Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

BY KEITH WYATT

Ten in-depth video lessons covering chord playing,


dead thumb technique, jazz-blues soloing,
the styles of Blind Blake and Charlie Christian and much more!

STREET JAZZ
EXTENSIONS
Jazz-blues soloing, part one
STREET JAZZ
ALTERATIONS
Jazz-blues soloing, part two
SOLOING OVER
SUBSTITUTIONS
Jazz-blues soloing, part three
RAGTIME
GUITAR
How to play

like Blind Blake

I HEAR
AMatching
MELODY
the

solo to the song

DEAD ATHUMB
(OR
PICK)
useful, cool-sounding
self-accompaniment technique

TALK
TO ME, BABY
Conversational phrasing
IF
6
WAS
9
The versatility

of sixth and
ninth chords

CHRISTIAN
VALUES
The legacy of the worlds

FIrst electric guitar


star, Charlie Christian

THE
SPANISH
TINGE
A signature

element of the
New Orleans sound

STREET JAZZ EXTENSIONS


JAZZ-Blues soloing, part one
IN MY PREVIOUS DVD, TALKIN BLUES,

we focused on developing a jazz swingrhythm feel and learning some of the


standard features of jazz-blues harmony.
Now well turn to soloing, and well begin
by adding some uptown melodic sounds
to our existing blues style. Think of it as
street jazz.
Jazz soloing begins with rhythm.
To quote the old Duke Ellington song,
It dont mean a thing if it aint got that
swing. The next step in jazzing up our
melodic vocabulary is to emphasize the
extensions (ninth and 13th chord degrees,
equivalent to the second and sixth scale
degrees).
Extended chords and melodies have
been part of the electric blues vocabulary since T-Bone Walker, but the jazz
emerges when you give the extensions
more emphasis. Compare FIGURE 1a, a standard blues lick that nails the root on the
downbeat, with FIGURE 1bsimply shifting
the melodic focus to the ninth lends the
phrase a slightly off-center, jazzy vibe.
A practical way to begin soloing with
extensions is to play an extended chord,
locate the specific extension within the
chord and add that note to an otherwise
standard blues phrase. FIGURE 2 is a 12-barblues accompaniment with extended
chords, and FIGURE 3 incorporates those
extensions into a solo alongside some
other jazz-blues phrasing characteristics,
such as longer melodies (lines), sliding
rather than string bending and Charlie
Parkerstyle 16th-note embellishments.
Compare each solo phrase to its accompanying chords and note how the extensions
match up. Developing an awareness of
the relationship between the melody and
underlying harmony is an essential skill
for improvising, not only in jazz but in any
style of music with moving harmony.
To capture jazz-blues stylistic nuances,
listen to cool blues masters like Johnny
Moore (with Charles Brown), Kenny
Burrell (with organist Jimmy Smith) and
Grant Green. All play familiar blues phrases flavored with extensions and other
jazzy characteristics, the sort of street
jazz that influenced both Hendrix (Up
From the Skies) and Stevie Ray Vaughan
(Stangs Swang).

FIGURE
FIG. 1a1

B7 1

FIG. 1b

B9

6
B9
8
6
63 9

6
7 3
6
7

FIGURE 2
6
8

Swing
Medium
6
9
6 9

7
E96 7
A13

A13
1
FIGURE
B9
B13
6 E9
1
3
3
B7
B9 6

5
6
8
6
6
6
5
1
FIG. 226

FIGURE
6
7
8
8
8
8 6
8
8
7

5
6
6
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
8

Medium
Swing

FIGURE
165
5
6
6
6 6
5 63 9
5
5
5
63 5
9

66
7
6 E9
7
B7
B9
B9
E9
A13
B13
A13
FIGURE
2

1
6 5 6
6 5
Swing
8
6
6
Medium
8 6

6
6
7
8
8
8
8
6
8
7

6
9
6
9
F136 86 A13
6 F13B1376 E13 76 B1376 76 6E9E9
B9
A13
E9656 7 5 E13
FIGURE
15
6
76
B13

1 B13

6
5 3
5
5
5

B7
B9
3

7
5 1
6
8
6
6
6
6
5
5
6
FIGURE
6 6
6
97 10 8
8
66
6
8
86 8
8
8
7
68 265

8 6
8
7
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
8

6
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
8 7 7

Medium
76 65 Swing76 56 76 6 56 76
8
8
7
7
7

6
6
6
6
5 6 9
5
5
5
9

7
5
6
67 3
6
7 7
6
7
6
3
E9
A13
B9
2
6 6 A13
E13
B13
F13
F13B13 E13 B13 E9E9

FIGURE
17 B13

6
5 10 6
8
6 6
6
6
5
Medium
6 6
6 6
6
9
8
6
6
Swing
6
7
87B95
8 6
77
8 8
8 8
8 68
6 8 8
7
7 B13
6
6 A13
6
87 3 5 E13
876 87 876 E987E9
B13
E13
B13
7 E9
76 F13
8B13
8
7 F13
76
7
A13
6
6
5
5
6 3
6 5
6
6
7 6
5
6
6 5 3
6
75 7
17
FIGURE
5
6
62
6
6
95 10 6
8
6
66
6
66 6
FIGURE
Medium
8
6
6
5
Swing
8
8
8
7
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
8

8
8
8
6
8
8 7
7B965 Swing7 66 7 E9776 8 87
Medium

8 7 7 7 7
76
7 76
7
6
6
6 6
6 5
6
6
7 6
5
65
6
75 7
5
6B13
66 6
5 A13
5
1
B9
E9
A13
B13
E9
6 6
5
6 8 6
6 F13

B13
E13
E13
B13
E9
B13
F13
1

9
6
8
8
6
6
8
6
8
6
8
6

FIGURE

7 3 6 7 8 9
6 68 7 68 57
8
6 7
6
88 6 8 7
6 8 7 665
8
68 65 Swing68 66 68 97576 108 687
Medium
8
6
8
6
8
8 7 7 8 7
86
8 66 6 8 6 6 6
7B9
7 5
7
7 F13
8 6
8
75
7 F13
75 7

6
5 E9
6B13B13
6 7 6 E9
5
5
B13
E13
E13
B13
FIGURE
3
6
6
6
6
7
5
6
6
6
7 7
1
6 8 6

7 Medium
6 6
6
Swing
6
69
6 9 6 8 9 10
8
6
6
6 8 6
8
8
6
6
8
6
8
6

87B9
6 7 3 87 87 E977 88
87 67 677 8
88 6
7 87 7 8 5
B13
8
7
78
1
6
8 6 8 6
E9
6
6 8 66
6 6 F13
7
5 B13
6
6
6
7 7

E13
E13
B13
E9
B13
5 B13
66 6 8 6
9 6
8 8 6 6 8 6 8 6 7 8 6 7 7 65 8 6 9 88F13
633 6 7 68 69
FIGURE
7 FIG.
7
9 10
8

6 6 68 66 6 88 6 8 8 66
8 6 56
6 7 6
Medium
58 8 6Swing
8 8 6 76 8 8 8
8 6 788
3 8

7 7 7

5 8
7
7
7
7
8
8 8 8
7
7

8
8
E96
6B9
6
6
7
5 B13B13
6
6
6
7 7
1FIGURE
E9
3

6 6
8
6
6
5

6 8 6
8 6
83 9
9 6
8
8 6 6 8 6
8 6

Medium
6 Swing

6
9 8 6 7
8 6
76
8 6
7
7
7
58
3

6
8
6
5
6
6
6
7
6
7
8
6
8 6 8 6

B13
E9 8 8

5B98
8
5
8 B13
15 E9

6
8
6
6
F13
B13
F13
(B9)
8
8
8
8 6 E13
FIGURE
6 8
8 6
9 3 66 7 68 98 6 5 9 6 6 8 6 8 6 6 8 6 8 6 7 68 76
9 88 6 6 7
7 67 7 5
510 88 8 Swing
Medium
8 6 8 9 8 6 8 6
8
8
8
5
8
8
6
8
6
8 6
3
10
6 8
8
8 9 8 6 8 6
6
3
8
8
8
B9
E9
B13
8
8 6
8
5
7
6 5
7
1 E9
B13
8
7
6
5
8
8 6 8 6 6 8 B13
F13 6 8 88 68 8 6 (B9)
5
F13 8 9 8 6 E13
9 6
6
8 6
9 6 7 63
510 88 86 10 86 68 5 8 6 6 8 88 8 6 5 8 98 8 686 8 76 68 97 8 76 8676 78 635 866 9 8 6 7 8 6 8 8 66
B13 8
3
F13
B13
F13

8
8
8
8 E13
6
8
5 E9
7
68 5 6 (B9)
67
85 6
9

8 7 6 5 8
6
98 88 8 6
8 6 8 9 8 6 8 6
10 8
68

FIGURE 1

0
0
0
0
0
0
7

B7
9 1
B7 1

FIGURE 1

0
0
00
00
00
00
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

5
9
9

E9
F13

510 88

6 5
86 10 3 86 8
8
8

86

6
6
8
8 88
8
8 7 6 5 8

E13

6
6
8 10

8 6
6 8

6
6
8 6
8
8 3 88
5
8
8
8 E13
6
8
F13
8 7 6 5 8
8 10 8
8 6
8 10
6 8
8
8
8 6
8
F13
E138 7 6 5 8 3

10 8

8 10

6 8

8 7 6 5 8

8
3

8 6

B9

0
0
00
00
00
00
0
0

8
8 B13 8

B13

68 97 8 6 86 6 7

6 37

F13

6
6 8
6 7 3
8 9 8 6 8 66 7
8
8 9 8 6 8 6
6
8
8
6 7
B13
F13 6 7
8 9 8 6 8 6

8 9 8 6 8 6

B13
8 9 8 6 8 6

F13

8 9 8 6 8 6

7
7

8 8 8
9 8 6

8 8 8

8 6 (B9)

8 8 8

8 8 8

5
(B9)
5

(B9)
5

STREET JAZZ ALTERATIONS


JAZZ-Blues soloing, part TWO
FIG. 1 1
FIGURE
Medium Swing

B13 B7#5#9 (9) E9

6
8
7
6

9
7
7
6

6
6
6
5

6
5
6
5

B13

B75#9

F9

6
8
7
6

9
9
9
8

8
8
8
7

6
5
6
5

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE
Medium Swing

B13

B9

B9

B9

8
7
6

6
5
6
5

F7#9

B7#5

E9

7
7
6

6
6
5
6

5
3
5
4

8
6
8
7

B9

B7#5#9 (9)

E9

6 8

B7#5

9
8
7
8

7
8
7
8

6
5
6
5

6
6
5
6

6
5
6
5

6
6
7
8

E9

B9

F7#9

F79

10

E9

B9

F9

11

E9

B9

1/4

B75#9

E7

B9

B13

B13

1/4

F+

B9


B13

E7

F79

over extended chordschords with


numbers on em, namely ninths and
13thsthat are typical of uptown blues.
Now, well go a step further and look at
altered chords. At first, the mere sight of
an altered chord (i.e., a dominant-seventh
chord with a raised or lowered fifth or
ninth degree) may cause temporary paralysis of the soloing muscles, but a little
street jazz strategy will get you going.
The most direct way to incorporate
an alteration into a solo is to locate the
specific alteration within the chord and
build it into the flow of a straight-up
blues phrase. Rather than starting with
altered scales like diminished and whole
tone, which can be unwieldy to manage in
the midst of a solo, the focus is on playing
the individual altered notes with a bluesy
touch and rhythm.
FIGURE 1 is a 12-bar jazz-blues accompaniment with altered chords. The solo
in FIGURE 2 extracts the alterations and
incorporates them into a blues solo. In
bar 1, the phrase starts as a stock blues
lick and finishes with alterations lifted
directly from the rhythm guitar voicing.
Bar 4 goes the other way, first following
the contour of the Bf7s5 chord and then
morphing into a minor blues lick. In bar
6, the melody tracks the top notes of
E diminished 7 (E G Bf Cs) and in bar
9 directly climbs the Bf altered chord
voicing. The melody in bar 10 echoes
the voicings for F7s9 and f9 (altered
five chords), and the chorus concludes
with an F augmented arpeggio (F A Cs).
Between alterations, standard uptown
blues phrases provide the glue.
In the street-jazz approach, theoretical explanations take a back seat to playing. By focusing on specific notes drawn
directly from the harmony and playing
them with blues rhythm and touch, you
can expand your useful vocabulary more
quickly than playing by the book. For
inspiration, go to YouTube and check out
Tiny Grimes and Bill Jennings (with Bill
Doggett), two players who swung first
and asked questions later.

IN CHAPTER 1, WE DISCUSSED SOLOING

11

F+

10

10

B9

8
5

10

SOLOING OVER SUBSTITUTIONS


Jazz-blues soloing, part 3
jazz-blues will focus on street jazz
strategies for soloing over typical 12-bar
chord substitutions. Like chord alterations, chord substitutions create alternate pathways through the basic changes of a 12-bar blues (refer to Chapters 1
and 2 and the Talkin Blues DVD).
The first step in developing a solo over
constantly moving changes is to look at
the voice leading, or how the notes of each
chord (particularly the highest note) connect to the next chord. In a well-arranged
rhythm pattern, voice leading creates a
melody line, and by using this line as the
foundation for a solo you can begin to
navigate the changes before you master
the theory behind them.
FIGURE 1 is a 12-bar chord pattern that
includes standard jazz-blues substitutions. As such, the voice-leading
melody isnt particularly bluesy, but if
you articulate the notes with the same
sort of rhythm and touchdynamics,
blue notes, sliding, vibrato and so on
that you would use on a straight-ahead
blues solo and fill around the edges
with some standard blues phrases, the
resulting blues-jazz hybrid sets the
stage for further refinement as you get
deeper into the style.
FIGURE 2 illustrates this approach. After
opening with standard blues phrases
in bars 13, bar 4 tracks the Fm7-Bf13
substitution with a bluesified chromatic line. In bar 6, the melody emphasizes the minor third of the passing
chord Efm7 (iv7). Bar 8 introduces a
standard jazz-blues sub, VI7 (G7); the
melody nails the major third (B), then
moves up a half step to reflect the C9
(II9) in bar 9, followed by a standard
blues phrase over the V7 chord (F7).
The turnaround phrase (bars 1112)
economically tracks the changes.
In blues and jazz soloing, rhythm and
touch are the trump cards. A study of
jazz harmony will answer the whys
and method books will provide a lot
more hows, but theory is not a prerequisite for survival. The school of street
jazz has graduated generations of influential players.

FIG. 1 1
FIGURE
Medium Swing
B13

E9

6
8
7
6

6
6
6
5

G13

3
5
4
3

7
6
7
6

C9

F7

8
5
7
8

6 6

6 8

8
7
6

F79

7
6
8
6

6
5
4

G7#9

6
8
7
6

6
6
4
5

8 6

B7

B9

7
6

6
5
6
5

C9

F7#9

B9

4
4
2
3

B9

1
1
1
0

E9

Em7

A13

7
8

3
3
3
2

B13

8
7
8
7

A13

6
6
5
6

Em7

E9
E7

Fm7
B13

9
8
10
8

E9

B13

B13

8
6
8
7

Fm7

6
5
6
5

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE
Medium Swing

B9

8
6
8
7

G79

E7

6 8

G13
G79
C9

B7

B9

THE LAST ENTRY IN THIS TRILOGY ON

1/4

10

F7

F79

8 6 8

B13

9 8 6 8

6 6

G7#9

9 8

C9

F7#9

7 6

8 6

B9

RAGTIME GUITAR

How to play like Blind Blake


AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH

century, before the emergence of blues


and jazz, one of the hippest beats in
American contemporary music was
known as ragtime. Formed from a mashup of European marches and syncopated
(ragged) African-based rhythms,
sophisticated piano rags by composer Scott
Joplin and others topped sheet music
charts in the days before sound recording
was commonplace.
Guitarists attempting to adapt ragtimes tricky two-handed keyboard
rhythms to just six strings faced a significant challenge. One who surmounted
it brilliantly was Arthur Blind Blake.
Virtually nothing is known about Blake,
but the 80 sides he recorded for Paramount Records between 1926 and 1932
represent a survey of guitar artistry that
is as musically inspiring as it is technically daunting.
FIGURE 1 shows typical ragtime changes
in the key of C. Strum through the progression to familiarize yourself with
the fingerings (using your thumb to fret
the low Fs on the D7 chord is recommended). Next, pick out a two-beat
alternating bass pattern while fretting the
chords. Rags were originally performed
fingerstyle, but hybrid (flatpick-andfingers) technique also works. Use downstrokes and mute the bass strings near
the bridge with the heel of your picking
hand. This will help make the alternating
bass notes sound tight and bouncy and
prevent them from ringing together.
The fun begins when the ragged
melody starts bouncing around against
the steady bass pattern, as in FIGURE 2, an
arrangement similar to Blake compositions like Wabash Rag and West Coast
Blues. Take it chord by chord, playing the
melody by itself without the bass pattern
to learn the rhythmic placement of the
notes, then add the bass and play it very
slowly, with total accuracy. In bar 3, youll
need to temporarily barre your index finger across the high E string at the first fret
to capture the F natural while still holding
the C note on the B string. In bars 5 and 6,
hammer-on certain notes in the melody
while simultaneously picking the bass
note. Practice slowly and repeatedly until
you can play it smoothly.
To emulate Blakes distinctive rhythmic bounce, repeat the phrases until your

FIG. 1 1
FIGURE
q = 100
A7

3
2
2
2 2
2
0
0

3
2
2
2 2
2
0
0

2.

F#

1
1
2
3


2
1
2
1

D7/F#


2
1
2
0 0


2
1
2
0 0

0
2

3
1
0
2
3

3
2
2
2
0

3
3
4
5 5

3
3
4
5 5

A7

1.
G

D7



0
0
1
2 2
0

2
0

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
2 2
2
3
3

2
1
2
0

G7

0
1
0
2
3

D7/F#

FIGURE
FIG. 2 2

A7

Palm mute bass strings throughout


2

1.

5
2

3
2

4
5

1
2

F#

1
3

3
2

1
2

picking hand dances across the strings, something


that Blake achieved with little apparent effort while

2
1
2

2
1

1
0

0
2

2
0

D.C.


0
1

0
3

0
2

0
2

A7
D7
G7

2
3

0
1

2
1

2
1
2

2.

5
2

1
3

singing and tossing out licks and verbal asides. But


remember: patience is required.

IMatching
HEARtheAsoloMELODY
to the song
THE TIME-HONORED WAY TO DEVELOP

a blues-guitar style is to learn and


borrow phrases from accomplished
playersa technique also known as
stealing licks. But even with a fistful
of licks, you still face the challenge of
how to organize them into a solo and,
beyond that, how to keep every solo
from sounding more or less the same.
Heres one solution so obvious that its
easy to ignore: learn songs, not just licks.
Learning songs takes you past cookiecutter blues licks to the reason blues was
invented in the first place: to express a
universal story in a personal way.
All blues songs have similarities
thats how we know theyre blues,
after allbut every song also contains
something unique that you can apply to
your solo to take it beyond the generic.
Start with the vocal: learn the melody on
your guitar and analyze how it relates to
the harmony and rhythm. Vocal melodies
often include non-guitar-oriented
phrases that expand your repertoire of
ideas and way of thinking on the guitar.
Equally important, listen to what the
song is about: the message of the lyrics
and overall attitude, e.g. bitter, sweet,
vengeful, or regretful. As you play, focus
on this feeling, not just on technical
execution. If your solo isnt related in
some way to the particular song youre
playing, it can project a one-size-fits-all
quality, even if its well executed.
To illustrate, FIGURE 1 is a chorus of W.C.
Handys St. Louis Blues, one of the
most famous blues songs of all time, and
FIGURE 2 is a solo based on the same song.
The solo alternates between interpreting
the melody and answering it with improvised fills (call and response). Rather than
literally restating the melody, its harmonized with sixth or third intervals and
flavored with other embellishments, and
the improvised answers are inspired by
the feeling of the song and shaped to fit
around the melody.
Using the same approach, tweak the
melody to taste and substitute your own
fills to create your own version of St.
Louis Blues.

FIGURE
FIG. 1 1 Slow Blues
A7
1

D7

I hate to see

A7

the eve-ning sun

A7

the eve - ning sun

A7

hate to see

E7

A7

cause my ba - by

has done left


5

E7

this town

melody

answer

D7

6
6
5
6

5
5
4
5

A7

2 4

57

4
6

4
5

2
2

7
7

melody

D7

A7

5
6

8 10

85

melody

3 3

answer

go down

go down

FIGURE
FIG. 2 2 Slow Blues

D7

E7

5 5

9 12

7 5

7 6

6
6
5

answer

A7
E7
A7
3




3
3
3
3

3
3

10

5
5
4
5

5 7

7 5

8 7

8 5

5
7

4 7
5

DEAD
THUMB
(OR
PICK)
A useful, cool-sounding self-accompaniment technique
THERES A DISTINCT FEELING OF

accomplishment in being able to pick up


the guitar and play a complete piece of
music without relying on the participation of others. But many self-accompaniment techniques can be daunting to
master. In this chapter well take a look
at one of the more accessible ways of
backing yourself up, a style poetically
known as dead thumb.
Dead-thumb accompaniment simply
means keeping time by repeatedly
thumping one bass note with your thumb,
usually on an open string, providing a
steady foundation for melodies played on
the upper strings. FIGURE 1 illustrates the
technique with a phrase similar to James
Burtons riff on Dale Hawkins swamprock classic Suzie Q. On electric guitar,
flat-pick the bass notes with downstrokes
(strictly speaking, dead pick), muting with
the heel of your palm near the bridge,
while you pluck the melody notes with
your fingers (hybrid picking). Learn the
melody before you combine it with the
bass pattern, and execute the rhythms
with complete precision. Over time, the
bass pattern will move into your muscle
memory and free your conscious mind
for improvisation.
FIGURE 2 is a 12-bar dead-thumb figure
similar to Big Bill Broonzys Hey Hey
(reprised by Eric Clapton on his Unplugged album). Again, learn the melody
independently before combining it with
the bass accompaniment, and pay close
attention to the fret-hand pull-offs. Big
Bill played with deceptively casual virtuosity, a freedom most of us earn through
an unnatural amount of practice.
Broonzys use of the dead-thumb
style preceded Muddy Waters and his
Texas contemporary Lightnin Hopkins,
who often bent and slid along the entire
length of the neck over a shuffle feel in
a manner similar to FIGURE 3. Today, sologuitar wizard Tommy Emmanuel adapts
virtually the same phrases as part of his
jaw-dropping live rendition of Arthur
Smiths Guitar Boogie. To emulate him,
convert each eighth note in FIGURE 3 to a
quarter note, i.e. tap your foot twice as
fast while playing the same notes (FIGURE
4 shows a sample). Counter-intuitively,
despite the blazing feel, the rate of notesper-second remains identical.

FIG. 1 1
FIGURE
Straight eighths q = 145
E7

(palm mute bass notes)


3
0

1/4

2
3

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE
Uptempo shuffle q = 172
1

E7

(palm mute bass notes)


2
3

3
4

3
4

A7

34

3
4

2
3

34

3
4

3
4

3
4

3
4

5
4

3
4

E7

3
2

2
2

B7
4

3
4

3
2

3
2

3
2

2
3

7
4

3
4
0

2 0

3
4

3
4

5
4

3
4

E7

5
4

2 3
4

3
4

A7

5
4

34

0
0

FIG. 3 3
FIGURE
Medium shuffle q = 100
E7

1/4

1/4

15

15

1/4

15

15

hold bend

1/4

12

10

12

10

10

10

10

10

1/4

0
4

0
2 0

2
0

1
0

3
0

FIG. 4 4
FIGURE
Fast boogie q = 200+
E7

1/4

1/4

1/4

1/4

15

15

15

15

12

10

12
0

TALK
TO
ME,
BABY
Conversational Phrasing
DISCUSSING THE SOURCES OF HIS

distinctive style, blues guitar great Albert Collins once revealed that he was
inspired not only by the usual musical
influences but also by the rhythms and
mannerisms of everyday speech. Collins took the idea further than most,
but he was not unique in this regard
conversational phrasing is a secret
ingredient in the styles of many great
guitar players.
Conversational elements usually
consist of a short cluster of notesbe it
a quick slide down the neck, a couple of
rapid pull-offs or a sweep-picked burst
tacked onto the end of a phrase, like
adding the sentiment get my drift? to
the end of a sentence. FIGURES 1ad illustrate
examples of these kinds of embellishments in the styles of B.B. King, Freddie
King and Collins. Use consecutive upstrokes (a sweep) when string crossing
to smooth out your attack and make the
extra notes more subliminal.
Tacking these little flurries onto the
ends of phrases contrasts sharply with
the smooth, sustained effect of vibrato, a
difference that Collins exploited to create different characters in his solos. In
Conversation with Collins, for example, a guilty wife (smooth, vibrato-laden)
tries to sweet-talk her riled-up husband
(intense, percussive) in a musical minidrama, like an argument heard through
a motel room wall. Players on the wild
side, like Johnny Guitar Watson,
Buddy Guy and Jimi Hendrix, also create
conversational effects with fast, arrhythmic note clusters, attacking the strings
like a hyped-up, in-your-face street hustler delivering a musical beatdown.
FIGURE 2 illustrates some of these
conversational techniques over a slow
blues groove. The solo opens with four
bars of her sweet-talking in classic
B.B. King style, but he responds in
bars 57 in a way that is not positivea
Collins-esque swoop and sweep is followed by a Hendrix-inspired minorpentatonic cascade. (The rhythms are
approximatejust cram the notes in
between the bar lines.) Another attempt
at romance in bars 8 and 9 is met with a
snappish retort in bar 10 (pluck with the
fingernail for added emphasis), and the
last-ditch plea in bar 11 draws a final,
and downright obscene, kiss-off. Shes
sleeping alone tonight.

FIG. 1a1a
FIGURE

FIG. 1b1b
FIGURE

A7

10

8 9


A9

11 10 12 12 1012

12 12
12

11

11

10 9

7 6 5

12

10

10

11

1/2

5 7 7 7 5 7 5 7

5
X

A9

11

10 10 10

11

10

11

12 12 10 10

E9

A9

10

10 10

11

Eb9

D9

5
5 11
4
5

X
X
X
X

6
6
5
6

X
3

10

A9

11

12

88
78

12

12

12

E9
7
7
6
7

F9

D9

12 12

5 3 0
3

10

11

75

10 12
14
14 14
12 12 10
!
11

D9

7 5

7 7 7 7 5

12 12

10 10 10

D9

10 10 10

8 10 8

10

10

7
3

A9

12

10 8 5

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE
slow blues

10

FIG. 1d1d
FIGURE

FIG. 1c1c
FIGURE

10 9 10 10 8

7
7
6
7

10 12

IFThe6Versatility
WAS 9of Sixth and Ninth Chords
THE NUMBER OF THEORETICALLY

possible guitar chords is seemingly


infinite, but when it comes to playing a
given style, most players wind up with
a relatively small set of go-to voicings.
Within the range of genres that comprise
Americana blues, country, swing, rockabilly, R&B etc.two chords in particular
stand out as real workhorses: the major
sixth and the dominant ninth. When triads
are too vanilla and dominant sevenths too
salty, sixths and ninths bring just the right
amount of harmonic flavor to the party.
The sixth and ninth are structured differently (FIGURE 1) but certain partial voicings share identical fingerings, so its easy
to slide them around to create colorful
chordal melodies and rhythms (FIGURE 2).
In blues, two of their most common applications are the classic T-Bone Walkerinspired slow rhythm part in FIGURE 3, ideal
whenever a smoky-sexy vibe is called for
(think male dysfunction ad), and horn
section rhythms (FIGURE 4), the punchy
two-bar chord riffs that adorn a multitude
of blues arrangements. By varying your
tone and attack, you can use these across
the blues spectrum from smart uptown
swing to wild barroom shuffles. (For the
latter, check out the edgy chording of
Howlin Wolf guitarist Willie Johnson on
tunes like Rockin Daddy.)
The sixth/ninth combination is also
right at home with musical cousins country & Western, Western swing and rockabilly, not coincidentally because the steel
guitar (a la Hank Williams) is typically
tuned to an open major sixth voicing. Harmonizing the dominant (Mixolydian) scale
with sixth and ninth voicings provides the
framework for chord-melody solos like
that demonstrated in FIGURE 5. (Note that
dominant chords and scales have a oneto-one relationship, so when the chord
changes, the scale changes along with it).
Going back uptown, create some
street jazz-style chord-melody by
harmonizing a minor pentatonic scale
with a single sixth/ninth fingering (FIGURE
6); the scale provides a bluesy center
of gravity while the harmonic tension
says jazz. Since the fingering doesnt
change, concentrate on the melody;
individual chord names are largely irrelevant in his context.

FIG. 1 1
FIGURE

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE
C6

chord tones: 1,3,5,6

1,3,5,b7,9

C6

C9

5
5
5

3
3
3

3
3
3

C6

C9

C6

6,1,3

5,b7,9

3,6,1

9,5,b7

1,3,6

12
13
14

10
11
12

8
10
9

6
8
7

5
5
5

b7,9,5

C6

7
9
8

F9

8
10
9

C6

3
3
3

5
5
5

(B6) C6

8
10
9

C9

3
3
3

FIGURE
FIG. 4 4 shuffle

C9

FIGURE
FIG. 3 3 slow blues

C6

C9

(E9) F9

8
8
8

7
7
7

C6
12
13
14

C6

11
12
13

12
13
14

F9

(B6)
12
13
14

F6

F9

F6

F9

F6 F9

15 15 13
16 16 15
17 17 14

11
13
12

13
15
14

15
16
17

13 11 11
15 13 13
14 12 12

G6 (G6)G6

7
8
9

7
8
9

6
7
8

FIG. 6 6 jazz swing


FIGURE
1

12
13
14

C6

E6

F6 F9

8
10
9

11
13
12

13 11
15 13
14 12

F6
14
16
15

15
17
16

G6

13 11
15 13
14 12

15
17
16

15
17
16

G6

14
16
15

G6 F6
14
16
15

14
16
15

13
15
14

14
16
15

7
9
8

8
10
9

7
9
8

F6

F9

13
15
14

13 11
15 13
14 12

F6

F9
13 11
15 13
14 12

11
13
12

C6

11
12
13

10
11
12

8
10
9

6
8
7

5
5
5

(B6) C6 (B6) C6

8
10
9

B6

8
10
9

7
9
8

6
8
7

8
10
9

C6

B6 C6

8
10
9

7
9
8

8
10
9

3
3
3

6
7
8

10
11
12

8
10
9

8
10
9


C9
15
15
15

B6 C6
7
9
8

11
12
13

G6

15
15
15

7
8
9

(B6) (B6)

C9

B6 C6
7
9
8

14

8 8
10 10
9 9

13

(G6) G6

3
3
3

B6 C6

6
8
7

C6

B6

8
10
9

(B6) C9
4
4
4

6
8
7

C6

11 12 11 12
12 13 12 13
13 14 13 14

8
10
9

6
8
7

10
11
12

12 12 10
13 13 11
14 14 12

8
10
9

8
10
9

(B6) C9

C6

C9

8
10
9

C9

F9 F6 F9
13
15
14

3
3
3

C6

8
10
9

12
13
14

C6

3
3
3

C6

8
10
9

13
15
14

11
13
12

3
3
3

C9

5
5
5

C9

(B6) C6 (B6) C6

5
6
7

14
16
15

F9

13
15
14

G6

5
6
7

7
9
8

11
12
13

C6

C6

(B6)
12
13
14

3
3
3

(B6) C6

8
10
9

C6

C6

8
8
8

FIG. 5 5 country swing


FIGURE
1

C9

8
10
9

14
16
15

CHRISTIAN
VALUES
The legacy of the worlds FIrst electric guitar star, Charlie Christian
IN AUGUST 1939, AN UNKNOWN

23-year-old from Oklahoma City plugged


in his electric guitar and got ready to
audition for Benny Goodman, then one
of Americas most popular bandleaders.
After a now-legendary 45-minute
jam session, Goodman hired him on
the spot, and within months Charlie
Christian became known worldwide as
the undisputed king of the still-novel
instrument. His recording career would
be tragically shortless than two years
before his hospitalization and subsequent
death from tuberculosisbut he left
behind a collection of brilliant solos that
continue to inspire anyone who seeks
sophisticated melodies that rock.
Swing is based on a four-on-the-floor
dance groove, and Christian had a special
gift for creating propulsive energy by syncopating (rhythmically shifting) a single
note or simple melodic motif against the
beat, an approach later widely exploited
by soloists in jump blues, R&B, rockabilly
and rock and roll. FIGURES 13 illustrate
Christian-esque phrases similar to those
he played on Breakfast Feud (11 complete versions of this tune were captured,
each featuring a unique solo) and his
showcase number, Solo Flight.
Christian balanced this rhythmcentered approach with long,
sophisticated melodic lines influenced
by saxophonists, particularly Lester
Young. Some of his most adaptable ideas
were devised to fit the five chord (V7)
and subsequent turnaround in a blues
progression, a perennial challenge for
soloists. Many of these signature phrases
are based around an easy-to-finger V13
arpeggio, for example, F13 in the key of Bf
(FIGURE 4), which Christian rearranged and
filled in with chromatic (half-step) tones
to create seemingly endless variations,
like those in FIGURES 57.
FIGURE 8 assembles a few Christianstyle ideas into a 12-bar blues framework.
After the syncopated opening phrase (like
FIGURE 2), a short melodic figure is moved
to different beats (bars 57). Next, a variation on his trademark V7-I/turnaround
pattern culminates in a final diminished
arpeggio, another Christian favorite.
Seven decades on, Christians brilliance still translates directly to jump,
psycho-billy, cow-punkAmerican music
goes by many names, but where theres a
driving beat and a good guitar, youll find
a place for Christian values.

FIG. 1 1
FIGURE

B7

FIG. 2 2
FIGURE

F13

11

FIG. 3 3
FIGURE

B7

11

8 8

6 8

8 8

6 8

FIG. 4 4
FIGURE

11

11

6 8

11

6 8

6 8

6 8

8 6

8 7

F13

FIG. 5 5
FIGURE

10

F7

10 8

10 8 10

FIG. 6 6
FIGURE

8 10 8

10

FIG. 7 7
FIGURE

B7
8

8 10

8 10

10 9

8 7 10

6 8 6

11

10

10 9 8

6 8 6

10

11

10

B7

10 9 8

11

8 10

11

8 6 7

7 8

10

6 8

9 8 6

6 8 6

10 8

10 8

10

6 7

11

11

10

8 10

9
8

8 10

9 10

B7
10 8

B7

F7
11

10 10

10

B7

B7

10 8

F7

10 9 8

11

E7
6

10

F7
10

8 9 10

FIG. 8 8
FIGURE
1

7 10

(B7)
8

THE
SPANISH
TINGE
A SIGNATURE ELEMENT OF THE NEW ORLEANS SOUND
AMERICAN MUSICBLUES, JAZZ, R&B,

country and all the restwere formed


from the blending and reblending of African, Caribbean and European musical
elements in the social cauldron of these
United States. New Orleans, Louisiana
a.k.a. NOLAwas a crucial first point of
cultural contact and cited mainly as the
birthplace of jazz, but by the early Fifties,
New Orleans was also home to a distinctive style of rhythm and blues. The difference was in the rhythm itself. Records
coming out of the city began featuring an
unusual blend of ingredients like tresillo,
triplets, backbeat, two-beat and second line
(or parade beat).
Tresillo describes the first, syncopated
half of the son clave rhythm underlying
Afro-Cuban music, better known in America as Bo Diddley or shave and a haircut, two bits (FIGURE 1; notated for ease of
comparison in 4/4 rather than standard
2/4 meter). Early New Orleans pianist
Jelly Roll Morton described the tresillo
and related habanera rhythm as the essential Spanish tinge of jazz, a thread that
also ran through ragtime, Charleston and
southern gospel ring shouts.
After influential New Orleans bandleader Dave Bartholomew made it the central
theme of his 1949 hit Country Boy (similar to FIGURE 2), variations on the tresillo pattern became a standard feature of NOLA
rhythm and blues. With acoustic bass and
electric guitar doubling the figure beneath
steady piano triplets (a style that became a
trademark of Fats Domino) and augmented
by a backbeata hard snare-drum accent
on beats two and four of each bar, identified with NOLA drum kingpin Earl Palmerthe result was a powerful, strolling
groove that drove New Orleansrecorded
hits by Domino (Aint It a Shame, Blueberry Hill), Guitar Slim (The Things That
I Used to Do), Smiley Lewis (I Hear You
Knocking) and countless others.
Aside from doubling the bass pattern, this groove offers several options
for rhythm guitar. Start by harmonizing
the backbeat with chicks, or sharp chord
accents, on the high strings (FIGURE 3; the
examples show patterns for I, IV, and V
chords that can be assembled into various
progressions). In a piano-less lineup, the
guitar can play triplets using major triads

FIG. 1 1 son clave rhythm


FIGURE

FIG. 2 2 tresillo bass pattern


FIGURE
A

tresillo

( )

FIG. 3 3 chicks
FIGURE

5
5
6

5
6
6

5
7
7

5
7
7

4
5
4

4
5
4

FIGURE
FIG. 4 4 triplets

D7

E7

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

FIG. 5 5 bass pattern plus chicks


FIGURE
A

5
5
6

FIG. 6 6 bass pattern plus triplets


FIGURE

5
7
7

4
0

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2
0
4
4

4
5
4

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2
0
4
4

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2
0
4
4

FIGURE
FIG. 7 7 intro/turnaround
A7/G

A7/F#

Dm6/F


5
6
5

4
5
4

3
4
3

or dominant seventh chords (FIGURE 4; continuous


triplets in 4/4 are typically notated in equivalent 12/8
meter). In a small band, combine parts to fill out the
sound: for example, use bass plus chicks (FIGURE 5) or
bass plus triplets (FIGURE 6; pick with downstrokes, or
if the tempo isnt too fast, use hybrid picking. A capo is

5
2
2
2

E7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

5
7
6
7

recommended for keys other than A).


FIGURE 7 shows an adaption of a classic NOLA piano
intro that can be plugged in front of almost any tune
with this sort of groove (note the recommended picking pattern). For solos, just climb atop that mountain
of rhythm and play the blues.

Оценить