both

the infinitive

and form of Owill

be masculine singular. Examples:

had to return home.

You

will have to give,

(no object mentioned; infinitive and


15.3

-^

t#
9

in masculine singular form).

Reading and Translation Drill

r> \fj&\

tin &J

340

Am <L JA

j>j

/
{

-n

-It t/
Translate into Urdu:

1.

Raj had to invite Sunil to the wedding.

2.

Mummy Darling will have

to

spend a

lot

of money

341

in

making

the arrangements for Raj

and Nargis' wedding.


3.

My car

is

bad.

You

will

have to use my

father-in-law's car to lake the child to the

hospital.

4.

Ravi has

5.

He had to give

6.

Indian prides must wear red saris at weddings, not white ones.

7.

The

8.

They were so

9.

Due to her helplessness, the poor girl had

10.

We will have to turn on (%) the fan

rich

to consider this decision thoughtfully.

her this expensive present in return for her kindness.

must end poverty

in

the world.

helpless that for four

months they had

to eat only potatoes.

to agree to

immediately!

marry him.

It is

too hot in this room!

15.4 Passives

Passives in

a verb.

Urdu

are formed by adding the inflected form of the verb

The following examples

illustrate the difference

CU

to the past participle of

between active and passive sentences:

Active sentence:

eat a banana.

Passive sentence:

A
In the active sentence the subject

passive sentence, the subject

the inflected form of

tV

in

is

(J?)

banana

is

s asserted

**

eaten.

and the verb agrees with

it.

not mentioned and passive verb (past participle

the present tense) agree in

342

In contrast, in the

of the verb tU

number and gender with what was

the

+
i

object

of the active sentence

sentence becomes

illustrate that the

in fact

passive

appropriately. Study

--

"banana"

if). Thus, the grammatical object of an active

the subject in a passive sentence.

may be created

in a variety

The two sets of examples below

of tenses by inflecting the verb 11^

them carefully, noting the agreement of the inflected forms of tlf

in

various

tenses with the subject of the passive sentence.

That thing was seen.

-of </^ J.Z

Those things were seen.

That thing

is

being seen.

That thing will be seen.

-m

&

/->

u%

Those things can be


Those things used

seen.

to be seen.

The banana was eaten.

The bananas were eaten.


The banana

is

being eaten.

The banana will be

eaten.

The banana can be eaten.


The bananas used

When passives are used


singular form and

in

an impersonal sense, the verb

is

has been written.

343

be eaten.

put in the third person masculine

no explicit subject is mentioned. Examples:

It

to

It

is said.

Re-inserting the original subject of the active sentence into a passive sentence

If the original subject

of the aclive sentence

marked by the postposition


mostly

is to

be re-introduced into the passive sentence,

<=^-. Reinserting the original subject into a passive

in negative sentences,

hence the construction

is

it is

sentence occurs

called the passive of incapacity.

Examples;

cannot eat the banana,

(literally, the

banana cannot be eaten by me.)

4J

i fa e-

The patient could


(literally,

Js

not drink the medicine,

the medicine could not be drunk

The passive of incapacity differs from

the C*"* construction

in

by the patient.)
the negative in that

it

implies that

the subject could not perform the action for physical reasons.

15.4

tru

Reading and Translation

^^{toffsdZ&friJH

^jis-Jis

a j\

Drill

# -tf Jt*

J'y;

u^v
1

344

Jgu

\f(ti Jk/!

-/

-f* l/'

-i^

i"

-if jig
-if 6*>

-if if W*/ if ii>


.&. ifj

if

S*-i/

-<l. Jjf

<#

tf* *?- <5lf

6 *^ <-&*

li^'/i/

#u

**j<* jl

i^i^l^v/tJl

l>*~ }

.*&>

ift* J>'^

erf

3k <A * tif iTcJii c~ utt Sit


jfxtiji
345

e/f

*/tP

/i?

-r

r^ <^

^ 41

tf, fcf

Jr

"

*-

pronounced as "Lailaa"; the

last letter is

called "alif maqsura.

Translate the following sentences into Urdu:

was eaten

1.

All the food

2.

The wedding will be celebrated with pomp and

3.

Was my

4.

The house can be

5.

The Taj Mahal was built in Shah Jahan's

6.

The bride and the groom

7.

The poor farmers will be helped.

8.

This Urdu book will be read at

9.

Have

the preparations

10.

Many

beautiful flowers are being bought for Raj

at last night's party.

gusto at our house tomorrow.

sung?

favorite song

built in three

months.

time.

are being praised.

all universities in

America.

been made?

15.5

and Nargis' wedding.

Passive Intransitive Verbs

In addition to the passive construction introduced above,

Urdu has

several intransitive verbs that

are often, if not always, translated into English by using the passive. In

many cases,

the stems of

these so-called passive intransitive verbs also have transitive counterparts. While the focus in

the intransitive form is

transitive

form

is

on the action

on the doer of

itself or

the action.

the result

in

the

Examples:

Transitive form:

$3?

Intransitive form:

t^*

Transitive form:

tjJ?

Intransitive form:

of the action, the emphasis

W
346

to

to

open

be opened

to

break

to be broken

Note the "passive" character of the English

translations of the intransitive verbs in the

examples

below;

Transitive verb:

opened the window.

Intransitive verb:

The window opened.


Transitive verb:

Hussein broke

my glass.

Intransitive verb;

jf&i %j\\j
My glass broke.
Complex verbs when formed with the verb C jK may also have
them

in contrast to those

complex verbs

listed

formed with

IV which are transitive in

nature.

Study the pair of

below:

o begin, to get started

t*U}

to be finished

fe*j**

to

a passive intransitive nuance to

be prepared; to get

fcj*

to begin

to finish

to prepare

Jl?

ready

347

t/W
tff
a*

to be

for

bom

fcitf

to be at fault

fctf

\j

to

<=^

%f\j

produce, reproduce

to

make

work

(job).

a mistake

k/**

Examples:

begin

this

This

work

begins/gets started.

?L#

Xl? tuCt l/

Are you preparing food?

-^

Yes, food

Ali

Al was at
i

Note:

The

71;

is

cuCuj,

J.

being prepared.

made a mistake.

fault (literally, "a

mistake was

made by Ali").

last example, using the intransitive construction, implies that the

was somewhat beyond the

agency for the action

subject's control.

5.5

Reading and Translation

-^

348

Drill

& fl>} ft &

J& fd$ l/V* d* 6*


y

349

l* l^

X*

<J^

..

Translate into Urdu;

A temple

is

being built

at that place.

Who broke it?

2.

The wall of the

3.

Hundreds of thousands of germs are being produced every day

4.

Finish him off immediately!

lot

of money

old house broke.

was

don't

know.

in this filth.

spent on building this road.

15.6 C as a Rhetorical Particle

t as a rhetorical particle has two main uses in Urdu:

1. It

can be a tag at the end of a statement seeking affirmation of a

fact;

You love me, don't you?


2. It

can be a tag

at the

end of a request to make

n zfj ti j
Won't you please hang

15.6

it

more

insistent:

At, /**>

6x

my picture on

the wall?

Reading and Translation Drill

!t

it

350

to

)J

t tC

J&tL ^xd*

'(

n jTcfo* ^-f^ f^j s#

iT&'-' -'

i/^

15.7 i**^(Conversation)

?tt

$.j

%r iffy j

-J*

351

h/j

f&ftfM

Jx **' -f-tf l/l i-vi/?

Jj <x

(-(

l&

&\j

Jtf$& c-(j:-o\

</}

cl. J-

-ijri* yi tjjl/ \f- f*)y

0*]f&3u

tyj

+./<**?
0*

\ftf- e? ij^

&

<LJ5

!i/0 6/

4"

^ '^/^4<

>>

<f~

JTii/J

f^jp u-

J*>
f_

oif

/j

:<//

tf/ctf

jt <X

-rfl tfc? u^

/^

(/

;i^

,*)

(jl^l?

j u-jfty *_~/fc

i/

~ut o-j t>

(.- ij'j

f c4 / eM^

=-

<->

->t

* j? aC<i~A

-ti <p;
-c. \j

&fr

Jt

ii'

tf

-^

V'

kjOu*

4 #i

(JjCU (f jCh

t^

^i

l/j

&j

^ (#*)
Sj

nj(je

Jb->

U$~ifis t'b

*&

^/ l? &t yp^oi !(/0

!l4'

*/>

JUlj 2-l ~U\

*Jf ^. ?
352

5/0-

\c~J*j

f( fyj -^

[$/

\> J. J*;*2

> \h

fbuL.

-% s/fl#j *<

Pcl/Ji ti

\ki It?

<z- *Jt !(/ ^i(

\&fr -tg

</0

:t/0

lJJ:/

^ -tf i* o\& fosM

tjff

JL. fbb p .L^t/U/*

y Jp -*-

tffc tfe

353

e)2

< cf

4 c/u

/c/ajC

tftfij

^jj *j\r ja ? w-JL Ji t^f i? J; Jx

-L| l// ** ^-2i.v

-LxJ? &,*/.? J

is

</|

*LliX

t/y iZ'J'is ~>. -14 14

yj&J
(&J

354

J)i

\fs)

l?

:J)

JtfjfOU 1-J..,/^

U J>uCtf

oL V

if

.=,1

i -ifj^jlf \s<&s

lTl/l^/i \<-/f<J.

W^^3)ji di

15.8 Conversation Practice

(Sulochna and Shama are Nargis' friends

who

live in

London)

Sbama:

Oh Sulochna, did you

Sulochna:

Yes, Sunil told me. Poor guy, he had tears in his eyes

hear that Nargis

is

getting married?

when he asked

me,"Sister

Sulochna how will T spend my life without Nargis?! ". I was unable to bear his

Shama:

{f"J U^6^!{ifiJ^ <Z~J*)

distress.

(!(/

heart

made out of

is

Her foolish
ought

heart!

A book can be written about Raj, Nargis, and

to stop crying.

A lot of money

is

started to cry!!

think Nargis'

stone!

He must

start

studying.

now 20. Do you know what preparations are


Sulochna:

being spent on

this

He is no longer
being

wedding.

Sunil. Sunil

16 years old.

He

is

made for Nargis' wedding?

have heard

that

work

is

being

done on Nargis' house. Expensive clothes are being bought. Nargis' mother told

me to buy some
brides.

Shama;

You

clothes for her if J

go to Lahore. Lahore has

So when I go to Lahore next month

will bring clothes

from Lahore?

355

beautiful clothes for

I will bring clothes for Nargis.

think Karachi has better and cheaper

These days, Karachi's weather must also be very good.

clothes.

Karachi, you must go to

cheap clothes there.


Sulochna:

It's

good

that

very much.

go back to
Shama:

Sulochna

will

think Nargis will look so beautiful in a red

But I don't

When I went to Karachi two years ago, I saw


as

saw him,

go

to

be able to buy some good

we are talking to each other about this.

As soon

road!

Rambo market. You

If you

started crying. I told

but

sari.

like

Karachi

man on the

a dead

my mother that I will

never

that city.

darling, don't live in the past (departed time). Don't think

have seen dead

of dead men!

men on the streets of New York and Mumbai! I know the

governments of India and Pakistan need to do more to help the poor but you
cannot provide the medicine for all the illnesses of the world.

You are not a

Mother Teresa!

Sulochna:

Shama,

used to think that your heart has a

lot

of love

in

it.

But perhaps

it is

made out of stone!


Shama:

Oh Sulochna, you are always crying. Your heart


don't

is

made out of salt.

Forgive me,

be upset with me. If you want to help the poor, go and work with them.

You wi 11 not be able to end poverty


London. Come,

to sing

in India

and Pakistan while

sitting in

let's

think of happy things...Hke Nargis wedding.

a song with me? What's the

latest

Do you want

song from Bollywood?

15.9 Songs

{*

M) ~
356

iTJf

>U (* fr*

?^Z

<L.

tig

&

J? 4_ /jt * A A 'X

J'

\SjS

^e /

^ yU / ^ >U /
^%
f. %
t

1 1/'

357

T t

t LjT

(r

(r

(jit Lit *Jk>

6* js difb l

<=-

f- (3* Jgf
(r).' >i

,j)

s^ <U
ji;T

!jL
>'J

OJW
AT

9>*J

ol

y"

j>s '?

[J*

cJ

<zJ <lJ ol Jj

*>*J

ol
\$

&)

ol

>'>

>;

>'v

jt uytr cT 6/

^ u; ^ (s, >dj<^(> &~M

bl

^ jji^j

<^l ol
Ci/

>*;

if l"

*? &* fc

&J cJ .A >;

>;

&j (r) y

^_

c/ <lJ

jt

bl

ot

'v

*r^^

ol

<lJ oi

*>*-/

ol jj

oJZ;

ol

>'J

&*<lJ ol

*>*-/

Glossary for Songs

= beloved;

idol (m/f)

-/'/

<L-

CI?*'

= unknown, unwitting

restless

j\f = confirmation; acknowledgment (m)

J/ =
C^t"

(^I'J'

j\J>\

f*/^-*

to beat, throb

revelation; declaration; display (ni)

tO =
358

tune

(f)

= Islamic call to prayer

t^J

flute (f)

^L*

re ''s' n

(f)

^^ ^a tn m)
'

tempest, whirlwind; storm

to stop, to rest; to

be hindered

(f)

15 J

- loyalty;

A
JtfT

sStsj =

j$ J =

*/ =

faithfulness (f)

martyr; one

who

riches, wealth;

is

slain (m/f)

t/>=

dominion; rule

jf- sword
A

belief <m)

live

T
fa [f\j y

upon x

arm, embrace

(f)

fc*J~ long

15.10 Vocabula
to agree

blood; murder; slau

/-. iagger(m)

(f)

chain; fetters (f)

&l* = faith;

hate; hatred (f)

4k

(f)

arrangement (m)

f&i

body (m)

C?

to be born

br<

bride

LVvc^-J

(f)

yi

bridegroom (m)

to call

t/c/V /x

x on the phone

to celebrate,

commemorate

fcfe*

cure (m)

6W

decision (m)

J*

details, explanation; analysis

cT*"

(0

phone

w,&)

distress, misery, anxiety (f)

hi

dream (m)

u&

to dial the

to dry (intransitive)

359

to

*-/

end, conclude (transitive)

to end,

conclude

G-tf

(intransitive)

expenditure, expense (m)

to spend, to

expend

to be spent,

expended

fan; ventilator

ty-?

(transitive)

**r

&7

t-^

(S'-r

(intransitive)

&v

(ffl)

ffitf/Wjfm

festival

filth (f)

fork; thorn

(m)

germs (m)
i.

J?

gift (in)

&^

healthy

in return forx; instead

life

U~

of x

c-+Jg-~

partner (m/f)

melody
middle

mistake

J*

(f)

party; invitation (t)

to invite

to

LV i&$*J

have a party forx

peace, safety (m)

piece, morsel

(m)

360

(jx

pleased; contented; agreed


*

to be pleased with

to agree

pomp and

upon x

gusto

(f)

potato (m)

poverty

(f)

praise (f)

to praise

Ramadan, Muslim month (m)


relationship / connection

(m)

(m)

river

road (m)

snow

(f)

to spread (intransitive)

to start, begin (transitive)


*

to

start,

t* it*/

begin (intransitive)

use, employment (m)

to use

to

usex

without

witness (m/f)

361

"

Chapter 16
16.1

The

"izafa, " or "addition," is

(also

used

to represent

a construction of Persian origin frequently used

an

Linguistically, the "izafa" is

a short

The "Izafa"

"/"

Possessive relationship between two nouns

In such a construction, the "possessor"

that reflects the relationship

(ri)

Urdu.

subscript sign "zer, "

vowel) after a noun. The "izafa"

possessive relationship between two nouns or

(i)

by placing the

enclitic, indicated

in

is

used

to

i.e., m

express either (i

between the two nouns,

fails in

"izafa,

the middle and can frequently be

translated as "of." Examples:

the daughter of the Nizam,

= /* )
'

"possessor"

Nizam =

f\i&

the war of independence

(war = C^ independence

= ij i'J

'

the government of America

(government =

In

an adjectival modification of a noun,

noun follows the "possessed one" and the enclitic

("possessed one" daughter

C^*Jr America = ~/*')

highly Persianized Urdu, geographical features are frequently written with the "izafa, " with

362

the geographical entity preceding

its

proper name:

Mount Sinai
(mountain

(ii)

~ bj

Jjr)

Sinai

Adjectival modification of a noun:

In such a construction, the

relationship

is

reflected

noun is followed by an

by the enclitic

attributive adjective

and again,

"izafa" that falls between the two.

their

When translating such

a construction into English, place the attributive adjective before the noun. Examples:

eft*

Jj

foolish heart

(heart

\J) foolish

= (^Ot)

**?{*
noble name

(name = p

'

noble

*g?yO

the Greatest Mughal

(Mughal

= \J

greatest

=p

')

the [Indian] subcontinent

(continent

=V

small

363

mjt>

16.1

Read and

Reading and Translation

Drill

translate the fol lowing couplets with the assistance

of the glossary:

Glossary

edit =

foolish

$ja

Glossary

(J'yt

v* =

= separation (m)

to pass off, to

tV^ - to be

pass over

entertained

recover

Glossary

fc**r

= to

leave, to

abandon

sJ = c\oud{$) (m)
364

j,<

ir

r^= night (f)


k^ tjlr

= moon (m)

Glossary

0^* = union, meeting (m)


jl

= friend,

2.

Read and

beloved (m/f)

translate the following passage concerning the

famous Indian movie, MughaJ-e

Azam (The Greatest Mughal)

**

&M Cftf jftf^e- Jfjn/ft .... >**/i,Pf <L*n


-*jS\$&-$M ft A/\fL. U*< -&-*

if' ciif <'

m jt of

a,

Jm

-<z-

&M *# ***>{ Wl /*

>/ wp c~ Jf

^>m d?'\jM

&J 6ft v f\/J4 Lrf */utM ** ttib-pJH

365

vSiji

^j^.i-

^^-ifd^^J^' j*-. j\f^i ft"

Prince Salim (1569-1627); Mughal prince

who on becoming emperor in

j/\>\Lj4

1605 adopted

the

royal title Jehangir (literally "world seizer")

** Anarkali, legendary courtesan


** *

in

the

Mughal

court, with

whom Prince Salim fell in

Emperor Akbar ( 1 542- 1 605); considered to be the greatest emperor of the Mughal

love

dynasty;

reigned from 1556 to 1605; father of Salim.

16-2

Some Common Uses of

Thus far we have encountered present and


tenses.

However,

in

Urdu, like

past participles in the context of different verbal

in English, present

other functions such as adjectives or adverbs (as

When employed

in this

Present and Past Participles

and past participles can serve a variety of

in

"burning fire" "while walking" and so on).

manner, present and past participles are usually followed by the

appropriate form of the past participle of the verb" Ctf"

I.

Qjyi <2^yi

dfi).

Present Participle as Adjective

When

used in an adjectival sense, these participles and the forms of "tyZ" attached to them

decline according to the case, number, and gender of the nouns they modify. Note, however, that

in

the case of feminine adjectival participles, the singular

366

form modifies both singular and

plural

feminine nouns. Examples:

J-/ l)*? tj*t

a dancing girl

*s

a singing boy

Jm*J* 4~~2f

laughing actors

playing

(Jl/)'

girls

C^J

shy bride

moving bus
In

2.

(./*

the past participle of" t.K

many instances,

*yt C*&

"

0*

^
l5^

0* iK/

0* 0*

may be omitted without affecting

the meaning:

am unable to read books in a moving car.

Past Participle as Adjective

Whereas the present participle of a particular verb, acting as an


progression

of particular

or a passive state.

instance:

Thus,

in the act or

conveys the

actions, the past participle as adjective connotes

at times, the past participle

*-//

state

of completion

may convey a present stative sense.

t*jf J-tf \fr would mean a seated woman

seated). In contrast

adjective,

(that is a

woman

in

the state of being

J-K tf" with the present participle, would mean a woman who
,

process of sitting down.

[$$ '# [/

dead man

UrlXo-tf

kept books

written

For

& 2# ^

letters

tj% &*f $'*

fallen things

i$# ** l&

a seated man
367

is

&jf

woman

a standing

constructed buildings

[J J?

USjif

(Jjf (

jLj

\jj

a past time
3. Participles as

(J_r?

Ij?

Nouns

Occasionally participles, like adjectives, can be used as


nouns.

They may or may not be followed

by the appropriate form of the past participle of the verb" tyt"


(J^f *_.*?

Wjf j.For

example:

Wake up /pick up the sleeping

Don't bother the person

who is reading

(lit.

one.

the reading one).

A famous Urdu proverb also illustrates this construction:

What wouldn't a dying person do?


(In a desperate state, a person

4. Participles as

Urdu

participles

would not think twice about the consequences of his/her actions.)

Adverbs
used

in

an adverbial sense can often be translated into English with phrases

beginning with "while" and often express incomplete actions. The adverbial participle phrase
almost always appears in singular masculine oblique form.

that contain adverbial participles

JJlj

is:

subject

The usual word order

adverbial participle

(0 &j*4f

wT( i^jt

While going home,

saw a

368

in

sentences

object - verb. Examples:

UfJfL

beautiful girl.

ut

While bathing, that girl was singing.

\> 2-*

/J/ in if

Watch the cut-up chicken walk!


(A note posted

5.

Participle

outside a trickster's stall

convey immediacy or to give the sense of "as soon

particle {f*

may be added

The

as" or

"immediately

after," the

to the masculine oblique present participle:

little

boy started crying as soon as he saw the dog.

will go there immediately after

finish eating.

jUi

Masculine oblique present participle combined with the word


Of two actions, that

signified

Lahore!)

{f*

In order to

6. Participle

in

is,

the action of the

by the participle +

"

"

main verb taking place

C-> )
at the

"

connotes the simultaneity

same time as

the action

*Us " construction. Example:

While driving (at the time of driving) a car, one should not speak on the telephone.

7.

Repeated Participles

participle ends
Present participles can often be repeated to signify that the action of the repeated

or results in the action

of the main verb. Repeated

369

past participles signify a past action resulting

in

a continuous or repetitive state. Examples:


JJ5

^y 2^> 2^> jt

began thinking while studying.

Poor Majnun died weeping.

Sir,

you will tire of sitting (and

sitting).

16.2 Translation Drills


Translate into idiomatic English:

-it -/ J*-/ l/'

*%

ctfcrj,*
-l(?

/,

24

<_>

If

tA*

/c/^y

r -r
,r

i.u _* *->/?

.a

z-j at

/$ in &Sf

r.i/i ,i

^ -44 y '^ j* *_* ^ *o


^.t

j/V Z-K 2-fj 4

370

,i

^ ^r^s _^ ^^ ^e

-*>
l/'r*

i/*

a*-J^ 2-k iS/sta v

-*f&* a /ah ifjf^i -x

i/jIW

(/-!

is

Jt

J?

J &} i-x 2->j /$ u Jf

\j

tut z<ijj>

L^t LJftfVst

\fst

Translate into Urdu;

Give some sweets

2.

Do not

3.

The laughing actor burst out crying all of a sudden!

4.

That man talks to dead people.

5.

We cannot study while eating.

6.

While studying (at the time of studying) one should not watch T.V.

7.

Ask Sunil's broken heart

8.

Raj does not like shy brides.

9.

As soon

10.

This

1 1

is

to the crying girl.

boy (the boy

talk to the studying

as he

came home,

a book written

The present

participle

by Reshma

who

(lit.

is

This

singing

studying).

is

Reshma's written book).

(1 it.

the singing one).

Present Participle and t?J Construction

of a verb when combined with the verb t?7

The

iterative indicates the constant repetition

this

form both the present

employed

is

Mummy darling gave Raj some food to eat.

Please give tea to the person

16.3

who

participle

in the negative, nor can

it

of an action and

is

results in the iterative form.

often translated as "keeps

and the verb l^v agree with the


be used with

compound

371

subject.

" In

The form cannot be

verbs/aspect indicators. In addition,

the present participle of C?-/ cannot be used in this construction,

will reach there in ten minutes.

You keep working.

Sunil kept going to Nargis' house, but Nargis had already

It is

my request that you

Note: The present participle of

tU when combined

with the tfj has two meanings:

In the past tense, the particle *i

expected

"to disappear, to be lost."

is

not used even

when

Present Participle and

The present participle of a verb when combined with

the participle

fcl?

that

is

unfolding of the action resulting in change. Since

tw

of a transitive

fcU can have several meanings, the most

the governing verb

and

(2) gradual

is intransitive,

do not use the particle i

He had a high fever but he

went on working-

Continue eating meat and your health will keep deteriorating.

372

verb.

Construction

being: (I) persevering or deliberately continuing with an action

constructions in the past tense

its

such evils wou Id disappear from the world

if on ly

common

with Raj.

keep trying to learn Urdu instead of learning Arabic.

meaning "keep on going" and an idiomatic one

16.4

left

.
.

Time kept passing and we gradually forgot each


16.3-16.4

other.

Reading and Translation Drill

-1/
I*

in * & fj\J*f \fb/b\ti fi/ifuz


Translate the following sentences using the present participle and KstJ construction:

me on the phone, he kept sending me letters.

Instead of talking to

2.

Thirteen years after coming to the United States, they keep on remembering Pakistan.

3.

4.

kept trying

to explain to

him and he kept watching the movie.

On Saturday, Sarah and Saima kept dialing the telephone, but because of the rain the
phone was not working.

Translate the following sentences into

Urdu using the present

participle

saying your (Muslim ritual) prayers and then see

Keep on

2.

Shaan went on throwing the trash onto the

street,

and

tU construction:

how happy God

is

hut the children kept bringing

into his house.

3.

She went on narrating her (own) story and the

373

with you!

little girl

gradually

fell asleep.

it

back

Why wouldn't

4.

Rakesh be angry? Rcshma kept making fun of him instead of listening


to

his poetry.

16.5 Present Participle in the

Narration of the Past

Present participles without auxiliary verbs are frequently encountered


in narrations

of those past

events that occurred routinely or habitually. In such cases, the narration usually
begins with an
initial

sentence containing a present participle followed by an auxiliary, but in subsequent

sentences/statements, the auxiliary

In his childhood Sajid

eat

Until

is

dropped and the present

would often go to

his grandmother's

participle suffices

(literally, transfer),

letters,

16.5

and

he did

its

house during the summer

mangoes, swim, and watch Shah Rukh Khan's

one day before his death

on

all

own.

holidays,

films.

the house work, reply to all the

try to help the poor,

Reading and Translation Drill

Translate into English:

d ~JtJ\s

ufi#2-&

Jry ^/Ji/Jtx jt Jj

$4

euCf.*/* j>j /,

J(j.

jj

f^A

fat $-fa

-r

f*JL .> uH/k*

fi k__^\-

-V
Js/JtfoJtiS'^ i 13/ 4

*-*} 4->
374

\&

tjt

tf&4

V if

*r*

-r

Translate into Urdu:

During our childhood, before our grandmother's death, we used


morning, swim, take a bath, drink milk, eat fresh hot

boy would eat all the sweets,

2.

Thai

3.

While driving her car that

sly

friends

4.

girl

would

lie,

and bother

listen to

rotis,

all

to get

up

every

the shopkeepers.

music, sing songs, and talk to her

on her cell phone.

vegetables, and

make
1

The masculine form of a

6.6

Past Participle and

past participle

gender with the subject. Since

fruits

and

fun of democracy.

KJ

when combined

Construction

with the verb t-/ indicates an action

performed habitually. In such constructions, only the verb

is

am

and then go to school.

While walking down the streets, these mad boys would scream, throw

the subject

at 6

this construction is

not marked by the particle

L-

tJ

inflects,

agreeing in number and

considered to be intransitive in the past tense,

Son, go on helping [habitually] the poor.

Mummy darling habitually used to come to our house to drink tea.

Keep drinking your medicine

375

[for your

own benefit].

Note: For this construction, the verb

tU

uses

IU

as

its

past participle and not

its

normal form

Nargis habitually goes to Raj's house.

Reading and Translation

16.6

\*

Drill

2-fn & 7 }j& *fx

\f/f*

yS

- ijjy uh 64 64 $ y/

Translate the following Into

1.

Urdu

When we were healthy, we used to go


never talked

2.

3.

In his childhood Ra; used to

4.

don't

to his wife. I

know why my

[habitually] to that beautiful garden every evening.

used to remain [habitually] quiet in his house.

climb [habitually] the tree that was in front of his house,

parents don't give

me permission

were in college they used to watch films every Friday.

376

to

go

to the movies.

When

they

The Uses of? \J*

16.7

J*

\JS

occurs frequently in colloquial Urdu-Hindi as a substitute for J>J), "otherwise."

Get used

to

working

in

the heat, otherwise you will have a difficult time in Dubai-

J^U a> 4
k

Take (literally,

J&'

?L/? J

eat) the medicine, otherwise the fever will increase.

You call the police, otherwise


y^/W

is

Ob J

\S\

will

do

so myself.

also used in colloquial Urdu-Hindi, usually in the context of conversations, to respond

negatively to assertions and connotes "not really," "no way," or "no."

Faraz:

Shad Are you talking among yourselves about me?


!

Shad: Not

16.7

really!

Why would we talk about you?

Reading and Translation

Drill

Mm

377

&xJa

jJUc *Jb

/yt&ifl~ut

3c

9 jt

16.8 Emphatic Negative Assertions

Emphatic negative assertions are created by combining


verb to be negated, followed by L-t\jtf.

JJ

with the oblique

infinitive

of the

The possessive ^agrees in gender and number with

the subject.

vtjLt
I

Jt

am

\C
Translate the following sentences into

is

appropriate that

truth. I

won't

lie!

Reading and Translation Drill

fj? J A* -%c^ ^it i*3j ipf

_r

Lfu? J*f\SLS/(*ij\ Chi

,o

\Jl-M

It

-j* <& *'*$ jt

used to speaking the

16.8

jt

Urdu using the above construction:

you ask her about the newspaper.

378

will not ask her!

will not call Ali!

2.

3.

Salim can dry the clothes.

4.

will not sit in the hot sun!

5.

have

6.

will not lie to

to

go work now.

will not dry

I will

not wait for the bus!

my parents! am used to [habituated to]


I

16.9

$}/ - k.

them!

telling the truth.

r^ (Conversation)

QfzLC &*& Js

i/J

M if# -q&fftjjj.

At fin 6 ^4 m "iSx S&'S-^ / i*<^^ iTeie^


&** td&i 6/ -Hk &/ J) #M *> itfftisl-ifx J>j
j?.

-f~o*X

rA

j/^lTfin

\S/

~<f- >ffr

6H & 'cT^i J i*"*4?

4% ~4> ifL-jOjil &b ut ZJj 2-x ZJg tffti* e^tfjS


Su^ 4** Ju>/ L4 L4d&\ <&if i-yiZ-f (* & *J
'<-*
ff;t <J# 6* & *
\f- \j&\tf* e*Jv <fi -#-

U&i

&

379

"

't

512 !Jcl

16.10 Conversation Practice


Sunil meets Raj and Nargis after they

come back from

their

honeymoon.

kept calling you but you weren't home.

Sunil:

Nargis,

Raj:

Don't you

Sunil:

Raj:

Don't bother us Sunil. Nargis will absolutely not play tennis with you.

know that we had gone our honeymoon?

am used to talking to Nargis every evening. What more can I say?

Nargis: Raj! Let

me speak otherwise I will

neveT forgive you. Sunil

is

my friend and you

need to get used to him instead of fighting with him.


Sunil:

Look Nargis!
long,

have written this ghazal for you:

my moist eyes kept smiling all night long.


380

"I

kept thinking of you

all

night

:gJv

Raj:

He is

lying to you Nargis. This

Nargis: Sunil,

Sunil:

is

is

not his

own ghazal. This

a stolen ghazal!

your name Makhdum? You ought to be ashamed.

Forget about the ghazal. Have you forgotten

we used to play tennis in

childhood, cook food, sing songs and dance? The truth

Raj:

is

is

You ought to have your brain examined (medically). You

that

our

love you!

arc crazy! Nargis

is

my

wife and she loves only me!

Sunil:

Oh what should I do? Nargis, I will write another ghazal for you.

Nargis: Enough! Sunil, you keep

on writing poetry but

won't read

it

(emphatic). Raj, you

need to start writing poetry.

Raj:

Listen to this song. I just wrote

Nargis: Raj,

know that you

it:

How crazy is my

did not write this song.

you remember that you kept singing


not necessary for

Raj. It

is

stolen

my heart.

it

for

heart!

We learned

it

It

loves you.

in

Urdu class. Don't you

me every day after class? No, my dear

you to write a song for me. Your beautiful eyes have

16.11 Songs

&U K lis

381

fct

<^U!LJ2-tf^j

O)

(r)

(r)

2k

j ^f

(r)

ak
4'V

,-j,

J^

2k.^L
Jy
V
T

<*>

382

(f

Glossary for songs

/^= entire, whole (suffix)

SJ2* = fate (m)

>xV= Alexander the Great


(y ^)\v=

/?

my darling

f^

&h= the entire night

= eye(f)

= tyranny, oppression

(m)

= moist, wet

t*?=to win

3J>

= pain (m)

ta^ = to cause to bend

\j

= candle (0

tu? = to be
I? Oi, ~

called, to be

*>y

Wf =tobrn

named

chance, accidentally

= sorrow (m)

oh /^ = road side

9- flame (f)

IV =

to stop; to stand

fcW =

li/'L = reed

still

to decline, to fade, to sink

(.

flute (f)

/^ musical, melodious

^l J = the world; time; age

(m)

ijif"

Ll^ =

^U* = story, tale (m)

f^ -

appealing

cry, voice, call (f)

brief, short

tjjj = lamp;

\A

= pleasing,

light

(m)

- to be extinguished,

to

go out
16.12

to bite, to cut

to bother

Vocabulary

W
fc/J

consideration, -deep thought (m)

to consider thouehtfullv

7/

0V

to take

into consideration

^Jjf's

yjf

dear, precious, beloved (m/f)

death

(lit.

transfer)

to die (for

(m)

x to

0$l

die)

tjf

\J^f

effort (f)

tJlff'/

to try

enemy (rn/f)

(yi

helpless

U'd-~

helplessness (f)

instead

Jl^J ^ x

(/-

of

^_ / (J>iC
(** {j./

long live

jL

couple

jjjfj

>e

mosquito (m)

(Jj

(f)

parents (m)

ijlh

to perform; to

tj

accomplish; to pay

principle (m)

0'

[jy*\

request (f)

ifJlr

slave (m)

ftf?

slave girl (f)

j^

take care

Z"

Li^>^

fcJ^

to lie

to

JX'

,,*

iie(m)

pair,

of x

fc-/gjl*f

364

^rj

&?

throne (m)

truth (m); true

to

to

^i

speak the truth

be used to x,

to be

accustomed to x

&

V.K ijjw Ox

Reading Passages

386

Reading Passage One

&L>4

-+&* i/4 i/f>Vi

>-'

z-tlfy'

mCo*/:^/.

tabu

jt-Lj-Jr^C u?" it fy i/j -<f- X^ r


-or

-/

L*

!/**

J-v

Glossary

^V

the Subcontinent

&

tfv

winter

\fy^

special

<-<*

commonly, usually

/S

guava (m)

spring (0

fcM*

to

(f)

snow

387

^^

cold(t)

It/

UgUf

enough, sufficient

b*f

summer (f)

(m)j* *^(f) U*

autumn;

watennelon (m)

&>J)

tree (m)

leaf (m)

festival

(m)

festival in

which sisters {J

(J>~

on

(f)

beloved (m)

vow (m)

to be separated

entire life

J?

safeguard; protection(f)

fc>

state,

sisters

on the day of Rakhsha

(m)

(f)

promise,

fall

the wrist of their brothers

bandan
wrist

bloom

thread tied by

express love for their

brothers

to blossom,

condition

(f)

simile (f)

to compare

i ~gr

*f

Reading Passage

368

poets (plural of ^l?*)(m)

Two

\^mtj>
tr*A,
Glossary

J/c^

forecast (f)

sky, horizon (m)

yj?

cM

t*t

)&!

&

the possibility

of x to

happen

partly

J.AfpifJ

temperature (m)

jA

percent

c<A/

humidity

JTm

cloudy

^1 it>

sunrise (m)

\$PM

drizzle (f)

^w
Reading Passage Three

389

(f)

sunset (m)

Glossary

area, region

wit

(m)

rare

ji

the

t*

old, ancient

jjb

uncommon, rare

o-jp

cultural

~i**1

archaeological objects

educational

Osi

priceless

'//

center (m.)

J7

treasure (m)

Sf

shared, composite

$A

foreign (m/)

*c#

culture (f)

,jjf

cradle (m)

6MJ

shopping (0

Deccan plateau (m) ^&\-s\f

Ur
J*

Reading Passage Four

390

museum (m)

tourist (m/f)

some, few

Mat? iffs

*J&

-LJJf{$r*\*t$0

<&f3i

f^j ^\*

jfl^V&cfc Jp j&

391

fy fob/

e.

(1

#4>
(search glossary below for answer)

Glossary

h/*

to smile

tffc

(respected)

^y

samosa (m)

wife (respected) worn

efc*

host(m/f)

*jf

to

oW

guest (ra/f)

complete

-*/

trust,

e?

severe, hard

***

successful

*r

sin (m)

&*

success

Ui

prayer (0

fc*e%

to

ivji

to

be accepted

r^^

land of eternity

to

ask a favor; to pray

t^

to depart

confidence (m)

(f)

worry

&y
*

woman

worry

riddle

ti^y

to get

joke (m)

4*

coin (m)

t/

to

5*

crown (m)

7^

peacock (m)

an opportunity

fill

repentance

(f)

u/

to

r>

be astonished

392

tail(f)

Reading Passage Five

:^0 iTi-fe J*/*

Glossary

mmm

&

according to taste

royal

&p-r>

dining cloth* (m)

%//

curry leaves (m)

potato (m)

k**U

coriander (m)

tf/A

cabbage

fcfe*

to peel

<ffj4

cauliflower (f)

,/

piece (m)

*fi

recipe (f)

JJ*

(f)

thin, fine, delicate

things; ingredients ()

tor

to cut

quantity (m)

ju/

skillet;

393

frying pan

(f)

red

fcT

to fry

JO

tomato (m)

(hi

almond (m)

&

cup(f)

iM

brown, almond-colored

&-

oil

(m)

k"->

slow, simmer

J'jji

ginger (m)

&r

fire,

tf

to melt, soften

garlic

(m)

flame

iWff

mixture of spices (m)

j*

dry

lU

tumeric (f)

iM

stove (m)

J?

salt(m)

h/,

pepper

*a sheet spread on the floor

tL/Jy

(f)

decoration

members and

{f)

to eat with relish

on which various dishes are placed. Traditionally, before

introduction of dining tables, family

(f)

the

guests sat around this sheet as they partook of

the meal.

Reading Passage Six

^>.j

Jjr

P&tfi iJiJ

^ l&

tif^ Jt<jJ* /*-kJ./ tzslr^f/jl*


'

* -ft

(^

BJtri&-i/}

dA Ji M0# k? '*- U*?* -f-dW cUtf^ JQb fu'Out 2J, Vj f$*/*&* at ZJ*S

ft&'Kt OF* dftfh


/Ji-*L

re b lc_

J)\s

394

Glossary

fresh

t^U

representative (m/f)

international

jj

delegation (m)

^J./ta^t'

please listen

bU/-

head, leader <m/f)

r-

Egypt (m)

*tt

meeting (f)

tjn

tour, trip, visit

iHj3*

during

w*
Jv^

West

(5k*l

unaware/ignorant

ojjj

to tour, visit

*s0\A>

capital city

t/jf

Cairo (m)

(m)

Palestine

(m)

(m)

-iy*

issue/issues <m)

furthermore

J\/<JL

country/countries (m)

J*if

right/rights

ih&>

Middle East

C*>

especially

bTi

peace (m)

&i

t/,%

to establish

/TV

Pyramids of Egypt (m)

\$J*>t>

terrorism (f)

1*0

Syria (m)

tJUwiU

clearly, emphatically

enJ

Jordan (m)

word/ words (m)

iSui

human

i-iiii

*jai

395

(m)

destruction, violation(f)

Reading Passage Seven

-i4 &So$i \figtfjl2h$ji

cS

if-

Glossary

tJfnh

The United Nations

J/

disease,

arp

tt

to

>jijf

epidemic (m)

bring x under

!;.

as soon as possible

>\?j if*

LJj

X to be invented
opinion

(f)

control
(**

tfj

to solve

organ ization(f)

Jlf ,J;b

exchange of ideas

tM

institution

(f\%

preventive, protective

t/jUTf ^x

to agree with

vaccination (m)

(m)
x

Note on the Calendar


In

most of the Urdu-speaking world, one encounters two calendars: the Islamic lunar or

calendar, and the Gregorian,

with the day

first (at

Common

Era one, called

isavii.

Dates are written from right to

times followed by / sign), the month second, and the year third.

396

hijrii

left,

The year is

usually written over the __

_^

sign which stand for the Arabic

word

for year,

"sana" This sign

is

followed either by j> (the sign for Islamic hijrii calendar) or p (the sign for the Gregorian

isavii calendar). All

months are masculine

Rajab

in

gender.

Muharram

r/-

rj

Sha'abaan

(jit**-*

Sqfar

Ramzaan/Ramdhaan

CJU-V-I

RabiV ul-awwal

i)Mt&j-r

Shawwal

J# J*

Rabii 'us-saanii

3*8^

2uu'l qadaa(Zii qaad)

Jamaadii ul-awwal

JjUI i/jU-6

Jamaadii us-saanii

i&tfteJi

Zuu'l hijjaa(Ziilhijj)

<fa \Sdjj\aUe

&$**
July

&u

January

tfjyi

August

+A

February

&>}

September

J?

March

October

sji

April

November

Jtt

May

it

December

s>

June

)*

&

Sample dates:
9th Shawwal, 1388 Hijri

W AjN J& *

397

Oth January 1968 C.E. t

WQ (&#<*

Urdu - English Glossary

398

wl

now
father (m)

you - formal
sister

IT

(0

lyT
r/

your (formal)

one's

this

own

much

\f\

up

Cl^'

wake up, rise

IX

to pick

to

&'

today

permission

^/J\f[

(f)

give permission to leave (got to run)

these days,

^J-

t^Jv[

JV

nowadays

pickles (m)

good

l#

newspaper (rn)

^1

to

fc/w

perform; to accomplish; to pay

^Jtf

greetings, hello, hi

actor

'

<//
'&'

(m)

> tfbf

actress (f)

399

,J

human

being,

man, person (m)

rf /[

half

in this direction

in that direction

intention

rest

(m)

(m)

to rest

to fly; to cause to fly

Mfjf

independence, freedom

(f)

\Jy\j\

in this duration

&JM \J\

therefore

^}

use (m)

Jt>|

to use

to

kfj\S>t

use x

tfjii>ltfx

student (m/f)

noble

\JJ)**\

J/ 5 f\

name (m) (formal Urdu)

sky(m)

^f

principle (m)

JjMj

generally, often; most;

many

although

^J\
r

although

zjf

cupboard, cabinet

r-(

(f)

(JsUt

400

!!

'

owl; fool; stupid (m/f)

f\

potato (m)

^1

mango (rn)

/* i

mother (f)

(J#

d&l

examination (m)

test, trial,

America (m)

<-/*'

American
peace , safety

mother

C^*/*' / l /'

(m

{/

{ft

(f)

rich

to

tr

come

J\aS\

waiting, expectation (m)

to wait for

tJ Jk?\ Ox

arrangement (m)

death

(lit.

IE-'*

f*

transfer)

(m)

x to

die)

to die (for

Jl^
JlP'

fcifl

*'

inside

darkness (m)

*/

human being (m)

C'U' J

tears

his,

'

J^

(m)

God willing (may God

tSx

M t&l

will that)

t# I

her (formal)

'

401

% c"

**

ftf/fetf

/T

eye(f)

English

(adj.)

\$y/\

English (the language)

(jyj*l

England (m)

gjgjgj

English (adj.)

Jpjfij

finger (0

^/

vagabond, wanderer (m/f)

^^ f

voice, sound, noise (f)

j^f

above
and

more, additional

^f

offspring, children (f)

Iran(m)

^| y(

Iranian

4^

once

father

(m)

LI

father (m)
(,

speech, word; thing (abstract); matter; affair (f)

to speak, to talk, converse

,-^1

\;J

402

sister (f)

rain(f)

JVI

to rain

k* t/VL

market, bazaar (m)

-/'J I

garden (m)

hair (m)

absolutely, completely

arm, embrace

y*^t

(f)

1% J

cook{m)

y^t

out, outside

to play

tU*

(an instrument)

C*

childhood (m)

child

(m)

fever; wrath; steam

fir

(m)

worse

worst

to

\>*

change

Wednesday (m)
bad, evil,

&<*i

wicked

to be offended, to feel insulted

4^^

Britain (m)

snow/ice

9 ^

(f)

403

rice

w/ spicy meat or vegetables (f)

(JlX

big

grown up,
to

(jj

elder person (m/f)

cause to increase; to enlarge (transitive)

to increase, to

grow, to extend

tU-fc

b*%

(intransitive)

revered person, respected elder

^JjS(

enough!

\tj*

without

to call, invite

Jr

cat (f)

make, to

(**)

tyg

nightingale (f)

to

/ (*

^*j

Jt
build, to create

fcfc;

%, -

Bangladesh (m)

to

be made,

to

p lay the role of x

built,

created

t*

\fi

to cause to be built; constructed with (used with

tyjfi

Zander)
elderly (adj.); elderly person

UJi

(m)

brave, courageous

/fy

very

C^C

better

best

t^ft
404

sister (f)

helpless

C^^~

helplessness (0

0*~

daughter

(f)

l>

to sit

middle

poor thing/ fellow

\jj\g

(rrt/f)

to sell

fed

jij%

scores of

Ul&f

useless, unemployed

ill

tM

fcgj

up

sick,

(adj.); sick

J6s,

A&

person (m/f)

sickness, illness (f)

\j

A&

(i^

wife(f)

India (m)

CwUj

heavy

U>l^

to flee, to

run away from

brother (m)

ghost (m)

C^A

hunger (f)

J*
405

to forget

also, too

ip

to send

crowd

faff

>j

(f)

papad (crispy appetizers) (m)

toilet,

>t
^&l

excrement, stool (m)

Pakistan (m)

\JC^i

Pakistani

Jfc^i

crazy,

mad, insane

to raise, nourish; maintain; to protect

IV

to find

tl
t

water (m)

$1

father (m)

{?

^.r?

pants, trousers (f)

wife (f)

(j*

address; hint, clue, trace (m)

to

come to know;

to find

# Q

out

husband (m)

last, past,

(J*

previous; back, latter

(ffr

on

406

tU

old (thing)

day before yesterday; day

after

0^^

tomorrow

A%

family (m)

worried

ld%4

distress, misery, anxiety (f)

^7?

Premchand

>p-/

prominent author of Urdu-Hindi

narrative prose, died 1936

studies, education (f)

to study, to read

pleasing (adjective); choice, preference

>^r

(f)

Mz-^y

favorite

to

cook

to catch,

apprehend

moment (m)
bed(m)
fan; ventilator (m)

mountain,

hill

(m)

to recognize; to

know; to perceive

v"

to discern

jjy

to reach

Hi

to ask

U%

quarter less than (after whole number)

-?

love (m)

407

t/y^

to love

onion

ji

(f)

,rV

thirst (f)

cup(f)

stomach (m)

^a^

be born

t*Ms

to

leg(m)

^5

Monday (m)

money, cash, wealth; coin (m)


urine

_^*
**

(m)

U*
*

w^l^i

yellow

to

j^

drink

X
again

yet,

^ fi

still

see you soon

fruit

y^

(lit.

we

will

meet again)

(m)

(J%

fautseller<m/f)

Jlj

J$

\)h

flower (m)

\j!&

to spread

fci^
*

to

throw

40S

J?

star(rn)

[jf*

date, history (f)

gjfr

historical

(Jvt*

so that

Jfy

gift(m)

J?

throne (m)

C^"

to sit

down

(formal Urdu)

to enter (formal

picture,

tS*JkJLf*

Urdu)

photograph

tU

yj^

(f)

w3

praise (f)

to praise

t/*'

tJ wj/^u

details, explanation; analysis (f)

(>*

y ?

speech, recital; statement (f)

to

*J%J$

Cy y jp

give a speech

until

you - informal

body (m)

^T

-i

to bother

you -

fcy

J?

least formal

tj?

to break (transitive)

409

ready

to

,r>

swim

*I

&

swift, quick; hot (spicy), fiery, shaip

festival

(m)

^r

tiredness (f)

some, few; scanty,

piece, morsel

little;

\j&

less

(m)

hat(0

to

6J
0'/

break (intransitive)

to wait; to stop; to stay

tj*

cold (adjective)

iM

cold (noun,

&

fine,

f)

good, exactly

to become well

tU-

410

tt

b
Japan (m)

)l\p
*

Japanese

(3lU
r*

cold (weather) (m)

to

wake

life,

Ijt

up, rise

fc^V

soul; sweetheart; energy (f)

/^

to

go

to

know

b-U

animal (m)

v^U

when

w^

tl^

(L?

germs (m)

/*

celebration (m)

place,

J?

vacancy (f)

gentleman,

sir,

u^C>

mister (m)

&?'

Friday (m)

Thursday

&A f*

(f)

democracy (0

*2< J$*

answer (m)

w^-'i?

young (adj.); youth (m/f)

\z)\
*

youthfulness, youth (f)

(jiiJ

t f-

shoe(m)

411

pair,

couple

(f)

ljj

^^

lie(m)

to

He

^>

|jjy

j/ J.

no, not

<4*
to live, to

life

be alive

far

partner <m/f)

\s }"

clever, cunning, sly

^f\f ^

moon (m)

j (^

J^

moonlight (f)

rice (pi.

m.)

Jj^

tea(f)

_(,

shut up; be quiet

yij

to steal

f|^

200 (m)

J^\f-$

to climb

fcj

to drive

fc[|^

to come along, to

go along, to set out, to walk

l^

spoon; sycophant (colloquial) (m)

wound; injury (f)

^j
412

theft (i)

<,

thief(m)

jj

to

scream, yell

thing (f)

China (m)

fjf

Chinese

(Jjf

sugar (0

(jf

^
student (Hindi) (m/f)

umbrella; canopy

(f)

holiday, vacation

(f)

J'l/

is/*

knife (t)

small

L
condition, state (m)

condition (f)

action, deed; mischief;

movement (f)

beautiful

truth

*^"

(0

government (f)

^S-^*

413

J*

to

govern

tfiZsfi

henna (f)

j*>

special

^f

empty

quiet, silent

(^V U

family (m)

g0j*g

news (0
to finish, to

end, conclude (transitive)

to finish, to end,

%y f

conclude (intransitive)

t>T

goodbye (lit. God be your protector)

God

willing (may

God

forbid

God

&\# \

wil! that)

God forbid (may God not will that)


service

blemish (0

>(/

ij

tL~J

\j&

\$\7

fa/

to spend, to expend (transitive)

to

f \

wl>

expenditure, expense (m)

to

J)

&S Mr

(f)

bad

fault,

be spent, expended

(intransitive)

\ZJ

fyS

ts?

fe7

t^7

buy

414

letter (m)

Ja>

dangerous

Ut/^

dream (m)

w'i^
*-, *

iStJtrlf

beautiful

)y

self (reflexive); oneself

happy

{J"P

happiness (0

{f?

blood (m)

&f

thought, idea, opinion (m)

C/J^

hb

grandfather (paternal)

{Jsh

grandmother (paternal)

lentils (f)

Jw

tooth (m)

^h

pain (m)

3J)

door(m)

wMfJ*

river (m)

La*

to have diarrhea

signature (m)

J^ J

enemy (m/f)

<yi
hi'^i

invitation; feast; party (f)

415

to invite x

to have

a party for x
*

office

(m)

shop, store

(f)

shopkeeper/store owner

heart (m)

interest (interesting) (f)

bridegroom (m)

bride (f)

brain, mind, intellect

(m)

day (m)
world

CM

(f)

medicine (f)

afternoon

/&

(f)

milk (m)

Jh

far

time (period

of);

period (m)

during this time/period

\fi fSJlM l/I

friend (m/f)

(^
(^

friendship (f)

second, another

both

416

to repeat, double, fold

fcUi

yogurt (m)

(Jo

sister (f)

a long while; a long period of time,

late,

interval; lateness (f)

<Zto delay, to be a long time, to

to

come

Si

late

care of x

taJce

to sec

to give

wall

mad,

(f)
s

ecstatic

sunshine, heat of sun (f)

pomp and
to

gusto

(f)

If)

wash

j
mail (0
post office (m)

doctof (m/f)

to pour, to place, to put

box (m)

417

fear(m)

to fear

fe/j

&J

Dacca (m)
littleJust;

Jlf )

please (with

form imperatives)

'yj

night (f)

JjJj

king (m)

^J

road (m)

2^'J

pleased; contented; agreed

(J

to agree

to

'J

hS

t^" {j

upon x

be pleased with x

tsi

melody

(f)

{f\j

juice, nectar (m)

\J

receipt

-^

(f)

%*'

connection (m)

-4*

family, relatives (m)

P*V

(jJv** J

Ramadan, Muslim holy month (m)


to depart, to set out

\/tf

418

Jljf(m)Uh
J\*?J

cheeks, countenance (m)

relationship

C-

^h J

rupee (Indian/ Pakistani currency) (m)

S\5J

bread

fa

(f)

Russia (m)

Russian

If,;

to stop, to prevent

to cry

Uj

to stay, to live

train (f)

J
cold (illness) (m)

A3

time, age; world; fortune (m)

Iand<f)

landlord (m)

life(f)

living, alive

long live

tot,

very

much

</
beloved, sweetheart (m)

whole, entire,

all;

the

whole

419

half (with

-As

whole numeral)

\J\s

mother-in-law (f)

birthday

9J7 \s

(f)

O If

curry (m)

barrage, luggage,

breath

goods (m)

(Jit*

uV

(0

y*

a!l

tJyV

vegetable (f)

./r

vegetarian (rn/f)

l^T

dream (m)
to tease, to

tt>

annoy, lo torment

true (adj.); truth

(m)

iy

to speak the truth

cold (noun,

fa

head (m)

if*/

f)

P""*

cheap

/""

father-in-law (m)

journey (m)

to

v^*

make a journey, travel

JP*

white

to be able to, can

Sikh

420

todiy

fcU^

greetings to

a Muslim (reply

in parentheses)

Cfli^

C^i)r^ffc

^faft*^
to explain, to

cause to understand

t\J[

a?

to understand

to

cause to

listen, to tell, to narrate

Cfc"

orange (m)

\/^

beautiful

jjj~-

S-

y*y*

marble (m)

<?

orange (m)

to listen

t^"

hundred

one and a quarter; quarter more (after number)

*y

question (m)

\j\y

to think

k>y

to dry (intransitive)

& jr

by

to sleep

cT

girlfriend (for girls) (f)

from

before

apple (m)

421

stroll,

walk, tour, excursion

(f)

to stroll, to take a walk, to tour

hundreds of
'**

service (f)

w
tf&

wedding (0
poet(ra)

vegetarian (m/f)

evening

(f)

*$?

prince (m)

-6^

perhaps

name (m)

(*&

(formal Hindi)

CW*/*

mischief(f)

^< f

sherbet (beverage) (m)

C*>r

be shy, reticent

*&s

ashamed, bashful, modest

to

jz**"^

V /"

alcohol, wine(0

to

lr

>'**'

splendid, stately, grand

auspicious

V*

fc#

be ashamed, bashful, modest

o-^X

mischievious

"5;

honorable, noble

422

to start, to

begin (transitive)

tJ w*s

to start, to

begin (intransitive)

tyi /j jr

chess

&/^

(f)

ft

poetry;

/*"*

a couplet, a verse (m)

thanks (m)

noise, uproar, disturbance

Jr

(m)

hobby/ hobbies (m)

QP

husband (m)

jtf'

town

city

jf

(m)

emperor (m)

slP^""

c^
gentleman,

sir,

< *>

mister

ijU

clean

morning

health

U*

(f)

(0

J> *>&

healthy

JJ**

president (m/f)

Sufi - a

Mus lim

mystic (m)

423

definitely, sure

necessity;

need

necessity,

&s

&J3/

(f)

need

for

<s*jf/*\$ x

k
temperament, health

manner, style

^It

/*

student (m/f)

us-*^*

(f)

/x

(f)

storm (m)

(if

6^

6
habituated;

accustomed

to be habituated/used

lover

(JjU
to/accustomed to

y^k

tj?

(j?l*

(m)

being a lover (0

C/

wonders (pi.)

^r^f

V^

museum (m)
wonder (m)

^jff
<_.%<

wonderful, surprising, strange

u^L*

court (f)

424

Arabic

(f)

Jj/

dear, precious, beloved (m/f)

y*f

love (m)

(jr*

great

<<;

cure (m)

,0f

besides, moreover, in addition to

w()

i~

^vU?

buildmg(f)

(f)

woman (f)

\Z*jf

age

festival

- Muslim

Ar?

(f)

s
Christian

i}[^f

I
poor person (m/f)

/
*T ^-^

poverty

l^/

(f)

ghazal (love poem)

(f)

(J_^

bathroom (m)

$i \j^

to bathe

tJ yr

f$

slave (m)

mistake, error (0

sorrow (m)

*-Jt^

sorrowful

425

consideration, deep thought (m)

jf

tJjf

to consider thoughtfully

to take

leisure, free

%J jf /
X
v.

into consideration

time

\2s* ?

(f)

A
^

worry (0

ski 1 1, art, craft

(m)

artist

J&

(m)

army(f)

,y

to dial the

to call

phone

t(J^ i^)f

x on the phone

^/ \*jf y x

J^

decision (m)

9*

capable, able, skillful

worthy of (with oblique

(jtl?

iJJS

infinitive)

^1$

carpet (f)

grave,

tomb (f)

j}

oath(f)

to

swear by x

queue, line

fcU)

(f)

**

^|j

426

(J

fort

(m)

aJJ

pen (m/f)

shirt (f)

qawwali

fj^v

- spiritual-mystical

Muslim mystics
prison, jail

song recited by

(jfy

(f)

(m)

>$*j

prisoner (m/f)

{J>U
M

^-^f

price, cost (f)

J
to bite, to cut

l?t>

kohl, coliyrium (m)

\j*

would that

\Jv

enough, sufficient, adequate

(3

black

HIT

work, job (m)

f*D

to

ty

work

successful

success

^k*''
(Jl'fc'

(f)

ear(m)
fork; thorn

r*p

C^^
(m)

fro

**y

when?

427

since

when?

sometimes

occasionally;

^^f

?-_.

now and

then

/p J^

/*

clothes (m)

book (f)

^(^

dog (m)

(f

how much, how many?


trash

LP / c /

(m)

j?

jg ^
a

nothing

(m)

tff

chair (f)

to

do

fy

ten millions; crore

/jy*

millionaire (m/f)

{J Ji^'

millions of

\JiJiJ

for

what reason, why?

?^L

farmer, peasant (m)

</

iJt-C

tomorrow, yesterd ay (m)

j^P

less

to reduce

to

t^

something, anything

fare, rent

J-'

be reduced

428

room (m)
comb(f)
to

comb

slave girl (f)

effort (*)

to try

who?

?c//

someone; anyone (noun, m.); some, any;


approximately

(J Jr

(adj).

no one; nobody
that,

\J*i

which,

LA'

who (rel. pronoun

and conjunction)

Of

where?

from where?

story (f)

to say, to

to call

speak (with

^-)

(something a name) (with

in front of, across, facing

inside

on top of

AC

instead of

LJf. {ft

in return for x; instead

of x

regarding

429

out, outside

__

^ \

after

without

M (^

near

Q\

J\s
g?

behind

with

in front of,

across, facing

~l'

jfyj

near

under

kilogram

j&
*~

because of

^>j

some; a few

what?

what sort

JL-

for the sake of, for, in order to

several;

*\f
of,

what kind

of,

how?

*?

banana (m)

-.

lf~
ll/

why? for what reason?

? fJj

because

,J*J

430

Ur

/
to eat

ti/

food (m)

ti/

to cough

cough

(f)

J/

window {f)
athlete, player (m/f)

tJ?

toy(m)
to open

i/

to lose (misplace something)

agricultural field (in)

to play

J
car(f)

to drive a car

song (m)

to

sing

village

(m)

cow(f)

hot

431

heal, hot

to fall

weather

(f)

(Jy

down

fry

request (f)

to

tfjj

spend time, to pass

tjy

Jjf

filth (f)

witness (m/f)

9 \j

meat (m)

j^ ^^-

meat eater (m/f)

<yV

meat curry (m)


round, circular; a circle

&/J

tf

\Jy

song(m)

house (m)

y*

clock/ watch (f)

(iy*

hour(m)

(J2*

horse (m)

/yjp

J
answerless, speechless; unequalled, matchless

w'i

hundred thousand

li

&[)

hundreds of thousands of

(J-'

432

Jl)

red

to bring

CU

boy (m)

&/

girl(f)

V$

yogurt drtnk

LV

to fight

(f)

wr >

to write

tall

people, folk (m)

J> ^

lemon/ lime (m)

U-^-

totake

r
mother (f)

tH

mother (f)

to hit

to

be convinced, to

sweets

Listen, to

v-

obey

$&

(f)

^**

helpless

iS-*&

helplessness (i)

criminal (m)

mosquito; insect (m)

433

love(f)

to love

$S ,*

lover

work (f)

^^^

do hard work

%J CJ*

hard

to

^^

(m)

pr

hard working

help(f>

to

help x

fc/^X* tfx

joke, wit; laste (m)

to tease, to

Pepper

jjjj

make fun of x

ftJf

(t)

Jj^

lfK

,^

chicken

(f)

chicken curry

<yV ^ {$ }

(i)

to die

fc/

disposition, health

how are you?


grave,

to

(m)

,( y

(formal)

tomb, shrine of a Sufi holy

**>/"

man (m)

(/'

Jj

enjoy

fc/

delicious

\f

j\j,

>

i^J*

traveller (m/f)

intoxicating

>&**

mosque (f)

jf*
434

yt

t'y^

to smile

Muslim

Muslim

C^

difficult

U^

famous

J **

UU'/JU'

(m)

spices

.J^^

busy
essay, composition

(m)

purpose, intent; motive (m)

forgive/ excuse

me
*<?**

examination (medical), investigation (m)

have something examined (medically)

to

to

know

facts,

information

Mughal

(f)

dynasty that ruled India from the

6th

J*

to the 19th century


ta*.

poverty

(f)

useful/ profitable

place

(*A&0

(m) (plural)

mausoleum (m)
house (m)

landlord (m)

435

f$>

but,

however

J>

country (m)

to

^U

meet

j?

possible

to celebrate,

jfc.

lm

commemorate

appropriate

t"*

*~*fc>

temple (m)

jjy
f

&

Tuesday (m)
mouth, face (m)

patient

^*tif*

(m)

J%f
tV

fat

\3*

season (m)

Mahabharata - Indian epic

&j\Ji 1/

Maharashtra (m)

lp*ijKtf

queen, empress

thanks

(f) (lit.

(3'>t/

(f)

kindness)

please, kindly (with

L>Lf
forms)

<L-

guest (m/f)

henna

>

(3^/^

^^-

gjtf*

J^

(f)

&/

expensive

sweet

f^

my
43e

liL/

Mirabai

a 16th century poetess famous for her

devotional songs to the

Hindu

&U

deity Krishna

table (f)

minaret (m)

in

U
to

dance

angry; displeased; upset

to be/

become angry;

upset

Ji

nose(f)

name (m)

r6

grandfather (maternal)

tt;

grandmother (maternal)

narcissus (f)

near

J/

flu(m)

sign,

& iM

momento, souvenir (m/f)

song (m)

to

come

out, to arise; to depart

Muslim ritual

prayers (f>

437

to recite

namaz

fc*y

>U

lemon/ lime (m)

salt(m)

servant (m)

job,

to

work (0
tl/

bathe

no, not

blue

Itf"

to return,

to

come back

go back, return

father

J*t

<m)

mother

9jff

(f)

cC^ 9

parents (m)

reason

to

<?>

(f)

work

out, to exercise

J U4 J*

otherwise

*)

weight (m)

ij^

minister (government) (m)

Sh

prime minister (m/f)

homeland (m)

438

time (m)

sZ^i

lawyer, agent (m/f)

those

that,

they

g fw

he/ she

^I

ftj

there

\j\i

hand (m)

to lose (a battle, contest,

game,

|>

%J^

etc.)

every

yT

every day

t^^

every day

i3W yj

every year

{Jv*

every month

^f /I

every

2M

week

thousand

JJj

OiJ *A

thousands of

hospital

Ji

JQ?

(m)

Saturday;

XH

week (m)

plow (m)

we

(polite fonn:

Ca
r*

I)

439

Hindu

%jty

India (m)

\J^iM

Indian

$C*)M

to cause to laugh

tU1

to laugh

t^

air,

wind (f)

\&

aerial

Qifc

airport (m)

ijl

(Jl^

air pollution (f)

airplane (m)

J^j J)ji

intelligent, clever

j\f* 3%

\S
L

memory, remembrance (0
to

)l

remember

for x to

fc '

jL / /

remember
tt

that is to say,

i.e.

C^-^i

university (f)

this,

these

here

(^L<

Jew

\jiy&

440

English-Urdu Glossary

441

A
able

(JbG*

tO be able tO ; Can

(always preceded by stem ofanother verb)

/)S

above

7
absolutely, completely

action (f)

*/7

actor (m)

J&&

actress (f)

wtfb'

in addition to

ff.*lrJZ

vjl

additional (more)

address (m)

aerial

Jus

affair (f)

c^t

L*

to be affronted

Kfc

after

^r
J& $ J

afternoon (f)

yHt

again, then

age(f)

agent (m/f)

to agree

upon x

agricultural field

ttf

\j^-i *

*J

(m)

442

air()

feft

air pollution

if*$

(0

W*

%$$&

airplane (m)

airport

8'

(m)

&?*

alive

9>^

all

4***

all

'A*

(whole)

also, too

although

4>

America (m)

C/*/'/(/

American

angry

to be/

tit

become angiy

(^TUC

animal (m)

to annoy

'/"ij

another

answer (m)
any

J/

(adj.)

J/

anyone/someone
anything

apple (m)

443

appropriate; suitable

approximately

(J// C- 5^

Arabic (f)

arm, embrace

Jy-

^L

(f)

armyffl

,y

arrangement (m)

/* U'

art(m)

>^>/

ashamed

to

|^>

be ashamed

Ctf

o^y-'

ask

athlete/player (m/f)

bad, evil

\x

to feel bad, to feel insulted

\jl

(rotten)

^Ji7

baggage (m)

tfWs

bad

banana (m)

U~)J&:

Bangladesh (m)

*&$/'

bashful

to

tji

be bashful

444

bXt/

to bathe

IV / tAr

beautiful

i&Tj J^jr^f/Jjy

because

because of

*4

^i

c^-*

bed(m)
before

to

begin (transitive)

tfv>>

to

begin (intransitive)

Ctf

behind

s /^

Zl

^J

vt

to believe

Cr U"

beloved, sweetheart (m)

UK

besides

<

C^/ ^
1

best

,/#

better

big

fe

V,l<

birthday (f)

to bite; to cut

or

black

US'

d?

blood (m)

blue

body(m)

C/

*r

book(-f)

445

to

ttfiM

be born

both

<jy !J

\SJb

to bother

box(m)
boy(m)
brain

(m)

brave

bread

yjfjjg

(f)

Jjy

to break (intransitive)

1?/

to break (transitive)

%jj

U^

breath (m)

bride

LVJ /c^j

(f)

bridegroom (m)

l^*^

to bring

til

+*&4

Britain (m)

brother <m)

(JU?

C^/^yU?

building (f/m)

to

be

built (intransitive)

to build (transitive)

to cause to

to have

tbs

be built

fcl>^

if*

built

^>-^

busy

446

but,

to

however

buy

by,

t-fcv

iJT

till

cabinet

(J-/Ul

(f)

capable

tl5*

to call (something a

name; use with s )

C?

tJ

to call x on the phone

to call

/^ft+

&P

tic

invite

(j-/lf

car(f)

carpet (f)

I*

cat(f)

to catch,

apprehend

to celebrate,

C&*

commemorate

celebration (m)

chair

a-/

(0

to change

cheap

cheeks; face (m)

chess

(f)

chicken

(f)

447

/V

chicken curry (m)

%{$

(m)

2?

childhood (m)

<y$?

children

j\j 9 i

child

(f)

China (m)

Chinese

[f

Christian

Jkf
A

j*

city(m)

clean

^JU

clever

i^/i) (?

to

t^yr

climb

clock / watch

c?y

(f)

clothes (m)

clue(m)

1^

cold (adjective)

cold (noun,

Jfc*'

'

&*}{$) S

f>

cold (weather; winter)

(rn)

cold (illness) (m)

0U/($ w^/*
r*|fi

comb(0
to

comb

to

come

to

come

along, to go along with, to walk

\P%

448

to

come back

to

come down,

to

come to know,

to

come

fcf

to descend

cond ition

tyf

to find out

out, to depart, to set

j\9

ty*

out

fcifr

^J \p

(f)

condition, state (m)

(JU

consideration; careful thought (m)

jf

to consider thoughtfully

to take

t<rjf

tJ jf S

x into consideration

to construct

to

tb;

cause to be constructed

ttyi

to have x constructed

to

tly:

be convinced, to obey, to believe

( I

cook(m)
to

Jx

J^jsl

cook

fjjj

cost (f)

tf^

cough

(/uT

(i)

to cough

t^W

country (m)

wU

couple, pair (f)

a couplet (of poetry,

(Jy.

m)

yjL/

courageous

449

court

\z)\j6

(f)

!_$

cow (f)

m
craft

(m)

(^T

crazy, mad, insane

\J t

criminal (m)

fk

crowd

jj*

(f)

ti>

to cry

cunning

*_J J

cup(0

(j^

cupboard (0

ifylA

cure(m)

^05

curry (m)

O* U"

U6

to cut; to bite

Dacca (m)

/UJ

dance

C>t

to

danger (m)

jty*

dangerous

^/&

darkness (m)

date; history (f)

daughter (f)

450

day(m)
day before yesterday day after tomorrow
dear, precious, beloved

(lit transfer)

y*f

(m)

x to die)

to d ie (for

[&

J**?

c/>

deed(0
definitely, sure

J3

-''-i^*

C-C vn

democracy (0

tj?

to depart, to set out

to descend

^9 J

C-/I

CA

details, particulars; explanation; analysis (f)

to dial the phone

ttff (j|/

&s>

diarrhea (m)

t ' CU-"J

have diarrhea

6/

to die

difficult

v b

to discern; to recognize

disposition, health

'f

tj S >

a long time

delicious

to

(S^l

JbV

t yt

decision (m)

to delay, to be

}jj

{Jys

death

(m)

fr'^

how are you? (formal)

ft'/''

451

&J

distress, misery, anxiety (f)

t/

to do

doctor (m/f)

dog (m)
door (m)

to double; to repeat

dream (m)

tf*r4r

to drink

to drive

to drive a car

til?

iSif

to dry (transitive)

to dry (intransitive)

ear (m)

to eat

effort (f)

fc/tw

to try

elderly (adj.); elderly person

to

be

(m)

em harassed

emperor (m)
empress

(f)

452

empty

(j

end, conclude (transitive)

^,J

/*

to end, conclude (intransitive)

t*7

r^

to

enemy (m/f)

(/

\$S&\

England (m)

Q&&tt 6'sS\

English (adj.)

English (nationality)

English (the language)

is o/

to enjoy

to enlarge, to

expand, to cause to spread

tU'ij

(transitive)

to increase; to

grow; to spread (intransitive)

fc*#

enough!

\fj*
a

enough (sufficient); a
to enter (formal

{J o

lot

Urdu)

fcU

U>

entire

essay

^-f*

(^ 5*

composition (m)

evening (f)

flf

every

y?

Ck

every day (m)

yT

SsJjt

every month (m)

&i?fi

every week (m); every Saturday

Z&l /I

453

0^"

every year (m)

evil,

i^

bad

*J$

exactly

(m)

examination

(test)

examination

/ investigation (medical,

to

C^l*f

m)

,->

have something examined (medically)

\SJ

U>

^ b>

Z L? I

excrement (m)

to exercise

t-/ C-/i-^

^7

expenditure, expense (m)

to expend, to

ifbs

spend (transitive)

to be expended, to be spent (intransitive)

fc>?

&J7

6V

expensive

to explain, to

cause to understand

L'Uf

to extend (intransitive)

to extend, to

/l

expand

t**"3^

(transitive) (causative)

L'U'vC

J1

eye(f)

._'

face (m)

^-*/^

facts (f)

ii-li^

to fell

down

/U*

family (m)

454

M^

famous

jfC*

fan; ventilator

(m)

for

jsS

fare; rent

jf,

(m)

km

fanner (m)

fast,

cJU{

quick

5g?

ts>

fat

U/wL/t/0/Jli

father(m)

/*''

father-in-law (m)

blemish

fault,

(jl/

(f)

favorite

9J*J>L

fear(m)

to fear

feast;

tyj

c^J

party (f)

fed up

>(

festival

(J)

J&

fever (m)

\jf

few

to fight

to fight

jS J (m) /^f

t/*

ty,

jv

filth (f)

to find

L'l

T
455

/,4#"

to find out

tyr

fine

J^

finger (f)

to finish

ty^P*

to flee

{/ty

flower (m)

{J9K

0) Jf

flu(m)

to fly

tJ\

to cause to fly

tyjl

food(m)

fool

tl/'

(m)

^L ^1

for the sake of, for, in order to

(jJ^C

to forget

)J^\**/ * w*l**

forgive / excuse rne

fork; thorn

fort

^Y

(m)

^S

(m)

freedom

(f)

(JjUT

free time (f)

C^V

Friday (m)

^jt^

friend (m/f)

^it-^ J

friendship (f)

(/'jj

from

tz^

456

^^

from where

fruit

\J\J

(m)

fruitseller

(m/0

[}b

J% I Dh J^

G
garden (m)

,t

generally

gentleman,

sir,

^> L>

mister (m)

germs (m)

fAZ

to get, to obtain

ghazal (love

(with

fci?

poem) (f)

JL>&

gift(m)

girl

t$

(0

<r

girlfriend (for girls) (f)

to give

tj;j

"*

give permission to leave (got to run)

go

to

go back

f)

\J'f

ghost (m)

to

w C>

* JU-J

fcU

tirijvb

God

forbid

God

willing

(May God

2"S?

not will that)

(May God will

\J>

(J) <L-Jt S&

(J%~Jt&tJkt *$l

that)

good

U*J/

457

goodbye (lit, God be your protector)

&9

Sj&

goods, luggage (m)

C^LU'

government (f)

&y*
ty i^-^r^

to govern

Jj\?

grand

grandfather (maternal)

tt

$)

grandfather (patema 1)

grandmother (maternal)

(jfc

grandmother (paternal)

y )h

grave

jg

(f)

grave, tomb, shrine of a Sufi holy

A)*

man (m)

fC^ / p

great

27gT/

greetings, hello, hi

"Peace on you"

[to a

w^/J;'

p j) f^ fit*
iM f^)^ f lM
(f

Muslim] (reply in

(f*U>

parentheses)

grown

ijA I '%

up, elder person (m/)

guest (m/f)

\$\/C

H
**

habituated; accustomed

to

hair

t^

be habituated/used to/accustomed to x

{J

jW

(m)

458

#)i /t>T

half

<lv U

half (with whole numeral)

jg L

hand (m)
happiness

(f)

(J"

happy
hard

\jf

^^

work (f)

to

^J C*&

work hard

hard working

fjp

hat(f)

t3y

^/^

he/she

head (m)

health (f)

>i>*j^

healthy

heart (m)

\Ji

heat, hot weather (f)

{J

heavy

U-'^

helP (f)

to

J-4

W)J>

help

t/

to help x

Ox

-^/L^ d~

helpless

helplessness

;>i

{$jl

(f)

if* tL-

(J^/fe

henna (f)

459

here

ok.
Pj\

here (in this direction; hither)

hill;

mountain (m)

j[/

Hindu

)'M

Hind u devotional hymn (m)


hint, clue, trace;

tf?

address (m)

&|/ ^ \J\

his / her (informal)

his

#( / (f ^\

her (formal)

history; date (f)

JjJC

historical

m
\S JC

to hit

tVL

hobby / hobbies (m)

Qy-

holiday, vacation (f)


(J>

homeland (m)

^Tj

horse (m)

\jj

hospital

Jl^T

(m)

hot

hot (spicy)

jjf

hour (m)

\$0

house (m)

gnplV(

how much / how many?


human being (m)

I*/U/ '

460

human being, man,

person (m)

{J 3

{)*$*

hundreds of

%fcx

hundreds of thousands of

\Jf*

hunger (f)

^J f&

husband (m)

(J

lj

j;y

if

if only

/would that

\J%

jt

in

in front of, across, facing

in return for

to increase (intransitive)

t^i^

to increase (transitive)

CU#

independence

\j$j

(f)

India (m)

)fr'9'X</

Indian

&j\

ijfr's&i

infonnation

injury;

*zXj**

(f)

wound (0

*~*%

j\

inside

j \C

inside of

461

of

instead

10 feel

insulted

intellect

hurt

LM

(m)

;[*?

intelligent, clever

intent;

V"^

meaning (m)

intention

9^ A

(m)

interest (f)

CJ^=?

interesting

^v 2
*~^**

intoxicating

investigat ion

* w*

(m)

^^J

invitation (f) (also party)

to invite x

fei

^^J /x

Iran(m)

C^'/!

Iranian

iJW
j

<$*<$

jail(m)

C^lf

Japan (m)

Japanese

Jew

<0 \$S*t(ix{*

job/ work (m)

joke(rn)

(J'-

462

to tease; to

make

fun of x

Cfyf \J\JL tfx

P*

journey (m)

lo

make a journey

LV A"

juice (rn)

\Jj

K
king (m)

^4j

knife (f)

Jy&

to

know

to

know

to

know

to

know; to recognize

to

come

ttf {*$**{ tjf

(facts)

tr

(skills)

to

know;

kohl, collyrium

land

t-

c/x)

t-

to find out

\Z~

\^

u*

(m)

t>

C^

(f)

j/l \jO I Jj&j

landlord (m)

last, past,

previous, back, latter

\^

late (adj);

a long time; interval (f)

S)

late

e- /)

(ad v)

to be late

to

come

ttf

J>

C C S)

late

463

lateness (f)

(J/ )

to laugh

t-

tU*

to cause to laugh

jf.

lawyer (m/f)

&

leg(m)

leisure

***'}

(0

lemon, lime (m)

lentils (f)

less

A?

(m)

letter

ki-J52

Iie(f)

to

Vl>.

lie

(f) (/>'-//

life

lift,

soul, sweetheart,

life,

lifetime;

life

*L,F

age

energy

(m)

C%

(f)

(f)

partner (m/f)

>U5

line (queue) (f)

5
fc

to listen

to

cause or make

V&'

listen

(vV

little

to live, to be alive

fcjf

464

eJ

to live, to stay

\^.j

living

B>-j

&

long live

long while, a long period of time; late

to lose

lot,

yj

(f)

(misplace something)

to lose (a battle, contest,

very

ts&

game)

much

jlj

,ove

(m)

&?

/(f)

lover

(f)

lover (m)

/(m)

?^
(f)

\y\*

luggage (m)

(^tU

M
mad, ecstatic
to

/(m)vL^

t/*&ttfj^

to love

being a lover

oXj

jfjfj

be made, built, created

fc>

Mahabharata- a famous Indian epic

\H*j\jf\f

Maharashtra (m)

mail(f)

p*lj\rf

w/fj

to maintain

t^t

to make, to bui Id, to create

tfcj

465

i^

'

mango (m)

f*

h>

manner (f)

/*/*

marble (m)

?*^

market, bazaar (m)

Jul

matter; affair

C^l

(f)

matiso leurn (rn)

V*

meaning (m)

u^Jk^

meat (m)

%z^y

meat curry (m)

(^ l"

t}bj/fjJ

medicine (0

t^ ( with *=-)

meet

melody

(f)

memento, souvenir

(f)

y-y/(m) wjly
OlPV(m) ci*
Jt

memory, remembrance (f)


to

J*

>-T *i^/

meat eater (m/f)

to

^ Ct*^

tJ

remember x

middle

& Vx/ C A
tip

*3*

milk(m)

millionaire (m/f)

millions of

minaret (m)

jfc**

mind (m)

C^i
4S6

L?x

minister (government) (m/f)

Mirabai

a 16th century poetess famous for her

6i<x

devotional songs to the Hindu deity Krishna

*Ss

mischief (0
mischief(f)

mischicvious

mistake (0
to

mock

&ii JiJ,

d
A

moment (rn)

Monday (rn)
money;

cash; wealth; coin

(m)

moon (m)
t
moonlight

(f)

more
more, additional

moreover

morning (f)

mosque (f)

mosquito (m)

most
mother

tl/UlnfiiijClJtjJI)

mother-in-law

467

motive (m)

mountain (m)

mouth (m)

movement (f)
Mughal
to

dynasty that ruled India from the

J"

6th

the 19th century

/*%

museum (m)
Muslim
Muslim

ritual

&

prayer (f)

my

N
ft

name (m)
noble

name (formal Urdu) (m)

auspicious

name

(formal Hindi) (m)

ft

J"

J}

narcissus; Nargis (f)

to narrate

near

near

necessity;

need (0

necessity,

need

for

nectar /juice (m)

468

news (0

J!

newspaper (m)

>L>f

night (0

&\j

nightingaEe

j*

(f)

\JS

no, not

noble, honorable

(J.

J*

C^ J/
)h\

(f)

noise, uproar, disturbance

nose

[JZ

i%

nobody
noise

y^

(m)

(f)

nothing

now
now and then

o
oath-(f)

loobey

//

occasionally

office (ra)

/^

offspring

>IW

(0

often

$4

old (thing)

469

yV

on

AC

on top of

once

oneself

onion

(f)

*-*/?

only

to

ti/

open

OT

orange (m)

otherwise

^ J9

our (also mine)

\j\a

M*~

out, outside

Ai

'
'

owl (m)

pain (m)

pair,

couple

(f)

Pakistan (m)

Pakistani

pants, trousers

(f)

-*

papad (crispy appetizers) (m)

^L^ 9

parents (m)

470

d^^J

party (f) (also invitation)

ty &$*J

to have a party for x

to pass, to

y'y

spend time

l/V* I M&

patient (m)

ty

to pay

J*

'

peace, safety (m)

(y

peasant (m)

l Ui

pen (m/f)

r*

people, folk (m)

JSi

pepper <0

h /*

to perceive

l-Jgr

to perform; to accomplish; to

if hi

pay

perhaps

-J;l?

permission

*ZsJ\fl

(f)

to pick up, to

*wl

lift

pickles (hot) (rn)

picture,

photograph

-/

-J^

(f)

piece, morsel

(m)

'**

place, station

(m)

f*U*

place,

(j

vacancy

Jf

(f)

irtl

to place, to put

to play

471

to play (an instrument)

to play Ihe role

of x

please, kindly (with h *

please, kindly (with

'

forms)

J'&y e- oy
i

r forms)

\ji

iTh

pleased, contented; agreed

to

in

be pleased with x

pleasing (subject

\fsj
-*

marked by y) (adjective)

choice, selection (f) (noun)

plow (m)

poet(m)

J&

poetry (m)

pomp and

gusto

f*U-J

(f)

f$>3

wfe

poor fellow (m)

poor person (m)

possible

jzdb

past office (m)

potato (m)

tf

pour

to

poverty

&Pt&S

(f)

M
praise (f)

to praise

t/a/ iT

472

Premchand - prominent author of Urdu-Hindi


narrative prose, d ied 1936

JJS

president (m/f)

to

prevent

price (f)

ftp

prime minister (nVf)

prince

(m)

principle

(m)

prison (m)

profitable

to protect

purpose (m)

to

put

qawwali - spiritual-mystical song recited by

Muslim mystics

in

South Asia

(f)

jot// ji

queen (f)
question (m)

queue (f)

quick; fast

quiet

473

R
rain(f)

^JJ^

tx

to rain

to raise, nourish

{Jjl
\^l

Ramadan, Muslim holy month (m)

1\}\A* J

to reach

fc

ready

jfa

reason (0

,&)

receipt (f)

^v

to recite

namaz (Muslim

ritiua!

t^>

prayer)

to recognize

Jl/

(^

fc

Tt-

red

Jl)

to reduce

to

be reduced

regarding

\JL

relationship / connection (m)

relatives (family)

to

(m)

<L-

jkjfr'/

remember x

tfj\,

to repeat

request

<1A
?-j

remember
to

^yi

tJ

jl /

{J xi t-/> I

^A*
ifJ

(f)

474

A
fx

Ja

respected elder

rest(m)

fl J

tffhf

lo rest

to return

in return for

instead

ijZl

of x

(m,

rice

tji lr

pi.)

w/ meat

l _

Ja

revered person

rice

or vegetable (f)

0z-&

rich

j$
fct/fef

to rise

river

(m)

Ivj

Z*hlJ>J

road (m)

room (m)

J/

round, circular, a circle (m)

to run

away from

rupee (Indian/Pakistani currency) (m)

^sj

Russia (m)

\JtJ

Russian

O SJ

475

s
salt(m)

Saturday;

_X?
week (m)

*^

to say, to speak

fcj

scanty

\j^

scores of

to

U%

scream, yell

l^f*

fy

season (m)

second anoth er
,

lo

--

see

yj

fcjT,

see you soon

(lit.

we

^*T y ^

wil 1 meet again)

self (reflexive)

to sell

fe%

to send

fcjrff

servant (m)

Jp
ijf/o*jr

service (0

several;

some; a few

\j

sharp

^v

sherbat (beverage) (m)

shirt (f)

J%*

shoe (m)

(T^

476

shop, store

(f)

fcjl&j / fc/t#

J){J %M l)b^}vJ

shopkeeper/store owner

shut up, be quiet

ytj %>

to be shy, reticent

tl/'V tyi oA^y^

sick,

ill

(adj.), sick

sickness, illness

sign,

person (m/f)

J%-

U^fe

(f)

memento, souvenir

(f)

ylft

(m) c/l^,

signature (m)

A^J

Sikh

&
l/J^U

silent

since

*/"

when

to sing

c^

sister (f)

sister

to

L'

(0

W?

sit

skill

l\3\l\S<k}

(m)

skillful

sky(m)

(jfrl
*

slave (m)

slave girl

J*

Jf

(0

by

to sleep

sly

477

small

H4

to smile

snow, ice

(f)

SO that

some;

few

\*Jl

(adj.)

Sf

little;

some; any

someone/somebody

something

sometimes

ft

sorrow (m)

sorrowful

sound

^\f

(f)

j^7

soy venir (m)

to speak, to talk,

^j^uj

converse

ifkZsl

special

j*

speech

^i

speech (0

to give a speech

to

f*Jj

spend lime

spices

if

tf*

(m)

iJU-vJU'

spicy hoi

478

splendid

spoon/also sycophant (m)

to spread

star

(m)

to start, to begin (transitive)

W U* A

to start, to begin (intransitive)

stately

-*W#

statement; speech, recital (f)

r^

Uj

to stay, to live

awake

to stay

to steal

stomach (m)

*-

stool (excrement)

to stop; to

(m)

^ *J

prevent

to stop, to wait; to stay

storm (m)

story

(f>

strange

stroll,

walk, tour, excursion

to stroll, to

jC

(f)

take a walk, to tour

student (m/f)

elk>

studies, education (f)

479

to study, read

t-tf*>

(m)

stupid

J\

style (f)

success

1>J>
!*&''

(f)

^J

successful

U* o

Sufi

a Muslim mystic (m)

$$*

sugar (f)

Jf

suitable

h-^t*

Sunday (m)

yiyi

sunshine, heat of sun

surprising, strange,

to

wJ^>

(f)

w^

wonderful

swear by x

tUl

sweet (adjective)

sweets

UC^

J^

(f)

'

swift, quick, hot (spicy), sharp

to sv,

table

im

sycophant (colloquial)

(literally,

spoon) (m)

J[.

**

(f)

to take

to take

(J

f*

til

someone

fck

480

to take care

to

W\jA >

of x

{jx

take out, remove

tall

tea(f)

(m)

tears

,o tease

QUf

tooth (m)

Sis*

to tell (to narrate)

to

tell,

say (use with Z)

temperament

(f)

temple (m)

test, trial;

thanks

examination (m)

(lit.

kindness)

(f)

thanks (m)

that,

those

that,

which,

that

is

M
who (rel. pronoun

and conjunction)

to say, i.e.

theft (f)

their

there

/^'

there (in that direction; thither)

therefore

481

'

these days,

if

nowadays

thief(m)

7."\

v/-

thing (concrete)

(f)

thing, matter (abstract) (f)

^L

to think

>^

thirst (f)

j^

this,

this

these

much

thorn; fork

(m)

l^Y

thought; idea, opinion (m)

(Jt>

thousands of

0* J ^j*

^^

throne (m)

to

throw

Thursday

(f)

ijj, 1

>*

tin

time (m)

c3i

time, age, world, fortune (m)

^j

time (period of); period (m)

{$j)5

during this time/period

\J^ \;)Sj)) \JfSf

tiredness (f)

today (m)

482

toilet

-Sl

(m)

m
tomb

jf

(f)

tomorrow; yesterday (m)

to torment

to tour

Jf

town (m)

Wf

toy (rn)

trash

(m)

to travel

traveler (m/f)

true (adj.); truth

(m)

to speak the truth

truth (t)

Tuesday (m)

u
umbrella; canopy

(f)

under

to understand

unemployed

#4l

university (f)

until

483

upset, displeased,

to be /

become

unhappy

tfijt

upset, displeased etc.

tfl

urine (m)

use,

0^1
t/"j(^l

to use

to

tf \)\r"\

use x

be used

J*>

employment (m)

to

(fht

to/

habituated/accustomed to

t^f (/j U #x

useful

jj>

useless

vagabond, wanderer (m/f)

^^^T

vegetable (f)

^C V-

vegetarian (m/f)

>j^

vegetarian

A3

very

voice

L^y^

<Jvl!>l

verse (of poetry) (m)

village

(T:

(m)

Jjlf
J/j /

()

w
to wait, to stop; to stay

%jf

waiting, expecting

j\&

(m)

484

to wait for

to

wake up

to

walk

*J J&*\

fcMf /

^i*>

wash

tJ?)

water (m)

yt

we

p*

wedding (0

J-3

Wednesday (m)

^-^

weight (m)

fitil

well, fine,

to

Wf

wall(f>

to

Jt

okay

become well

yt^Xf*

wlf

what?
for what reason,

what sort

of,

why?

what kind

of,

?l /{f~ flc

how?

when?

when

where?

where (in which direction)?

/* jJ

where

fjfl\M.

which

vfuLft 0/

which one?

485

white

M^

who?

T^y

whole

\j\f

why?

yjj/

wicked

\J
t
tt

wife(f)

wind

1^;/^*

(f)

/>J

window (f)

rf/

wine, alcohol

u^X

(f)

witJoke (m)

to

make fun of,

Q\J,

*?
M
(Jljf

to tease

(,Xa

*-

with (instrumental); from

with (in the

company of)

J!\s> J_

M i)

without

*r

witness (m/f)

woman (f)

*z*j?

wonder (m)

^^

wonderful

t_^f

wonders (pi. m)

word

^/)

^L

(1)

work (m)

rf

work

tfft

to

486

to

work out

world

ts

(to exercise)

\JfiJ9

U5

(i)

worried

gftftp/

Ji

worry (f)

worse

-/*.*

worst

c/^-V

worthy of (use with oblique

i^WT <L-

infinitive)

would that/if only

wound

C/

'' -*?

(f)

to write

year (m)

Ju

yellow

li$

U^ / 14 L?

yes

yet,

IT /^

still

yogurt (m)

yogurt drink

{j*->

1/

(lassi) (f)

you (least formal)


you (informal)

**

you (formal)

young (adj.); youth

(m/f)

'

C-"-*"

487

youthfulness

(f)

your (least formal)

\j?

your (informal)

\j\{

KlT/e ^

your (formal)

zoo(m)

488

1%