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NATIONAL

ADVISORY
COMMTTEE. .
FORAERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL
NOTE
No.

1486

DISTRIBUTIONIN A BEAM OF ORTHOTROPICMATFXI.AL


SUBJECTEDTO A CONCENTWTED LOAD
By C. B. Smith and A. W. Voss
Forest Products Laboratory

Washingto~
March 194;

LIBRARYCOPY
pEEiil
NGL;;&~f&cE~m
HAMPTON,
VIRGINIA

IIllfllllllii[lllllllllllllillll[llll
31176014258652
..-

NATIONAL
A5v-isoRi
coMiiTm FOR~Ofi~CS
TECHNICAL
NOTENO.1486

STRESSDISTRIBUTION
IN A BEAMOF ORTHOTROPIC
MATERIAL
SUBJECTED
TO A CONCENTRATED
LOAD
By C. B. SmithandA. V. ~OSS

Mathematical
e~r.ess
ionshave beenderived
forthestressdistributionin a woodbeamGf rectangular
crosssection
sub~ected
to a concentrated
natureof woodwastakenintoaccountin thederivaload. Theorthotropic
tion. Thestressdistributions
wereexpressed
In termsof infinite
series.
A methodof reducing
theinfinite
series to thesumof a fluiteseries
and
a closedformwasdescribed.
Themathematically
determined
distribution
of horizontal
shearin
thevicinity
of a concentrated
loadwas compered
withtheactualdistrib~
tionobtained
by a testof a Sitkasprucebeauof rectangul~crosssection.
INTRODUCTION
.

A numberof eqerlmentson thebendingof woodbesmsconducted


at the
ForestProducts
Laborato~haveshownsomeresultsthatme notexplainable
by theelementary
theoryof bending.It iswe12knownthatthestateof
stressthatis produced
in theInterior
of a beam,slightly
bentby sny
forces~
IUSY
be approxktedby theelementary
theorgof bendingat allpoints
thatareat a consideraldy
largedistsmce
frmnq placeof losding
or of
support.But thestressdistribution
neera concentrated
loador a place
Hence,in applying
theusuallean
of support
is noteasilydetermined.
theoq towoodbeams,discrepancies
occurintheneighborhood
of concentratedloads.Thisanslysis
is an attempt
to presentforwoodbeamaa more
nearlyexactmathematical
derivation
of thestressdistribution
nesra
concentrated
loadthatis obtained
fromtheelementaqtheoryofbending,
in orderto explain
someof thediscrepancies
thatmay arisein thebending
ofwood%eems.
Thisworkwas conducted
%t theForestProducts
Laboratory
underthe
sponsorship
andtiththefinanclel
assistance
of theNational
Advisoq
-.
Committee
forAeronautics.

NACATN No. 1486


.

..
___
.
.
...-

MATHEMATICAL
ANALYSIS
MethodofAnalysis
Thebeamdiscussed
is assumed
to be an orthotropic
solidin theform
of a long,thin,rectangular
platehavingitsedges~arallel
to twoperpediculer
axesof elastic
symmet~lyingin theplaneof theplate.In the
(Seereferences
1, 2, and3.)
analysis
woc)d
is considered
to be orthotropic.
Formathematical
simplicity
thethiclmess
of thebeamisassumed
smallas
compered
withthevertical
depthof thebeamso thattheproblemcanbe
treated
as cmeof planestress.
Thebeamis takentmbe infinitely
longti.to be subjected
to a
periodic
normalloadon theupperandlowerfaces(references
4 end5).
Theresultsobtained
arethenextended
to varioustypesof loading
andend
obtained
applyto
conditions
fora beamof finitelength.Theformulae
beamsof my thickness
thatis smallin comparison withthedepthif the
loadis considered
to be givenperunitthichess.
Thex-axisis takenalongthemiddlelineof thebeam,andtheequation
of theuppersadlowerface=ofthebeamis takento be y = + h, as ahby figure1.

Beam
Sinusoidal
Loading
of an hfinite
beam,thestress
Forthestateof planestressin the orthotropic
different
ial
solution
of thefollowing
function
is gfvenby a suitable
equation.(Seereference
6.)
8
h
8X4

+ 2K

A++=

.
.

(1)

6X28q2 87

where
(2)
and
~ = 6y

(3)
.

In equation
(,3)
(4)
.

_=

NACATN No.

lk%

Also,

EXs Ey

moduliof elasticity
inx- andy+ifrections,
respectively

%
a_
=4

modulusof rigidity
associated
withxy~lane
Poissonts
ratioassociated
withstressinx-direction
and
strains
inx- andy-directions

For thecomponents
of stressthenotationXx,Yy, and~ is used
to thesurface
force
as inreference
7. Firstthebeemis sub~ected
%

~=o

$ Cosmx 1.

(5)

on theedgesy = L h.

A solution
of equation
(1)thatcanbe madeto satisfy
theseboundsxy
conditionsIs
F=

Al coshIUcq + B1 cosh@q
(

where

COS

mx

(7)
.

=W
$ w=
andit is important
to notethat a$ = 1.
The-resulting
stresscomponents
are
-.

&2

YY.+Q2Alcoshmxq +B~COShI@q
(

Cos mx

(8)

(9J
(10)
Fromequation
(~),thevalueof ~
Alu Sinh
.

on thesurface
leadsto

IIKLGh+ B~p Sillhm@h

or
B1 = -

A~cLSiIihUK&I
B sinh@eh

=O
(11)

-.-.

NACATN NO. 14t)6

.
.

Alsofrom equation
(~),thevalueof Yy on thesurface
leads&

+n2 Al coshmoxh+ B1 cosh@3eh Cosmx =4H7COSmx


(12)
2
(
)
On solving
equations
(11]and(12)forAl andBl, it is foundthatiAl .

w sinh~~h
2M2(a sinhma.ch
coshmp~h- P sfnh@3ehcoshmu&h)
+&t SinhMcMh
coshn@eh- 13SiJ.lh@kh coshmcwh)

.
=

(13)

=
.

and

1 = 2tn2(a Silih
Wh

(14)

Thestateof stressis nowgivenby

Y = - ~ml ~ slnhml%hcoshmq -a sinhma~hcosh@q)


xx =

(
(

CLslnh@ch
=
2D~

Xy = -~
2D1

SiIlh

coshmq ~ siti-h

cosh@q

COS m

COSMX

@3ehsinh
maq - sinhma~hsinhmj3qsinmx
)

(15)
(16)
(17)

where

D~ = a sinhmcwhcoshmpeh- P shh m@ehcoshmh


.

Nexttheboundary
conditions
aretakentobe
YY=$COSMX

(y=h)

Y = b
2 Cosmx
;=O

=- h
)
(Y

(18)

y.~h

) 1
(
A solution
of equation
(1)that-can
be madeto satisfy
thesecondi
tfonsis
L + --

J?= A2 dnh mq + B2 sinhmP~ cosmx


endtheresulting
stresscomponents
~e

(19)

.,

b2F
=Y
5X*

=-m*
y

A2 SiRh

Maq +

B2 Shh

M&) COS MX

(al)

.-

NACATN No.1486

#82F_ xx= G%2 (&.2 SiIlh


IILcLq
+ B2$2sinh@q COSDIX
)
\
F3q2
_ ~52F
em2 * coshIECW + B213cosh@q sinmx
=5=
6xm

(21)
(22)

(18)sna (22) it resultsthat


Fromequations
A2Ucosh-h
or
B2 =-

+ BJJ coshm&h
A~ cosh-h
~ cosh@3eh

(23)

that
(18)and (20),it follows
Alsofromequations
maeh+B2sinhn@eh =-~
(24)
A2 SiIYh
)
(
On SOIVing
equations
(23)smi(24)for + ~
B2. it Is foundthat
- HP coshn@eh
(25)
%2= 2m2(
~ SiIih
ma~hcoshm136h
- a coshmaxhsfnhm@h)
sndHa coshma6h
(26)
2 = aL2(psinhmcwhcoshm136h
a coshmashsinhml%h)
By substituting
fromequations
(25)and (26),the stress components
become
Y = H ~ coshn$~hShh mcq - a coshmmshSiIlh
E@~ COSIllx
(27)
Y 2D2(
)
He2
@q COSm

a cosh?n#3Gh
SiIlh
mcq - ~ coshmaehSiIlh
)
=2 (
(28)

xx=

He
- cosh~eh coshn@rjSill
w

2D~ (cosh@ eh coshmaq


)

(29)

where
@ch coshmu6h
D2 = P SiIlh
mu~hcoshmPGh- a SiIlh
For isotropic
material,
it follows
fromequations
(2),(4),* (7)
thata, P, andG ereequalto unity.For thisvshe of a, p, ande, the

..
NACATN NO. 1486-

.
stresses
givenin equations
(15)to (17)and (27)to (~) reduceto tti
4 and5.)
onesthathavebeenfoundfortheisotropic
case. (Seereferences

-
.::

Thetwoproblems
justsolvedgiveperioitc
sinusoidal
loa&distribu
tionsalongtheupperandlowerfacesof thebeam. It is now evidentthat
to a verygeneral
by meansof Fourierseriesthebeamsanbe subjected
typeof loading.

Concentrated
Loadingof.enInfinite
Beam

Consider
firsttheinfinitely
longbeamacted.
onby equalandsimilsrly
directed
loadsdistributed
overequalintarv~sof lengtha. Thisdistributionof loadsmaybe regerded
as a continuous
loadof thetype

.
~x) = . ..p(x -2a] +@(x - a) +@(x) +$(x+a) +@(x+ 2a)+ ... (30)

where $(x) IS a suitably


restricted
evenfunction
ofx. It follows
that-V(x) is an evenfunctlonofperfod
2aand that *(x +a) =*(x-a) =$(x).
Theserequirements
aresatisfied
by thetypeof loadusedin reference5,
in whichthedefinition
of $(x)was chosenas

(31)
Thisexpression
represents
a unitload,sincetheareabetweenthecurve
forthe
andthex-axisis unity.For smallvaluesof & it is su!table
approximate
representation
of a loadapplied
overa smallareaby a curved
of stressassociated
witha pointloadare
loading
block.Thecomponents
obtained
as thelimit,as 8 approaches
zero,of theexpressions
forthese
expressions
reprecomponents
in termsof thepnmeter 5. Thesellmitlng
senttheexactsolution
of theproblemof determining
thestressdistributionassociated
witha pointload. Forfinitebutsmallvaluesof 8
theexpressions
forthecomponents
of stressgivetheapproximate
distributionof stressassociated
witha loaddistributed
overa smallexea.

Theexpression
for ~x) (equation
(30))canbe represented
by a
Fourierseriesof theform
tix)=bo +b2cos~+b4cos~
where

a
J
br=:
L

bo+

~x)

dx

*(X)Cos~dxr=2,4,6

+ .0.

1
...
)[

(32)

(33)
.

NACATN No.1486

Substituting
equation
(30)in thefirstof theseIntegrals
gives
.

bo=~

e.
@(x-2a)dx+
0

. ..+
[/

a
-1- !$(x+d~+

1
o

afif(x-a)dx+
/0

afXX+2a)dX

[0

+...

o @(x) J

(34)

Let
x-

2a=q

x a= x-l
=%
x+a=

(35)
xl

..*
J

Then

1
2a

3a

@(xl)-~ +
/2a

WXJ
d.x2+
.*.
1
(36)

By similarly
substituting
eqr&ion(30)in thesecondof theintegrals
(33),it follows
that
of equation
a
br=: ...+
~(x-2a)cosr~dx+
a@(x -a) cos~dx
0
/0

[(f

19(x+

2a)cos&dx+

wherer=2, k, 6 ....

...

-...

NACATN NO. l@6

.
Againmskethechqngeof variable
indicated
in equation
(35). It
results
th,at

=
. .

3a
t
@(x2)cos$# (x2- 2a)~
/ 2a

...
1
4

.
.

wherer = 2, 4, 6 . . .

(37)
=,
.

where r = 2, 4, 6 ....
On substituting
fr~ equation
(31),equations
(36)and(37)become
(36)
.>

where r = 2, 4, 6 ....
Nextconsider
the infinitely
loadof thetype

long

beamactedupononlyby a continuous

.-

*(x)= ..O-t@(x-2a) -@(x-a) +@(x) -@(x+a) +@(x+ 2a) ... (39)


-

whereas bsfore
is a suitablv
restricted
evenfnnctfon
of x. The
fucwtionn-(x)K?l svenfunction
of petiod2a.Further,
v(x+a)~w(x-a)=
by
V(x) canbe represented
=$(x) Consequently,
theFourierseries

$(X)

=bl Cos~ + b3 COB~

where
a
*(X)Cos%%
bs=~
Jo

+ b5 COS2gz + . ..

(40)

s = 1, 3, 5 ..
(
)

(41)

.
....

.,

NACATN No.1~

On substituting
fromequation
(40),equation
(41)becomes
a
b*=: ...+
ax
o
[[

-a
i- @(x)co**&
/o

-0

(1

@(
X+a)cos*ti+

a@(x+2a)cos&dx

...

where s = 1, 3, 5 ....
By makinguseof equation
(39,it followsthat

-(r
2a

@(X~)ma ~

(xl

Sa

a)dxl +

2a

!3(X2)
cos* (x2- 2a)dx2...
1

where s =1, 3, 5 ,*O


or

where s =1, 3; 5 .0.

By makinguseof expression
(31)for q(x),it follmws
that
BY@
-
~a=~ea
where s = 1, 3, 5 ... end 8
follow
.

iS ttien

veg

small-

(42)

in theapplications
that

Beamof FiniteLength
It is nowpossible
to investigate
themainpro%lems
of thispaper,
thatis,finitebeansloadedin various
waysandhavingeitherclamped
or
freelysupported
ends.
Taketheloadto consist
of a seriesof isolated
loads4 on the
upperfaceof thebeam,witha seriesof equalarfi
opposite
supporting
pressures
on thelowerfacehalfway
betweentheloads,as shownin

10

NACATN No. 1~

-B

of forces
umybe resolved
intothesumof
figure2(a). Thisdistribution
thetwodistributions
shownin figures
2(b)and2(c),whicharemostconveniently
treated
separately.

In orderto calculate
theeffectof theforcesshownin ffgure2(c),
it follows
on reference
to equations (15), (30),and (38)that m . ~,endit is necesmry towrite
H =--wa
(43)
rrfj
or
m
e-~
H =- a
1
J
accordin@y
as r = O or r> O andsumforevenvaluesoflr. Thus,
thestresscomponents
axe,in figure2(c):
\

+(44)

(45)
In orderto calculate
theeffectof thesystemof forcesindicated
in
figure2(%),it appears
on reference
to equations
(27),
(40),and(42)that
it is necess~ towrite
S*
-2W
-
H==e
a
m=%

. ..

u.

NACATN NO. 1486

are,forthe
endsumforoddvaluesof s. Thus,thestresscomponents
caseshownin figure2(b):
-%
I
S3-C5
w ,
+Emy
a
(3cosh
e
\
Y
D2
8=1,...

=-z x
(

SYC5
m -

x... ~

w#

TKy

e~

1
I

8=1,

j3coshe

(46)

cosh
J

where s has oddvaluestmd


D2=Psinh-cosh*

- asinh%

sfiuh
cosh
a

(47)

If now ~ is takento be verysmell,thesumof thetwostressdistributions


(equations
(44)and (46))wouldgivea stressdistribution
that
veryclosely
approximates
onearising
frmna seriesof loads W distribfrom
utedoversmallareas,as shownin figure2(a). It is evident
figure2(c)thatthestresscomponents
givenby equation
(44)willbe
relatively
unimportant
exceptin theimmediate
neighborhood
of theplace
of application
of theforces.
It is nowpossible
to drawsomeconclusions
concerning
theflexure
of
finitebeamsunderconcentrated
loads.Consider
theport$on
represented
by OS in figure3, It closely
approx~te~a beamof length 2a clamped
horizontally
at theendsendcarrying
a loeiiW at thecenter,

Again,consider
the~ortion
PI/.Thispertclosely
approximates
a
besmof lengtha supported
by vertical
shearing
forcesof amourit
@
on thetwoterminal
sections,
havingzerobending
momentsat P snd R

and carrying
a load W at the center. ThussectionPR represents
approximately
a beam
of length a, simplysupported
at the endsand carqyl.ng
a load W at the center.
A SimpleMethodfor Computing
Equations(Jtb)
and (k6)
It is poaaibleto expreseapproximately
eachatreasccmtponent
givenin equdtiaus
(44)
and (46)in twoparts,eachhavinga finitemmiberof term. The approximation
can be made
se c108saa desired.Aa an illustration
of themthcd of transfcmingtheexprmsionafor
the strem components
in thismanuer,theprocessis carriedthroughin detailfor thestress
ccqment xv givenin equation(U). By dividingbothnumeratoraud dencminatcn?
by

cosh

coahy,

ZE2,
..0

it resultsthatthe stressoontponent
~

in equation(44)became

-J

where r has evenvalues. It is erldentthatfor all ternsof thisseriesin whioh r is


greaterthm or eqzell.
to somenumber t, it is approximately
correctto write

~otirmeh
=a

rmh
1 eT
2

.
!1:

Ill

:1

I
.

Hence,approximately

{Y
.rfi

Xy =-y

ma
siny

ea

r=2

1
-e

r@6h
a
(

rmll
T
-e
e

rlicll

(49)

rm
siny
1

wherethe aumationIs of evenvalum of r and t iBan evennumberand chosenso that

s~p.k.

(49)

l-w@~tm e~~t~on(49)would
A closer appro~t~~ l%3f3UltSif t is takenstill
gocd
.
theapproxtition
(equation
(49))
appears
tobereaaomhs
. However,
indicate
Aft3rwritingin exponential
formthe trigonomtrlcfactcmsin~
occmln% in
the Imimltiserieem equation(h8),fourinfinitegemetrlcalprogresalm are obtelned,
eachof whichis readilyswd.
It iE fo~ that

4=-

e2 ~in 9- e32 sln(t- 2)


1 - 2e*2 .0s 2A+ e472

+IY2

sillt- 2)
2
1- 2esp2 cosm+e
4
})
SintA+e

(m)

where

71=:[d H)-5]
72=:

~c(y-h)-ij
[

P~=:ue(y+ll)+5
[

P2=:

a F

(51)

~(y+h)+b
1

L.$
\
Usually,it is not necemaq to take t lnrgarthan12 or 14. However,in eachease
mustbe usedin mder to establish
thevslusof t needed.
equation(49)

la

NACATN No.1486

andrewriti%
By applylng
thismeth~ to the otherstresscourponente
(44)canbe written
theexpression
for ~, it resultsthatequation

approximatel-y
as

w
%-z
{
-

SiIlhrvlhcoshrv~

.
.J
--J
%

52)

132)

R [ af(t,71)
+ dt, PI)- pf(t,72)
- ~f(t,

+R
[

- ff(t, PJ
- if(t,7J+ if(t,- PJ + if(t,72.)
1

where

t>%

(t

even)
ep,Q+ikl~_@~)],

dp, q) =
(a-

P)~-2e2qoos2X+e4q

1
,

(53)

...

.-

16

NAGATN HO.1486

i = $-~; Dl,D2,71, 72, PI, P2s and A exegivenby equations


(45),(47),
and(51);snd R meansthattherealpartof theqgu?ession
followi~it
equation
.(46)
canbe writtenapproximatdy
M to be tsken.Correspondingly,

_
.

as

a coshs~,
h sinhsV#

Snx
Cos
a
)

coehsv2hSinhsVIY
-

f3(josh
svlhsi~ ~2Y

Sllx
Cos
a

(54)

- @f(m,- P2~~
+ R[;.. CC@%YI)+ cf(m,-l) + Pf(m,72)
\ J

f,and i aregivenas beforeby equations


(45!,(47),(51),and(53];
and R mesnsthattherealpartof theexpress5.on
following
it is tm be
taken.
It is t~be remembered
thatequation
(52)fora smallvalueof 5
givesthestresscomponents
corresponding
to theloaddistribution
shown
in figure2(c),exceptthattheloadsaredistrib~ted
ov9ra mall area.
Theresults
forpointloadsareobtained
bg setklng8 equalto zero.
(8kpercent
of theareatier thecurveof equation(31) is over a length 25
on eithersileof x = 0.) Similarly,
equation
(74)corresponds
to theloa3

.
.
.

___

NACATN No. 1496

17

distribution
shownin figure2(b). Neitherof theseloaddistribution_
alonewouldbe ofmuchpractical
importance.
However,
hy eddingthetwo
distributions,
theresulting
stressdistribution
is thatof en infinite
beamloadedat equalintervals
by equalconcentrated
forcesactingin the
upwerdend.
downwerd
directions
altern&tely,
aa shownby figure2(a). From
thecombined
stressdistribution,
it is possible
to drawsomeconclusions
regqrding
beamsof finitelengthsub~ected.
to concentrated
....-loading. ..
-..<..
Reduction
ofEquations
(52)and (54)foran Isotropic
Bean
Thestresscomponents
givenin equations
(52) and (54) admit some
simplification
whentheysreapplied
to-anIsotropic
besm. Although
the
isotropic
caseis notbeingconsidered
in thisreport,it~ be of
interest
to determine
theforestowhichequations
(52)and (54)reducein
thiscase. For theIsotropic
case, B approachesa as a approaches
1,
end E alsobecomesequalto 1. For thesevaluesof
a ,and13,equations(52)and (54)becomeindet~nate.By evaluating
(noting
thatv,
arefunctions
of
a
snd
~),it
results
thatfor
~237> 72,PIsandP2

rtih
cosh~ cosh~ COS~
a
1

}1

+R~(y-h)P(t,?) -~(y+h)P(t,-p) -f(t,7)-f(t, -P)


[
f=
rfi~
J
rnh ~ ~~~ XEE + cosh~
xx .
a
)
=
.L 55)
{
rfih
,,.
-rfi coshy
cosh~
C08 ~
II

-:~~[slr+a

R $ (Y - h)I?(t,7)
- ~ (Y + h)P(t,~)
[
rfi5
-2 e-~
rflhcosh&
~=_;~
(= Stmh~
k
1
a
+

rfih
-ycosh~sinh~

+R-~
[

+ f(t,7)+ f(t,-P)
.1}

sin=a

IJ

(Y- h)p(t,7)
-+$ (y+ h)P(t,- p) 1

NACATN No. ~~

18

.. .
___
.

where r Is evenand
t2~(teven),

X=&,7

=~(y-h)-8~~p=~(Y
[

~P(q.+i~
)
P(p,
q) = 2
2X + e4q)[
1- 2e2Qcos
(

+h)+8

p - 2(P- 2)e2qc2X

1,I

I
(

+(p - 4)eb - (p+ 2)e2(q-iX)


2(2q-iA)~o~2A
+ 2pe
- (p- 2)e2[3q-ih)
1
\

(56)

,.
.

R meansthattherealpartof theexpression
following
it is tobe
taken.A closerapproximation
to theactual.
stresscomponent
in the
isotropic
caseresults
thelargerthevalueof t is taken.Ebwever,
any value of t> ~
appearsfrom numero~ computa~ons
to be reasonably
satisfactory.
Similarly,
equatiau
(55)beccunes
foran isotropic
beam:
and

..

._
-=

19

l?ACA
TN No.M16

(57)

(56);end R means
s Is odd;7,4, X, P, f, and i exegivenbyequation
againthattherealpertof theexpression
following
it Is to be used.
llW?~

VERIFICATION
OF ANALYSIS

~ thevicinity
of a concentrated
loadon a beam,thedistribution
of
thelongitudinal
sheerovera crosssection
ismerkedly
different
from
of theaccuracy
of
thatpredicted
by theelement~.theory.An estimate
themeth@ canbe obtained
by a comparison
of an exper~ntaldetiormination
of thisdistribution
withthatcalculated
by themathematical
method
detemnination
anda comparison
described
herein.Suchen experimental
weremadeandsredescribed
in thefollowing
sections.

NACA~ NO.1~
.
Description
of Test

_
-.
.

Theplanwaqbroadly,
to obtaina solidwood~eemof uniformstructure,to fix47 metalectric
gageson each$acein thevicinity
of the
loadpoint,to ap~lyloadandrecordstrains
by meansof metalectric
rosettes
by usinga 48-point
recorder
connected
firstto thegageson
onefacewithonecheckgageon theotherface,andthento repeatthe
application
of loadin identical
mannerandrecordstrains
by usingthe
recorder
connected
to thegageson the
opposite
faces.
A clear,straigh~ainedSitkasprucebeam-was
selected.The-rough
piecewas 3 inchesby 10 inchesby 16 fed-withtheM-inchdimension
in
Theannualringsnumbered
about18 to theinch
thetangentkl.
direction.
andtheirradiusof%&vaturewasapproximately
3 feet. Thegrainwas
almostparallel
to thelengthof thebeamthro@out-.One-&U?thero@hpiecewassurfaced
on foursidesandtr-d on theendsto givea
finished
beam1.99by 9.37by 96.o3inches.Thespecimen
wasthenstored
in a roomof constant
tanperatme
andhumidity
for3 weeksuntilits
weightibecame
constant.

Itwasdesirable
to obtainstrains
in threedirections
at definite
pointson thesurfaces
of thebeam. Theuseof electric-resistance-type
straingagesappeered
mostfeasible
provided
thaba shortenoughgage
1 inchand~
l-inchgage
lengthcanbe obtained.Metalectric
gageswfth8lengths
androsettes
withlinchgagelengths
arecommercially
available.
Strains
measured
by thesegagesareaverage
strains over thegagelengt%
and,therefore,
thelinchrosettes are not suitable
forthepurpose.
Rosettes
canbe builtup,witheitherthe~- or ~-inch gages,by mountingthegageson topof eachother.The~-inch gagesare1/4inchwide,
so thatwhentheyaresuperimposed
on eachother,thefirstgageis
shorter
thanthewidthof thegagebeneathit= Thiswasbelieved
to be
undesirable,
andthe&- inchgageswere,therefore,
notemployed.
thisdifficulty
was he& inchgageswere1/8inchwideand,therefore,
notiemcountered
in theiruse. Rosettes
werebuiltup of thesegages,ant
theeffectof superimposing
theindividual
gageson eachother-S found.
as follows.

..
=

Threerosettesi
builtof threegages
each.weremountedon thecenter

lineof a stripof ;learSitkaspruce1/4inch-thick,


1 inchwide,and
about24 incheslong,whichwasthensubjected
to tension.Thepositiom
of thegageE
sreshownin figure4, andtheValueso~the strains
observed
fora seriesof loads.eregivenin table1. In rosetts-A,
the
B, the
longitudinal
gageIs applied.direct~
on thewood. Inro@ett-e
longitudinal
gageis between
theothertwogages.@ rosette
C, the
, longitudinal
gageis supertiposed.
on bothof theothertwogages.
.
,

==

.-

Examlnatlon
of thedatatabulated
in table1 showsthatthestrain
readings
wereduplicated
to within0.00002
inchperinchin successive
loadings.The chartsfromtherecorder
werereadaccurately
to about
0.000008
inchperinch. Higheraccuracy
wasnotpossible
becauseof the
thickness
of therecordipg
trace.Whenthetracesoverlapped
prior
traces,
t~ereadings
werelessaccurate.

.
.,

Thedataalsoindicate
thattheposition
of thegagein therosette
doesnotsignificantly
Influence
thestrainrecorded.The longitudinal
strain
measured
by gage1 in rosette
A (fig.k) canbe assumed
to be
correct
becausethega4ewasmounteddirectly
on thewood. Strains
measured
by gage2 of rosette
B, whichwas superimposed
on oneother
gage,showedincreases,compared
withgage1 of 0.000010
inchperinchin
thefirstand0.000016
inchperinchin thesecondloading
at a loadof
7X)pounds.Thelongitudinal
strains
measured
by gage3 of rosette
C at
thesamesuccessive.
loadswere0.0000@and0.000068
inchperinch
greater
thanthosemeasured
by gage1. Thusthesedataindicate
thatth
superim~osed
longitudinal
gagesundergo
greaterstrains
thanthegage
mounteddirectly
on thewood. However,
thegagesmeasuring
strainat 4~
to thelongitudinal
direction
do notconfirm
thisIndication.
Gage6 wapplied
directly
on thewood. Gage4, whichwas appliedon oneother
gage,yielded
valtiesof
strain0.000040
and0.000050
inchperinchless
thanthoseof gage6;,andgage5,whichwas superimposed
on twoother
gages,yielded
values0.000050
and0.000040
inchperinchlessthanthose
of gage6. Gage8 was alsoapplied
directly
on thewood. Gage9, which
wassuperimpgmed
on oneothergage,
yielded
values0.000060
inchperinch
lessthanthatof gage8; andgage?,which
was superimposed
on twooth~
gages,yielded
values0.000030
inchperinchgreater
thanthevalueof
gage8. Theseresultsindicate
thattheposition
of a gage.(%ottom,
center,
or top)in a built-up
ro~etteafisre~tly
hasno consistent
effect
on therecorded
strains.Furthermore,
t-he
differences
In theniagnitudes
of thestrains
readby gagesoriented
in thesame.
direction
areso small
thattheymightverywellbe differences
In actual
strainfrompointto
pointIn thespqg~n:. It is assumed,
therefore,
thatrosettes
of this
type-yield
valuesof strainthatsrestificiently
accurate
forthepurpose
of thisreport.
Gagesof thistypeweremountedon thebeamwhileItwas approaching
itsequilibrium
moisture
content
in thehumidity
room. Theirpositions
areshownby thesketch(fig.5) andby thecoordinates
in table2. Th
rosettes
werebuiltup withthegagemeasuring
strainin thelongitudinal
direction
of thebeamapplied
directly
to thewoodandcentered
on the
strain.at
90to thelongipoint.
show In fi@.ure
5. Thegagemeasuring
tudinal
direction
was superimposed
on thefirst.gage
andcentered
on tk
samepoint.
Thethirdgage,whichmeasured
strainat
45to thelongi
tudinalj
wassuperimposed
on thefirsttwogagesandcentered
on the
samepoint~Additional
gageswithl-inchgage.l&&h wereappliedto
meas~e.longitudinal
strains
in the,vicinity
ofth.neutral
,..
,,.,
... .... skisas
shown.

,,~
.\-- ~;.
,,,
... . .

Point=syimmtrically
arranged
aboutthelineof actionof theload
wereaccurately
laidout-onbothfacesof thebeam by usinga square
of theg~es required
anda scalegraduated
to 0.01inch.Application
thata @me coating
of gluebe allowed
to dryon thewood. Freshglue
wasspreadon boththegageandthebeam,endthenthega& wasfix..
pressedinto
position,
thesqueezed-outglue
wasreimved,
~d a weighted
pieceof spongerubberto apply-pressure
waslefton thegagefor48 hours.
Thelayoutlines
werecovered
by thefirstgageapplied,
so thatthelines
wereredrawnon topof thegageforapplying
thesuperimposed
gage. Ho%
ever,afterallgageswereapplied
andthecoordinates
weremeasured
far
thecenterof eachgage,itwas observed
thatwameindividual
gageswere
centered as muchas 0.04inchfromthepointdesired.In comparison
with
thedimensions
of thebeam,
thelocation
of gageswas considered
satisfactory
andwaswithin0.03inchof theaverage
valuesgivenin table2.

.. ._

Thebeamwastestedin theroomof controlled


temperature
and
humidity
afterequilibrium
moisture
content
wasattained.A four-crew
mechanical
testing
machineof 10,00&pourid
capacity
wasuseciwith
a stati~
bending,jig
centered
on theweighing
platform.The Jigwasmadeof a
inch
pairof ~%inchIbeams
boltedtogether
withspacers
to givea $.
clearance
between
flanges.Laterally
adjustable
supports
were spaced
symmetrically
fromthecenterof%he Jigto-give
a 6=f,oootsmm and were...
centered
on thesupports,
boltedtc)thetopflanges.Thebeamwasthen
androller~eering
plateswereInsertad
between
thebeamandthelaterally
adjustable
supports.Loadwasapplied
to thecenterof thebeamby means
of a spherical
headanda hardaple bearing
blockcut in theshapeofa
cylindrical
segment.
A ~eat amountof difficulty
wasencountered
in attempts
t-oayply
theload. Severalloading
blockswereeachtriedin several
preliminszy
loadings,
butiheobserved
valuesof strainwere
farfromsymmetrical
in the
abouttheplaneinwhichloadwasapplied.Theslightes+rmhange
position
of theloading
blockproduced
l~ge changein thestrai~on the
facesof thebeam. Consecutive
loadings
imderconditions
reproduced
as
closely
as possible
foreachloaddidnotproduce
id~ntical
strains.The
planto observe
strains
in eachfaceof thebeamin twoconsecutive
loadThel-lnchg
ages in thevicinity
of the
ingswastherefore
discarded.
neutral
axiscouldnotbe readwithsufficient
accuracy
to yielduseful
data;48 gs&eswere,therefore,
selected
formeasurement
of strainduriw
in circlesin..
a singleapplication
of theload. Thesegageaare-shown
figure5.

L
-.
~

Ikd?ore
thefinaldataweretaken,a jointir
cut0.05 inchdee>.was

taken along thetopof%he beamto removeanymaterial


thatcouldhave

beenoverstressed
beneath
theloadblock.dwing
theyrevious.application
of load. A newhard+mpleloadblockwas-turned
in a woodlatheto an
n-inchradiusto insurea truecylindrical
s@ment. Thebeamwas again
setup andsmallloads,lessthan200pounds~
wereapplied
to check.the
centering
of theloading
blockagainstthesymmetry
of thegagereadings.

.
.
=

NACATN No. 1486

23

Movementsof 0.01 inch of the loadingblockwe~-stificient


to produc6

definitely
nonsymmetrical
distributions
of straifi.
When theloadinQ block.was
centered
to.give
approximately
symmetrical
strains--the
beam
. ----..
..
..._.
... ..
wastestedas fo~.ows.
..
.-.
.
The48-point
recorder
was
adjueted
fortheinitial
readingof each
gagewhilea loadof 15 poundswasmaintained
on thebeau.
E$trains
were
thenrecorded
forgageson bothfacesof thebesmwhileconsecutive
loads
of 100,X)0,300,400,~, and60Qpo~ weremaintained.

Olserved
strains
wererecorded
whilea constant
deflection
was,mai~
tainedon thebeam. Becausetheloadwas comparatively
smallandObly-a
fewminutes
wererequired
to recordthestrains,
plastic
flwofthe
material
of the_be~probaM.y
didnotinfluence
thestrains
o%served.
Certaingagesregistered
suchsmallincrements
of strain(lessthan
0.000008
in./in.)
thattherecorded
tracesoverlapped
andmadeaccurate
interpolation
of thestraindifficult.
Thereadings
takenforsmall
increments
of strainare,therefore,
notso reliable
as thosetakenfor
largeincrements.
Afterthebesrn
wastested,specimens
forthedetemnination
of its
central
elastic
properties
werecutfromit. Theyweretakenfromthe
partof thebeam. Fortheplate+hearltest,
thesespecimens
consisted
&
twospecimens
measuring
1/4by 9&by ~ incheseach;andforthecompression
test,thespecimens
consisted
of twospecimens
parallel
to the
grainsndmeasuring
2 by 2 by 8 titheseachandtwospectiens
~e~endlcular
to the grainandparallel
to thedepthof thebeamandmeasuring
2 by 2
by 8 incheseach.
Fromthestaticbendingteststhemodulusof elasticity
onlywas
determined.
Themodulusof rtgidity
in planesparallel
to thefaces
of
thebeamswasdetermhedby theplate-shear
tests.Modulusof.ekst$cityin compression
andPoissonts
ratiosin theTR-,TL-,LT-,
andLRdirections
wereobtained
by thecompression
tests.

Presentation
of Data
Dataobtained
fromthetestof thebeamarerecorded
in table3.-In
column(1)arelistedthewest-andeast-face
gagesshownin fl~e 5. The
gagereadings
at 15,100,200,300,400,500,and600poundsaregiven-h
Dhuensions
of thebeamat timeof test
columns(2)to (8),respectively.
tabul.ated
werereadand
.
were1.99by 9.32by 96.o3inches.The strains
checked
from
thechartplotted
by the48-point
strainrecorder.
. .,,Readings
of eachgageareplottedin figure6 andaregrouled.in
accordance
withdistance
fromtheplaneinwhichtheloadwasayplied
and
withdistance
fromthecenterl+ne of thebeam. The slob ofthesecurves
fromO to WO poundswaaWed to determine
thestrairxtabulate&ifi
~
,.
,
...........
... -.
.
.

..
.
-

column
(9) of table3. Fromthesestrainsthesheerstrainsh thexy-plane

werecomputed
forthepointsatwhichrosettes
werelocated.In table2
of thegagesme givenin columns
2, 3, 6, and7,
thex- and-y-coordinates
andthesheezstrains
sretabulated
in columns(4)and (8). Thestrains
h
bothfacesandat points0.4inchon eachsideof theloadwereaveraged
foreachgroupof gagepositions
at symmetrical
looations.
Theseaverage
..
valuesaregivenat theendof table2.

.-

Shearstrains
in the~-planeof thebeamwhensubject&d
to a ~0-pound
loadwerecomputed
by themathematical
methodpreviously
presented
for
points0.4inchfromtheplaneinwhichloadwas applied.Computations
werebasedon theelastic
properties
givenin table4 obtained
by testsof
coupons
cutfromthebeamaftertest. Thestra@ werecalculated
for
threedistributions
of load(8 equaLto O, 0.125,and0.250inch)by
obtaining
theshearstresses~ fromthethirdparti-of
eq,uattm(52)
and (54)anddividing
theirsmnby themodulusof rigidity.Thismethod
of obtaining
shearstrains
fromshearstreqses
is validO- whenthe
strains
associated
withthegraindirection
andtheradialor tangential
direction
arerequired.(Seereferences
8 and9.)

,.

Forexsmple,
thestraincomputed
at x = :.40and y = 1.48with 5 = O
was obtained.
as follows.Firstthevalueof~ wasfoti fr~eq~tion (~)
to be 0.03594,
sndfromequation
(49)thevalueof t wasestablished
as 8. Thenframequation
(52)theterm

-- c

was evaluated
andfoundto be 0.001002.The real partof theterm

--~R if(t,71) +

if(t,

Pi) + if(t, 72) - ti(t,+2)

of equation
(52)wasfoundto be 0.002806.BY addingthesetermsand
multiplying
by W thestress~ wasfound~qualt~0.003808w;
Ina
similar
mannerforequation
(54),m wasfirs~tablishedequalto 7.
Theterm
&
a

Y
S=l

ma
- .

ea

D2

Onx
coshsV2hcoshSVIY- coshsvlhCOShSV2W sin
a
.)
..

andtheterm
~R if(m,Yl) + if(m,-pl)- if(m,~2)
- if(m,-P2J
[
.. .
.werefoundto be 0.004437
a@.O.00392~,
respectively;
& SWOii~
and
multiplying
b,yW, the value o&.Xy fromequatl.on
(54) wasfound equal
to 0.008362w. Thesumof thestresses
computed
by equations
(52)and (~)

.
..

NACATIVNo.1~
at thepointe ualto 0.01217W.By
gavethetotalshearstress
5
substituting
theloadperinchof
width(XO lh71.99in.) for W and
dividing
by themod us of rigidityWws thestraineg wasfound
equalto 33.72x 10% .
Computed
straina
forseveral
pointsaregivenin table5 inwhich
columns(1)and (2)givethex- andy~oordinates
of thepointstid
columns(3),(4),and (5)givethestrains,
respectively,
with 8 equal
to O, 0.125,and
0.250inoh.
A comparison
of thecomputed
andtheobseneddistribution
of shear
strains
is presented
in figure7 inwhichthreecurves,
onefbreach
valueof 5, andthea?erage
obsenedstrains
areplotted
withdistance
fromlongitudinal
centerlineas ordinate
andthestrains
at points
0.4inchfromtheplaneof loading
as abscissa.
RESULTS
Theresultsof thecomputations
givenin table5 andthe average
results
of thetestsgivenin table2 areplottedin figure7. In this
figuretheordinates
eredistances
upwardfromthecenterlineof the
beamandtheabscissas
me shearstrain.The distribution
of strain
between
obtained
by theelementary
theoryis alsoshown.Thedifference
hereinexhibits
thetwomethodsIsmarked;thatis,themethoddeveloped
a high-stress
concentration
neerthetopof thebeamandtheelementary

methodyieldsa lowmaximumat the center of thebeam.


The data from the test exhibita stressconcentrationsimilarto
that obtainedby the more accuratetheory. The measuredstrainsat the
two points 1.48 and2.72 inches from the center of the learnagree with

the theory titbln the accuracy of the experiment. The strains


at these
twopointsareso smallthatthecorresponding
traceson thechartof the
.recorder
overlapped
andcouldnotbe accurately
read. The strainat
3.72inchesfromthecenterof theleemagreesverywellwiththecurve
theloadwti--
for ~ = O thatIs fora concentrated
load. Of course,
notconcentrated
in thetestbutwas appliedovera lengthof about
0.4inchby thecylindrical
loadblock.However,
at a distance
fromthe
regionoverwhichtheloadis applied
thedifference
in theeffectof a
trulyconcentrated
loadandoneapplied
overa smallregionshouldbe small.
The strainat 4.4-8
inchesfromthecenterof thebeamshowstheeffect&
thedistribution
of theload. At thispoint,thetheoryapproximately
inch. The
agreeswith experiments
if 5 is giventhevalueof 0.2.50
strainis considerably
lessthanthatdueto a concentrated
load.
If the
actual distribution
of theloadon thebeamwereknown,a more
accurate
solution
forthestraindistribution
neemtheloadco~d be
obtained
by integrating
thesolution
fora concentrated
loadof vwing
intensityover the loadedpsrt of the beam. However,this diekribution

~
.

26

NACA~ No. 2486

is difficult
to determine
andusually
isnotknown,and,therefore,
further
refinement
of themethod,
seemsfutile.

CONCLUDING
REMARK

.-..

.-

It a$pears
thattheshearstraina
computed
by a derived
mathematical.
methodwereverified,
as closely
as couldbe expected,
by exper-nbn
a woodbeamofirectangular
crosssection.
ForestWoductsLaboratory,
ForestService
U. S. Department
ofAgriculture
Madison,
Wis.,February
18,1947

. -

..
. ..

.-.

..
..-==

-_ x
..

.
.
-, .-

27

NACATN No. 1486


REFERENCES

forFl& I?ktesof Plywoodunder


w.: SummaryofFormulas
Mimeo.No. 1300,ForestProducts
Uniformor Concentrated
LoadJ3.
Lab.,U. S. Dept.Agriculture,
Ott.1941.

1. March, H.

2. March,H. W:: FlatPlatesof YlywoodunderUniformor Concentrated


Loads.Mimeo..
No. 1312,ForestProducts
Lab.,U. S. Dept.
Agriculture,
March1942w
3.

ofFlatPlywood
PlatesIn Compression,
shear)
March,H. W.: Buckling
. or Combined
Compression
and Shear. Mimeo.No. 1316,Torest
April1942.
Products
Lab.,U. S. Dept.Agriculture,

fortheBendingof a
4.Filon,L. N. G.: On theAp@oximateSolution
BeenofRectangular
Cross-Section
underAny Systemof Load,with
Special
Reference
to Pointsof Concentrated
orDiscontinuous.
ser.A, vol.201,
Loading.Phil.Trans.Roy.Sot.(London),
Aug.193, Pp.63-155.

5. Lamb,H.: Flexureof a

NarrowBeam. At.tiIV Cong. Intern.


MateM;. (Rome),Vol. 3, 199, p. W.

or Circular
Holeson theStress
6. Smith,C. B.: Effectof Elliptic
Distribution
in PlatesofWoodor K&woodConsidered
as
lab.,
Orthotropic
Materials.Mimeo.No. 1510,ForestProducts
U. S. Dept.Agriculture,
May 1944.

Treatise
on theMathematical
TheoryofElsstlcity.
Fourthcd.,DoverPub.(NewYork),1944.

7. Love, A. E. H.: A

8. Norris,C. B.: The Applicationof MohrsStress and SkrainCircles .

to Wood and Plywood. Mimmo.No. 1317,Forest ProductsLab.,


U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Feb. 1943.

Relations
inWoodandPlywood
Considered
9. March,H. W.: Stress-Strain
Lab.,
as Orthotropic
Materials.Mimeo.No. 1503,ForestProducts
U. S. Dept.A~iculture,
Feb. 1944.

TABLE
1.-

S!CSA15

OFWRVED
IWR0S31XW
m_O1i

A_

OFWOOD

SUWECIZl)mA~~LOAD
Strain
(in./In.)
*

Load

GaSB
1

(lb)

Gase2

Gage
3

G- 4

G~ 5

Seood applicaticaof

108x 10-6
216
328
w
561+
1%
1%
Ilk8
Xx3

10:x 10-6 U2

0
x 10-6

z12

22k

328

336
I@
376

g
796
916
1036
u60
MM
1400
1%24
ll$yj

G~e6

GaSO
~

~8

10-6 10 x 10-6
30
50
60
m

100
la)
130
la
W

E
936
U360
13U2
1440
1548
1708

ao
230
m

o
:

10-6

:Xlti

m
l~o
210
270
320
370
410
$70
510
m

Uo

%
WQ

xl
670

160
200

%
39
430
lk!a
530

F~rat
q@loatkm of load
w

100

o
----

100

la

----

2ZI

--

250

----

300
350
403
4X
500
5W
600
6$)
W
750

330
450

..

------::::
1034
u~
YE!
~

$
&l

20

81o

100
L3J

100
120

9W
1060
Imo
131.O

;$
19Q

140

2a

1%

1700

1.30

150
1-(0
lx
210

2%
,

90
150

:
80

690

910
1050
1170
I&90
1410
1520
M@

0
10

&

3P
tio

o
m

230
250

-g

load

o
x

xl

190
250

300
340
390
430
470
520
560
610

6P

50 x
m)
1X

180
230

2P

300
3X
390
430
h80
520
570
610

lo~

29

NACA TN No. 1486


.

TABLE2,-

OBSERVXD
STRAINS,A~E

VALUES,
AND COORDINATES
FORPOINTSAT

WHICHGAGES
WERELOCATED
ON BEAMTESTED(AXESSHOWNINFIG.1)

Gage
(1)

Coordinates Shear
strain,
%
(:.,)(i:.) (h./lIl.)
(4)

(2) (3)
Westface

1, 2, 3 0.97 4.48
.38 4.49
4, 5, 6
7, 8, 9 -.40 4.48
10,11,12 -1.01 4.U3
13,14,15
37 3.71
16,17,18 .40 3.72
19,20,21
37 2.72
22,23,24 -.40 2.73
.38 1.48
25,26,27
28,W, 30 -.40 1.48
5.01 .02
31
5.01 .21
32
~.oo -.17
33
.94 .22
34
95 -.17
.94 02
-.b3 .23.
-.03 -.17
-.04 .38
-.04 .03
1.04 -.17
1.05 .23
.-1.05 .03
+.00 .23
-4.99 ,02
+.00 ,17
47
A
Topof beam

-H-

Coordinates Shear
strain,
w
(:.) (~.) (fna/~no)

G-e

(6) (7)

(5)

(8)

East Face

442x 10-6. 1, 2, 3 -1.03 4.48


1140
-.40 4:U
4, g,
+14
4.47
7,
9
-314
10, 11: 12 -:E 3.72
376
13,14,15
.41 3973
?.72
-260
16,17,18
19,20,21 :% 1.48
22
99 .23
%
---23
99 .00
-36
24
1.00 -.19
---25
.01 .22
----.01 -.17
26
---27
01
39
---28
.00 .01
---29
-1.04 .21
----1.03 .00
30
---31
-1.04 -.17
---32
.00
---Topof hewn

----------------------------

Average
value
s
(both
faces)

W*4C
k .4C
* .4C
i .&

----

-9

----------------------------------

4.48
3.72
2.72
1.48

=s=

NACA TN No. 1486

30

-.

.-,.

readingn

Yin./in.)
l>lb

(2)
582X204

339
339
585
935
632
g
780
575
427
587
1000
747
682
79:
73?
684

(4)
(5)
,(3)
.20-6
5& x 20-6 536
505x 20-6
341
341
360
%3
537
832
767
673
642
655

,$!$
8%
544
934
660

735
%!
:~

700
642
582
g

635
$:

z%

570
692
512
654
755
726
695
582

565
690
502
650
679
708
693
554
7$
545
842
312
559
404
360
592
807
526
694

mo3

6oo-lbloai

XIC&lb
loai 30c&lll
10PJ kOO-lb
loa

10d

-i%

f;

$:

m
577
429
573
915
718
671
707
po
672
662
620
568
962
915
Y%
>98
3s
585
kw
542
525
po
593

702
575
430

jtip

?20

il

522
FY33
342
533
402
365
593
745
524
693
w
682

700
664
640
612
562
040
k5
*3
380

753
Em
536
30
J8
587

37
531
766
w
k02
372

593
687
502
608

45!3
305

(6)
k79x 20-6
342
X
700
636
527
2$
678
575
430
it
681
669
61_o
686
660
62iI
@o
556
ma
79Q
382
365
54
J
57
k6k
530
@
m
$83
m
m
>57
480
710
421
478
401
380
793
630
493
68+5
327
337

strainincrement m

ot,o~lb

(in./in.)

(91
*: XM-6

432

342
384
499
5s3
699
532
573
438
%2
763
6s1
654

%
615
573
441
554
%
648
52U
660
647
580
578
542
770
162
w
332
532
570
M
515
Q8
y
J79
b23
B5
$02
442

392

593
573
482
682
21.1
210

593
320
472
w
Lll
Loo

.-

!_

-4

:
-=

.,

. ..-&

i-

TABLE4.- MASTIC PPOPERITEJOF SITKASPRUCEH3Ml


W

TEI!LS
OF COUPOIW
Test value

Propertyl
Coupon 1
ModuluEof ri@dity in sheer(lb
per aq h.)
MOiulua of elasticity
in comprea81on
~
(lb per sqin.)

(lbper aq in.)

Poisson
H ratio
u~
(SM
cr~
u~

9%W

Coupon 2

9),8x)

Average
WiLue

90,690

L,641,0001,757,000L,69g,m
34,870 40,950 37,910
0.46
.21
.01
.66

0.%
.25
.02
.66

0.L18
.23
.02
.66

lLJJT andR referto direction


of grain,tirectfon
tangentto growth
rings,and direct
Ionperpendicular
to growthrings,respectively.

._.

32

NACA TN No. 1486


.

TABLE5.- COMFWI!ED
STRAJNS
IN BEAMAT 500-OtJIIIl
LOAD
FOR
8 s o, 0.125, ~

0.25 ~

coo~~~s

OFN-

Computed
strain,e=
(in.
/in.)

Coordinates

)
(i:.
) (f:.

~ = O In.

B = 0:125in.

5 = 0.250in.

0.40 1.48

33.72X lti

33,25X 104

30.87X 104

.40 2.72

%0.46

74.39

68 95

.40 3.25

146,22

131.15

118.17

.40 3.72

312.10

266.53

229.38

.40 4.10

610.70

488.07

.40 43-30

777.67
14~ .~

1068.34

813.02

.40 4.48

2591.00

1832.24

UX?Q.66

.40 4.52

.-.--
-

192292

1344.37

4O 4.56

----

1825.47

1308.34

.40 4.60

--..---

136~.33

1059.90

.40 4.66

----*.-

.06

.06

NACA TN No. 1486

Y
J,

h
of axWanddimensions of beam.
Figure l.- Orientation

..

-.-

NACA TN No.1488-

CJ

Gagei
I

_\E
*

Gage2

B
.
I

Gage
Gage6
/

/
Rosette C

Figure4.- Gagepositionsin built-up rosettes


on tension

for check test.

--

35

NACA TN ~0, 1486

y-axis (plane of load)

-41 ?0:
-43 37.
-42 39:

~~ West-face: center line ~:: 32-

34-

,4

2
$?k%
I

$i$R

Top of bea<

3
I

$%&a

Top of beam<

%=
,2354

&

East face

I
6
8 !7

P
I

/
@

Gagesusedin final

experiments
22 - Gages used in pre Iiminary tests
only
/

Figure5.- Positions of electric -resistice-~e


strain gages on,
both faces of beam. (See table 2 for x- andy-coordinatesof
gagecenters.)

,-.
. .

36

NACA TN No. 1486

.=

.
.
.

iEEEEl
I

Idl

IEH

I\l

1~1111 I

m--t-i
M-HI

Gagereadings,0.000002
in./in.
Figure6.- Curvesof loadagainststrainfor 48gagesin vicinityof
loadpoint. E, gage on east face; W, gage on west face.

.
-.
-.

+,

h,

S.o

45

= 0.00

inch> .

6 = 0,125@h

35
o Strain
computed
by advanced
theory
x Averageobserved
strain

Am

o
0
y~
b,

tr&computed
by elementary
theory

u ti

I
LO
s0

muwm
m

1
I

mm

Sht?ki%in,g

amwe~

ofobserved
strains
withcurvesshowing
straiIIs
computed
7.- Comparison
O
toy
=
4.66
at500-pound
center
l
oad.Both
alongtheline
x= O.40fromy=
theelementary
theory
andtheadvanced
mathematical
theory
ofthisreport
were
used,with8 equal
to0.0,
0.125,
and0.250inch.