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Technical Brief

Alloy Engineering Company, Inc., 304 Seaview Ave, Bridgeport, CT 06607


www.thermowells.com engineer@thermowells.com 800-827-8240

Thermowell Materials Service Guide


KEY CONSIDERATIONS:

Operating Temperature

Operating Environment

Velocity & Pressure

A thermowell is the pressure-tight receptacle designed to protect sensitive


temperature measurement instrumentation from harsh process conditions.
Usually material chosen for the thermowell is governed by the corrosion
conditions the well will face. Occasionally, extreme conditions require that a
thermowell be manufactured for strength, then coated or protected by a
sleeve of corrosion or erosion resistant material. Recommended materials for
various services are based on resistance to specific corrosive environments,
temperature, and the mechanical stresses of the process.

Common Materials
Carbon Steel (A105, A350, CF2) most often used in oxidizing environments
with operating temperatures to 1300F.

thermowell material is
usually chosen based on
the corrosion conditions
the well will face.

304 SS Nickel based alloy with good corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and
reducing environments. Operating temperatures up to 1650F.
310 SS Good resistance to carburizing and reducing environments, better
than 304 in many high temperature applications. Subject to carbide
precipitation in the 900 -1600 range. Continuous service to 2100F.
316 SS Operating temperatures the same as 304, but better corrosion
resistance and creep strength. Used in both oxidizing and reducing
environments.

416SS Most popular of the ferritic stainless steels. Used in reducing, oxidizing, vacuum and neutral
environments. Operating temperatures up to 2000F.
Low Carbon Stainless Steels available in 304L and 316L are generally used to reduce the effect of carbide
precipitation. Operating temperatures the same as 304SS.
Alloy 600 has excellent corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. Not recommended in reducing or highsulfur environments. Operating temperatures to 2100F.
Alloy 800 Same elevated temperature resistance to oxidation as Alloy 600. Good sulfur and corrosion
resistance. Same operating temperatures as Alloy 600.
Hastelloy B Excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking. Can be used in inert atmospheres
and oxidizing environments up to 1500F
Hastelloy C Excellent corrosion resistance to ferric and cupric chlorides, contaminated mineral acids, wet
chlorine gas. Oxidation resistance to 1800F.
Monel Good resistance to sea water and not subject to chloride stress cracking. Not recommended for
oxidizing atmospheres. Operating temperatures to 1000F.
Nickel Use in oxidizing atmospheres and sulfur free environments. Maximum operating temperature 1400F.
Tantalum Good to excellent resistance to corrosion to most chemicals and a high heat conductivity. Most
commonly used as a sheath material for stainless flanged wells. Operating temperatures to 5000F

Please see Materials Service Guide on page 2

Materials Service Guide

Page 2

Materials Application Service Guide


Heat Treating
Annealing
Up to 1300F
Over 1300F
Carburising hardening
Up to 1500F
1500 to 2000F
Over 2000F
Nitriding salt baths
Cyanide
Neutral
High speed
Iron and steel

Black steel
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Black steel, Type 446 SS
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Ceramic*
Type 446 SS
Nickel (CP)
Type 446 SS
Ceramic*

Blast furnaces
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Downcomer
Stove dome
Silicon carbide, LT-1
Hot blast main
Inconel 600
Stove trunk
Inconel 600
Stove outlet flue
Black steel
Open hearth
Flues and stack
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Checkers
Inconel600, LT-1
Waste heat boiler
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Billet heating slab heating and butt welding
Up to 2000F
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Over 2000F
Silicon carbide, ceramic*
Bright annealing batch
Not required (use bare Type
Top work temperature
J thermocouple)
Bottom work
Type 446 SS
temperature
Continuous furnace
Inconel 600, ceramic*
section
Forging
Silicon carbide, ceramic*
Soaking pits
Up to 2000F
Inconel 600
Over 2000F
Silicon carbide, ceramic*
Nonferrous metals
Aluminum
Hexoloy, Syalon, 1100,
Melting
Cast, Iron
Heat treating
Black steel
Not required (use dip-type
Brass or bronze
thermocouple)
Lead
Type 446 SS, black steel
Magnesium
Black steel, cast iron
Tin
Extra heavy carbon steel
Zinc
Extra heavy carbon steel
Pickling tanks
Chemical lead
Cement
Exit flues
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Kilns, heating zone
Inconel 600
Ceramic
Kiln
Ceramic, and silicon carbide
Dryers
Silicon carbide, black steel
Vitreous enameling
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Paper
Digesters
Type 316 SS, Type 446S

Glass
Fore hearths and
feeders
Lehrs
Tanks
Roof and wall
Flues and checkers
Petroleum
De-waxing
Towers
Transfer lines
Factioning column
Bridgewall
Power
Coal-air mixtures
Flue gases
Pre-heaters
Steel lines
Water lines
Boiler tubes
Gas producers
Producer gas
Water gas
Carburetor
Superheater
Tar stills
Incinerators
Up to 2000F
Over 2000F
Food
Baking Ovens
Charretort, Sugar
Vegetables and fruit
Chemical
Acetic acid
10 to 50%, 70F
50%, 212F
99% 21 to 212F
Acetic Anhydride to
300F
Acetone to 212F
Acetylene to 400F
Alcohol, ethyl, methyl
70 to 212F
Alum (potassium or
sodium) to 300F
Aluminum Chloride to
212F
Aluminum Sulfate to
212F
Ammonia All
concentration 70F
Ammonium chloride All
concentration 212F

Platinum thimble
Black steel
Ceramic
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS

Types 304, 310, 316, 321,


347 SS, carbon steel

304 SS
Black steel, Type 446 SS
Black steel, Type 446 SS
Types 347 or 316 SS
Low carbon steels
Types 304, 309, or 31 0 SS
Type 446 SS
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Low carbon steels
Inconel 600, Type 446 SS
Ceramic (primary) Hexoloy
(secondary)*
Slack Steel
Slack Steel
Type 304 SS
Type 304SS, Hastelloy C,
Monel
Type 316SS, Hastelloy C,
Monel
Type 430SS, Hastelloy C,
Monel
Nickel
Type 304SS
Type 304SS
Type 304SS
Hastelloy C
Hastelloy B
Type 316 SS
Types 304, 316 SS
Types 316 SS, Monel

Alloy Engineering Company, Inc., 304 Seaview Ave, Bridgeport, CT 06607


www.thermowells.com engineer@thermowells.com 800-827-8240

Page 3

Materials Service Guide


Chemical (contd)
Ammonium nitrate All
concentration70 to 212F
Ammonium sulfate, 10%
to saturated to 212F
Amyl acetate to 300F
Aniline to 75F
Asphalt to 250F
Atmosphere (industrial
& marine)
Barium chloride, all
concentration, 70F
Barium hydroxide, all
concentration, 70F
Barium sulphite
Beer to 70F
Benzene to 212F
Benzoic acid to 212F
Borax to 212F
Boric acid to 400F
Brines
Bromine
Butadiene
Butane

Nichrome Hastelloy C
Type 304SS
Type 304SS
Type 316 SS
Brass
Type 316 SS
Monel
Tantalum, Monel
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS

Butyl acetate

Monel

Butyl alcohol
Butyric acid to 212F
Calcium bisulphite to
75F
Calcium chlorate, dilute
70 to 150F
Calcium chloride to
212F
Calcium hydroxide
10 to 20%, 212F
50%, 212F
Calcium hypochlorite
15% to 75F
Carbolic acid, all, to
212F
Carbon dioxide, wet or
dry
Carbonated water, to
212F
Carbonated beverages,
to 212F
Carbon disulfide, to
200F
Carbon tetrachloride, to
125F
Chlorine gas
Dry, 70F
Moist, 20 to 212F
Chloracetic acid, to
212F
Chromic acid, 10 to 50%
212F

Type 304 SS
Hastelloy C

Type 316 SS
Type 316 SS
Type 304SS
Monel, Hastelloy C
Type 304SS
Type 304SS
Monel, Hastelloy C
Low carbon steels

Hastelloy C
Type 304 SS
Hastelloy C
Type 304 SS, Hastelloy C
Type 316 SS, Hastelloy C
Monel
Type 316 SS
2017-T4 aluminum, Brass,
Monel, Nickel
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Monel
Type 316 SS, Monel
Hastelloy C
Monel
Type 316 SS, Hastelloy C
(all concentrations)

Chemical (contd)
Citric acid

Type 304 SS, Hastelloy C


(all concentrations)
Type 316 SS, Hastelloy C
15%, 212F
(all concentrations)
Type 316 SS, Hastelloy C
Concentrated, 212F
(all concentrations)
Copper chloride
Hastelloy C
Copper nitrate
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Copper sulfate
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Cresols
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Cyanogen gas
Dowtherm
Low carbon steels
Ether
Type 304 SS
Monel, Type 304 SS
Ethyl acetate
Type 304 SS, low carbon
Ethyl chloride, 70F
steel
Ethyl sulfate, 70F
Monel
Ethylene glycol to 212F Type 304 SS
Ethylene oxide to 75F Steel
Ferric chloride, 5%,
Tantalum, Hastelloy C
70F to boiling
Ferric sulfate, 5%, 70F Type 304 SS
Ferrous sulfate, dilute,
Type 304 SS
70F
Formaldehyde
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Formic acid, 5%, 70 to
Type 316 SS
150F
Fluorine, anhydrous, to
Type 304 SS
100F
Freon
Monel
Furfural to 450F
Type 316 SS
Gallic acid, 5%, 70 to
Monel
150F
Type 304 SS, low carbon
Gasoline, 70F
steel
Glucose, 70F
Type 304 SS
Glycerine, 70F
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Glycerol
Hydrobromic acid, 98%,
Hastelloy B
212F
Hydrochloric acid
1%, 5% 70F
Hastelloy C
1%, 5% 212F
Hastelloy B
25%, 70 to 212F
Hastelloy B
Hydrofluoric acid, 60%,
Hastelloy C, Monel
212F
Hydrogen chloride, dry,
Type 304 SS
to 175F
Hydrogen peroxide, 70
Types 316 SS, 304 SS
to 212F
Hydrogen sulfide, wet
Type 316 SS
and dry
Tantalum
Iodine, 70F
Lactic acid
Type 304 SS, 316 SS
5%, 70F
5%, 150F
Type 316 SS
10%, 212F
Tantalum
Magnesium chloride
5%, 70F
Nickel, Monel,
5%, 212F
Nickel
15%, 70F

Alloy Engineering Company, Inc., 304 Seaview Ave, Bridgeport, CT 06607


www.thermowells.com engineer@thermowells.com 800-827-8240

Materials Service Guide

Page 4
Chemical (contd)
Magnesium sulfate, hot
and cold
Muriatic acid, 70F
Naptha, 70F
Natural gas, 70F
Nickel chloride, 70F
Nickel sulphate, hot and
cold
Nitric acid
5%, 70F
20% 70F
50% 70F
50% 212F
65% 212F
Concentrated, 70F
Concentrated, 212F
Nitrobenzene, 70F
Oleic acid, 70F
Oleum, 70F
Oxalic acid
5% hot and cold
10%, 212F
Oxygen 70F
Palmitic acid
Pentane
Phenol
Phosphoric acid
1%, 5%, 70F
10%, 70F
10%, 212F
30%, 70 to 212F
85%, 70 to 212F
Picric acid, 70F
Potassium bromide,
70F
Potassium carbonate,
1%, 70F
Potassium chlorate,
70F
Potassium hydroxide
5% 70F
25% 212F
60% 212F
Potassium nitrate
5%, 70F
5%, 212F
Potassium
permanganate, 5%,
70F
Potassium sulfate, 5%,
70F
Potassium sulfide, 70F
Propane
Pyrogallic acid
Quinine bisulfate, dry
Quinine sulfate, dry
Seawater
Salicylic acid

Monel
Tantalum
Type 304 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS, 317 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Type 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Tantalum
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS
Type 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Monel
Steel
Type 316 SS
Type 340 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS
Hastelloy C
Hastelloy B
Hastelloy B
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS

Chemical (contd)
Sodium bicarbonate
All concentration, 70F
5%, 150F
Sodium carbonate, 5%,
70 to 150F
Sodium chloride
5%, 70 to 150F
Saturated, 70 to 212F
Sodium fluoride, 5%,
70F
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hypochlorite,
5% still
Sodium nitrate, fused
Sodium peroxide
Sodium sulfate, 70F
Sodium sulfide, 70F
Sodium sulfite, 30%,
150F
Sulfur dioxide
Moist gas, 70F
Gas, 575F
Sulfur
Dry molten
Wet
Sulfuric acid
5%, 70 to 212F
10%, 70 to 212F
90%, 70F
Tannic acid 70F
Tartaric acid

Type 316 SS
Type 316 SS, Monel
Monel
Types 304 S, 316 SS,
Hastelloy C
Type 316 SS, Hastelloy C
Type 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Type 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS
Hastelloy B, 316 SS
Hastelloy B
Hastelloy B
Type 304 SS, Hastelloy B
Type 304 SS

300F

Type 316 SS
2017-T4 aluminium, low
carbon steel
Types 304 SS 316 SS
Type 304 SS, nickel
Copper
Monel

Toluene

Type 304 SS

Turpentine
Whiskey and wine
Xylene
Zinc chloride
Zinc sulphate
5% 70F
Saturated 70F
25% 212F

Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS

Types 304 SS, 316 SS

70F

Types 304 SS, 316 SS

Type 304 SS
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS

Type 304 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS

Types 304 SS, 316 SS


Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS

Type 304 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Types 304 SS, 316 SS
Type 304 SS, low carbon
steel
Type 304 SS
Type 316 SS
Type 304 SS
Monel, Hastelloy C
Nickel

.
304 Seaview Avenue
Bridgeport, CT 06607
Phone: 203-366-5253
800-827-8240
Fax: 203.334.0793
E-mail: engineer@thermowells.com

Alloy Engineering Company, Inc., 304 Seaview Ave, Bridgeport, CT 06607


www.thermowells.com engineer@thermowells.com 800-827-8240

Materials Service Guide

Alloy Engineering Company, Inc., 304 Seaview Ave, Bridgeport, CT 06607


www.thermowells.com engineer@thermowells.com 800-827-8240

Page 5