Translated by
Saleh Matin
A. S. M. Noman Alam
Edited by
Surujuddin Ahmed
Published by
Reprint : 2009
Computer Compose
Ananda Printers
Cover
Md. Abdul Halim
Design
NCTB, Dhaka
For free distribution from academic year 2010 by the Government of Bangladesh
Preface
Education is the key to development. A progressively improved education system
largely determines the pace and the quality of national development. To reflect the
hopes and aspirations of the people and the socioeconomic and cultural reality in
the context of the post independent Bangladesh, new textbooks were introduced in
the beginning of the 1980s following the recommendations of the National
Curriculum and Textbook Committee.
In 1994, in accordance with the need for change and development, the textbooks
of lower secondary, secondary and higher secondary were revised and modified.
The textbooks from classes VI to IX were written in 1995. In 2000, almost all the
textbooks were rationally evaluated and necessary revision were made. In 2008,
the Ministry of Education formed a Task Force for Education. According to the
advice and guidance of the Task Force, the cover, spelling and information in the
textbooks were updated and corrected.
The study of arithmetic has been limited to class VI and more importance has been
given to the study of algebra, so that application and use of mathematics can be
made simple and easy. For this reason, the study of algebra has been introduced
from class six. It is hoped that students can easily solve mathematical problems
through algebraic formulas. It is necessary to develop mathematical skill in the
learners so that they can study science in a better manner. Therefore, new
techniques and methods has been presented in a simple and concrete way. As a
result, learners can themselves solve their problems without depending fully on
teachers. Mathematics is a subject where practice is needed. It cannot be
memorised. Exercises after each chapter, therefore, includes both traditional
practice questions as well as creative questions.
This book of Junior Secondary Mathematics for class VIII is the English Version
of the original textbook entitled Nimna Madhyamik Ganit written in Bangla.
We know that curriculum development is a continuous process on which
textbooks are written. Any logical and formative suggestions for improvement will
be considered with care. On the event of the golden jubilee of the Independence of
Bangladesh in 2021, we want to be a part of the ceaseless effort to build a
prosperous Bangladesh.
In spite of sincere efforts in translation, editing and printing some inadvertent
errors and omissions may be found in the book. However, our efforts to make it
more refined and impeccable will continue. Any constructive suggestion towards
its further improvement will be gratefully considered.
I thank those who have assisted us with their intellect and efforts in the writing,
editing and rational evaluation of this book. We hope that the book will be useful
for the students for whom it is written.
(Prof. Md. Mostafa Kamaluddin)
Chairman
National Curriculum and Textbook Board
Dhaka
Index
Chapter
Content
Page
Arithmetic
One
Two
Percentage, ProfitLoss
37
Three
73
Four
Statistics
89
Algebra
One
116
Two
Algebraic Fraction
137
Three
155
Four
173
Five
185
Geometry
One
202
Two
218
Three
Area
227
Four
Problems
239
Answers
251
ARITHMETIC
Chapter I
Recurring Decimal, Rational and
lrrational Numbers
1.1 Rational and Irrational Numbers
1, 2, 3, 4,  etc. are natural numbers. The numbers which can be expressed in the
a
form of a fraction b (where, a and b are natural numbers), are called rational
a
type. For example, the fractions 4 , 8 , 12 , etc. represent the same rational
number.
1 4 5 6 10 8
Again, 2 , 3 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 9 , etc. are rational numbers. Zero, natural numbers,
proper and improper fractions are rational numbers.
a
The numbers that cannot be expressed in the form of fractions b , are all irrational
3
For example, 3.333 ......., 8.4567567 ........, 6.4345674567 ......, etc. are recurring
decimals.
Nonterminating Decimals: Here the digits in the right side of a decimal point
never terminate that is the number of digits in the right side of decimal point will
not be finite or some of the digits will not occur again and again and digits in the
right side will be unlimited. For example. 3.4513681437 ...........,8.26104035
............, etc.
Terminating decimals and recurring decimals are rational numbers and nonterminating decimals are irrational numbers. The value of an irrational number can
be determined upto the required number of places after the decimal point. If the
numerator and the denominator of a fraction can be expressed in natural numbers,
then that fraction is a rational number.
Decimal fraction
In class six we have discussed about decimal fractions. Here again those are
repeated. In the formation of numbers of base ten is generally used. Here ten's
place, hundred's place, ............ etc. occur irrespectively in the left hand side of
unit's place and the place value of each digit is ten times the place value of that
digit if it occurs immediately in the right side. The digit in right side is less than
ten times that of in units place. The digits in hundred's place is ten times that of
tens,..........etc. Therefore digits of tens place is one tenth part of digit in hundred's
place digits. Units is one tenth of part ten. In the formation of many number digits
tens, hundreds,............... etc. are respectively placed in the left side of units place.
Similarly tenth, hundredth, thousandths,..............etc. are placed respectively in the
right hand side of units place.
In order to identify the digit of units place while thousandth, hundredth, tenth,
units, tens, hundreds, ...........etc. are all written together, to express a number of
point (.) is placed in the right side of units place. This point is called the decimal
point.
The portion of the number in the left side of decimal point is a whole number
(integer) and the right side is a fraction. For this reason number with a decimal
point is called decimal fraction. 94.5372 is a decimal fraction. Here 94 is a whole
number and .5372 is a fraction. This decimal fraction is read as ninety four point
five three seven two. Here 5 is tenth, 3 is hundredth, 7 is thousandth and 2 is ten
thousandth. 0.78 is a proper decimal fraction, where the whole number is zero..
Sometimes 0.78 is written as .78. But it is not better to write like this.
The value of any number does not change if any number of zeros, without a
significant digit is used after the decimal point. Again any number of zeros is used
at the left side of a number, then its value does not also change.
For example, 12 = 12.000, 734.52 = 734.5200, 25.003 = 25.00300, 12 = 00012 etc.
When one, two,.........zeros are placed at the right side of decimal point before a
significant digit, then the value will be respectively becomes hundredth,
thousandth,........... etc. of its original value. For example, .1 = One tenth of unit.
.01 = One hundredth of unit, .001 = One thousandth of unit,..... etc.
When decimal point is moved by one, two, three, ..........places to the right side,
then the value of decimal increases by 10, 100, 1000 times..........and again if it is
moved to the left side by one, two, three, ... places then the value decreases by 10,
100, 1000, ..........times.
Therefore when a decimal is multiplied by 10, 100, 1000, ............then the decimal
point is to be placed respectively at the right side after one, two,..........digits and
when it is divided by 10,100,............ the decimal point is placed respectively
before one, two, ............digits at the left side. For example,
17.4 10 = 174, 39.478 10 = 394.78, 124.6789 100 = 12467.89, etc.
Again, 78.453 10 = 7.8453, 6789.23 100 = 67.8923. etc.
Those decimals whose values are the same are called equivalent decimal
fractions. For example, 12.34, 12.340, 12.3400,...........etc. are equivalent decimal
fractions. Again, those decimals which have equal number of digits to the right
side of decimal point are called similar decimal fractions. For example, 0.452,
12.467, 8.350, ............etc. are similar decimal fractions. If necessary, by placing
required number of zeros at the right side of decimal fractions, two or more
decimal fractions can be made similar.
Conversion of Simple Fractions into Decimal Fractions
To convert a simple fraction into a decimal fraction, the numerator is to be divided
by denominator. Beside multiplying denominator by a digit and changing it into
10, 100 or 1000, ..........etc. and then multiplying the numerator by that number, the
simple fractions can be converted into decimal fractions.
Remark
After dividing numerator by denominator if there is any remainder, it will have to
be changed into tenth part. At the time of changing into tenth part, the decimal
point should be placed in the quotient and zero should be placed at the right side of
the remainder. In this way till the process of division is not completed, a zero will
have to be placed at the right side of the number that occurs in the remainder etc.
and thus the digits of the hundredth, thousandth, ............parts are obtained in the
quotient.
1.3 Conversion of Terminating Decimal Fractions into Simple Fractions
To convert a digit decimal fraction into a simple fraction, decimal point is first to
be to the extreme right side of all digits. Thus the number will be whole number. If
there is one digit at the right side of the decimal point i.e. if it is tenth part, then
after multiplying by ten, the decimal point will move at the extreme right side.
Similarly, if it is hundredth part it is to be multiplied by 100, in case of thousandth
part it is to be multiplied by 1000, according the necessity successive
multiplication is to be made by 10000, 100000,.......etc. As a result the decimal
point can be moved at the extreme right side. But value of the original decimal
fraction will remain unchanged when converted into simple fraction if the whole
number thus found is divided by the same number by which the decimal fraction is
multiplied. This number will be the denominator of the simple fraction and the
numerator of the fraction is obtained when the decimal fraction is multiplied by
this number, the whole number that in obtained by replacing the decimal point to
the extreme right side the decimal point of the decimal fraction.
For example, 11245 100 = 11245, 11245 =
11245 100
. After changing it into
100
648
36
To divide 6.48 by 3.6, it is required to divide 100 by 10 .
648 36 648 10 9
100 10 = 100 36 = 5 = 18
5 ) 9 ( 18
5
40
40
0
Alternative Method
648 10 648
648 36 =
= 36 = 18
36 10
36 ) 648 ( 18
36
288
288
0
Remark
To make divisor a whole number the decimal point is required to be towards the
right side after some digits then the decimal point in the dividend to be shifted
towards then the right side of the same number of digits. Then the quotient is
found after dividing numerator by denominator.
Terminating Decimal Numbers
If the simple fraction is converted into decimal fraction, it will be a terminating
decimal fraction if and only if denominator of simple fraction has no prime factors
other than 2 and 5. In the process of division for converting simple fraction into
decimal no remainder will remain at a stage and therefore a definite number of
digits after the decimal point in the quotient will exist.
Example 1. Express the following fractions into decimal fractions:
41
627 24 9
,
,
and
32.
100 5 20
627
Solution : 100 = 6.27
24 24 2 48
5 = 52 = 10 = 4.8
95
45
9
20 = 20 5 = 100 = 0.45
32) 41(1.28125
32
90
64
260
256
40
32
80
64
160
160
0
41
32 = 1.28125
Ans: 6.27, 4.8, 0.45, 1.28125
Example 2. Express the decimal fractions into simple fractions :
3.57. 12.045. 9.825 and 0.05
3.57100 357
57
Solution: 3.57 = 100 = 100 = 3 100
12.045 =
9.825 =
0.05 100
5
1
=
=
100
100 20
57
9
33
1
Ans : 3100, 12 200 , 9 40 and 20
0.05 =
N.M.G. 3
Solution :
(a)
123.4300
87.7456
35.6844 (Decimals are made similar and then subtracted)
Ans 35.6844
(b)
523.7083
298.4500
225.2583 (Decimals are made similar and then subtracted)
Ans : 225.2583
Example 5. (a) Multiply 43.28 by 22.674
(b) Multiply 123.35 by 2.568
(c) Multiply 3.674 by 0.26
(d) Multiply 0.4325 by 0.16
Solution:
(a)
10
Alternative method :
43.28
22.674
17312
302960
2596800
8656000
86560000
981.33072
Ans: 981.33072.
(Here there are 2 digits in the right side of decimal point of multiplicand and 3
digits in the right side of decimal point of multiplier. The decimal point is to be
placed in the left side of (2 + 3) or 5 digits of the product).
(b)
12335 2568 = 31676280.
123.35 2.568 = 316.76280. (Here the decimal point is placed at the left side of
(2 + 3) or 5)
123.35 2.568 = 316.7628 (In decimal fractions '0' in the extreme right side is
omitted)
Ans: 316.7628.
(c) 3674 26 = 95524
3.6740.26 = 0.95524. (Here the decimal point is placed at the left side of (3+2)
or 5 digits)
Ans: 0.95524
(d) 4325 16 = 69200
0.4325 0.16 = 0.069200 [Here the decimal point is to be placed at the left side
of (4 + 2) or 6 digits. But the product consists of 5 digits and so the product has
been made of 6 digits by placing 0 at the extreme left and then decimal point has
been placed.]
Again 0.069200 = 0.0692
0.4325 0.16 = 0.0692.
Ans : 0.0692
11
12
0.5 10
= ,
8 10
80)500(0.0625
480
200
160
400
400
0
8)0.50( 0.0625
48
20
16
40
40
0
Ans : 0.0625
Remark : At present in our country terminating decimals are used for currency, weight,
measurement of length and area, etc. Therefore, it is essential to acquire knowledge about
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of terminating decimals.
1.4 Recurring Decimal Fractions
Some times it is found that, when a numerator of a fraction is divided by its denominator
to convert it into decimal fraction the process of division is never terminated. In such
cases the same number appears again and again or some numbers repeat alternately in the
quotient.
When in the right side of the decimal point of decimal fractions a digit appears, again and
again or more than one digit repeat successively, then these are called recurring decimal
fractions.
In recurring decimal fractions, the portion which occurs again and again is called
recurring part.
3.3333 ,10.23456456 , etc. are recurring decimal fractions. In the first
recurring decimal 3 is recurring part and in the second decimal 456 is the recurring
part. To indicate presence of the digit (s) of the recurring part a symbol (.) once
again recurring point is used upon the digit (s).
For example, 3.333  = 3. 3 and 10.23456456 ....... = 10.23456
Remark : When only one digit recurrs, recurring point is placed upon that digit.
When more than one digit recurrs, in that case the recurring points are placed upto
the first and the last digit.
13
In recurring decimal fractions, if after decimal point there is no other digit except
recurring one then it is called pure recurring decimal and in recurring decimal
fractions, if there are one digit or more than one digit after decimal point in
addition to recurring one, then it is called mixed recurring decimal. For example,
Ans : 0. 3
1
Example 8. Express 13 into decimal fraction.
14
Solution:
13) 1.00(0.07692307........
91__
90
78___
120
117__
30
26__
40
39__
100
91__
9
Ans : 0. 076923
101
Example 9. Express 26 into decimal fraction.
Solution:
26) 101 (3.88461538461
78_
230
208__
220
208__
120
104__
160
156__
40
26__
140
130__
100
78__
220
208__
120
104__
160
____156__
40
26__
14
15
Ans : 3.8846153
Conversion of Recurring Decimal into Simple Fraction
and
0.24 1 = 0.242424 ........... 1 = 0.242424 ...............
By subtracting, 0. 24 99
24 8
0.24 = 99 = 33
8
Ans. 33
Example 12. Express 5.1 345 into simple fraction.
Solution: 5.1 345 = 5.1345345345..........
Therefore, 5.1 345 10000 = 5.1345345........... 10000 = 51345.345...........
and
5.1 345 10
= 5.1345345 .......... 10
= 51.345.................
16
By subtracting, 5.1 345 9990 = 51294
8549
224
51294
5.1 345 = 9990 = 1665 = 5 1665
224
Ans : 5 1665
and
42.3478 100 = 42.347878 ....... 100 = 4234.7878...........
17
18
19
recurring decimals. For example, 0.3456 and 12.6793 ; 12.45 and 6.32; 9.453 and
Again, 0.3456 and 7.45789 ; 6.4357 and 2.89345 are nonsimilar recurring
decimals.
The Rule of Changing NonSimilar Recurring Decimals into Similar
Recurring Decimals:
The value of the recurring decimal is not changed, if the digits of its recurring part
are written again and again. For example:
Example 19. Convert 5. 6, 7.345 and 10.78423 into similar recurring decimals.
20
Solution : The numbers of digits of nonrecurring parts of 5. 6, 7.345 and 10.78423
are respectively 0,1 and 2. Here the number of digits in the nonrecurring part
occurs in 10.78423 and that number is 2.
Therefore to make the recurring decimals similar the number of digits in the
nonrecurring part of each recurring decimal is to be made 2. Again the numbers of
digits to recurring part of 5. 6, 7.345 and 10.78423 are respectively 1,2 and 3.
The lowest common multiple of 1,2 and 3 is 6. So the number of digits in the
recurring part of each recurring decimal would be 6 in order to make them similar.
10.78423 = 10.78423423.
21
this way will not be actual one. It should be observed that in the process of
addition of similar decimals if any number is to be earring over after adding the
digits at the extreme left of the recurring part of the decimals then that number is
added to the sum obtained and thus the actual sum is found. In case of subtraction
the number to be carried over is to subtract from the difference obtained and thus
actual result is found. The sum or difference which is found in this way is the
required sum or difference.
Remark : (a) The sum or difference of recurring decimals is also a recurring
decimal. In this sum or difference of the number of digits in the nonrecurring part
will be equal to the number of digits in the nonrecurring part of that recurring
decimal which have the highest number of digits in its nonrecurring part.
Similarly, the number of digits in the recurring part of the sum or the result of
subtraction will be the equal to L.C.M. of the numbers of digits of recurring parts
of recurring decimals. If there is any terminating decimal, the number of digits in
the nonrecurring part of each recurring decimal will be equal to the highest
numbers of digits that occurs either in the nonrecurring parts of recurring decimals
or in the terminating decimals after the decimal point.
(b) Converting the recurring decimals into simple fractions, addition and
subtraction may be done according to the rule as used in case of simple fractions
and then the sum or difference is converted into decimal fractions. But this process
needs more time.
Example 20. Convert 1.7643, 3. 24 and 2.78346 into similar recurring decimals.
Solution : In 1.7643 the number of digits in the nonrecurring part means 4 digits
after decimal point and here there is no recurring part.
In 3.24 the number of digits in the recurring and nonrecurring parts are
respectively 0 and 2.
In 2.78346 the number of digits in the recurring and nonrecurring parts are
respectively 2 and 3.
The highest number of digits in the nonrecurring parts is 4 and the L.C. M. of the
numbers of digits in the recurring parts i. e. 2 and 3 is 6. The numbers of digits in
the recurring and nonrecurring parts of each decimal will be respectively 4 and 6.
22
Example 21. Add : 3. 89, 2.178 and 5.89798.
Solution : Here the number of digits in the nonrecurring part will be 2 and the
number of digits in the recurring part will be 6 which is L. C. M. of 2, 2 and 3.
At first three recurring decimals are made similar.
3. 89
=
3.89898989
2.178
=
2.17878787
5.89798
=
5.89798798
11.97576574
+2
11.97576576
[ 8 + 8 + 7 + 2 = 25. Here 2 is the number to be carried over. 2 of 25 has been
added].
The required sum = 11.97576576 or, 11.97576.
Ans 11.97576.
Remark : In the sum the number in the recurring part is 576576. But the value is
not changed if 576 is taken as the number of recurring part.
Note : To make clear the concept of adding 2 at the extreme right side this
addition is done in another method:
3. 89
= 3.8989898989
2.178
= 2.1787878787
5.89798
= 5.8979879879
11.9757657655
Here the number is extended upto 2 more digits after the completion of recurring
part. The additional digits are separated by drawing a vertical line. Then it is added
2 has been carried over from the sum of the digits at the right side of the vertical
line and this 2 is added to the sum of the digit at the left side of the vertical line.
The digit in the right side of the vertical line is the same as the digit from which
recurring point begins. Therefore both the sums are the same.
23
8.9478
=
8.947847847
2.346
=
2.346000000
4.71
=
4.717171717
16.011019564
+1
16. 011019565
[8 + 0 + 1 + 1 =10. Here the digit in the second place on the left is 1 which is to be
carried over. Therefore 1 of 10 is added.]
8.243
= 8.24343434
5.24673
= 5.24673673
2.99669761 [ Subtracting 6 from 3,1 is to be carried over.]
1
2.99669760
Ans : 2.99669760
Remark : If the digit at the beginning place of recurring point in the number from
which deduction to be made is smaller than that of the digit in the number which is
to be deducted then 1 is to be subtracted from the extreme right hand digit of the
result of subtraction.
24
8.243
=
8.2434343434
5.24673
=
5.2467367367
2.9966976067
Here both the difference are the same.
Example 24. Subtract 16. 437 from 24.45645.
Solution : 24.45645 = 24.45645
16. 437 = 1643743
801902 [7 is subtracted from 6,1 is to be carried over. ]
1
801901
or, 8019
Ans: 8019.
Note : 2445645
=
2445645/64
16437
=
1643743/74
801901/90 or, 8019
Example 25.
(a) Subtract 10418 from 1312784
(b) Subtract 82438 from 24435
Solution :
(a)
1312784
=
13127847
10418
=
10418000
2709847
Ans : 2709847
N.M.G. 5
25
(b)
24435
82438
Ans : 16191156.
= 24435000
= 8243 843
16191157
1
16191156
13 52 676
43 57 = 3 9 = 27 = 25037
Ans : 25 037
26
13 464 6032
The required product = 45 11 = 495 = 12185
Ans: 12185.
44
67
268
The required product = 3 55 = 15 = 1786
5
Ans : 17 86
27
732 7 725
Solution : 732 = 99 = 99
27 2 25
5
027 = 90 = 90 = 18
145 2
725
5
725
18 290
732 027 = 99 18 = 99
5 = 11 = 26. 36
11
1
Ans : 26 36
35 1602
42 314 22
of
+
22 5972
42 + 314 15
28
90
9
9
10
999
= 42 4
of
314 31
15 1
22 2
5972 5
90
9 +
9
9
999
38 283
1601
10
7
1
20 9 35 9 999
9 90
= 38 283 9 14 of 10 20 + 5967
1
7
4
9 + 90
999
380 283
1
9
1
90
10
63 1601 999
= 380 + 283 7 of 40 + 999 5967
1
4 1
90
1
90
9 1601
97
4 1601
97
388
1601 1989
1
= 5967 + 5967 = 5967 = 3 = 03
3
Ans : 03
Remark: The product of recurring decimals, may be a recurring decimal or not.
29
1) 2 (14142135 .....................
1
100
24 96
281
400
281
11900
2824 11296
60400
28282 56564
383600
282841 282841
10075900
2828423 8485269
159063100
28284265 141421325
17641775
If the above process is continued for ever then it will never ends.
The value upto the definite number of decimal places/approximate value upto
some decimal places
It is required to find out the value of such non terminating decimals upto definite
number of decimal place. Sometimes it is asked to find out the approximate value
upto a definite number of decimal places. But the meaning of both is not the same.
The value of the decimal, 5.4325893  upto four decimal places will be
5.4325, but the approximate value of the decimal, 5.4325893upto four
decimal places will be 5.4326.
Here the value upto 2 decimal places and the approximate value upto 2
decimal places are the same. This value is 5.43. In this way the approximate
terminating decimals can also be found out.
Remark : When it is wanted to find out the value upto some decimal places, then
the digits that occur in those places are to be written without any alteration of
those digits.
30
Example 34. Find out the square root of 13 and write down the approximate
value upto 3 decimal places.
Solution :
3)13(3.6055519
400
66 396
40000
7205 36025
397500
72105 360525
3697500
721105 3605525
9197500
7211101 7211101
1986399
The required square root = 3.605551 ............
The required approximate value upto 3 decimal places = 3.606.
Ans: 3605551................, 3606.
Remark : The square roots of those numbers which are not square numbers,
i.e. which are not 1,4, 9, 16, 25,  or 12, 22, 32, 42, 52, these square roots
are non terminating decimals, i.e. the numbers are irrational.
Example 35. Find out the value and approximate value of 44623845 .............
upto 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 decimal places.
Solution : The value of 44623845 upto 1 decimal place is
44
and approximate value
" 1
"
" "
45
Value upto 2 decimal place is
446
and approximate value upto
2
"
" "
446
Value upto 3 decimal place is
4462
and approximate value upto
3
"
" "
4462
Value upto 4 decimal place is
44623
and approximate value upto
4
"
" "
44624
Value upto 5 decimal place is
446238
and approximate value upto
5
"
" "
446238
31
i
Example 36. Which numbers are rational and which are irrational of the following
13
(a) 325 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 324 (e) 15 (f) 25 (g) 14
3
4
165
5
2
(h) 0
(i) 5 (j) 2
(k) 17
(l)
18
6
Solution :
325
5
(a) 325 = 100 , rational (b) 5 = 1 , rational (c) 7 , irrational, since 7 is not a
square number.
324 32 292
13
(d) 324 = 90
= 90 , rational, (e) 15 , rational (f) 25 = 5, rational.
0
(g) 14 = 2 7 , irrational. (h) 0 = Any number except zero , rational
3
4 3 5 3 6
9
1
5
(i) 5 = 4 6 = 4 5 = 10 , rational. (j) 2 = 5 2 , irrational [... The product
6
is irrational, when the irrational number multiplied by rational number.]
165
1
2
2
(k) 17 , rational (1)
=
= 3 , rational.
18
2 9
Remark : It is noted that, multiplication or division of two irrational number may
be rational.
1.
2.
EXERCISE 1
Express the following fractions into decimal fractions:
1
3
8
3
7
7
9
1216
87
(i) 2 (ii) 4 (iii) 5 (iv) 116 (v) 10 (vi) 220 (vii) 232 (viii) 1280 (ix) 3100
Express the following decimal fractions into simple fractions:
(i) 03
(ii) 025
(iii) 125
(iv) 347
(v) 2125
(vi) 2025 (vii) 3675 (viii) 10005 (ix) 122255
32
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
N.M.G. 6
33
(a) 0 2
(b) 035
(c) 0456
(d) 013
(e) 142 (f) 378
(a) 1.3, 3.3 2 (b) 2. 3, 5.235 (c) 7.26, 4.23 7 (d) 5. 7, 8.3 4, 6.245
(e) 8 + 234 + 7238 (f) 205 + 804 + 7018 (g) 2245 + 589 + 0341
(h) 0006 + 092 + 00134 (i) 27 + 0 395 + 512746
13. Subtract:
(a) 34 213
(b) 5.12 345
(c) 18.325 956
(g) 19345 132349
(h) 71607 5234 (i) 9076 4234
.
(a) 03 06 (b) 113 26 (c) 24 081 (d) 718 403 (e) 0 09 073
.
(f) 075 16 (g) 062 03 (h) 4218 028 (i) 12 112 0081
15. Divide :
(f) 0732 0027 (g) 12185 4218 (h) 03 075 (i) 55851 96
34
16. Find out the square root (upto four decimal places) and write down the
approximate values of the square roots upto three decimal places.
(a) 12
(b) 125
(c) 05
(d) 025
(e) 134
(f) 7036
(g) 143456
(h) 7
(i) 3437
(j) 51302
17. Write down which are rational and irrational of the following numbers :
7
6
8
(a) 04 (b) 9 (c) 135 (d) 11 (e) 13 (f) 3 (g)
7
2
3
126
27
(h)
(i) 3
(j) 315 (k) 12039
(l) 5639
48
7
18. Simplify:
28 of 227
44 283
(d)
+
of 82
136
13 + 2629
Multiple Choice Questions: [Mark () on the correct answer]
1.
Which one of the following is a rational number?
(a)
(b) 2
5
(d) 4
Which one of the following decimal fractions are similar?
(a) 4.37, 43.7
(b) 0.530, 0.817
(c) 12.34, 12.346
(d) 0.20, 20
(c)
2.
35
3.
4.
5.
8
?
33
(b) 0.024&
(a) 0.24&
..
(c) 0.240
(d) 0.2& 4&
If 0.47& is converted in simple fraction then which one of the
following would be the result?
(c)
7.
1
3
5
(d)
13
(b)
(a)
6.
3
7
41
16
47
90
43
99
(b)
(d)
43
90
47
99
rational fraction.
36
8.
(b) 10
1
1
(d)
10
9
&
&
If 0.6 is divided by 0.5 then which one of the following would be
the result?
(c)
9.
(a) 10
(c) 1.2&
10.
(b) 1.2
(d)
0.83&
8
98
upto
(b) 0.284
(d) 0.286
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
8.04& , 0.39& 5& and 5.13& 02& are three recurring decimal fractions.
1.
(a) convert 8.04& into simple fraction.
(b) Add the above three fractions after expressing into similar
recurring decimal fractions.
. .
(c) Find the square root of 5.1302 upto four decimal place and
find the approximate value of the square root upto three
decimal places.
. .
.
..
2.
12185, 4218 and 028 are three recurring fractions.
(a) Convert 12.1& 85& into simple fraction.
(b) Divide 12.1& 85& by 42.1& 8&
(c) Find the product of the three numbers.
..
3.
2.8 of 2.2& 7& , 136, 4.4& 2.83& , 1.3& + 2.629& and 8.2 are some fractions.
(a) Convert 2.8 of 2.2& 7& into simple fraction.
(b) Divide 4.4& 2.83& by 1.3& + 2.629& and then multiply the quotient by 8.2.
(c) Divide the result of (a) by 1.3& 6& . Sum this quotient with the
result of (b) and find the square root of the sum upto two
decimal place.
Chapter II
Tk. 1 can be expressed in any one of forms Tk. 100 , Tk. 23 or, 23% of Tk. 1.
Some simple fractions and decimal fractions are expressed as percentages:
Simple fraction
Decimal fraction
Hundredth Percentage
1
25
025
25%
4
100
1
50
0
50
50%
2
100
3
75
0
75
75%
4
100
3
150
1
50
150%
2
100
18
360
3.60
360%
5
100
Any simple or decimal fraction can be expressed as percentage and also
percentage can be expressed either in simple or decimal fraction.
Some percentages are expressed in simple and decimal fractions.
Percentage Hundredth Decimal fraction
Simple fraction
20
1
20%
0
20
100
5
66
33
66%
0
66
100
50
375
15
3
375%
3.75
or,
3
100
4
4
38
Remark :
(a) As improper fractions are greater than 1 so percentages can be greater than
100%.
(b) 100% expresses whole of the quantity. 200% or, 300% express twice or thrice
of the whole of the quantity respectively. .
Expression of Simple Fractions as Percentages
3
7
Example 1 : Express 5 and 8 as percentages.
20
3 3 100
60
Solution : 5 =
= 100 = 60%
5 100
1
175
25
2
7 7 100
175
175
1
=
=
=
=
%
or,
87
8
2
2%
2 100 100
8 100
2
1
Ans : 60% and 872 %
21
9
Example 2 : Express 5 25 and 3 16 as percentages.
Solution :
4
21 146 146 100
584
5 25 = 25 =
= 100 = 584%
25 100
1
1425
25
4
9
57 57 100
1425
1425
1
3 16 = 16 =
=
= 100 = 4 % or, 356 4 %
4 100
16 100
4
1
Ans : 584% and 3564 %
Expression of Decimal Fractions as Percentages
Example 3. Express 055 and 436 as percentages.
0.55 100
55
Solution : 055 =
=
100
100 = 55%
4.36 100 436
4.36 =
= 100 = 436%
100
Ans : 55% and 436%
39
60345 =
60345 100
= 60345%
100
40
1
Examples 8. Express 1238 % and 567% in decimal fractions.
985
8
1
985
123125
Solution : 1238 % = 8 % = 100 = 100 = 123125
567
567% = 100 = 0567
Ans: 123125 and 0567.
Percentage of Numbers
Example 9.
(a) What is 5% of 100?
(c) What is 22% of 450?
5
Solution : (a) 5% = 100
5
1
Therefore, 5% of 100 = 100 100 = 5.
1
8
(b) 8% = 100
2
6
8
30
8% of 150 =
150 100
= 12
20
4
1
22
(c) 22% = 100
22
22% of 450 = 450 100 = 99
25
(d) 25% = 100
25
25% of 680 = 680 100 = 170
Ans: (a) 5
(b)12 (c) 99 (d) 170.
N.M.G. 7
41
100
40
40
10
1
Ans : 60%

37
(c) 37 is 45 of 45
37
When the fraction 45 is expressed as percentage, it becomes
740
37 37
2
20
%
=
=
100
%
=
82
9
45 45
9%
2
Ans : 829 %
Number from the Percentage
Example 11. Find the number whose 60% is 48.
42
Solution : 60% = 48
48
1% = 60
4
12
48
20
100% = 60
100 = 80.
155
1
Ans : 80.
Example 12. Find the number whose 75% is 90.
Solution : 75% = 90
90
1% = 75
30
90
4
100% = 75 100 = 120
3
1
Ans : 120
To Express the Ratio as Percentage
If one of two quantities of the same kind is expressed as a fraction of the other
quantity, this fraction is said to be the ratio of their sizes provided that both the
quantities are in the same unit.
2
For example, the ratio of Tk. 2 and Tk. 3 is written as 2 t 3 = 3
The symbol t is the mathematical symbol of ratio. Percentage is also a fraction,
whose numerator is the required number calculated as percentage and the
denominator is 100. In case of ratio if the denominator is arranged to be 100, then
the first quantity can simply be expressed as the percentage of the second. For
15
example, 15 percent means 100 i. e., 15 t 100.
Example 13. Express 17 t 25 as a percentage.
4
17 17 100
68
Solution : 17 t 25 = 25 =
= 100 = 68%
25 100
1
First quantity is 68% of the second quantity.
Ans : 68%
43
32 32 100
160
160
1
Solution : 32 t 60 = 60 =
=
= 3 % = 533 %
60 100 3 100
1
First quantity is 533 % of the second quantity.
1
Ans : 533 %.
Example 15. If one quantity is 64% of another quantity, then what is the ratio of
two quantities?
64
16
Solution : 64% = 100 = 25 = 16 t 25
Ratio of the two quantities is 16 t 25
Ans : 16 t 25
1
Example 16. If one quantity is 1233 % of another quantity, then what is the ratio
of two quantities?
1
370
370
37
Solution : 1233 % = 3 % =
= 30 = 37 t 30.
3 100
Ratio of the two quantities is 37 t 30.
Ans : 37 t 30.
Some Problems Relating to Percentage
Example 17. There are 450 pupils in a school and 18% of them are girls. How
many girls are there in that school?
450 18
Solution : 18% of 450 pupils =
100 pupils = 81 pupils.
The required number of girls = 81.
Ans : 81 girls.
Example 18. Rangan got 576 marks out of 800 marks in the examination. Find his
marks in percentage.
576
Solution : 576 is 800 of 800.
44
576
45
Example 20. A book of mathematics is sold for Tk. 68 at 85% of the actual price.
What is the actual price?
Solution : 85% of the actual price of the book = Tk. 68
68
1% " "
"
" " " " = Tk. 85
20
4
68 100
Ans : 50 persons.
Example 22. When the price of tea leaves decreased by 25%, what is the present
price of tea leaves per kg. which was Tk. 72 per kg. before decrease?
46
18
Solution : 25% of Tk. 72 = Tk.
1
72 25
= Tk. 18
100
4
1
use of previous
47
"
"
"
"
"
100
Tk. 125
" "
"
100 100
"" "
125
= Tk. 80 " "
"
Reduction in use of pulse = (100 80)% = 20%
That is, 20% use of previous should be reduced for the no change in expenditure.
Ans : 20%
100
"
"
"
"
"
Tk.
Example 26. Mr. Farid paid 15% per annum income tax amounting to Tk. 8250 .
What was the annual income of Mr. Farid?
Solution : 15% of Mr. Farid's income = Tk. 8250.
8250
1% " "
"
"
= Tk. 15
20
2750
8250 100
1 persons increase " 100 " " " " " "
104
104
104 104
Similarly, 100 2000000 persons increase to 100 100 2000000
1042
or, 100 2000000 person at the end of second year.
48
1043
At the end of third year population becomes 100 2000000 persons.
EXERCISE 2.1
1. Express as percentages:
3
7
6
11
5
7
9
(a) 8 (b) 10 (c) 225 (d) 416 (e) 6 (f) 212 (g) 232 (h) 006
(i) 0567
(j) 467 (k) 8459 (l) 00003 (m) 7045 (n) 95 (o) 346
(p) 9t10 (q) 7 t 12
(r) 13 t 25 (s) 25 t 32 (t) 65 t 125.
2. Express in simple fractions :
5
2
3
2
(a) 25% (b) 125% (c) 1236 % (d) 253 % (e) 3427 % (f) 163 %
1
(g) 314 %
1
2
(h) 372 % (i) 663 %.
3.
49
50
1
16. Popy has to pay houserent at 72 % of his basic pay. After deduction of his
houserent she gets Tk. 3700 per month. What is her monthly basic pay?
17. The population of a village increased by 8% and become 21600. What was
the population of that village before?
18. Mr. Moin Uddin transferred 12% of his property to his wife, 20% to his son
and the rest of Tk. 8,16,000 to his daughter. What was the value of his whole
property?
19. 68% of S.S.C Examinees in a school came out successful. The percentage
pass would have been 75% if 14 more students passed. What is the number of
the Examinees?
20. The number of male and female students in a school is 900. 4% male students
left the school and 5% female students got themselves admitted afresh. Thus
there was no change in the original total number of male and female students'.
How many female students were in that school before and at present how
many male students are there?
21. If 6% commission is allowed the amount to be paid for the price of a book is
less by Tk. 15 than the amount to be paid for the price if 5% commission is
allowed. What is the actual price of the book?
22. In a pooling booth, a candidate has been elected by getting 55% vote of the
voters present. He got 10000 votes more than number of votes of his only
competitor. How many voters were present in the pooling booth?
23. In an electoral college 75% voters were present. One of the two
candidates got 55% votes of voters present and it was seen that his number of
votes was more by 75000 than the number of votes of the other candidate.
What was the total number of voters?
24. When the price of tealeaves is reduced by 20%. Karim can buy tealeaves of
15 kg. more than previous quantity by Tk. 4500. Find the present and the
previous prices of per kg. tealeaves.
2
25. When the price of banana is reduced by 163 % then by Tk.75 five more
bananas can buy. What is the present price of each dozen of banana?
26. When the price of suger is increased by 10 percent, then what
percentage in the use of suger should be reduced so that there would be no
change in the expenditure for use of sugar?
51
27. When the price of fish is reduced by 25%, then at what percentage in the use
of fish should increased so that there will be no change of expenditure for use
of fish in the family?
28. When the tax on tealeaves is reduced by 10 percent, then at what percentage
in the use of tealeaves is to be increased so that the Government will get tax
on tealeaves at Tk. 8 percent more than the previous rate?
29. In an examination 52% and 42% examinees failed in English and
Mathematics respectively. If 17% examinees failed in both the subjects, then
at what percentage examinees were successful in both the subjects?
30. In an examination 60% and 50% examinees passed in Bangla and
Mathematics respectively. If 40% examinees passed in both the subjects and
60 examinees failed in both the subjects, what is the total number of
examinees?
31. In an examination 80% and 60% examinees passed in Bangla and Mathematics
respectively and 160 examinees passed in both the subjects. If no body failed
in both the subjects, then what is the total number of examinees?
32. The population of a city increases by 8% in each year. At present the
population of the city is 50000. What will be the population of the city after
two years?
33. In a hostel 25 percent seats are increased in each year. At present there are
512 seats. After 4 years, how many seat will be there?
2.2 Calculation of Interest
When money is deposited in a bank or money is lent to an institution or to a
person or invested in a business, an excess sum of money depending on the total
amount and period of time is obtained. This excess sum of money is called
interest. The sum of money deposited or lent is called the Principal or Capital. The
total sum of money received as interest and principal together is called InterestPrincipal or Increased Principal.
...Interest + Principal = Amount...
The sum of interest on a definite sum of money for a limited period of time is
called the rate of interest. Generally sum of interest on Tk. 100 for a period of one
year is called the rate of interest. This rate is mentioned as the rate of interest
percent per annum. So if in the rate of interest percent yearly or monthly not
mentioned in that case interest is to be calculated on the basis of percent per
annum. If Tk. 4 is the rate of interest percent per annum, then it is written as 4%
52
"
"
" 1
" 1 "
"
"
" 1
" 5 "
"
"
4
" Tk. 100
45
" Tk. 100
1
1 170
850
4 5
" Tk.
or, Tk. 170
100
25
51
The required interest = Tk. 170 and amount = Tk. (850 + 170) or, Tk. 1020
Ans : Tk. 170 and Tk. 1020.
1
Example 2. How much is the interest on Tk. 600 in 3 years at 52 % per annum?
How much is the amount?
1
11
Solution : Interest on Tk. 100 in 1 year is Tk. 52 or Tk. 2
11
"
" " 1 " 1 " " Tk.
2 100
11 3
"
" " 1 " 3 " " Tk.
2 100
3
6
11 3 600
"
" " 600 " 3 " " Tk.
or, Tk. 99
2 100
1
1
The required interest = Tk. 99 and amount = Tk. (600 + 99) or, Tk. 699.
Ans : Tk. 99 and Tk. 699.
53
"
5 10
or, Tk. 25
2
54
Remark : Principal =
100 interest
time rate of interest per annum
1
Example 5. How much sum of money at the interest of 62 % per annum in 3 years
4 months will be Tk. 78840 as amount?
1
10
Solution : Here, time = 3 years 4 months = 33 years or, 3 years
7884
and amount = Tk. 78840 or, Tk. 10
1
13
Interest on Tk. 100 in 1 year is Tk. 62 or, Tk. 2
5
10
13 10
65
"
" " 100 " 3 " " Tk. 2 3 or, Tk. 3
1
65
So, the principal of Tk. 100 in 3 years 4 months amounts to Tk. (100 + 3 )
365
or, Tk. 3
365
If amount is Tk. 3 then principal is Tk. 100
100 3
"
" " " 1
"
"
" Tk. 365
2
10
108
100 37884
7884
"
" " "
"
" Tk.
or, Tk. 648
10 "
365 10
73
1
1
The required principal = Tk. 648
Ans : Tk. 648
100 amount
Remark : Principal =
(time rate) + 100
To Find the Rate of Interest
Example 6. How much will be the percentage rate of interest per annum if the
interest on Tk. 700 in 5 years is Tk. 105?
Solution : Interest on Tk. 700 in 5 years is Tk. 105
"
100
" Tk. 5
55
"
" " 1
"
" 1 "
105
5 700
3
21
1
105 100
" Tk.
or, Tk. 3
5 700
1
7
1
" Tk.
"
"
1"
"
" "
"
1"
"
"
431
Tk. 8
431
8 431
1
25
431 100
" Tk.
8 431
2
1
25
1
or, Tk. 2 or, Tk. 122
Tk.
Ans: 12 2 %
Remark : ...Rate of Interest (in percentage) =
100 interest
time principal
To Find Time
Example 8. In how many years interest on Tk. 175 at 5% per annum will be
Tk. 8750?
175
Solution : Interest = Tk. 87.50 or, Tk. 2
Interest on Tk 100 in 1 year is Tk. 5
5
"
" " 1 " 1 " " Tk. 100
56
7
5 175
35
"
" " 175 " 1 " " Tk. 100
or, Tk. 4
4
2
5
175 4
175 35
1
1
Ans : 10 years.
Example 9. In how many years Tk. 450 at the interest of 6% per annum will be
Tk.558 as amount ?
Solution : Here, interest = Tk. (558 450) = Tk. 108
Interest on Tk. 100 in 1 year is Tk. 6
6
" " " 1 " 1 " " Tk. 100
"
6 450
100 or, Tk. 27.
108
The required time = 27 years = 4 years.
1
Ans : 4 years.
Second method :
Here, interest = Tk. (558 450) = Tk. 108
Interest on Tk. 100 in 1 year is Tk. 6
6
" " " 1 " 1 " " Tk. 100
6 450
" " " 450 " 1 " " Tk. 100 or, Tk. 27
On Tk. 450 interest becomes Tk. 27 in 1 year.
1
" " 450 "
"
Tk. 1 " 27 year
4
1 108
" " 450 "
"
Tk. 108 "
years or, 4 years
27
1
The required time = 4 years.
Ans : 4 years.
N.M.G. 9
57
100 interest
rate principal
(b) Generally it is considered that 30 days make 1 month, 12 months make 1 year
and 365 days make I year . The number of days in a month (Bengali or English) is
to be considered according to calendar if time is calculated from a given date to
another given date.
If a certain month consists of 31 days then 31 days are to be counted for that
month. Similary, for months consisting of 28 days or 29 days, 28 days or 29 days
are to be counted respectively.
Miscellaneous Problems
Example 10. How long would it take a certain sum of money to be double itself as
amount at 5% per annum?
Remark : (a) Time =
"
"
"
"
"
1 100
years or, 20 years
5
"
"
1 " Tk. 2
"
"
3 " Tk.
56 3
or, Tk. 84.
2
58
"
"
"
Tk. 84
84
Tk. 3
"
" " 1
" 1
"
"
Tk.
84
3 400
"
"
"
Tk.
84 100
or, Tk. 7
3 400
The required rate of interest is Tk. 7 and the principal is Tk. 400.
Ans: 7 % and Tk. 400.
Example 12. As a consequence for reduction of rate of interest from 7% to 5% the
income of Ranjit reduced by Tk.70 in 5 years. What was his capital?
Solution: For Tk. 100 income reduces in 1 year by Tk. (7 5) or, Tk. 2
" " 100
"
"
" 5 " " Tk. (2 5) or. Tk. 10
Therefore, if in 5 years time,
income is reduced by Tk. 10 for the capital of Tk. 100
100
"
"
"
" Tk. 1 " "
"
" Tk. 10
"
"
"
"
"
" Tk.
100 70
or, Tk. 700
10
59
"
" Tk. 100 " 1
" " Tk. 37 or, Tk. 4
The required rate of interest is Tk. 4
Ans : 4%
EXERCISE 2.2
1. How much is the interest on Tk. 650 in 6 years at 7 % per annum?
1
2. How much is the interest on Tk. 800 in 4 years 3 months at 32 % per annum?
3. How much less will be interest on Tk. 500 in 3 years if the rate of interest is
reduced from 6% to 4%?
4. How much is the amount if the principal of Tk.1800 yield interest for 6 years
1
at 62 % per annum?
5. How much will the amount if the principal of Tk. 1050 yields interest 4 years
1
at 54 % per annum?
6. How much will be the sum of money if that sum at 4% per annum for 5 years
becomes Tk. 900 as amount?
3
7. How much will be the sum of money if that sum at 34 % per annum for 100
days becomes Tk. 737.50 as amount?
8. How much will be the sum of money if the daily interest be Tk. 1 on that sum
1
at the rate of interest of 418 % per annum?
9. At what rate of interest percent per annum will the interest on Tk. 750 in 2
years be Tk.210?
10. At what rate of interest percent per annum will the interest on Tk. 1200 in 3
years be Tk. 216?
11. At what rate of interest percent per annum will the amount in 5 years be three
times of any the sum of principal?
12. How much is the sum of principal which becomes Tk. 703 as amount in 9
1
years at 53 % per annum?
60
13. What is the rate of interest percent if the amount in 10 years be four times of
any sum of the principal?
14. In how many years will Tk. 290 at 5% be Tk. 377 as amount?
15. In how many years will Tk. 500 at 6% be Tk. 800 as amount?
16. In how many years will Tk. 425 at 5% per annum be Tk. 510 as amount?
17. What is the time required for yielding interest of Tk. 18 on the principal of
1
26. A sum of principal becomes Tk. 550 as amount after 5 years and interest is 8
of the principal. How much is the principal and rate of interest per annum?
2
27. The amount for a certain period of time is Tk. 450 and interest is 7 of the
4
61
30. Any sum of principal after 3 years is Tk. 1452 as amount and after 5 years is
Tk. 1620 as amount. Find the principal and the rate of interest.
1
31. In how many years will interest of any sum of money at 122 % be equal to 4
32.
33.
34.
35.
62
Example 1. Hanif bought a watch for Tk. 575 and sold it Tk. 600. What is his
profit or loss?
Solution : The cost price of the watch is Tk. 575 and its selling price is Tk. 600.
Here, as the selling price is greater than the cost price, so he has earned profit.
Profit = Tk. (600 575) = Tk. 25
The required amount of profit = Tk. 25.
Ans : Profit Tk. 25
Example 2. Raihan bought a parkerpen for Tk. 300 and sold it for Tk. 260. What
is his profit or loss?
Solution : The cost price of the parkerpen is Tk. 300 and its selling price is Tk.
260. Here as the selling price is greater than the cost price, so he has incurred loss.
loss = Tk. (300 260) = Tk. 40.
The required amount of loss is Tk. 40.
Ans : Loss is Tk. 40.
Example 3. 4000 kg. of rice at Tk. 7 per kg. was bought and then 2500 kg. at
Tk. 7.15 per kg. and 1500 kg. at Tk. 6.50 per kg. were sold. Thus how much will
be profit or loss? Find the percentage of profit or loss.
Solution : Cost price = Tk. (7 4000) = Tk. 28000
Selling price = Tk. (715 2500) + Tk. (650 1500)
= Tk. 17875 + Tk. 9750
= Tk. 27625
Here as the cost price is greater than the selling price, so loss has been incurred.
Loss = Tk. (28000 27625) = Tk. 375.
The required amount of loss = Tk. 375
Again in Tk. 28000 loss is Tk. 375
375
" " " 1
" " Tk. 28000
" " " 100
"
" Tk.
375 100
75
19
or,
Tk.
or,
Tk.
1
28000
56
56
19
The required loss = 1 56 %
19
Ans : Amount of loss Tk. 375 and 1 56 %
63
Example 4 Rashid buys salt at Tk. 7 per kg. and sells at Tk. 750 per kg. and thus
he makes a profit of Tk. 30. How much salt does he buy?
1
Solution : By selling one kg. of salt profit is Tk. (750 700) = Tk. 050 or, Tk. 2
Here, total amount of profit is Tk. 30
1
Profit of Tk. 2 is from 1 kg. of salt
" " " 1 " " 1 2 kg "
" " " 30 " " 1 2 30 kg " or, 60 kg of salt,
The required quantity of salt = 60 kg.
Ans : 60 kg.
Example 5. Buying one dozen of bananas for Tk. 3750 and then selling them for
Tk. 39.75, how much will be the percentage of profit?
Solution : Here, cost price = Tk. 3750 and selling price = Tk. 3975
Profit = Tk. (3975 3750) = Tk. 225
For Tk. 3750 profit is Tk. 225
225
" " 1
" " Tk.
3750
2.25 100
" " 100
" " Tk.
or, Tk. 6
3750
The required profit = 6%
Ans : 6%
Example 6. Buying 25 oranges by Tk. 100 and then selling 20 oranges for
Tk. 100, what will be the percentage of profit?
Solution : The cost price of 25 oranges is Tk. 100
100
" "
" " 1
"
" Tk. 25 or, Tk. 4
Again, 20 oranges are sold for Tk. 100
100
" 1
"
" " " Tk. 25 or, Tk. 5
Profit for one orange = Tk. (5 4) or, Tk. 1.
So profit in Tk. 4 is Tk. 1
1
"
" " " 1 " Tk. 4
64
"
"
1 100
or, Tk. 25.
4
1 "
is
"
" Tk. 8
10 360
360 "
are "
" Tk.
or, Tk. 450
8
(360 + 360) = 720 litchies are bought by Tk. (360 + 450) or, Tk. 810
are "
"
Tk.
10 720
or, Tk. 800
9
65
So, the cost price of 720 litchies is Tk. 810 and the selling price is Tk. 800
Loss = Tk. (810 800) or, Tk. 10
In Tk. 810 loss is Tk. 10
10
Tk. 1
Ans : 181 %
Example 8. Mr, Rafiq buys a car for Tk. 3,50,000. What should be the selling
price for a profit of 10%?
Solution : If the cost price be Tk. 100, then selling price is Tk. (100 + 10) or,
Tk.110.
"
"
" Tk. 1
"
"
"
"
"
" Tk.
"
110 350000
or, Tk. 3,85,000
100
"
"
"
7200 "
"
"
"
" Tk.
100 7200
or, Tk. 6000
120
66
Example 10. A loss of 10% is incurred by selling a bike for Tk. 18000. How
much is it sold to make a profit of 12%?
Solution : If the cost price be Tk. 100, then the selling price at a loss of 10% is
Tk. (100 10) or, Tk. 90. Selling price at a profit of 12% = Tk. (100 + 12) or, Tk.
112.
The selling price instead of Tk. 90 will be Tk. 112
112
"
"
"
"
" " 1 " " Tk. 90
"
"
"
"
112 18000
or, Tk. 22400.
90
Excess of the selling price for making profit = Tk. (108 88) or, Tk. 20.
If excess of selling price be Tk. 20, then the cost price Tk. 100
100
"
" "
" " Tk. 1
" " "
" Tk. 20
"
"
"
"
"
"
100 1200
20
or, Tk. 6000.
"
Tk.
67
"
"
"
" "
110 12500
or, Tk. 13750.
100
68
EXCERCISE 2.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
How much is the sum of profit or loss if Rashid bought a parkcr pen for
Tk. 325 and sold it for Tk. 300?
Habib buys 50 kg. of rice at Tk. 15 per kg. and sells the whole quantity at
Tk. 15.25 per kg. As a result how much is the profit or loss?
Taher bought 40 kg. of rice for Tk. 300 and sold them at Tk. 775 per kg. How
much will be his profit or loss?
A box of apples was sold for Tk. 750 at a loss of Tk. 90. If that box is sold for
Tk. 850, how much will be his profit or loss?
Lozens are bought at 50 paisa each and sold them at 60 paisa each and for this
deal a total profit of Tk. 2.50 was made. How much lozens are bought?
One person buys some quantities of tealeaves at Tk. 50 per kg. By selling the
whole quantity of tealeaves at Tk. 45 per kg. he incurrs a loss of Tk. 300.
How much were the quantity in kg. of tealeaves he bought?
80 metres of cloth were bought for Tk. 2000. 60 metres at Tk. 24 per metre
and the rest at Tk. 27 per metre were sold. How much was profit or loss?
100 books on Arithmetic were bought for Tk. 4500 and sold them at
Tk. 4525 each. How much will be profit or loss?
A person bought 140 kg. of pulse at Tk.32 per kg. for his family's
consumption. After 2 months, he finds that 28 kg. of pulse have been
consumed. Now at what rate is the remaining quantity of pulse to be sold, so
that he gets back the whole amount of cost price?
One person exchanged 22 kg. of pulse at Tk. 25 per kg. with 15 kg. of pulse at
Tk. 35 per kg. How much was his profit of loss on the deal?
One person bought rice and found that the cost price of 20 kg. is equal to the
selling price of 25 kg. What was his percentage profit or loss?
If an item is bought for Tk. 175 and sold for Tk. 189, then what is the
percentage profit or loss?
If 20 metres of cloth were sold for the price by which 30 metres of cloth were
bought, what was the percentage of profit or loss?
One person sells rice at Tk. 20 per kg. to make a profit of 25%. What is the
cost price of per kg. rice?
One person bought 1000 mangoes at Tk. 250 a hundred and sold half of them
at Tk. 300 a hundred. Then half of the rest at Tk. 250 a hundred and the
remaining at Tk. 200 a hundred were sold. What was his percentage profit or
loss?
69
16. Myrobalans are bought at the rate of 10 per Taka and sold at the rate of 8 per
Taka. What will be the percentage profit?
17. If myrobalans are bought at the rate of 15 per Taka, how many is the number
of myrobalans are to be sold per Taka to make a profit of 25% ?
18. If a thing is sold for Tk. 252, there is a loss of 16%. If it is sold for Tk. 312,
then what will be the percentage profit or loss ?
19. A loss of 15% is incurred by selling a watch for Tk. 612. How much is sum of
money by which it is sold to make a profit of 10%?
20. There has been a loss of 25% by selling 8 bananas for Tk. 5. What was the
cost price of a dozen of bananas?
3
21. The selling price of a house is 4 of its cost price. Find the percentage in profit
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
or loss.
Potatoes are bought for Tk. 250 per kg. and sold at a loss of 10%. How much
is the selling price of one kg. of potatoes?
If 12 things are bought for Tk.10 and sold 8 for Tk. 10. What is the
percentage in profit or loss ?
If a thing is sold for Tk. 378, there is a loss of certain amount and if it is sold
for Tk. 480, then it makes a profit of three times of that certain amount of
loss. What is the cost price of the thing?
A pen is sold at a loss of 20%. If the selling price would have been Tk. 6750
more, then there will be a profit of 10%. What is the cost price of the pen?
5% of total number of fruits of a fruitseller has been rotten and also 5% of
them has been damaged during transportation. What is the percentage profit
by which he sells the rest so that he profit 20% as a whole ?
A goat is sold at a loss of 10%; If the selling price is Tk. 45 more, there would
have been a profit of 5%. What is the cost price of the goat ?
The price of a shirt and a trouser is Tk. 52500. If the prices of a shirt and a
trouser are increased by 5% and 10% respectively, then to buy those it costs
Tk. 56875. What is the cost price of each of a shirt and a trouser?
A person buys some bananas at Tk. 15 per dozen and the same number of
bananas at Tk. 10 per dozen and then sells all of them at Tk. 14 per dozen.
What is the percentage profit or loss?
The cost price of a horse and a cow is Tk. 10000. The horse is sold at a profit
of 20% and the cow is sold at a loss of 15% and thus a total profit of 6% is
made. What is the price of the horse and the cow separately?
70
31. Some bananas at 10 for Tk. 20 and the same number at 15 for Tk. 20 were
bought and then sold all of them at 12 for Tk. 20. What will be the percentage
in profit or loss ?
32. Some myrobalans at the rate of 15 per Taka and the same number at the rate
of 20 per Taka were bought and then sold all of them at the rate of 18 per
Taka. What will be the percentage in profit or loss ?
33. Rahim buys 15 dozen of bananas at Tk. 21 per dozen and 20 dozen at Tk. 14
per dozen. What is the selling price of each dozen of banana if on the average
he makes a profit of Tk. 5 per dozen?
34. Babul buys 20 dozen of eggs at Tk. 24 per dozen and 12 dozen at Tk. 32 per
dozen. What is the selling price of each dozen of eggs if on the average he
makes a profit of Tk. 6 per dozen?
35. Kamal buys 100 eggs at Tk. 3 per egg and 400 eggs at Tk. 325 per egg. If he
wants to make 5% profit, then what is the selling price of an egg?
36. 'I'he manufacturer sells goods to a wholesaler at a profit of 20% the
wholesaler sells to the retailer at a profit of 20% and the retailer sells to the
customer at a profit of 20%. If the customer's price of that goods is Tk. 21.60
then what is the manufacturing cost of goods?
37. While selling a thing a commission of 10% on the written price in the list of
things was allowed to make a profit of 20%. What was the percentage in
terms of the cost price of the excess sum of money marked in the price list?
38. A businessman has to spend monthly Tk. 2000 as house rent. Tk. 5000 as
salary of employees and Tk. 3000 as other expenses. He buys rice of Tk. 5
lacs and then sells in every month. If he wants to make 10% profit per month,
what is the selling price of rice of Tk. 5 lacs?
39. In a factory 50,000 bags of cement are manufactured. The incidental charges
in a month of that factory is Tk. 80,000 and Tk. 75,00,000 in a month as
expenditure for raw materials. If 20% profit is to be made, what is the price of
each bag of cement?
Multiple Choice Questions: [Mark () on the correct answer]
1.
What percent is 30 of 50?
(a) 30%
(b) 50%
(c) 55%
(d) 60%
71
2.
3.
3
into percent is 60%
5
5.
6.
7.
72
8.
9.
May. A VAT at the rate 15% on the amount of the electricity bill
is fixed.
How much taka is the VAT?
(a) 15
(b) 85
(c) 126
(d) 162
How much taka is the price of the unit consumed by Mr. Aziz?
(a) 1065
(b) 995
(c) 918
(d) 854
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
N.M.G. 11
Chapter III
74
be obtained. The number of people that live in a village is known by counting. The
quantity of rice in a store or in a godown is known by measuring weight. How
much water are there in a reservoir is known by measuring the volume of liquid
materials. Even for various problems relating to time, there are different units
relating to time. 1 is taken as unit for counting in all the countries. But for
measurement, there are different units in different countries.
3.2. Measurement in Metric System
As there are different units for measurement for use in different countries, so there
is much difficulty in carrying out international trade and transactions. Therefore,
for measurement in international trade and transactions metric system is used. The
speciality of this measurment is that calculation is made in base ten. Measurement
in this system can easily be expressed by decimal fractions. This system was first
introduced in France in the Eighteenth century.
The unit for measuring length is a metre. Millionth of longitudinal length from the
north pole of the earth to the equator is considered to be one metre. Subsequently,
this measurement of length was not considered to be convenient, so the length of a
piece of rod made of platinum kept in the museum of Paris had been accepted as
one metre. This length is taken as a unit for linear measurement.
If the length is small, then it is taken as centimetre and if it is large, then it is expressed in
kilometre. The length of the small linesegments are written in centimetres and the length
of the roads are written in kilometres. The metric system has been name from the unit of
length, metre.
The unit of measurement of weight is a gramme. This is also unit of metric system. Less
quantity of weight of a body is expressed in gramme. More quantity of weight of a body
is expressed in kilogramme (kg). The unit for measuring the volume of liquid materials is
a litre. This is also unit of metric system. Litre and kilolitre are used respectively for less
quantity and more quantity of volumes of liquid materials.
The metric system has been introduced in Bangladesh from 1st July, 1982. Now in each
measurement of length, weight and volume this system is fully in use.
Units for Measurement of Length in Metric System
10 millimetre (m.m.) = 1 centimetre (c.m.)
10 centimetre
= 1 decimetre (decim.)
10 decimetre
= 1 metre (m.)
10 metre
= 1 decametre (deca m.)
10 decametre
= 1 hectometre h.m.)
10 hectometre
= 1 kilometre (k.m.)
75
Unit of measuring length: Metre....
The relationship between the metric unit of length measurement and the principal unit of
metre is given below :
Kilometre
Hectometre
Decametre
Metre
Decimetre
Centimetre
Millimetre
1000 m.
100 m.
10 m.
1 metre
1
10 m.
1
100 m.
1
1000 m.
or, 01m.
or, 001m.
or, 0001m.
Remark : (a) In metric system if any length is converted from lower to upper or
from upper to lower units by writing the digits side by side the decimal point is to
be shifted to the left or to the right according to the requirements.
For example, 5km. 4h.m. 7 decam. 6m. 9decim. 2 cm. 3m.m.
= 547692.3 cm = 5476923 m. = 5476923 decam.
= 5476923 h.m. = 5476923 k.m.
(b) The word representing multiple from Greek language and the word
representing portion from Latin language have been used before the name of unit.
In Greek language deca means 10 times, hecto means 100 times and kilo means
1000 times. In Latin language deci means tenth, centi means hundredth and milli
means thousandth.
Units for Measurement of Length in British (English) System
12 inches
3 feet
1760 yards
= 1 feet (ft)
= 1 yard (yd)
= 1 mile (m)
1 metre
1 km
1 inch
l yard
1 mile
76
Remark : (a) It is not possible to find exactly the relationship between Metric
system and British system. So the value obtained from a relationship is expressed
approximately to some places of decimal or only to some places of decimal.
(b) There is a scale for measurement of smaller lengths. It is 30 cm. or 1 feet in
length. One side of it is marked upto 30 cm. by dividing each centimetre into 10
small divisions. The other side of the scale is marked upto 12 inches by dividing
each inch into either 8 or 10 small divisions. Similarly a tape is used for the
measurement of larger length. The tape is either 30 metre or 100 feet in length.
One side of it is marked by dividing each centimetre into 10 divisions in
centimetres and metres, the other side of it is marked by dividing each inch into
either 10 or 8 divisions in inches and feet.
Units for Measurement of Weight in Metric System
10
10
10
10
10
10
=
=
=
=
=
=
77
Remark : In the local system the units of weights were chhatak, seer and maund.
After the introduction of metric system this local system is not in use.
Units for Measurement of Volume of Liquid Materials in Metric System
10
10
10
10
10
10
millilitre (m.l.)
centilitre
decilitre
litre
decalitre
hectolitre
1000 millilitre
=
=
=
=
=
=
1 centilitre(c.l.)
1 decilitre (decil.)
1 litre (1.)
1 decalitre (deca1.)
1 hectolitre (hecto1.)
1 kilolitre (k.l.)
1 litre
78
=1
=1
=1
=1
=
=
=
=
1 square feet
1 square yard
1 Acre
1 Acre
1 square hand
20 gandas
16 chhataks
20 kathas
=
=
=
=
1 ganda
1 chhatak
1 katha
1 bigha
1 square centimetre
1 square metre
1 hector
1 square inch
1 square feet
1 square yard
1 square mile
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
79
1 square hand
= 324 square inches
4 square hand or, 4 ganda
= 9 square feet = 0836 square metres (approx.)
1 katha = 720 square feet
= 80 square yards = 6689 square metres (approx.)
1 bigha = 1600 square yards = 1337.8 square metres (approx.)
1 acre = 3 bigha 8 chhataks = 4046.24 square metres (approx.)
1 decimal = 4356 square feet (approx) =1000 square kori (100 kori = 66 feet)
1 square mile
= 1936 bigha
1 square metre
= 4.78 ganda (approx.) = 0239 bigha (approx.)
1 ayor
= 239 bigha (approx.)
Volume
..Cubic units of a solid body is volume...
=
=
=
=
1 stayor
=
353 cubic feet ( approx.)
1 deca stayor =
1308 cubic yards (approx.)
1 cubic feet
=
2867 litre (approx.)
Remark : Weight of 1 cubic centimetre of pure water at the temperature of 4
selcius is 1 gramme.
1000 cubic centimetres = 1 litre Weight.
Weight of 1 litre of water = 1 kilogramme.
80
Example 1. A seller of bananas has 13 dozen of bananas. How many are bananas
in his possession?
Solution :
1 dozen of bananas = 12 bananas
13 "
"
"
= (13 12) or, 156 bananas
Ans : 156 bananas
Example 2. A runner runs for 24 turns in a round track measuring 400 metres.
How long does he run?
Solution : If he runs for 1 turn, the distance is 400 metres
" " " " 24 " "
"
" (400 24) metres
or, 9600 metres or, 9 km. 6 h.m.
The required distance = 9 km.6 h.m.
Ans : 9 km. 6 h.m.
Example 3. If Ranjit runs for 16000 metres, then how many kilometre did he run?
Solution : 1000 metres
= 1 kilometre
1
1
"
= 1000 "
1 16000
16000 "
= 1000
" or, 16 km.
Ranjit runs = 16 kilometres.
Ans : 16 kilometres.
Example 4. Kalu Mia produces 500 kg. 700 gm. of potatoes in one piece of his
land. How much will he produce potatoes in his 12 pieces of land of which the
area of one piece is equal to that of the previous piece?
Solution : In 1 piece of land he produces 500 kg. 700 gm potatoes
" 12 "
"
"
"
"
81
28
" " "
16 "
or, 1 metric ton 750 kg. of paddy.
The required production per acre = 1 metric ton 750 kg.
Ans : l metric ton 750 kg.
Example 6. 20,000 metric tons of rod per month are manufactured in a steel mill.
How much is the daily production in that mill?
Solution : In 30 days production is 20000 metric tons of rod
20000
" 1 "
"
" 30 "
" " "
2
or, 666 metric tons 666 kg 6663 gm of rod.
2
The required quantity = 666 metric tons 666 kg. 6663 gm.
2
Ans : 666 metric tons 666 kg. 6663 gm.
Example 7. A businessman sells 20 kg. 400 grammes of pulse in a certain day.
How much is the quantity of pulse which he sells in a month on the basis of that
certain day?
Solution : He sells in 1 day 20 kg. 400 gm.
" " " 30 days (20 kg. 400 gm.) 30 or, 612 kg.
" 1
"
"
"
"
"
82
83
1
Solution : The area of the triangular region = 2 (base height)
1
= 2 (4 3) square metres
= 6 square metres.
Ans : 6 square metres.
Example 13. If the area of a rectangular garden is 840 square metres and its length
is 40 metre, what is its breadth?
Solution : Area = 840 square metres and length = 40 metres
Breadth = area length = (840 40) metres = 21 metres
Ans: 21 metres.
Example 14. The length of a box is 2 metres, breadth 1 metre 50 cm. and height 1
metre. What is the volume of the box?
Solution : Length
= 2 metres = 200 centimetres
Breadth = 1 metre 50 centimetres
= 1 metre + 50 centimetres = 150 centimetres
and height = 1 metre = 100 centimetres
Volume of the box = (length breadth height)
= (200 150 100) cubic cm.
= 3000000 cubic cm. = 3 cubic metres.
Second method :
Length = 2 metres,
50
1
3
= 1 + 2 metres = 2 metres
= 3 cubic metres.
Ans : 3 cubic metres.
Example 15: The length of a reservoir is 3 metres, breath is 2 metres and height is
4 metres. How much in litre and in kilogramme of pure water will it contain ?
84
Solution : Length
= 3 metres = 300 centimetres
Breadth
= 2 metres = 200 centimetres
and Height
= 4 metres = 400 centimetres
Volume of the reservoir = (300 200 400) cubic centimetres.
= 24000000 cubic centimetres
EXERCISE 3
1.
The population of a town is 50000. In each day 20 persons die and there is
birth of 30 babies. What will be the population in that town after one year?
2. The population of a village is 7000. In each day 3 persons go to the town in
search of employment and 2 persons come back to the village. What will be
the change in population after 1 month?
3. Rahim exchanges 5 dozen of hen's eggs with 7 dozen duck's eggs
belonging to Karim. Rahim had 9 dozen of eggs before the exchange was
made. How many is the number of eggs in possession of Rahim now?
4. The price of each lemon is Tk. 1. How much sum of money did Ratan get by
selling 20 halis of lemons?
5. If the price of walking fish (Koi) is Tk. 50 a kuri, then what is the price of one
walking fish (koi fish) ?
6. A seller of bananas has 35 dozen of bananas. How many is the number of
bananas in his possession?
7. The distance between two places is 10 km. Express it in metres.
8. The circumference of a wheel of a vehicle is 625 metres. How many will be
the number of turns of the wheel if the vehicle moves for a distance of 40
kilometers?
9. In what way is the track to be made so that 16 turns is required for a distance
of 10000 metres in a competition of race?
10. What will be the measurement in metres if 24 turns are completed in a
circular track of 125 metres?
11 Starting from the same place Moula covers a distance of 16 kilometres in 15
85
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18. A businessman sells in a certain day 18 kg 300 gm of rice and 54 kg. of salt.
How much quantities of rice and salt does he sell in a month on the basis of
the previous quantities?
19. A businessman has 500 metric tons of rice in his godown. He brings daily 2
metric tons 500 kg. of rice to his shop from the godown. How many days will
be required to bring all of rice from the godown?
20. If a bus runs 125 km. by 80 litres of diesel, then how much quantity of diesel
will be required for running 1 km.?
21. If a motor car runs 128 km. by 9 litres of petrol, then how much quantity of
petrol will be necessary to run 1 kilometre?
22. A bus runs 16 km. by 4 litres of diesel. How much quantity of diesel will be
necessary to run 64 kilometres?
23. The length of a rectangular garden is 8 metres and its breadth is 4 metres.
What is its area in square centimetres?
24. The area of a rectangular region is 900 square metres and its length is 36
metres. What is the breadth of the region?
25. The length of a rectangular garden is 32 metres and its breadth is 24 metres. A
path of 2 metres wide passes around the garden inside. What is the area of the
path?
86
26. The length of a pond is 60 metres and its breadth is 40 metres. If the wide of
the bank of the pond is 3 metres, them find the area of the bank of the pond.
27. The area of a rectangular region is 10 acres and its length is 4 times of its
breadth. What is the length in metres of the region?
1
28. The length of a rectangular room is 12 times of its breadth. If its area is 216
square metres, then what is its perimeter?
29. If the base of a triangular region is 20 metres and its height is 15 metres 50
centimeters, then find its area.
30. The length of a rectangular region is 48 metres and its breadth is 32 metres 80
centimetres. A path of 3 metres wide passes around the region outside. What
is the area of the path?
31. The length of a square region is 200 metres and a path of 4 metres wide passes
around it outside. What is the area of the path?
32. The area of a triangular region is 216 square metres. If its base is 18 metres,
then find its height.
33. A reservoir contains 8000 litres of water. If its depth is 256 metres and
breadth is 125 metres, then what is its length?
34. Gold is 193 times heavier than water. The length of a rectangular golden bar
is 88 centimetres, breadth 64 centimetres and height 25 centimetres. What is
the weight of the golden bar?
35. The length of a small box is 15 centimetres 24 millimetres, its breadth is 7
centimetre 62 millimetres and height is 5 centimetres 8 millimetres. What is
the volume in cubic centimetres of the box?
36. The length of a room is 20 metres, breadth 15 metres 50 centimetres and
height 4 metres. What is the volume of the room ?
37. Iron is 75 times heavier than water. The length of a piece of iron sheet is 3
metres, wide 2 metres and the thickness 1 centimetre. What is the weight of
the iron sheet?
38. The length of a reservoir is 5 metres, its breadth is 4 metres and its height is 3
metres. If it is fully filled in by water, how much quantity of water in litres
will contain the reservoir? How much is the weight of that water?
Multiple Choice Questions [Marks () on the correct answer]
1.
Which one of the following is the basic unit of length measurement?
(a) metre
(b) centimetre
(c) kilometre
(d) millimetre
87
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
88
2.
3.
N.M.G. 13
Chapter IV
Statistics
4.1. Preliminary Concept Regarding Statistics
Statistics is a informative science, some statisticians define it as a numerical
informations, some others have defined it as the science for research with
numbers. According to the first meaning statistics are numerical states i. e.
informations of any fact or matter. For example, statistics of characteristics of
birth and death regarding population, price of goods, wages etc. are denoted by
numerical information's. Numerical index of such a definite characteristic or
subject is called statistics of that fact. The informations expressed by numbers is
called data.
Statistics means the collection, classification, presentation, analysis and
interpretation of information's systematically. With the help of it some light on any
sphere of enquiry can be thrown by analysing a data.
Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics which is applied in collecting and
analysing numerical information's.
4.2. Purpose of Statistics: The main purpose of statistics is the research on
numerical information's for implementation of a plan or making decision, policy
and formation of procedure, method for any uncertain matter. Statistics presents a
large number of information's in brief and in easily understandable way and also
help in comparison the information among many characteristics. It helps to take
decisions in taking managerial plan of different social, economical and
commercial institutions. In statistics death and birth, import and export,
production, wages, census, agricultural census and management of population etc.
are discussed. It is used for states relationship income and expenditure, man power
and bank insurance and industry in the commercial and economical sectors etc.
The task of statistics is the explanation to make decisions for the future by
induction and application of necessary formulae obtained on the basis of past
experiences and information's regarding any matter.
4.3. Characteristics of Statistics
Information expressed by one number only can not be called statistics. But this can
be named for some numerical information's. Data of statistics are expressed in
numbers.
The data are collected by statistical investigations. In collecting data measurement,
observation and enumeration are necessary. Measurement and enumeration will
their proper units are to be clearly determined so that there is no confusion in data.
90
91
l  10, 11  20, 21  30, 31 40, 41  50, 51  60, 61 70, 71 80, 81 90, 91 100.
On the basis of the marks obtained by these 50 students, the number in each class
of students who have got the marks included in that class can be known. The
number of students belonging to a particular class is called frequency.
Table  1
Classification of marks
Number of students
1  10
11  20
10
21  30
31  40
41  50
51  60
61  70
71  80
81  90
91  100
2
Total = 50
In such a way the table formed by showing the obtained number of students in
each class along with the classification of marks is the arranged data.
4.6 . Rules to convert nonarranged data into arranged data
The obtained marks of 50 students in Mathematics in the annual examination are
given according to their rollnumbers above. These are to be converted into
arranged data. In this example, the lowest mark is 7 and the highest mark is 93. So
all the marks will be divided into 18 classes if in each class there consists of 5
numbers beginning from 4. At first classes of numbers are written at the left side
The given marks are considered one by one. The first mark is 7. It will remain in
the class of 4  8. So a tally sign '' is placed against that class. The 2nd mark is 18,
so it will remain in the class of 14  18. Now a tally sign '' is placed against that
class. Proceeding this way, if four tally signs are placed in any class, the fifth tally
sign is not to be placed separately after the fourth one rather is placed by a
crossing of 4 tally signs. Then keeping a small space the next tally sign will be
placed after every four tally signs. The fifth one will be placed in the way such as
92
. It is easy to count if the fifth tallysign is placed in such a way. The numbers
of tally signs placed against a class is the numbers of data included in a class is the
frequency of that class.
Table2
Class of marks
Tallysign
Frequency
48
9  13
14  18
19  23
24  28
29  33
34  38
39  43
44  48
49  53
54  58
59  63
64  68
69  73
74  78
79  83
84  88
89  93
2
Total = 50
93
Class of marks
Mid value of
class
Frequency
48
12
9  13
11
33
14  18
16
48
19  23
21
168
24  28
26
104
29  33
31
124
34  38
36
72
39  43
41
205
44  48
46
46
49  53
51
306
54  58
56
59  63
61
61
64  68
66
264
69  73
71
71
74  78
76
76
79  83
81
162
84  88
86
86
89  93
91
182
Total = 50
2020
94
2020
So, mean of classified marks = 50 = 404
Mean of classified data =
Remark : Some informations have been lost for classifying the given 50 marks in
the manner as done above. It is known only from the classified data in which class
do a definite number of students get marks. It is not known how much are the
marks exactly. In classification the frequency for a particular number among the
included numbers of a class is not also known. On the other hand from the
classified data the class at which the highest number of students has obtained
marks is known.
Let us find the mean of data given in Table 1
Table4
Classdivision
Midvalue of
class
Frequency
Midvalue of class
frequency
1  10
5.5
11
11  20
15.5
10
155
21  30
25.5
229.5
31  40
35.5
248.5
41  50
45.5
273
51  60
55.5
222
61  70
65.5
327.5
71  80
75.5
226.5
81  90
85.5
171
91  100
95.5
191
Total = 50
2055
2055
Therefore, Mean of classified marks as stated above = 50 = 411.
Remark : The data of Table  3 and Table  4 has been formed from nonarranged
marks obtained by 50 students. The actual mean of the marks obtained by 50
students is 40. 54. But from Table  3 the obtained mean is 404 and from Table  4
95
the obtained mean is 41.1. As much larges the divisions of classes are the mean of
classified marks will be such closer to the actual mean; that is, as much smaller the
class interval the obtained mean in classification will be such nearer to the actual
mean.
4.9. Determination of mean of classified data by easy method
The class in which mean may belong is to be assumed. It is assumed that the mean
belongs to the class of 51 60 in Table  4. This class is situated almost at the
middle of the table . A separate column is to be constructed in the table stated
above and at the right side of this class 0 is to be written in the new column. Then
from the middle of that class in the right side 1,2, 3, ............ are to be written
successively for the lower classes and 1, 2, 3, ........... are to be written successively
for the upper classes in the new column. These numbers are called deviation
numbers. Then the frequency of each class is to be multiplied by the related
deviationnumber. Then the sum of such products are to be determined. This sum
is to be divided by the sum of frequencies and its result is multiplied by class
interval. This product is to be added with the mid value of the assumed class. This
will be the mean.
Table  5
Classdivision Midvalue of
class
Frequency
Deviation
number
Frequency
deviation
number
1  10
5. 5
5
 10
11  20
15. 5
10
4
 40
21  30
25. 5
3
 27
31  40
35. 5
2
 14
41  50
45. 5
1
6
51  60
55. 5
61  70
65. 5
71  80
75. 5
81  90
85. 5
91  100
95. 5
Total = 50
Sum = 72
96
Ans : 708.
(b) The highest mark of the given marks is 97 and the lowest mark is 42. So
beginning from 40 classes are formed taking class interval of 5 marks. The marks
are classified by tallysigns.
N.M.G. 14
97
Class division
Tally
Frequency
Deviation
number
40  44
6
Frequency
deviation number
6
45  49
5
 15
50  54
4
8
55  59
3
 12
60  64
2
8
65  69
1
6
70  74
10
75  79
80  84
10
85  89
12
90  94
95  99
Total = 50
Sum =  12
Suppose, the mean is in the class of 70  74. The mid value of this class is 72.
 12
The required mean = 72 + 50 5 = 72  1.2 = 70.8.
Ans: 70.8.
Remark : Here the mean of the principal data is equal to the mean of classified
data. But in a rare occasion this equality found. If the class interval is changed,
there will be no equality between two means.
4. 10. Algebraic Formulae
(a) Let, n numbers of expressions or numbers (data) be given and those are x1, x2,
............, xn (in short xi, i = 1, 2, 3, ..............., n). The mean of these terms is
expressed by x . For indication of sum, the sign '' is used.
i, e. x1 + x2 + .................. + xn = xi , (i = 1, 2, ..........., n)
x
x = n i , (i = 1, 2 ........, n) (formula  1)
98
(b) Let, n terms such as x1, x2, ..............., xn be given. Suppose, each term of them
occurs f1, f2, ......., fn times respectively.
(c) If those are classified, the class from which it begins is called first class, the
next one is second class, the class next to the 2nd is the 3rd class. In such a way
classes can be called 1st, 2nd , 3rd, ..........., nth class (if there are n terms).
In statistics frequency is generally expressed by f. The frequency of i  th class is
denoted by fi. The mid value of i  th class is denoted by xi and x expresses the
mean of all the data.
fixi
x =
, (i = 1, 2 ........., n) (formula  2)
fi
(d) Algebraic formula for finding the mean by easy method :
(1) Let, the actual mean of n terms such as x1, x2, x3 ,.............., xn be x and its
assumed mean be a.
1
x = a + n , (i = 1, 2 .............. n) (formula 3)
(2) The actual mean of classified data is x . Mid values of 1st, 2nd , 3rd, .............,
nth classes are respectively x1, x2, x3, ............, xn . Let, the mid value of r th class
be the assumed mean. Therefore, xr is the assumed mean.
Let, d be the classinterval.
x1ifi
x = xr +
d (i = 1, 2,, n)
fi
Example 2.
Marks obtained by 60 students are given below. Find the mean of their marks.
Marks
Number of Students
52
10
57
15
60
14
62
12
65
99
Solution :
Marks (xi)
fixi
52
10
520
57
15
855
60
14
840
62
12
744
65
585
Total = 60
3544
3544
The required mean = 60 = 5907 (approximately) ( Applying formula  2)
Second method:
Let the assumed mean be 60.
Marks
xi
Number of
Students fi
x i
fi xi
52
10
80
57
15
45
60
14
62
12
24
65
45
Total = 60
56
56
The required mean = 60 + 60 = 60 093 = 5907 (approximately) (Applying
formula  3)
Ans : 5907 (Approx.)
4.11. Uses of Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean is used in our daily life in the fields of our income,
expenditure, production, rate of pass in the examination etc.
This mean is widely used in social, economical and commercial fields. The use of
this is the highest of all.
100
EXERCISE 4.1
Number of families
22
25
40
23
10
101
102
8 + 10
or, 9. Here
2
the mean of the 4th and 5th terms. If n numbers of data are given, then the median
n
n+1
n
will be 2 th term, if n is odd or, the mean of 2 th and 2 + 1 th terms, if n is
even.
Example 1. Find the median of numbers such as 5, 7, 8, 19, 15, 17, 9, 12, 2, 20,
13, 4 and 18.
Solution : The numbers are arranged according to their values successively from
lower to higher as below :
2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19 and 20.
Here, n = 13 (an odd number)
13 + 1
median = the value of 2 th term = the value of 7th term = 12.
Ans : 12.
103
Example 2. Find the median of the numbers. 12, 9, 15, 5, 20, 8, 25, 17, 21, 23, 13
and 11.
Solution : The numbers are arranged according to their values successively from
lower to higher as below :
5, 8, 9, 11, 12 , 13 , 15 , 17 , 20 , 21 , 23 and 25. Here, n = 12 (an even number)
Sum of values of the two middle terms
median =
2
12
12
=
2
Sum of values of 6th and 7th terms 13 + 15 28
=
= 2
= 2 = 14.
2
Ans: 14.
Example 3. The marks distribution of 50 students are given below. Find the
median of their marks.
Obtained marks
Number of students
40
8
50
13
56
10
60
8
68
7
70
3
75
1
Solution : The table for finding out the median :
Obtained marks
Number of students
Cumulative frequency
( numbers)
(frequency)
40
8
8
50
13
21
56
10
31
60
8
39
68
7
46
70
3
49
75
1
50
n = 50
Here , n = 50 (an even number)
/
"
104
50
50
median =
2
=
Ans : 56
Remark : Here, value of each from 22nd to 31st term is 56.
4.14. Determination of the Median of Classified Data
n
The value of 2 th term of the classified data is the median. The lower limit of that
class which contains the median is L and the cumulative frequency of the previous
class is Fc. The frequency of the class which contains the median is fm and its class
interval is d.
median = L + 2 Fc f
m
Example 4. Find the median from the informations given below :
N.M.G. 15
Daily wages
Number of workers
30 35
36 41
10
42 47
18
48 53
25
54 59
60 65
105
Solution :
Number of workers
(frequency)
Cumulative frequency
30  35
36  41
10
13
42  47
18
31
48  53
25
56
54  59
64
60  65
70
n = 70
n 70
Here, n = 70 2 = 2 = 35. So, value of 35 th term is the median.
35 th term is situated in the class of (48  53). So, the median is situated in the
class of (48  53).
Here, L = 48 , Fc = 31, fm= 25 and d = 6.
d
n
median = L + 2  Fc f
m
6
46
24
= 48 + (35  31) 25 = 48 + 25 = 48 + 25 = 48 + 096 = 4896.
Ans : 4896
4.15. Uses of Median
106
mode = L + f + f d
1 2
Example 6. Find the mode from the data given below :
Daily savings (in taka)
Number of workers
25 30
7
31 36
21
37 42
47
43 48
62
49 54
37
55 60
16
61 66
5
107
Solution : In the given table the highest number of workers is in the class of
(43  48). So, the mode is in this class.
Here, L = 43, f1 = 62 47 =15, f2 = 62 37 = 25 and d = 6.
Class
frequency
11  20
25
21  30
20
31  40
41  50
Solution : In the given table the highest number of frequency is in the class of
(11  20). So the mode is in this class.
108
Class
6 10
11 15
16 20
21 25
frequency
4
10
15
20
Solution : In the given table the highest number of frequency is in the class of
(21  25). So the mode is in this class.
Here, L = 21, f1 = 20  15 = 5, f2 = 20  0 = 20 and d = 5.
Now applying the formula, we get
f1
Mode = L + f + f d
1 2
5
= 21 + 5 + 20 5
25
= 21 + 25 = 21 + 1 = 22.
Ans : 22
4.18. Uses of Mode
We use mode ordinarily in our every day life. Mode is used in Biology, weather
forecast, etc. Wages, rent, income, demand, supply, etc. are generally determined
by the value of mode.
Its use is remarkable in case of attributive informations.
109
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
EXERCISE 4.2
Find the mean, median and mode of the following numbers:
30, 12, 22, 17, 27, 25, 20, 24, 19, 2, 23, 32, 26, 29, 35, 21, 11, 28 and 19.
The marks obtained by 40 students in Mathematics in the annual
examination are given below:
53, 48, 65, 35, 55, 38, 50, 67, 25, 58, 62, 21, 76, 46, 57, 67, 55, 70, 44, 72, 60,
42, 64, 73, 38, 41, 55, 41, 34, 51, 40, 38, 28, 44, 36, 40, 42, 35, 22 and 30.
Find the median and mode of the marks. Find the median and mode by
classifying them with class interval of 5.
The daily sales (in taka) of 25 grocer's shops are given below:
75, 63, 69, 86, 71, 66, 75, 65, 73, 80, 83, 74, 69, 79, 77, 69, 74, 85, 72, 78, 84,
69, 75, 88 and 67.
Find the mean, median and mode of the distribution of daily sales.
The daily income (in taka) of 40 masons are given below :
155, 173, 166, 143, 168, 160, 156, 146, 162, 158, 159, 148, 150, 147, 132, 136,
156, 140, 155, 145, 135, 151, 141, 169, 140, 125, 122, 140, 137, 175, 145, 150,
164, 142, 156, 152, 146, 148, 157 and 167.
Find the mean, median and mode of their daily incomes.
Find the mean, median and mode from the table given below :
Weekly savings (in Taka)
Number of workers
71 80
12
81 90
18
91 100
35
101 110
42
111 120
50
121 130
45
131 140
20
141 150
8
Find the mean, median and mode from the table given below :
Daily wages (in Taka)
Number of workers
51 55
7
56 60
25
61 65
76
66 70
32
71 75
17
76 80
12
81 85
3
110
7.
Find the mean, median and mode from the data given below :
Class
Frequency
31 40
4
41 50
6
51 60
8
61 70
12
71 80
9
81 90
7
91 100
4
8. Find the mean, median and mode from the data given below :
Age (in years)
Number of students
56
25
78
27
9 10
28
11 12
31
13 14
29
15 16
28
17 18
22
9. The marks in Mathematics obtained by students according to their roll numbers
in a class of a school are given below:
81, 80, 79, 78, 74, 74, 73, 71, 70, 69, 68, 68, 67, 66, 64, 64, 79, 64, 64, 64, 63,
62, 62, 61, 60, 60, 59, 57, 50, 49, 44 and 40.
What is the mean and median of their marks?
What is the mark which is obtained by the highest number of students?
10. The table of daily wages of 100 workers working in a workshop is given
below.
Daily wages (in Taka)
Number of workers
51 55
6
56 60
20
61 65
30
66 70
15
71 75
11
76 80
8
81 85
6
86 90
4
111
What is the mean and median of daily wages of workers? How much is the
amount of daily wages which is earned by the highest number of workers?
11. The percentages of population according to different agegroups of population
as found in the census of 1991 are given below. Find the mean, median and
mode of their ages.
Age  groups
Population (%)
04
165
59
165
10 14
121
15 19
84
20 24
83
25 29
85
30 34
62
35 39
56
40 44
43
45 49
34
50 54
29
55 59
19
60 64
21
65 69
11
70 74
11
75 79
04
80 84
07
Total = 100
12. In the census of 1981 the population of Bangladesh was 87119965 and of them
males were 44919191 and females were 42200774. In the census of 1991 the
population of Bangladesh become 106314992 and of them males were
54728350 and females were 51586642.
Find the percentage increase in population, percentage increase in males and
percentage increase in females in the census of 1991. Find the average of males
and also females of population as found in two censuses.
112
113
d
fm
(a) L + + Fc
n
2
(c) L+ Fc
n
2
d
FC
n
2
d
Fc
(b) L+ f m
d
fm
(d) L + + f m
3641
4247
4853
5459
6065
Marks
14
8.
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
114
2.
3.
4.
13
10
8190
91100
ALGEBRA
Chapter I
117
1
1 2
1
1 2
Solution : x 2 + x2 = (x) 2 + x = x + x 2x x = 22 2 = 4 2 = 2
Answer: 2.
Example 7. If a = 21 and b = 9, then find the value of 16a2 72ab + 81b2 .
Solution : 16a2 72ab + 81 b2 = (4a)2 2(4a) (9b) + (9b)2
= (4a 9b)2 = (4.21 9.9)2 = (84 81)2 = 32 = 9.
Answer: 9
Example 8. Find the square of 2a 3b 4c.
Solution : (2a 3b 4c)2 = {2a (3b + 4c)}2
= (2a )2 2 (2a) (3b + 4c) + (3b + 4c)2
= 4a2 12ab 16ac + 9b2 + 24bc + 16c2
= 4a 2 + 9b 2 + 16c 2 12ab + 24bc 16ac.
Answer : 4a2 + 9b2 + 16c2 12ab + 24bc 16ac.
118
4x 3y + 6x + 5y2 4x 3y 6x 5y2
119
2
2
Answer : x2 + x 156.
Example 15. Find the product of (5x2 16) and (5x2 11).
Solution : We know, (x + a) (x + b) = x2 + (a + b) x + ab.
(5x2 16) (5x2 11) = (5x2)2 + ( 16 11) (5x2) + ( 16) ( 11)
120
6.
7.
8.
1
1
If a a = m, then show that, a4 + a4 = m4 + 4m2 + 2.
9.
2
1
1
2
If a a = 4, then show that, a + a = 18.
10. If a + b = 8 and ab = 15, then find the value of (a b)2 and a2 + b2.
11. If x y = 7 and xy = 60, then find the value of (x + y)2 and x2 + y2.
12. If x + y = 12 and xy = 27, then find the value of (x y)2 and x2 + y2.
1
14. If a + b = 13 and a b = 3, then find the value of (2a2 + 2b2) and ab.
15. If x + y = 19 and x y = 11, then find the value of 2x2 + 2y2 and 4xy.
16. Multiply with the help of the formula :
(i) (x + y)(x y);
(ii) (5x + 7y) (5x 7y);
(iii) (7a 11) (7a + 11);
(iv) (a + b c) (a b + c);
(v) (5a + 2b 3c) (5a + 2b + 3c);
(vi) (ax by + cz) (ax + by cz);
2
2
2
2
4
4
(vii) (a + b ) (a b ) (a + b );
(viii) (x + 10) (x 14);
(ix) (3a 10) (3a 5);
(x) (6x + 17) (6x 13);
(xi) (ax + by + 5) (ax + by + 3).
17. Express as the square of the difference of two expressions.
(i) (5a + 2b) (7a + 6b);
(ii) (5x + 13) (5x 13);
(iii) (3x + 5y) (7x 5y);
(iv) (6a + 9b) (7b 8a).
121
122
123
= x3 + y3 + 3(x + y) xy; [ Q 3 = x + y]
= x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 3 = 33 = 27.
Answer: 27.
Example 10. If x = 2, then find the value of (27x 3 135x 2 + 225x 125)
Solution : Given expression
= (3x)3 3.9x2.5 + 3.3x.52 (5)3 = (3x 5)3
= (3.2 5)3 = (6 5)3 = (l)3 = l
Answer : 1
Example 11. If x = 1, then find the value of 27x3 + 54x2 + 36x + 3
Solution : Given expression = (3x)3 + 3.9x2.2 + 3.3x.22 + (2)3 5
= (3x + 2) 3 5 = (3.1 + 2) 3 5
= 5 3 5 = 125 5 = 120
Answer: 120
1
1
Example 12. If a a = 4, then find the value of a3 a3
1
13
Solution : a3 a3 = a3 a
3
1
1 1
= a a + 3a . a a a = 43 + 3.4 = 64 + 12 = 76
Answer: 76.
1.3.1. Some more Formulae related to Cubes
Formula 7 : a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 ab + b2)
Proof : a 3 + b 3 = (a + b) 3 3ab(a + b)
= (a + b) {(a + b) 2 3ab}
= (a + b) (a2 + 2ab + b2 3ab)
= (a + b) (a2 ab + b2)
Conversely, (a + b) (a2 ab + b2) = a3 + b3.
124
125
EXERCISE 1.2
1. Find the cube of the following expressions :
(i) 3x + 4y; (ii) x3 + y2 ; (iii) a2b + c2d: (iv) ab + bc; (v) 8x2 + 11y3;
(vi) 7m + 5n; (vii) x + y + z; (viii) x3 + y3; (ix) 2x 5y; (x) p2 q2;
(xi) 11a 12b; (xii) x3 + 2; (xiii) x6 8; (xiv) 2x 3y z; (xv) x2 y2 + z2;
(xvi) a2b b3c; (xvii) xy 2yz; (xviii) a2b2 c2d2; (xix) x3 2y3;
(xx) 7x2 9y2.
2. Simplify:
i. (3a + 5b)3 + 3(3a + 5b)2 (3a 5b) + 3(3a + 5b) (3a 5b)2 + (3a 5b)3;
ii. (x + 2y)3 3(x + 2y)2 (x 2y) + 3(x + 2y) (x 2y)2 (x 2y)3.
iii. (3a 8b)3 (2a 7b)3 3(3a 8b) (2a 7b) (a b);
iv. (7x 6)3 (5x 6)3 6x(7x 6)(5x 6);
v. (x + y z)3 + (x y + z)3 + 6x(x2 y2 z2 + 2yz);
vi. (x y)3 + (x + y)3 + 6x(x2 y2).
3. If a + b = 10 and ab = 21, then find the value of a3 + b3.
4. If 2x + 3y = 13 and xy = 6, then find the value of 8x3 + 2zy3.
5. If x y = 10 and xy = 30, then find the value of x3 y3.
6. If 5a 7b = 14 and ab = 21, then find the value of 125a3 343b3.
7. If x + y = 2, show that, x3 + y3 + 6xy = 8.
8. If a = 3 and b = 2, then find the value of 8a3 + 36a2b + 54ab2 + 27b3.
9. If x = 5, then find the value of x3 12x2 + 48x 64.
10. If a = 7, then find the value of a3 + 6a2 + 12a + 1.
11. If x 2y = 5, then find the value of x3 8y3 30xy.
12. If 3x 2y = 8, then find the value of 27x3 8y3 144xy.
13. If a2 + b2 = c2, then show that, a6 + b6 + 3a2b2c2 = c6.
1
1
14. If a + a = 3, then show that, a3 + a3 = 18.
1
1
15. If x x = 5, then find the value of x3 (x )3.
16. Find the product with the help of formula :
(i) (a2 + b2) (a4 a2b2 + b4) ;
(ii) (x2 + 2) (x4 2x2 + 4) ;
(iii) (2a + 3b) (4a2 6ab + 9b2) ;
(iv) (7a + 4b) (49a2 28ab + 16b2)
126
127
128
number of two factors will be greater than the absolute value of the negative
number and if p is negative, the absolute value of negative number of two factors
will be greater than the positive number.
Example 1. Resolve into factors : x2 + 18x + 72.
Solution : We have to find two such positive numbers whose product is 72 and
their sum is 18. The possible pairs of factors of 72 are (1, 72), (2,36), (3,24) (4, 18),
(6, 12) and (8, 9). Of them, the sum of numbers of the pair (6, 12) is 6 + 12 = 18.
x2 + 18x + 72 = x2 + 6x + 12x + 72
= x (x + 6) + 12 (x + 6) = (x + 6) (x + 12)
Answer : (x + 6) (x +12).
Example 2. Resolve into factors : x2 23x + 132.
Solution : We have to find two such numbers whose product is 132 and their sum
is 23. Since the sum of two numbers is negative but the product is positive,
therefore both the numbers will be negative.
The possible pairs of factors of 132 are ( 1, 132), ( 2, 66), ( 3, 44),
( 4, 33), ( 6, 22) and ( 11, 12). Of them, the sum of numbers of the pair
(11, 12) is ( 11 12) = 23.
x2 23x + 132
= x2 11x 12x + 132 = x(x 11) 12(x 11)
= (x 11)(x 12).
Answer : (x 11)(x 12).
Example 3. Resolve into factors : x2 + 15x 54.
Solution : We have to find two such numbers whose product is 54 and their sum
is 15. Since the sum of two numbers is positive but their product is negative, hence
of two numbers, the number whose absolute value is greater than that of the other
is positive and that number is negative whose absolute value is smaller than the
other. The possible pairs of factors of ( 54) are ( 1, 54), ( 2, 27), (3, 18),( 6, 9).
Of them, the sum of the numbers of the pair ( 3, 18) is ( 3 + 18) = 15.
x2 + 15x 54 = x2 + 18x 3x 54 = x(x + 18) 3(x +18)
= (x +18) (x 3)
Answer : (x +18)(x 3).
129
130
Remark : To factorise ax2 + bx + c, the rules which are followed for different
values of p, q having positive and negative signs of x2 + px + q are also followed
for different values of a, b, c having positive and negative signs. Here b for p and
the product of a and c for q are to be considered.
Example 6. Factorise 8x2 + 18x + 9.
Solution : Here, 8.9 = 72. Now, 6.12 = 72 and 6 + 12 = 18.
131
Common Factor : If two terms have the same factor, this is called a common
factor. a is the common factor of a2b, ab and a2c; again (x + y) is the common
factor of (x + y)3, (x + y)2 and x2 y2.
Highest Common Factor (H. C. F.)
The product of common prime factors of two or more expressions is called the
Highest Common Factor or simply H. C. F. of those two or more expressions.
The Highest Common Factor of three expressions, a3b4c3, a5b3c4 and a4b3c5 is
a3b3c3. Again the Highest Common Factbr of three expressions, (x2 + y2)2, (x2 + y2)3
and (x4 y4) is x2 + y2.
Common Multiple
If any expression is completely divisible by two or more expressions, then the
dividend is called the common multiple of those two or more divisors.
The expression, a2b2c is the common multiple of ab, bc, ab2, a2c and b2c.
The expression, (x + y)2 (x y) is the common multiple of three expressions,
(x + y), (x + y)2 and x2 y2.
Lowest Common Multiple (L. C. M.)
Among different multiples of two or more expressions the common multiple
which consists of lowest number of prime factors is called Lowest Common
Multiple or L.C.M. in short.
The expression a2b2c is the L.C. M. of three expressions, a2bc; ab2 and abc.
The expression, (x + y)3 (x y) is the L.C.M. of three expressions,
(x + y)2, ( x + y)3 and (x2 y2).
Example 1. Find the H. C. F. of 6a3b2c, 12a2b2c4 and 15a4b4c2.
Solution : H.C.F. of 6, 12 and 15 = 3 and the common factors with highest
common power among a3b2c, a2b2c4 and a4b4c2 are a2, b2 and c respectively.
Required H. C. F. = 3a2b2c.
Ans : 3a2b2c.
Example 2. Find the H. C. F. of x3 + x2y, x2y + xy2, x3 + y3 and (x + y)3.
Solution : Here,
1st expression = x3 + x2y = x2(x + y)
2nd expression = x2y + xy2 = xy (x + y)
3rd expression = x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x2 xy + y2) and
4th expression = (x + y)3 = (x + y) (x + y) (x + y).
132
Here the common factor of the expressions is (x + y) and this factor with the
highest common power among the expressions is (x + y).
Required H. C. F = ( x + y)
Answer : ( x +y ).
Example 3. What is the L.C.M. of 4x2y2z and 6xy2?
Solution : L.C.M. of 4 and 6 = 12
The highest factor between the given expressions are x2, y2 and z respectively.
The required L. C. M. = 12x2y2z.
Answer :12x2y2z.
Example 4. Find the L. C. M. of 3(a4 + a3b) and a2b + 2ab2 + b3
Solution : Here, 1st expression = 3(a4 + a3b) = 3a3(a + b) and
2nd expression = a2b + 2ab2 + b3 = b (a2 + 2ab + b2) = b (a + b)2
Here the highest powers of the factors a, b and (a + b) are a3, b and (a + b)2
respectively.
Again , the L. C.M. of the coefficients which are natural numbers = 3.
Required L. C. M. = 3a3b(a + b)2.
Answer : 3a3b(a + b)2.
Example 5. Find the L. C. M of 24a2bc, 18ab3c2 and 54a4b2c2.
Solution : L. C. M. of 24, 18 and 54 = 216
The factors, a, b and c with their highest powers among three given expressions
are a4, b3 and c2 respectively.
Required L. C. M. = 216a4b3c2
Answer : 216a4b3c2.
Example 6. Find the L. C. M. of 4(x2 + ax)2, 6(x3 a2x) and 14x3 (x3 a3).
Solution : L. C. M. of 4, 6 and 14 = 84.
Now, part of 1st expression = (x2 + ax)2 = x2(x + a)2
2nd expression = (x3 a2x) = x(x2 a2) = x(x + a)(x a)
and 3rd expression = x3(x3 a3) = x3(x a)(x2 + ax + a2).
Here the factors, x, (x + a), (x a) and (x2 + ax + a2) with their highest powers are
x3, (x + a)2, (x a) and (x2 + ax + a2) respectively.
Required L. C. M. = 84x3(x + a)2 (x a) (x2 + ax + a2)
= 84x3(x + a)2 (x3 a3).
133
134
(49)
(50)
(51)
(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)
(56)
(57)
a+b a b
(ii) ab =
4 4
135
1
= 5 then,
x
2
9.
(a) 29
(c) 21
N.M.G. 19
(b) 25
(d) 5
136
(b) 25
(d) 10
1
?
x2
1
?
x3
(b) 110
(d) 140
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
a2 +
(a)
(b)
(c)
3.
1
1
1
, x 2 + 2 and x 4 + 4 are three algebraic expressions.
x
x
x
1
1
(a) If x + =3, then find the value of x 2 + 2
x
x
1
1
(b) If x + = p, then prove that, x 4 + 4 = p4 4p2+2
x
x
1
1
1
(c) If x 4 + 4 = 2, then find the value of x + and x 4 4 .
x
x
x
x+
Chapter II
Algebraic Fraction
2.1 Algebraic Fraction
In class VII the concept of algebraic fraction, reduction of the algebraic fractions
in its lowest terms, making the fractions of common denominator, addition and
subtraction of algebraic fractions have already been given. But here some of them
with examples relating to algebraic fractions have been discussed again.
2.1.1. Algebraic Fraction
p
If p and q are two algebraic expression, then q is an algebraic fraction. Here in the
p
fraction q , p and q are called numerator and denominator of the fraction
respectively, where q o.
x a + b x2 + y2
y , a , x + y etc. are algebraic fractions.
2.1.2. To express the Fraction in its Lowest Terms
If there are common factors in the numerator and denominator of any fraction and
the numerator and denominator are divided by the highest common factor of
numerator and denominator, then the new fraction formed by the quotients of
numerator and denominator is the original fraction in its lowest term.
x4y x2y3 x2y(x2 y2) x2y(x + y)(x y) y(x + y)
= x2
x5 x4y = x4(x y) =
x4(x y)
Here the numerator and denominator have been divided by x2(x y) which is the
highest common factor of numerator and denominator.
2.1.3. To Express with the Common Denominators
To express two or more fractions with the common denominators, L. C. M. of
denominators is to be found out and then this L. C. M. is to be made the
denominators of each of the fractions. At the time of expressing fractions with the
common denominators and to keep the values of the fractions unchanged, the L. C.
M. of the denominators is to be divided by the denominator of each of the
fractions and the corresponding numerator is to be multiplied by the quotient thus
obtained. This product will be the numerator of the corresponding fraction. For
138
x y
and c are expressed as the fractions with the common denominators, then these are
zab
xbc yac
abc , abc and abc respectively.
To add two or more fractions it is required to express the fractions with the
common denominators and then numerators are to be added. The sum of the given
fractions will be a new fraction of which the numerator is the sum of numerators
of the transformed fractions and denominator is the common denominator.
x y z xbc yac zab xbc + yac + zab
For example, a + b + c = abc + abc + abc =
abc
2.1. 5. Subtraction of the Fractions
To determine the difference of two fractions it is required to express two fractions
with the common denominator and then two numerators are to be subtracted. The
difference of two fractions will be a new fraction of which numerator will be the
difference of two numerators and denominator will be the common denominator.
x
y
xc
ya
xc ya
For example, ab bc = abc abc = abc
Remark : In case of addition and subtraction of the algebraic fractions, the
fractions are to be expressed in its lowest terms if necessary.
xpq yrs zuv x y z xbc + yac + zab
For example, apq + brs + cuv = a + b + c =
abc
3 2 4
24a b x
Example 1. Express 56a5bx6 in its lowest terms.
Solution : The common factors with the highest common power of the
expressions, 24a3b2x4 and 56a5bx6 are respectively 23, a3, b and x4.
Hence, the H. C. F. of two expressions is 8a3bx4.
3b.8a3bx4
3b
The given fraction = 7a2x2.8a3bx4 = 7a2x2 [dividing numerator and
denominator by 8a3bx4]
139
3b
Required fraction in its lowest terms = 7a2x2
3b
Answer : 2 2
7a x
x(x2 + 2xy + y2) (x2 xy + y2)
Example 2. Express
in its lowest terms.
(x3 + y3) (x2 y2)
Solution : Resolving numerator and denominator of the fractions into factors, we
get,
x(x2 + 2xy + y2) (x2 xy +y2)
(x3 + y3) (x2 y2)
x(x + y) (x + y) (x2 xy + y2)
= (x + y) (x2 xy + y2) (x + y) (x y)
x(x + y)2 (x2 xy + y2)
= (x + y)2 (x y) (x2 xy + y2)
Now dividing numerator and denominator by (x + y)2 (x2 xy + y2) which is H. C.
F. of numerator and denominator, we get
x
x(x2 + 2xy + y2) (x2 xy + y2)
=
3
3
2
2
xy
(x + y ) (x y )
x
The required fraction in its lowest terms = x y
x
Answer : x y
a
b
c
Example 3. Express the fractions a2 9b2 , a2 + 6ab + 9b2 , a3 27b3 with the
common denominators.
Solution : Here, the denominators are first resolved into factors. Then the L. C. M
of denominations are to be found.
a2 9b2 = (a)2 (3b)2 = (a + 3b) (a 3b);
a2 + 6ab + 9b2 = (a)2 + 2.a.3b + (3b)2 = (a + 3b)2;
a3 27b3 = (a)3 (3b)3 = (a 3b) (a2 + 3ab + 9b2).
Hence, the L. C. M. of denominators = (a + 3b)2 (a 3b) (a2 + 3ab + 9b2)
= (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
140
a
a(a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
Therefore, a2 9b2 = (a2 9b2) (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
a(a + 3b) (a + 3b) (a 3b) (a2 + 3ab + 9b2) a(a + 3b) (a2 + 3ab + 9b2)
= (a 3b) (a + 3b) (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3) = (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
b
b (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
b (a3 27b3)
Again, a2+ 6ab + 9b2 = (a + 3b)2 (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3) = (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
c
c(a+ 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
c(a + 3b)2
and a3 27b3 = (a3 27b3) (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3) = (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
a(a + 3b) (a2 + 3ab + 9b2)
b(a3 27b3)
c(a + 3b)2
Answer : (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3) , (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3) , (a + 3b)2 (a3 27b3)
1
a
b2
Example 4. Add : a b + a2 + ab + b2 + a3 b3
1
1
a
a
Solution : Here, a b = a b , a2 + ab + b2 = a2 + ab + b2
b2
b2
and a3 b3 = (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)
Therefore, L . C. M. of denominators = (a b) (a2 + ab + b2) = a3 b3.
1
a
b2
Hence, a b + a2 + ab + b2 + a3 b3
a2 + ab + b2 a(a b)
b2
+ 3
= a3 b3
3 + 3
a b3
a b
a2 + ab + b2 + a2 ab + b2 2a2 + 2b2 2(a2 + b2)
=
= a3 b3 = a3 b3
a3 b3
2(a2 + b2)
Answer : a3 b3
2x
x
3x
Example 5. Add : x22x3 + x2 + x12 + x2 + 5x + 4
2x
2x
2x
Solution : Here, x22x3 = x2 3x + x 3 = (x 3) (x + l)
x
x
x
= 2
=
2
x + x12 x + 4x 3x12
(x + 4)(x 3)
141
3x
3x
3x
and x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 4x + x + 4 = (x + 4)(x + l)
Now L. C. M. of denominators = (x + 1) (x + 4) (x 3).
2x
x
3x
Hence, x22x3 + x2 + x 12 + x2 + 5x + 4
2x
x
3x
=
+
+
(x 3) (x + l) (x + 4)(x 3) (x + 4) (x + l)
.**
'
142
a
b
c
Example 7. Add : (a b)(c a) + (a b) (b c) + (b c)(c a)
Solution : Here, L.C.M. of denominators = (a b) (b c) (c a)
a
b
c
Hence, (a b) (c a) + (a b) (b c) + (b c) (c a)
a(b c) + b (c a) + c(a b) ab ac + bc ab + ac bc
=
= (a b) (b c) (c a)
(a b)(b c) (c a)
0
= (a b) (b c) (c a) = 0
Ans : 0
2
3
2(5 2x)
Example 8. Add : (x l) (x2) + (x l) (x 3) + (x l)(x 2)(x 3)
Solution : Here, L.C.M. of denominators = (x 1) (x 2) (x 3).
2
3
2(5 2x)
Hence, (x l)(x 2) + (x l)(x 3) + (x l)(x 2)(x 3)
2(x 3) + 3(x 2) + 2(5 2x) 2x 6 + 3x 6 + 10 4x
=
= (x l)(x 2)(x 3)
(x l)(x 2) (x 3)
x2
1
= (x l)(x 2) (x 3) = (x l)(x 3)
[dividing the numerator and denominator by (x 2)]
1
Ans : (x l)(x 3)
a
b
Example 9. Subtract : 6x2yz5 8x3y3z2
Solution : Here, L.C.M. of denominators = 24x3y3z5
a
a.24x3y3z5
4axy2
Now, 6x2yz5 = 6x2yz5.24x3y3z5 = 24x3y3z5
b
b.24x3y3z5
3bz3
and 8x3y3z2 = 8x3y3z2.24x3y3z5 = 24x3y3z5
a
b
4axy2
3bz3
4axy2 3bz3
Hence, 6x2yz5 8x3y3z2 = 24x3y3z5 24x3y3z5 = 24x3y3z5
4axy2 3bz3
Ans: 24x3y3z5
143
a+b
a
Example 10. Subtract: (a b)2 a2 b2
Solution : Here, L.C.M. of denominator = (a b)2 (a + b).
a+b
a
(a + b)2 (a b)a
=
Hence, (a b)2 a2 b2
(a b)2 (a + b)
a2 + 2ab + b2 a2 + ab
3ab + b2
b(3a + b)
=
=
2
2
(a b) (a + b) (a b)2 (a + b)
(a b) (a + b)
b(3a + b)
Ans: (a b)2 (a + b)
1
b
a
Example 11. Simplify : a + b + a2 b2 a2 + b2
Solution : Here L.C.M. of denominators = (a2 + b2) (a2 b2) = a4 b4
1
b
a
Hence, a + b + a2 b2 a2 + b2
(a b) (a2 + b2) + b (a2 + b2) a(a2 b2)
=
a4 b4
a3 + ab2 ba2 b3 + a2b + b3 a3 + ab2
2ab2
=
= a4 b4
a4 b4
Second method : The sum of first two expressions is,
1
b
ab+b
a
+ 2
2 =
2
2 = 2
(a + b) a b
a b
a b2
The third expression is subtracted from this sum,
1
b
a
a
a
a + b + a2 b2 a2 + b2 = a2 b2 a2 + b2
=
a + b a + b
1
a 2b
2ab
1
= aa2 b2 a2 + b2 = a (a2 b2) (a2 + b2) = a4 b4 = a4 b4
2ab2
Ans : a4 b4
1
1
1
1
Example 12. Simplify : x 1 x + 2 + x 2 x + 1
1 1
1
1
Solution : Given expression = x 1 x + 1 + x 2 x + 2
N.M.G. 20
144
x + 1 (x 1) x + 2 (x 2)
+
x2 1
x2 4
2
4
2 (x2 4) + 4(x2 1)
= x2 1 + x2 4 = (x2 1) (x2 4)
2x2 8 + 4x2 4
6x2 12
6(x2 2)
= (x2 1) (x2 4) = (x2 1) (x2 4) = x4 5x2 + 4
6(x2 2)
Ans : x4 5x2 + 4
Remark: Simplification can be done within the shortest time of some expressions
are arranged conveniently and then added or subtracted, afterwards this sum or
difference are added to or subtracted from any other expression or added or
subtracted from the sum or difference of some other expressions.
=
EXERCISE 2.1
1.
2.
145
3.
Add :
z
x
y
a
b
x+y xy
(ii) xy + yz + zx
(iii) a b + a + b
(i) x + y
1
1
ab
2x + 3y 2x 3y
(v) (a + b)2 + a2 b2 + (a + b)3
(iv) 2x 3y + 2x + 3y
1
1
1
(vi) x2 3x + 2 + x2 5x + 6 + x2 4x + 3
1
1
1
(vii) x2 x + 1 + x2 + x + 1 + x6 1
1
1
1
(viii) x2 5x + 6 + x2 4 + x2 x 6
4.
Subtract:
x
x2
(i) x 4 x2 16
(a b)2
1
(iii) a + b a3 + b3
1
x2
(v) x 2 x2 + 2x +4
5.
1
1
(ii) a(a + b) a(a b)
x2 + 9y2 x 3y
(iv) x2 9y2 x + 3y
1
1
(vi) 1 x + x2 1 + x +x2
Simplify:
ab bc ca
ab bc ca
(i) ab + bc ac (ii) a + b + b + c c + a
a
c
b
(iii) (a b)(b c) + (c a)(a b) + (b c)(a c)
a+b ab
2ab
(iv) a b a + b + b2 a2
1
1
2x
(v) x + 2y + x 2y x2 4y2
x 2y x + 2y
8xy
1
2
1
2
(vi) x + 2y x 2y x2 + 4y2 (vii) a b 2a + b + a + b 2a b
2
x
1
3
(viii) x 1 x2 + 1 x + 1 x2 1
a2
6a
1
(ix) a 2 a2 + 2a + 4 + a3 + 8
146
1
1
2x
(x) 1 x + x2 1 + x + x2 1 + x2 + x4
1
4
32
1
(xi) x 2 x + 2 x2 + 4 + x4 + 16
b a
b c
c a
(xii) (a b)(b c) + (a c)(b c) + (a c)(b c)
1
a
1
(xiii) a b c + a b + c a2 + b2 c2 2ab
1
6y
1
(xiv) 2x 3y 2x + 3y + 4x2 9y2
2.2. Multiplication of Fractions
The product of fractions of more than one is such a fraction whose numerator is
equal to the product of numerators of the given fractions and denominator is equal
a
to the product of denominators of the given fractions. b and d are two fractions
a c ac
and their product is b d = bd .
a c e g a c e g aceg
The product of the fractions, b , d , f , h = b d f h = bdfh
Remark : The fraction obtained from the product is to be expressed in its lower
terms. In the process of finding the product, the common factors of numerators
and denominators can also be cancelled out. If an expression is a, then the
numerator of the expression is 'a' and its denominator is 1.
b a b ab
For example, a c = 1 c = c
ab
a3b2
Example 1. Multiply c2d3 by c2d2
ab
a3b2 ab.a3b2
(a.a3)(b.b2)
Solution : Required product = c2d3 c2d2 = c2d3.c2d2 = (c2.c2)(d3 .d2)
a4b3
= c4d5
a4b3
Answer : 4 5
cd
147
8a3bc3
15e3fg
Example 2. Multiply : 25d3e2f and 16a2b2pq
8a3bc3
15e3fg
8 15 a3 b c3 e3
f
g
Solution : 25d3e2f 16a2b2pq =
a2 b2 d3 e2 f pq
25 16
3
a.c3eg
3ac3eg
= 10 b.d3pq = 10bd3pq
3ac3eg
Answer : 10bd3pq
x (x y)
y (x + y)
Example 3. Multiply x2 + 2xy +y2 by x3 y3
x (x y)
y (x + y)
Solution : Required product = x2 + 2xy + y2 x3 y3
xy (x y) (x + y)
xy
= (x + y)2 (x y) (x2 + xy + y2) = (x + y) (x2 + xy + y2)
xy
Answer : (x + y) (x2 + xy + y2)
a2 x2 a2 y2
1
Example 4. a + y ax + x2 a x = how much?
(a + x) (a x) (a + y) (a y)
1
(a + y)
x (a + x)
(a x)
ay
= x
ay
Answer : x
EXERCISE 2.2
Multiply :
6a2b2 49c5d4
4a7b8
1. 35c3d3 , 36a5b7 and 21c4d5
20x2y2 28z4
3y7z
2. 21z2 , 9x3y4 and 10x
x2 y2
z2
3. yz , zx and xy
x + 1 x2 + x 2
x2
4. x 1 , x2 + x and x2 + 5x + 6
148
a4 b4
ab
a+b
1 x2 1 b2
x
x2 6x 16 x2 11x + 28
x+3
7. x2 4x 21 , x2 12x + 32 and x + 2
2x2 7x + 3 3x2 + 11x 4
2x2 + x 15
8. 2x2 + 7x 4 , 3x2 + 8x 3 and 2x2 11x + 15
ab
a3 b3
a3 + b3
9. a b a3 a2b + ab2 a2b + ab2 + b3
2x(1b2)
1
x2 y2
y
10.
2
y
(x + y) x + bx 2x 2y
a3 + b3 a + b a2 + ab
11. a2 b2 a b (a + b)2
Simplify :
a bb c
12. b + ca + d
2x 1 1
1
13. 1 + x + 1 x2 x x2
x
z
x
x 1
1
14. 1 x + y x + y + z + x + y z 15. 1 + x + 1 x 1 + x2 1 + x + x2
x
8y
x
16. 3x y + 3x + y 9 + x2 y2
149
a (a b) + b(a + b) a (a + b) b(a b)
Solution : Given expression =
a2 b2
a2 b2
a2 ab + ab + b2 a2 + ab ab + b2 a2 + b2 a2 + b2 a2 + b2 a2 b2
=
= a2 b2 a2 b2 = a2 b2 a2 + b2 = 1
a2 b2
a2 b2
Answer : 1.
=
150
x2 + x 2 x2 3x 10 x2 4x 5
Example 6. Simplify : x2+7x+12 x2 + x 12 x2 4x + 3
x2 + x 2 x2 3x 10 x2 4x 5
Solution : Given expression = x2+7x+12 x2 + x 12 x2 4x + 3
x2 + x 2
x2 + x 12 x2 4x 5
= x2 + 7x + 12 2
x 3x 10 x2 4x + 3
(x + 2)(x 1)
(x + 4)(x 3)
(x 5)(x + l)
(x + 1)
= (x + 3) (x + 4) (x 5) (x + 2) (x 3) (x 1) = (x + 3)
(x + 1)
Answer : (x + 3)
(x + y)2 3xy (x + y)
x 3 + y3
Example 7. Simplify : (x y)2 + 3xy (x3 y3)
(x y)
x3 + y3
(x + y)2 3xy (x + y)
Solution : Given expression = (x y)2 + 3xy (x3 y3)
(x y)
(x + y) (x2 xy + y2) (x y) (x2 + xy + y2) (x + y)
=
(x y) = (x +y)2 = x2 +2xy + y2
(x2 + xy + y2)
(x2 xy + y2)
Answer : x2 + 2xy + y2.
Remark : If there are +, , , and brackets, the rule of BODMAS is followed
in case of simplification. where B = Bracket, O = Of, D = Division, M =
Multiplication, A = Addition, S = Subtraction.
EXERCISE 2.3
Divide the first expression by the second expression:
2a2 9b2
4a2b2 12ab3
7a2b2c2 21a4b4c4
5a a + b
1. 3b , 16ac
2. 3c2 , 5c5
3. 12xyz , 4x3y3z3 4. b , 5b
a2 + ab ab + b2
x2 49 x + 7
a3 b3 a2 + ab +b2
5. 4a2 , 6b2
6. x2 25 , x + 5
7. a + b , a2 b2
x2 4
x2 5x 14
x2 x 30 x2 + 6x 72
8. x2 + 3x 18 , x2 36
9. x2 36 , x2 + x 56
Simplify :
b
1
1
2a + b
10. a + b 1 1 a + b
11. 1 + x 1 x2
151
3
y x
y
x
12. x + y +
x + y
y
x y
2ab a b
13. 1 a2 + b2 a b 3ab
a + b
a+b
b
b2 1
a
2a
14. a + b a b 1 a2 b2 15. a + b a b + a2 b2 a + b + a2 b2
x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y)
(x y)2 + 4xy
16.
3
(x + y)2 4xy
x y3 3xy(x y)
2
a
a2 + ab + b2
a b
a
x2 + 2x 15
x2 25
x2
18. x2 + x 12 x2 x 20 x2 5x + 6
3x2 4x 4 2x2 + 5x 3 x2 + x 6
19. 3x2 x 2 2x2 + x 1 x2 1
2
a b
b a + b a b a + b a b
b
a
20. a b a + b a b a + b + a b + a + b a b a + b 1 + a2
a3 + a2b + ab2 + b3
a+b
a2 + b2 a2 b2
21.
a2 ab 2b2 4a2 a 2b
2a (a b)
Multiple Choice Questions [Marks () on the correct answer]
1.
If
x y z
, ,
are expressed in fractions with common denominator
p q r
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
a3b2
ab
Which one of the following indicates the product of c2d3 and c2d2 ?
(a)
a 3b 3
c4d 5
(b)
a 4b 3
c4d 5
(c)
a 3b 4
c5d 4
(d)
a 4b 2
c5d 5
N.M.G. 21
152
3.
4.
(a) x y
(b)
(c) 2 3
(d) 2 3
1
1
and
,
x y
x+ y
5.
2
x y2
(b) 2
(c)
2
2
x y2
(i)
The sum of
(d)
2x
x y2
2
2x
2
x y2
2
2
1
1
and
is equal to 2
x+ y
x y
x 1
(iii) The product of more than one fractions means the ratio of
product of numerators and product of denominators.
Which one of the following is correct on the basis of the above
informations.
(a) i and ii
(b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii
(d) i, ii and iii
Observe the following four algebraic expressions:
x
y
x
y
,
,
,
x+ y x y x y x+ y
6.
153
7.
8.
Which one of the following is the sum of the 1st and 2nd
expressions?
(a)
x2 + y2
x2 y2
(c)
2x 2
x2 y2
(b)
2(x 2 + y 2 )
x2 y2
(d)
2y2
x2 y2
Which one of the following is the ratio of the sum of first two
expressions and subtraction of last two expressions?
(a) 1
(b) 0
(c) 1
(d) 2
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
a2 a 1
a
2 + 1 ,
2
b a + b a b2
b
expressions
into
a
?
a+b
fractions
with
common
154
3.
x2 4
x 2 5 x 14 x 2 + 6 x 72
,
, 2
are three algebraic
x 2 + 3 x 18
x 2 36
x + x 56
expressions.
(a) Express the 1st expression in simple form.
(b) Divide the 1st expression by the 2nd expression.
(c) If the result of (b) is divided by the 3rd expression, then how
x2 2
much the quotient would be more than
?
( x 3) ( x + 12)
Chapter III
156
157
5x 2
x+4
6x + 3
x+2
120
+
120
=
120
8
6
5
4 120.
or, 75x 30 + 20x + 80 = 144x + 72 30x 60.
or, 75x + 20x 144x + 30x = 72 60 + 30 80,[Interchanging the sides of terms]
or, 19x = 38 or, x = 2, [dividing both sides by 19]
Required solution, x = 2.
Answer : x = 2.
3x
x
Example 3. (b) Solve : 4 + 3 = 6 + 4.
3x
x
Solution: 4 + 3 = 6 + 4.
3x x
or, 4 6 = 4 3, [interchanging the sides of terms]
9x 2x
or, 12 = 1, [L. C. M. of 4 and 6 = 12 and applying algebraic subtraction]
7x
or, 12 = 1. or, 7x = 12, [multiplying both sides by 12]
12
or, x = 7 [dividing both sides by 7]
12
Required solution, x = 7
Examining correctness it is found that left hand side = right hand side.
12
Answer : x = 7
or,
158
3x 5x 2 4x + 5
Example 3. (c) solve : 4 + 6 = 8
3x 5x 2 4x + 5
Solution : 4 + 6 = 8
3x
5x 2
4x + 5
or, 24 4 + 24 6
= 24 8
[L.C.M. of 4, 6 and 8 is 24 and
multiplying both sides by 24]
or, 6(3x) + 4(5x 2) = 3(4x + 5)
or, 18 x + 20x 8 = 12x + 15
or, 38x 12x = 15 + 8, [interchanging the sides of terms]
23
or, 26x = 23 or, x = 26 [dividing both sides by 26]
23
Required solution, x = 26
23
Answer : x = 26
5
2
Example 4. Solve : 4x 15 = 3x + 1
5
2
Solution : 4x 15 = 3x + 1
or, 5(3x + 1) = 2(4x 15), [by cross multiplication]
or, 15x + 5 = 8x 30
or, 15x 8x = 30 5, [interchanging the sides of terms]
35
or, 7x = 35, or, x = 7 or, x = 5,
Required solution, x = 5.
Answer : x = 5.
2x + 5 2x 3 2x 5 2x + 3
Example 5. Solve : 2x + 3 2x 5 = 2x 3 2x + 5
2x + 5 2x 3 2x 5 2x + 3
Solution : 2x + 3 2x 5 = 2x 3 2x + 5
159
or,
5 (x 3) 5 (x 1) 4 (x 2) 4 (x 3)
(x 1) (x 3) = (x 3) (x 2)
5x 15 5x + 5 4x 8 4x + 12
or, (x 1) (x 3) = (x 3) (x 2)
10
4
or, (x l) (x 3) = (x 3) (x 2)
1.
5
2
or, x 1 = x 2 [dividing and multiplying both sides by 2 and (x 3)
respectively]
160
or,
1
1
1
or, (x a b c) b + c + c + a + a + b = 0
1
1
1
or, x a b c = 0 [Since b + c + c + a + a + b 0; so dividing both sides by it]
or, x = a + b + c
Required solution, x = a + b + c.
Answer : x = a + b + c.
Remark : If AB = 0, then must be either A = 0 or, B = 0. Hence, if any equation
AX = 0 and A 0, then the factor involving the unknown quantity must be equal
to zero.
161
2x
8x + 3
Example 8. Solve : x 4 + 2x + 1 = 6
2x
8x + 3
2x
8x + 3
Solution : x 4 + 2x + 1 = 6 or, x 4 + 2x + 1 = 2 + 4
2x
8x + 3
2x 2x + 8 8x + 4 8x 3
8
1
=
or,
=
x4
2x + 1
x 4 2x + 1
or, 8(2x + 1) = x 4
or, 16x + 8 = x 4
Example 9. Solve : 2x 1 + 3x 1 = 4x + 1
2
Solution : 2x 1 + 3x 1 = 4x + 1
2
3
4
4
or, 2x 1 + 3x 1 = 4x + 1 + 4x + 1
2
4
4
3
or, 2x 1 4x + 1 = 4x + 1 3x 1
8x + 2 8x + 4
12x 4 12x 3
or, (2x 1) (4x + 1) = (4x + 1) (3x 1)
or,
7
6
=
(2x 1) (4x + 1) (4x + 1) (3x 1)
162
6
7
or, 2x 1 = 3x 1 [multiplying both sides by (4x + l)]
or, 18x 6 = 14x + 7, [by crossmultiplication]
or, 18x + 14x = 7 + 6, [interchanging the sides of terms]
13
or, 32x = 13
or, x = 32
13
Repuired solution, x = 32
13
Answer : x = 32
Remark : If 4x of (4x + 1) is multiplied by the numerator 2 of the first fraction, it
becomes 8x and if 2x of (2x 1) of first fraction is multiplied by 4, it also
becomes 8x. Again if 4x of (4x + 1) is multiplied by the numerator 3 of the second
fraction, if becomes 12x and if 3x of (3x 1) is multiplied by 4 it also becomes
12x. Here 8, the numerator of the fraction of right hand side is written as (4 + 4).
x + 1 x + 2 10x + 18
Example 10. Solve : x 1 + x 2 = 5x 6
x + 1 x + 2 10x + 18
Solution : x 1 + x 2 = 5x 6
or,
(x 1) + 2 (x 2) + 4 2(5x 6) + 30
+ x2
=
x1
5x 6
2
4
30
or, 1 + x 1 + 1 + x 2 = 2 + 5x 6
2
4
10 + 20
or, x 1 + x 2 = 2 2 + 5x 6
2
10
20
4
or, x 1 5x 6 = 5x 6 x 2 , [interchanging the sides of terns]
or,
2
16
or, (x 1) (5x 6) = (5x 6) (x 2)
163
1
8
or, x 1 = x 2 , [dividing and multiplying both sides by 2 and (5x 6) respectively]
or, x 2 = 8x 8 or, x 8x = 8 + 2, [interchanging the sides of terms]
6
or, 7x = 6
or, x = 7
6
:. Required solution, x = 7
6
Answer : x = 7 .
4x2 + 7 9x2 + 5 5x2 3x + 4
Example 11. Solve : 2x 1 + 3x 1 =
x1
4x2 + 7 9x2 + 5 5x2 3x + 4
Solution : 2x 1 + 3x 1 =
x1
(4x2 1) + 8 (9x2 1) + 6 5x2 3x + 4
or,
+
=
2x 1
3x 1
x1
4x2 1
8
9x2 1
6
5x2 3x + 4
or, 2x 1 + 2x 1 + 3x 1 + 3x 1 =
x1
(2x + 1) (2x 1)
8
(3x + 1) (3x 1)
6
5x2 3x + 4
or,
+ 2x 1 +
+ 3x 1 =
x1
(2x 1)
3x 1
8
6
5x2 3x + 4
or, (2x + 1) + 2x 1 + (3x + 1) + 3x 1 =
x1
8
6
(5x + 2) (x 1) + 6
or, (5x + 2) + 2x 1 + 3x 1 =
x1
8
6
6
or, (5x + 2) + 2x 1 + 3x 1 = (5x + 2) + x 1
8
6
6
or, 2x 1 + 3x 1 = x 1 [cancelling (5x + 2) from both sides]
8
6
4
2
or, 2x 1 + 3x 1 = x 1 + x 1
8
4
2
6
or, 2x 1 x 1 = x 1 3x 1
164
8x 8 8x + 4 6x 2 6x + 6
or, (2x 1) (x 1) = (x 1)(3x 1)
4
4
or, (2x 1)(x 1) = (x 1)(3x 1)
1
1
x 1
or, 2x 1 = 3x 1 , [multiplying by 4 ]
or, 3x + 1 = 2x 1
2
or, 5x = 2 or, x = 5
2
Required solution, x = 5
2
Answer : x = 5
EXERCISE 3. 1
Solve:
1. 15x 9 = 11x 25;
2. 8x + 5(x + 7) = 3 (x + 6) 9 (2x + 23);
3. 3(4x + 1) + 9 = 5(3x + 2) + 4(2x 5);
4. 2(x 1) 4(x 3) = 3(x 2);
x
3x
5x
3x
3x 4 5x 3
5. 5 + 4 = 10 + 6;
6. 6 + 3 = 5 10; 7. 2 + 3 = 4 ;
2x + 5 3x + 1 2x 3
7x 10x 3 7x + 5
8. 6 9 = 8 ;
9. 2 8 = 6 ;
6x + 7 2x 1 3x 2
x 3 2x 3 6x + 1 x 6
10. 5 10 = 15 ;
11. 7 3 = 2 4 ;
2x 3 x 3 3x 4 2x + 5
5x + 6 4x 5 2x + 3 3x 7
12. 4 5 = 8 3 ;
13. 4 + 5 = 8 + 3 ;
5
7
12
a
b
a+b
14. x + 2 + x 3 = x 1 ;
15. x a + x b = x a b ;
6
5
11
8
9
7
16. x + 1 +x + 5 = x + 3 ;
17. 2x 1 + 3x 1 = x + 1 ;
4
15
35
10
1
18
18. 2x + 1 + 5x + 4 = 7x + 6 ;
19. 2x 5 + x + 5 = 3x 5 ;
x bc x ab x ca
20. b + c + a + b + c + a = a + b + c ;
165
ax a2 bx b2 cx c2
21. b + c + c + a + b + a = a + b + c ;
x+a
x+b
x+c
22. b + c + 2a + c + a + 2b + a + b + 2c = 3;
3x bc 3x ca 3x ab
23. b + c + c + a + a + b = a + b + c ;
2x 1 3x 4 5x 12
24. x 1 + x 2 = x 3 ;
4x 7 15x + 11 12x + 1
25. 4x + 5 + 5x + 7 = 3x + 4 ;
x2 x + 1 x2 2x + 1 2x2 6x + 2
26. x 1 + x 2 =
;
x3
2x2 3x + 7 6x2 + 2x + 21 3x2 + 8x + 7
27. 2x 1 +
=
;
3x + 1
x+3
x2 x3 x1 x4
28. x 3 + x 4 = x 2 + x 5 ;
2x + 11 9x 9 4x + 13 15x 47
29. x + 5 3x 4 = x + 3 3x 10 .
3.3 Applications of Equations in Solving the Problems Relating to Our Real
Necessity.
Problems relating to our real necessity can be solved by using rules of arithmetic.
Those problems can be solved easily with the help of algebraic equations. There is
no general rule for solving all the problems. In solving the problems the required
term is denoted by x. Then the problem is arranged in the form of an equation
according to the given conditions. The process of solution can be understood from
the following examples :
Example 1. Divide Tk. 420 between Farid and Zafar in such a way so that Farid
gets Tk. 30 more than double of Zafar's share. How much each of Farid and Zafar
would get?
Solution: Let, Zafar gets Tk. x.
Therefore, Farid gets Tk. (2x + 30)
According to the conditions, x + (2x + 30) = 420 or, x + 2x + 30 = 420.
390
or, 3x = 420 30 or, 3x = 390 or, x = 3 = 130.
166
Therefore, Zafar gets Tk. 130 and Farid gets Tk. (2x+30) = (2130+30) = Tk. 290.
Answer : Farid gets Tk. 290 and Zafar gets Tk. 130.
Example 2. The present age of Razat is 9 times that of Anik. After 9 years, the age
of Razat will be 3 times that of Anik. What are the present ages of Razat and
Anik?
Solution : Let, the present age of Anik is x years.
Therefore, present age of Razat is 9x years.
After 9 years, the age of Anik will be (x + 9) years and the age of Razat will be
(9x + 9) years.
Hence, according to the conditions,
9x + 9 = 3(x + 9) or, 9x + 9 = 3x + 27.
18
or, 9x 3x = 27 9 or, 6x = 18 or, x = 6 = 3
Therefore, the present age of Razat is 9x years = 9 3 years = 27 years
and present age of Anik is x years = 3 years.
Answer : 27 years and 3 years.
Example 3. Hanif bought some mangoes as 15 mangoes at Tk. 100.00 sold 12
mangoes at Tk. 100.00 and thus he made a profit of Tk. 400.00. How many
mangoes did he buy?
Solytion : Let, Hanif bought x mangoes.
20x
x
x 100
25x
= Tk.
3
12
25x 20x
Hence, according to the conditions, 3 3 = 400 [sales cost = profit]
25x 20x
5x
=
400
or,
3
3 = 400
400
or, x = 5 3 = 80 3 = 240
or,
167
Example 4. If Ranjit is in possession of 200 coins in fifty paisa and ten paisa and
that amounts to Tk. 44, then what is the number of coins of each kind?
Solution : Let, the number of coins in fifty paisa = x pieces.
Then, the number of coins in ten paisa = (200 x) pieces.
x
x pieces of coins of fifty paisa amounted to Tk. 2 and (200 x) pieces of coins
200 x
of ten paisa amounted to Tk. 10
x 200 x
5x + 200 x
Hence, according to the conditions, 2 + 10 = 44 or,
= 44
10
or, 4x + 200 = 440 or, 4x = 440 200 or, 4x = 240 or, x = 60.
Therefore, the number of coins in fifty paisa pieces, x = 60 and the number of
coins of ten paisa pieces (200 x ) = 200 60 = 140 pieces.
Answer : 60 and 140.
Example 5. Income of Ranjan is equal to that of Ranjit. Ranjan saves one fifth of
his total income. But in one year Ranjit spends Tk. 4000 more than the amount
which Ranjan spends. After four years it is found that Ranjit is indebted Tk.
11000. How much is the income of each of them?
Solution : Let, each of them earns Tk. x in one year.
x
4x
4x
Therefore, Ranjit spends Tk. 5 + 4000 in a year and in one year he is indebted
11000
to Tk. 4 = Tk. 2750
Hence, Ranjit spends Tk. 2750 more than the amount of his income yearly.
4x
4x
4x + 20000 5x
or,
= 2750
5
20000 x
or,
= 2750
or, 20000 x = 13750.
5
or, x = 20000 13750
or, x = 6250.
Therefore, yearly income of each of them is Tk. 6250.00
Answer: Tk. 6250.00
N.M.G. 23
168
Example 6. A businessman of banana bought some bananas each at Tk. 1.00 and
the same number of bananas each at 50 paisa and sold all bananas each at 80 paisa.
Thus he made a profit of Tk. 100.00. How many bananas did he buy?
Solution : Let, the businessman bought x bananas. Half of the total number of x
x
bananas was bought each at Tk. 1.00 and therefore, its cost price is Tk. 2 .
1
x 1
Again the rest was bought each at 50 paisa or Tk. 2 , so its cost price is Tk. 2 2
3x
x x 1
x x
Hence, the total cost price is Tk. 2 + 2 2 = Tk. 2 + 4 = Tk. 4 .
4
As the total number of bananas are sold each at 80 paisa or, Tk. 5 , the selling
4x
4
price is Tk. 5 x = Tk. 5
4x 3x
According to the condition, 5 4 = 100. [selling price cost price = profit]
or,
16x 15x
x
=
100
or,
20
20 = 100 or, x = 2000.
1.
The sum of two numbers is 100. Twice of a number as much smaller than
100 as three times of another number is that much greater than 160. What are
those two numbers ?
2.
The sum of two numbers is 61. Twice of a number is greater than two third
of another number by 10. What are those two numbers ?
3.
10 years ago, father was five times as old as his son. After 20 years, father
will be twice as old as his son. What are the present ages of father and son?
4.
The sum of two numbers is 75. One third of greater number is as much
smaller than 30 as four times of smaller number is that much greater than 50.
Find those two numbers.
169
5.
Divide Tk. 104.00 among Chaity, Pew and Rafat in such a way so that double
of Chaity's share, three times of Pew's share and four times of Rafat's share
equal to one another.
7.
Rahim bought a certain number of dates at Tk. 100 for two and the same
number of dates at Tk. 100 for three dates and sold all of them at Tk. 200
for five dates. As a result he made a loss of Tk. 4. How many dates did he
buy?
8.
Divide Tk. 170 among 50 men and women such that each man gets
Tk.350 and each woman gets Tk. 325. Find the numbers of men and
women.
9.
The number of male students is of the 6 students in a school and the rest are
female students. If the number of male students is more than that of female
students by 120, find the number of students in the school.
10. Half of a pillar is under the earth, one third of it is within water and the rest of
2 metres is above water. What is the length of the pillar?
11. Monju bought a certain quantity of sugar at Tk. 40 per kg. and certain
quantity of sugar at Tk. 30. Then he sold the sugar at Tk. 36 per kg. and these
1
made a profit of 122 % per kg. Find the ratio that he bought both kinds of
sugar.
12. 100 coins in fifty paisa pieces and twenty five paisa pieces were found in a
box and amounted to Tk. 45. How many coins of each kind were there?
13. Tongi is 4 kms. from Uttara. From Uttara Taher was riding by ricksha at
6km/hour and kalam was walking towards Tongi at 3 Km/hour from the
same place. After reaching at Tongi Taher took rest for 10 minutes and then
started towards Uttara. How far from Tongi will he meet Kalam?
170
!4. Farid and Zafar had 80 kg. of goods with them. They had to pay Tk. 125 and
Tk. 75 respectively for carring cost of goods in addition to quantities which
they can carry with them free of cost. If all goods belonged to one of them,
he had to pay Tk. 300.00 for carring cost. How much weight of goods did
each of them carry and how much weight of goods could each of them carry
free of cost ?
Multiple Choice Questions [Mark () on the correct answer]
1. How many unknown quantities are there in a simple linear
equation?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) Infinite
2. Which one of the following is the cancellation law of addition?
(a) If a + c = b + c, then b + c = a + c,
(b) If p + q = r, then p = r q,
(c) If m + n = p + n, then m = p
(d) If ac = bc, c 0, then a = b
3.
If
a c
= , then for which law of the following is applicable for ad = bc?
b d
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4.
If
Side interchange
Cancellation law of addition
Cancellation law of multiplication
Cross multiplication
x
x
+ 2 = , then which one of the following is the value of x?
6
2
(a) 3
(c) 5
5.
One number is 1
(b) 4
(d) 6
1
times of the other and the sum of the two
2
171
6.
7.
The 5 times of the age of Akib is equal to the 3 times of the age of
Arif. The sum of their age is 24 years, then which one of the
following are the ages of Arif and Akib respectively?
(a) 14, 10
(b) 9, 15
(c) 15, 9
(d) 18, 6
The
5
part of a pillar is black coloured and the remaining part is
6
8.
(a) 9 metre
(b) 8 metre
(c) 6 metre
(d) 5 metre.
The sum of the ages of Mr. Jagadish and his two sons is 36 years.
What will be the sum of their ages after 5 years?
(a) 40
(b) 41
(c) 46
(d) 51
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
Mr. Khaleque bought some mangoes as 15 mangoes at Tk. 100.00 and sold
12 mangoes at Tk. 100.00 and thus he made a profit of Tk. 400.00.
(a) Form an equation in the view of the above informations.
(b) Find the buying price and selling price of his mangoes.
(c) If Mr. Khaleque paid the shopkeeper total price by 170 notes of Tk. 5.00
and Tk. 10.00, then how many notes of which type did he give?
2.
Ranu, Rabu and Panu are three sisters. Taka 208 is distributed among them
so that the double of Ranus share is triple of Rabus share and 4 times of
Panus share are equal to one another.
(a) Form an equation in view of the above informations.
(b) Find the amount of taka of Ranu, Rabu and Panu.
(c) How much amount of taka would be added with each of their amount so
that the summation will equal to three times of the amount of Rabu and
Panu and four times of the amount of Ranu?
172
3.
Lutfor and Jagadish are two friends. The earnings of both of them
are equal, Lutfor used to save
1
of his earnings. He distributed his
5
savings between his wife and daughter such that the seven times of
daughters amount is equal to the three times of wifes amount. But
in three years Jagadish spends Tk. 12000 more than the amount
which Lutfor spends. After 5 years it is found that Jagadish is
indebted Tk. 13750.
(a) How much taka was indebted by Jagadish in one year and how
much more taka did he spend than that of Lutfor?
(b) Find out the amount of yearly earnings of each of them.
(c) Find the amount of taka of the wife and daughter of Lutfor.
Chapter IV
174
175
[Verification : Putting x = 2 and y = 1, the left hand side of first equation = 2.2 +1
= 4 + 1 = 5 = right hand side and the left hand side of second equation = 4. 2 5.1
= 8 5 = 3 = right hand side]
Example 3. Solve : 3x + 2y = 13
5x 3y = 9.
Solution : First equation, 3x + 2y =13 ............ (1)
or, 2y = 13 3x
13 3x
or, y = 2
............... (2)
Second equation, 5x 3y = 9
13 3x
or, 5x 3. 2 = 9 [putting the value of y from (2)]
13 3.3 13 9 4
= 2 =2 =2 y=2
2
176
177
Example 6. Solve : 8x + 11 y = 3
6x 13y = 19.
Solution : Multiplying the first equation by 3 and the second equation by 4, we
get,
24x + 33y = 9
and 24x 52y = 76
Subtracting,
85y = 85. or, y = 1.
Now putting y = 1 in the second equation, we get,
6x 13.1 = 19 or, 6x = 19 + 13
or, 6x = 6; or, x = 1.
Required solution, x = 1 and y = 1
Answer : (x, y) = ( 1, 1).
EXERCISE 4.1
Solve by the method of substitution and verify the solutions:
1.
xy=1
x + y = 3.
4.
7.
2. x + y = 5
2x y = 4.
3. x y = 0
2x + 3y = 10.
3y = 4x + 1
5. x + 4y = 14
6. 3x + 5y = 7
4x 5y = 7.
7x 3y = 5.
x y
8. 3 + 2 = 6
x y
2 +4 =4
5x + 4y = 10.
7x 5y = 11
3x + 2y = 13.
9. 3x 5y = 9
5x 3y = 1
2 3
12. x + y = 2
3 2 5
5x 4y = 3
ax by = c
x y =6
Solve by the method of elimination and verify the solutions:
10. 7x + 8y = 9
13. x y = 3
x + y = 7.
16. 2x + 5y = 14
4x 5y = 17.
11. x + ay = b
14. 2x + 3y = 7
8x 7y = 9
17. 7x 5y = 11
3x + 2y = 13.
15. 4x + 3y = 12
5x + 4y = 15.
18. 8x 9y = 20
7x 10y = 9.
178
19. 3x 2y = 0
17x 7y = 52.
20. x y = 2a
ax + by = a2 + b2
x y
21. 3 + 2 = 6
x y
2 +4 =5
x y
x 2
22. 2 + 3 = 3
23. 3 y = 1
24. ax + by = ab
y
x 3
x+6 =3
bx + ay = ab
4 +y =3
4.2 Applications of Linear Simultaneous Equations in Solving Problems
Relating to Daily Necessity:
Many of the problems relating to daily necessity can be solved by using the
concept of linear simultaneous equations. Then one unknown may exists in many
of such problems. Different symbols are used for each of the unknowns and then
the equations are formed in such a case the number of equations of which one is
independent of another is exactly equal to the number of the unknowns used. Then
by solving the equations the values of the unknowns are determined.
Example 1. Divide Tk. 50 between two persons in such a way so that three times
of one person's Taka is equal to seven times of another person's Taka.
Solution : Let, one has Tk. x and another has Tk. y.
Therefore, according to the conditions,
x + y = 50 .............. (1)
and 3x = 7y ............. (2)
from (l), y = 50 x ............. (3)
Putting the value of y from (3) in equation (2), we get,
3x = 7(50 x)
or, 3x = 350 7x
or, 3x + 7x = 350
or, 10x = 350
or, x = 35.
Putting x = 35 in equation (3), we get,
y = 50 35 = 15.
Required shares : One gets Tk. 35 and another gets Tk. 15.
Answer : Tk. 35 and Tk. 15.
Example 2. 10 years ago, father was four times as old as his son. After 4 years
father will be twice as old as his son. What are their present ages?
179
Solution : Let, the present age of the father be x years and that of the son be y
years.
Therefore, according to the first condition,
x 10 = 4(y 10) .............. (1)
and according to the second condition,
x + 4 = 2(y + 4) ................ (2)
From equation (1),
x 10 = 4y 40
or, x = 4y 40 + 10
or, x = 4y 30 ............. (3)
Putting the value of x from (3) in equation (2), we get,
4y 30 + 4 = 2y + 8.
or, 4y 2y = 8 + 30 4
or, 2y = 34
or, y = 17.
From equation (3) we get,
x = 4y 30
or, x = 4.17 30 = 68 30 = 38.
Therefore, the present age of the father is 38 years and that of the son is 17 years.
Answer : 38 years and 17 years.
Example 3. Pia and Papia had some mangoes. If 20 mangoes from Pia are given
to Papia, then the number of mangoes of Papia will be twice that of Pia. Again 10
mangoes from Papia are given to Pia, then the number of mangoes of Pia will be
three times that of Papia. How many mangoes did each of them have?
Solution : Let, x be the number of Pia's mangoes and y be the number of Papia's
mangoes.
Therefore, according to the first condition,
2(x20) = y + 20 ............. (1)
and according to the second condition,
3(y 10) = x + 10 .............. (2)
From the first equation,
y = 2x 40 20
or,
y = 2x 60 .............. (3)
Putting the values of y from (3) in equation (2), we get,
3(2x 60 10) = x + 10 or, 6x 180 30 = x + 10
180
181
EXERCISE 4.2
1.
The sum and difference of two numbers are respectively 80 and 10. What are
these numbers ?
2.
The difference of two numbers is 45 and one is four times the other. What are
these numbers?
3.
If the first of two numbers is added to five times the second, then the sum is
52. But if the second is added to eight times the first, then the sum is 65.
What are these numbers?
4.
Father's age is 30 years more than son's age. After 10 years father will be
twice as old as his son. What are their ages?
5.
20 years ago, father was five times as old as his son. After 5 years three times
of father's age will be equal to five times of son's age. What are the present
ages of father and son?
6.
7.
9.
10. Anik and Rafat had some mangoes. If Anik gives Rafat 30 mangoes then the
number of mangoes of Rafat becomes twice that of Anik. Again if Rafat
gives Anik 10 mangoes then it becomes three times the number of mangoes
of Anik. How many mangoes did Anik and Rafat have?
11. The length of a rectangular region is greater than its breadth by 30 metres. If
the perimeter of the rectangular region is 140 metres, find the length and
breadth of the region.
182
12. The positions of two persons are 27 kms. away. If they move at the same
time in the same direction, then they can meet after 9 hours. But if the move
towards each other then they can meet after 3 hours. Determine speed of each
of them.
13. A man and a boy can do a work in 8 days. Two men and four boys can do the
same work in 3 days. In how many days a man or a boy can do the same
work?
14. The same work which two men and two boys can do in six days can be done
by 3 men and 8 boys in three days. In how many days a man or a boy can do
that work?
15. Rahim sold to a buyer his 9 cows and 7 goats at Tk. 51000. He sold to another
customer 6 cows and 16 goats at the same price. What is the price of each of
cows and goats?
16. A man rowing in favour of current covers 70 kms and against the current he
required 70 hours to come back. Determine the speeds of rowing and current.
17. A tank is filled up in 6 minutes by two pipes. If the second pipe is closed
after 3 minutes of opening the two pipes at the same time, then it takes 5
minutes more to fill up the tank. How much time will it take to fill up the
tank by each of the pipe?
Multiple Choice Questions [Mark () on the correct answer]
1.
2.
3.
If x
(a)
(c)
If x
(a)
(c)
(i)
(ii)
183
1.
2.
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
A man rowing in favour of current, covers 35 km in 5 hours and against the
current he required 35 hours to come back.
(a) Express the above informations in two equations.
(b) Determine the speeds of rowing and current.
(c) How much time would he spend to go and come back for 84 km.
N.M.G. 25
184
3.
A man has total 903 notes of Dolar and Euro currency. The value of the notes
in Bangladeshi taka is Tk. 77373.00 (1 dolar = Tk. 71, 1 Euro = Tk. 110).
(a) If the number of notes of Dolar is x, then express the value of that notes
in terms of x.
(b) How many notes of what type? Find the amount in Bangladeshi taka
separately.
(c) If the value of Dolar and Euro increase by Tk. 0.85 and Tk. 1.22
respectively, then what would be the percentage of increase or decrease
of the value of notes in Bangladeshi taka?
4.
Jasim and Iqbal are two friends. Tk. 152.00 is divided between them in such
a way so that three times of Iqbals share and five times of Jasims share are
equal.
(a) Express the above information in two equations.
(b) Find the amount of taka of each person.
(c) Iqbal gave some taka to Jasim, then five times of Iqbals share and three
times of Jasims share are equal. Now find the amount of taka of each of
them.
Chapter V
If the point, A is to the right of origin then it denotes a positive number and if it is
to the left of origin then it denotes a negative number. In the same distance from
number line, there are innumerable points out side it. The position of all these
points can not be determined by that number line only. In this case, the process of
determination of coordinates of a point in the plane is to be adopted.
Remark : For different origins or different units of length the coordinates of
points will be different. There are one to one correspondence between all real
numbers and the points on the straight line.
5.1.2 Coordination of Points on Plane.
The position of all the points on the plane can be determined by using mutually
intersecting lines. Let us consider two mutually perpendicular straight lines XOX'
and YOY' on the same plane. They intersect at the point O. The point O is the
186
origin of both the lines. Taking conveniently small segment as the unit of length,
let us make coordination of two lines, XOX' and YOY'. Now two lines XOX' and
YOY' become number lines.
The points on the right side of the origin O of the line, XOX' are positive and the
points on the left side are negative. The points on the above of the origin O of the
line, YOY' are positive and the points below are negative. XOX' is called xaxis
and YOY' is called y axis. A is on the number line XOX' and if A is the
corresponding point of 3 in that number line, then A corresponds to the pair of
numbers (3, 0). Again in the number line XOX', B the corresponding point of 1
corresponds to ( 1, 0).
If C is on the number line YOY' and C is the corresponding point of 2 in that
number line, then C corresponds to the pair of numbers, (0, 2). Again in the
number line YOY', D the corresponding point of 3 corresponds to (0, 3).
187
yaxis
the corresponding point (x, o). Again, if from A, AN is drawn perpendicular on the
y a xis, then N will be the corresponding point (0, y). x of (x, y) is called
xcoordinate or abscissa and y is
called y coordinate or ordinate.
xaxis
188
at equal distances and there are also some lines perpendicular to those parallel
lines at equal distances. Thus the paper is divided into some equal small squares.
Generally, one side of the small square is considered as the unit of length. The
graph paper is also called drawing paper.
To plot points in the graph paper, two mutually perpendicular straight lines are
taken. They are denoted by XOX' and YOY'. Generally, XOX' is considered as
horizontal line and YOY' is considered as vertical line. In the direction of OX of
the line XOX' and in the direction of OY of the line YOY' are considered positive
directions.
Quadrant and Signs of Coordinates
As a result of drawing, the line XOX' or xaxis and the line YOY' or yaxis on
graph paper, the whole plane of the graph
paper has been divided into four parts and
each part is called quadrant. The first
2nd Quadrant
Ist Quadrant
quadrant by OX and OY, second quadrant
by OX' and OY, third quadrant by OX' and
OY' and the fourth quadrant by OX and
OY'.
The xcoordinate and ycoordinate of any
point in the first quadrant are both
positive.
189
190
To find the position of the point A, we have to move to the right of the origin O at
a distance equal to the length of 3 sides of a small square along OX and then at
distance equal to the length of 7 sides of a small square above OX. Thus the point
found is A. To find the point B it is required to move to the right of the origin O to
a distance equal to the length of 3 sides of a small square along OX. (Here as the
ordinate is zero it is not required to move below or above OX).
To plot the point C, we have to
move to the left of the origin O at
distance equal to the length of 5
sides of small square along OX and
then to move above OX to a
distance equal to the length of 4
3.0
sides of small square.
To plot the point D, it is required to
move above from O along OY to a
distance equal to the length of 4
sides of small square (Here the
abscissa is zero and the abscissa of
the origin O is also zero. As the
ordinate is positive, we are to move
above directly from O along OY).
To plot the point E, we have to move along OX' left from the origin O to a
distance equal to the length of 4 sides of small square and then to move below OX'
to distance equal to the length of 6 sides of small square.
To plot the point F, the point which is obtained by moving to a distance equal to
the length of 6 sides of small square to the left of the origin along OX (Here as the
ordinate is zero, it is not required to move above or below from OX').
To plot the point G, the point which is obtained by moving to a distance equal to
the length 5 sides of a small square below the origin O along OY is the point G.
Example 2. Plot the points (1, 3), (1, 1) and (3, 1) in the graph paper. Also
show that, they are collinear (i.e. the points lie on the same straight lines).
Solution : Let XOX' and YOY' represent xaxis and yaxis respectively and O is
the origin. Let us suppose that the length of two sides of a small square is taken as
unit along the xaxis and the length of three sides of a small square is taken as unit
along the yaxis. Now, for abscissa 1 of the point (1, 3) we are to consider the
191
length equal to (1 2), or 2 sides of small square and for the ordinate 3 we have to
consider the length equal to (3 3), or 9 sides of small square.
To plot the point (1, 3), the point which
is obtained by moving to a distance
equal to the length of 2 sides of a small
square to the right from the origin O
along OX and then to a distance equal to
the length 9 sides of a small square is
the point (1, 3). To plot the point (1, 1),
the point obtained by moving to a
distance equal to the length of (1 2), or
2 small sides of squares to the left from
the origin O along OX' and to distance
equal to the length of (1 3) or 3 sides
of a small square is the point (1, 1). To
plot the point (3, 1), the point
obtained by moving to a distance equal
to the length of (3 2), or 6 sides of a small square to the left from the origin O
along OX' and then to a distance equal to the length of (1 3), or 3 sides of small
square below is the point (3, 1).
Now let us join the first and third points by a straight line. The other point lies on
this line. Therefore, the given point are collinear.
Remark : (a) Any coordinate of a point is to be multiplied by that number which
is equal to the length of number of sides of a small square that is considered as
unit. Then the points are to be placed in the graph paper according to the co
ordinates obtained by these multiplication.
(b) The unit is to be taken so that the points can be plotted in graph paper with the
help of whole numbers if any coordinate is fraction.
EXERCISE 5.1
1. Plot the following points in the graph paper and mention the quadrants in
which they lie:
A (2, 5); B (2, 7); C ( 4, 0); D (4, 5); E ( 5, 6); F (0,8); G (0,0); H (0, 6);
I (8,0); J (3,9) and K (0,7) .
N.M.G. 26
192
2. Taking the length of two sides of smallest square as unit, plot the following
points in the graph paper.
5 9
5. Show that the straight line joining the points (3, 6) and (2, 4) passes
through the origin.
6. Find the coordinates of the intersecting point at which the straight line
joining the points (2, 4) and ( 4, 5) intersects with the straight line joining
the points (1,0) and (5, 4).
7. Find the coordinates
intersecting
point at which the straight line
1 of the 1
1
joining the points (3 , 3) and ( 2 , 2 ) intersects with the straight line joining
the points (3, 3) and (2, 2).
5.2. Graphs of Linear Simultaneous Equations
The existing relation between two unknown quantities, x and y can be expressed
by a figure. This figure is called graph of that relation.
The linear equation x y = 2 is satisfied by the pairs of numbers (3, 1), (4, 2),
(5, 3), (1, 3), (1, 1) ....... etc. of (x, y). These pairs of numbers are considered as
coordinates and their corresponding points are plotted. Then the figure formed by
joining these points is the graph. The relation between x and y expressed by the
above mentioned equation can be expressed by this graph. There are innumerable
points in the graph of such a equation. If some points of the graph are plotted then
a clear idea regarding the graph is found. The graph can be drawn if the points are
joined only.
193
194
Let, XOX and YOY be x  axis and y axis respectively and O be the origin. In
both the axes, the length of each side of
the smallest square is taken to be unit.
The points (1, 1), (3, 2), (1, 4) and
(3, 7) are plotted in the graph paper.
By joining these points a straight line is
obtained. This is the graph of the
equation, 3x + 2y = 5
5.3. Solution of Linear Simultaneous
Equations containing Two Terms
with the help of Graph.
There are two linear equations in the
linear simultaneous equations containing
two unknown terms.
If graphs are drawn for two linear equations then two straight lines are obtained.
The point of intersection lies on both the lines. The x 1 coordinate and
y coordinate of this point of Intersection will be the roots of the given linear
simultaneous equations. These two equations will be simultaneously
satisfied by the values of x and y. Therefore, the only solution of the pair of linear
simultaneous equations is this abscissa and this ordinate of two straight lines.
Remark : There will be no solution of the given simultaneous equations if the two
straight lines are parallel.
Example 2: Solve with the help of graphs : 2x + 3y = 8
3x 4y = 5
8 2x
Solution : From the given first equation we get, 3y = 8 2x or , y = 3
Let us find the coordinates of some points of the graph of this equation.
195
4y 5
3
or,4y = 3x + 5
3x + 5
or, y = 4
Let us find the coordinates of some points of the graph of this equation :
or, x =
Let, XOX' and YOY' be xaxis and yaxis respectively and O be the origin. Let, in
both the axes, the length of each side of the smallest square be unit.
Let
us
plot
the
points
corresponding to (5, 6), (4, 0)
and (7, 2) in the graph paper. By
joining these points, a straight line
is obtained. Let us extend the
straight line in both directions.
Therefore, this is the graph of the
equation, 2x + 3y = 8.
Again, let us plot the points
corresponding to (3, 1), (7, 4)
and (5, 5)in the graph paper.
'
'
196
Again, let us find the coordinates of some points of the graph of the equation,
y = 3x 2
x
11
Let XOX' and YOY' be x axis and yaxis respectively and O be the origin.
Let in both the axes the length of each
side of the smallest square be unit.
Let us plot the points corresponding
to (1, 3), (1, 1) and (4, 9) in the
graph paper. By joining these points,
a straight line is obatined.
Let the straight line be extended in
both the directions.
This is the graph of the equation, y =
2x + 1. Again, let us plot the points
corresponding to (2, 4), (1, 5) and
(3, 11) in the graph paper. By joining these points, a straight line is obtained.
197
Let us extend this straight line in both the directions. This is the graph of the
equation, y = 3x 2. This straight line intersects the previous line at the point A.
The point A is the common point of both lines. The coordinates of the point satisfy
both the equations. It appears from the graph that the abscissa of the point, A is 3.
Hence, the required solution, x = 3.
Answer : x = 3.
EXERCISE 5.2
1. Draw the graphs of the following equations :
i) x + y = 4: ii) 2x + y = 8; iii) 4x + 3y = 6; iv) 2x y = 10;
v) 3x 2y = 9; vi) y = 3x 7; vii) 3x + 4y = 0: viii) x 2y 5 = 0;
ix) 2x = 63y; (x) 2x 5y + 12 = 0
2. Solve with the help of graph :
i) x + y = 5
ii) x + 4y = 11;
iii) 3x y = 5
x y = 3,
4x y =10
3x 2y = 4
iv) 3x + 2y = 12,
v) 3x + 2y = 6.
vi) 3x + 4y = 1
2x 3y = 5
4x + y = 8.
x + 2y = 1
vii) 3x 4y = 0,
viii) 4x + 3y = 8.
ix) 5x 3 = 8.
2x 3y = 1
3x + 2y = 6.
10x + 6y = 4.
3. Solve with the help of graph :
i) 3x + 4 = 5x;
ii) 3x + 2 = x 2:
iii) 7x 5 = 4x + 1;
iv) 5x 3 = x + 1;
v) 8x 3 = 5x 3;
vi) 3x 7 = 3 2x;
1
1
vii) 1 3x = 7 3x;
viii) 2 x 1 = 3 x + 1
Multiple Choice Questions [Make () on the correct answer]
1.
2.
3.
1
) is situated?
2
(a) 1st
(b) 2nd
(c) 3rd
(d) 4th
In how many unit of distance the poins A (2,3) is situated from the
xaxis?
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
Which line joining the following pair of points passes through the
origin?
(a) (2,0), (0,2)
(b) (2, 0), (0, 2)
(c) (1, 0), (1, 0)
(d) (1,0), (0,1)
198
4.
C(0,6)
A(0,4)
(0,0)
D(2,0)
B(4,0)
(i)
1
6
199
A(0,5)
D(5,5)
O
(0,0)
B (5,0)
7.
8.
5 5
2 2
(a) 0,
(b) ,
(c)
(d) (5, 5)
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
N.M.G. 27
200
2.
3.
Chapter I
AB and CD are two lines parallel to each other. The parallelism is denoted by the
symbol . Here: AB CD, If any two line segments are taken from two parallel
lines, then those line segments are parallel to each other. The perpendicular
distances from any point of line of two parallel lines to the other line are always
equal to another. The perpendicular distance or distance between AB and CD is
PQ. Only one straight line can be drawn parallel to a straight line through if point
not lying on this line.
Uclid's Postulates
If a point is not situated on the same line, then one and only one parallel line draw
through this point.
Playfaire's Postulates.
If two straight lines intersect then both the lines can not be parallel of a third
straight line.
1.2 Congruency of Triangles
Each triangle has six parts three sides and three angles. Of two triangles, if one is
placed on the other in a proper way and if the sides and the angles of two triangles
coincide completely, then those two triangles are congruent. Two congruent
triangles will be of the same size.
203
Two triangles will be congruent if the following parts of those two triangles are
respectively equal.
(a) Two sides and their included angle
(b) Three sides
(c) Two angles and one side
(d) One angle is a right angle, hypotenuse and one side.
Remarks : (a) Two triangles may not be congruent if three angles of one are
respectively equal to that of the other.
Three angles of innumerable triangles of different sizes may be equal. These
triangles are called similar triangles.
(b) If two triangles are congruent, then their areas will also be equal. But two
triangles may not be congruent though their areas are equal.
A
D
B
1.3 Symbols
The following symbols are used :
Symbol
Meaning
Hence, therefore
Q
=
Since
Equal to
angle
triangle
Congruent
Symbol
>
Meaning
greater than
<
less than
Greater than or equal to
less than or equal to
not equal to
perpendicular to
parallel to
1.4 For the same of continuity, the theorems studied in the previous class and
discussed again and proofs of some theorems are also included.
204
Theorem 1
If another straight line meets a line segment at its end point then the sum of two
adjacent angles thus formed is equal to two right angles.
The line AB meets the line segment CO at its end point O. Here AOC and
BOC are two adjacent angles AOC + BOC = Two right angles.
Theorem 2
If the sum of two abjacent angles is equal to two right angles, then their two
exterior sides lie in the same straight line.
AOC and BOC are two adjacent angles and AOC + BOC = two right
angles. OA and OB are their exterior sides. Hence OA and OB lie in the same
straight line.
Theorem 3
If two straight lines intersect each other, then the vertically opposite angles
formed at the point of intersection are equal to each other.
205
Theorem 4
If a straight line intersects two other straight Lines,
(a) two alternate angles will be equal to each other.
(b) two corresponding angles will be equal to each other.
(c) the sum of the two interior angles in the same side of the bisector will
be equal to right angles.
Proposition : Let the straight line EF intersects the parallel straight lines AB and
CD at G and H respectively, (a) It is to be proved that AGH = alternate GHD.
Proof : If AGH is not equal to GHD, then let us suppose that, KGH =
GHD. They are alternate angles.
Hence KG and CD are parallel. But AB and CD or, AG and CD have been taken
to be parallel to one another.
206
Theorem 5
If a straight line intersects another two straight lines and if (a) the alternate
angles are equal to each other or, (b) the corresponding angles are equal to
each other.
or, (c) the sum of the two enterior angles in the same side of the bisector be
equal to those two right angles then two lines are parallel.
.*.
'.
'
P
C
D
PGH = alternate DHG
H
But given, AGH = DHG
PGH =AGH
F
But it is impossible, because between two angels one is the part of the other. So
the straight line AB and CD are parallel.
b) Proposition : Let, the straight line EF intersects AB and CD at the points. G
and H respectively so that it becomes exterior EGB = interior opposite GHD.
It is required to prove that, AB and CD are parallel.
Proof : AGH = EGB (being vertically opposite angles) and EGB = GHD
(given)
AGH = GHD. But they are alternate angles.
AB and CD are parallel.
(C) Proposition : Let the straight line EF intersects the straight lines AB and CD
at the points G and H respectively, so that in the same side of EF, interior BGH
207
Proof: Now, AGH + BGH = two right angles (being adjacent angles). BGH
+ GHD = two right angles (given)
AGH + BGH = BGH + GHD.
Now subtracting BGH from both the sides we get, AGH = GHD. But
they are alternate angles.
AB and CD are parallel (proved).
Corollary . If each of two or more straight lines is perpendicular to given straight
line then they are parallel to one another.
Theorem 6
The straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line are parallel to.
one another.
The straight lines AB and EF are parallel and CD and EF are parallel. Hence,
the straight lines AB and CD are parallel.
N.M.G. 28
208
Theorem 7
If in two triangles each of two sides of one is equal to the corresponding side
of the other respectively and the included angle of those sides of one is equal
to that of the other, then the triangles are congruent.
209
Theorem 10
If three sides of a triangle are respectively equal to the corresponding
three sides of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
210
Theorem 11
If one side is greater than another side of a triangle the angle opposite to the
greater side is greater than the angle opposite to the smaller side.
Proposition : Let, in ABC, AC >AB
It is required to prove that, ABC > ACB.
Construction : Let us cut off AD from AC
such that, AD = AB and join B and D.
Proof : In ABD, AD = AB
ABD = ADB [Theorem 8]
But in BDC, exterior ADB > BCD
ABD > BCD or, ABD > ACB.
Theorem 12
If one angle is greater than another angle of a triangle, the side opposite to the
greater angle is greater than side opposite to the smaller angle.
Theorem 13
The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than its third side.
211
Theorem 14
Of all the line segments that are drawn to a straight line from any external
point of the straight line, then perpendicular is the shortest.
Theorem 15
The sum of three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles.
ABC, ACB and BAC are the
three angles of ABC.
Hence, ABC + ACB + BAC =
two right angles.
Theorem 16
If two angles and a sides of a triangle are equal to the corresponding
angles and side of another triangle respectively, then two triangles are
congruent.
A
D
212
Theorem 17
If two hypotenuses of two right angled triangles are equal to each other and
also one side of one of those triangles is equal to the corresponding side of
another, then two triangles are congruent
213
EXERCISE 1
1.
Given that, in ABC, ABC = ACB
and DE F BC;
prove that, ADE = AED.
2.
Given that, DC F AB and DC = AB;
prove that, AD = BC.
3.
Given that, AB and CD intersect each
other at the point O; AC CD and BD
CD,
prove that, CAO = OBD.
4.
Given that, AD is a median of ABC;
prove that, AB + AC > 2AD.
214
5.
6.
In ABC, BAC = ABC : D is any
point on BC;
prove that, CDA > CAD.
7.
In ABC, AB = AC
and BAD = CAE;
Prove that, ADB ACE.
8.
9.
If any straight line intersects two parallel straight lines then prove that, two
bisectors of two alternate angles are parallel to each other.
10. Prove that, sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than twice its
median drawn on the third side.
1
215
16. Prove that, if three perpendiculars drawn from three angular points of a
triangle to their opposite sides are equal to one another the triangle is an
equilateral triangle.
17. Prove that, if one angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of its other
two angles then the triangle is a right angled triangle.
18. Prove that, the sum of three medians of a triangle is smaller than its
perimeter.
19. Standing on the same bank of the river, find its breadth.
Multiple Choice Questions [Mark () on the correct answer]
1.
(i)
2.
3.
A
(a) 30
(c) 60
N.M.G. 29
(b) 45
(d) 90
216
A
M
C
E
B
R
D
F
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
217
10. Which one of the following is the condition for congruence of two
triangles?
(a) Two sides and one angle equal,
(b) Three angles are equal to three angles of another traingle.
(c) Two angles and one similar side are equal.
(d) The area of two triangles are equal.
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
Chapter II
Any three points of the points A, B, C, D are not collinear. The union of four line
segments AB, BC, CD and DA is the quadrilateral ABCD. AB, BC, CD and DA
are the sides of the quadrilateral. The points A, B, C and D are the angular points
of vertices. ABC, BCD, CDA and DAB are four angles of the
quadrilateral. The quadrilateral ABCD is sometimes denoted by the symbol "
ABCD".
The vertices A and B are the opposite vertices of C and D respectively. AB and
CD are called opposite sides to each other and AD and BC are called opposite
sides to each other. Two sides which meet at the same vertex are adjacent sides.
AB and BC are two adjacent sides. The line segments AC and BD are the
diagonals of
ABCD.
2. 2. Different kinds of Quadrilaterals
Parallelogram : If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel to each other,
then it is called a parallelogram. The region bounded by the parallelogram is called
parallelogram region.
Parallelogram
Rectangle
Rectangle : The quadrilateral in which each of all the angles be a right angle
219
Square
Rhombus
Remark : If the sides of the rectangle are equal to each other then it becomes
square.
Rhombus : The quadrilateral whose sides are equal to each other but none of its
angles is a right angle is called a rhombus.
Remark : If the sides of a parallelogram are equal to each other then it becomes a
rhombus.
Trapezium : The quadrilateral whose two opposite sides are parallel to each other
but its other two sides are not parallel to each other is called trapezium.
Trapezium
Quadrilateral
Perimeter : The total length of the line segments of a certain bounded region is
called its perimeter.
The perimeter of quadrilateral ABCD is equal to the length of
(AB + BC + CD + DA).
220
221
222
Let, two diagonals AC and BD of the parallelogram ABCD intersect each other at
O. It is required to prove that, AO.= CO, BO = DO.
.
Proof : Since AB and DC are parallel to each other, AC and BD are their
interceptor, therefore, BAC = alternate ACD and BDC = alternate ABD.
Now in AOB and COD,
OAB = OCD, OBA = ODC and AB = DC.
Therefore, AOB COD [ Thorem 16]
AO = CO and BO = DO.
.
Corollary 5. The line segment found by joining points of two sides of a triangle is
parallel to the third side and it is half length of the third side.
The points D and E are respectively the points of the sides AB and AC of ABC.
Let us join D and E and produced so that DE = EF. C and F are joined.
ADE CEF, CF  BD, DF  BC and DF = BC.
1
DE = 2 BC and DE  BC.
223
EXERCISE 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
224
B
O
(a) 90
(b) 60
(c) 45
(d) 30
2.
E
3.
(a)
(c)
(i)
(ii)
4 cm
(b) 8 cm
12 cm
(d) 16 cm.
The sum of the four angles of quadrilateral is 4 right angles.
If the two adjacent sides of a rectangle are equal then the
rectangle is a square.
(iii) Every rhombus is a parallelogram.
Which one of the following is correct according to above
information?
(a) i and ii
(b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii
(d) i, ii and iii
Answer questions (4 6) in view of the following figure:
AB  DC, AD  BC and AB
B
A
E
AD, ABF = FBC in
O
quadrilateral ABCD. ADF
= FDC.
F
D
225
4.
5.
6.
7.
C
If PA = CQ and PA  CQ in
quadrilateral PAQC. If the bisectors of
A and C are AB and CD, then
what is the name of the region P
ABCD?
(a) parallelogram
(b) rhombus
(c) rectangle
(d) square
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
226
A
D
B
F
C
1
BC.
2
(c) ABC is equilateral and the middle points of sides AB, AC and
BC are D, F and E, then prove that, BEFD is a rhombus.
3.
D
C
O
In figure, AB = CD and AB  CD
(a) Write the name of two triangles with base AB.
(b) Prove that, AD and BC are equal and parallel.
(c) Show that, OA = OC and OB = OD.
Chapter III
Area
3.1 Area
The measurment of a plane region is called area.
Measurement of Area
If each side of a square region is one unit, then area of the square region is one
square unit. If the length of one side of a square region is one centimetre, then the
area of the square region is one square centimetre.
3.1.1 Area of Rectangular Region
Area of rectangular region = the length of the rectangular region the breadth of
the rectangular region.
i.e. Area of the rectangular region = Product of the lengths of two adjacent sides
of the rectangular region.
The area of the rectangular region
ABCD = AB BC
228
fig (a)
fig.(b)
Construction : Let us draw a line AF parallel either to EB or DC through A; the
line AF intersects either the base BC (Fig. a) or BC produced (Fig. b) at F.
Proof: AB is a diagonal of the parallelogram EBFA ;
1
region AFC = 2 (
region AFCD).
229
Area of the triangular region : A triangular region ABC stands on the base BC
and AF is its height. Let us draw a rectangular region BCDE of height equal to AF
on the base BC.
1
Then, region ABC = 2 (rectangular region BCDE)
1
1
= 2 BC CD = 2 BC AF
Remark : Hence, as a formula it can be stated :
1
Area of the triangular region = 2 base height.
Theorem 21
Areas of all the triangular regions standing on the same base and between
two parallel lines are equal to one another.
Proposition : Let, triangular regions ABC and DBC stand on the same base BC
and lie between two parallel lines BC and AD.
It is required to prove that, region ABC = region DBC.
Construction: Let us draw perpendiculars BE and CF at the points B and C of the
line BC. They intersect the line AD or AD produced at the points E and F
respectively.
Proof : According to the construction, EBCF is a rectangular region. Since
region ABC and rectangular region EBCF stand on the same base BC and lie
between two parallel lines BC and ED.
1
230
Corollary : Areas of all triangular regions standing on bases equal to one another
and between the same two parallel lines are equal to one another.
Theorem 22
All triangular regions of areas equal to one another standing on the same
base and on the same side of it will lie between the same two parallel lines.
Proposition : Let, the triangular regions ABC and DBC stand on the same base
BC and lie on the same side of it and the areas of the triangular regions are equal
to each other. AE and DF are the altitudes of ABC and DBC respectively.
It is required to prove that, AD F BC.
1
Therefore, AE = DF.
Moreover, AE F DF, [Because both are perpendicular on BC]
The opposite sides of the quadrilateral AEFD, AE and DF are equal and parallel to
one another.
AD F EF, (Theorem 18)
i.e. AD F BC (proved).
Corollary : All triangular regions of areas to one another standing on equal bases
from the same straight line and lying on the same side will lie between the same
two parallel lines.
231
Theorem 23
In a rightangled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the
sum of the square regions on the other two sides.
232
Now, since triangular region CAD and rectangular region ADLM stand on the
same base AD and lie between the parallel lines AD and CL,
hence rectangular region ADLM = 2 ( region CAD) ................ (1)
Again, since triangular region BAF and the square region ACGF stand on the
same base AF and lie between the parallel lines AF and BG,
hence square region ACGF = 2 ( region BAF) ..............(2)
Rectangular region ADLM = Square region ACGF ............... (3)
Similarly, joining C, E and A, K, it can be proved that,
Rectangular region BELM = Square region BCHK ....................(4)
Adding (3) and (4) it is obtained,
Square region ABED = Square region ACGF + Square region BCHK.
i.e. the square region on AB = the square region on AC + the square region on BC.
AB2 = AC2 + BC2 [proved]
N.B. This theorem is known as the Theorem of Pythagoras.
Alternative proof of Pythagoras Theorem:
233
or, 2 BD ( AB + DE) = 2 ac + 2 ac + 2 b2
1
1
1
1
or, 2 (a + c) (a + c) = ac + 2 b2 or, 2 (a2 + 2ac + c2) = ac + 2 b2
1
1
1
1
1
1
or, a2 + ac + c2 = ac + b2 or, a2 + c2 = b2
2
2
2
2
2
2
or, a2 + c2 = b2. (proved)
Theorem 24
If the squareregion on a side of any triangle is equal to the sum of the
squareregions on other two sides of it, then the angle included between the
last two sides is a right angle.
234
EXERCISE 3
1.
Prove that, any median of a triangle divides the triangular region into two
triangular regions of areas equal to each other.
3.
5.
7.
Prove that, any square region is half of the square regions drawn on
its diagonal.
8.
9.
235
(a)
If AB = CD, AB  CD and AD =
BC, AD  BC in the quadrilateral
ABCD, which one of the
following is area of the triangle
ABD?
1
(CD BE)
2
1
(AB AD)
(c)
2
1
(DE BE)
2
1
(CD BC)
2
(b)
(d)
E
C
2.
A
AB  CD, AC BD
Which one of the following indicates
the quadrilateral ABCD?
(a) Square
(b) Parallelogram
(c) Trapezium
A
F
E
(d) Rectangle
P
B
236
3.
4.
5.
(b) 4
(c) 4 2
(d) 8
6.
7.
i.
The area of a triangle and rectangle with equal bases and equal
height.
ii.
237
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
A
45
N
60
1
(Parallelogram region ABCD)
2
P
T
b
c
R
a
S
238
3.
a
C
F
H
A
Chapter IV
Problems
4.1 Construction of Quadrilaterals : A quadrilateral consists of four sides, four
angles and two diagonals. In case of a triangle if three sides are given, then the
definite triangle can be constructed. But if four sides of a quadrilateral are given,
then the definite quadrilateral can not be constructed.
240
Let, the lengths of four sides of a quadrilateral be a, b, c, d and the included angle
between a and b be x. The quadrilateral is to be constructed.
Construction : From any line BE, let us take BC = a, EBF = x is drawn at the
point B. Let us take BA = b from BF. Taking radius equal to c and d respectively
let us draw two axes within ABC with the centres at A and C respectively.
241
Problem 17
Lengths of four sides and one diagonal of any quadrilateral are given.
The quadrilateral is to be constructed.
Let, the lengths of four sides of quadrilateral be a, b, c, d and the length of its
diagonal be e, where a + b > e and c + d > e. The quadrilateral is to be constructed.
Construction : Let BD = e be taken from any straight line BE. Taking radius
equal to a and b respectively, let us draw two arcs with B and D as centres
respectively. These arcs intersect at the point A. Again, taking radius equal to d
and c respectively, let us draw two arcs with B and D as centres respectively to the
side of BD opposite to A. These two arcs intersect each other at C. A and B, A and
D, B and C, C and D are joined respectively.
Then, ABCD is the required quadrilateral.
Proof : According to construction, AB = a, AD = b, BC = d, CD = c
and diagonal BD = e.
Therefore, ABCD is the required quadrilateral.
242
Problem 18
The lengths of three sides and two included angles of any quadrilateral are
given respectively. The quadrilateral is to be constructed.
Let, the lengths of three sides of a quadrilateral be a, b, c and two angles adjacent
to the side of a and b, a and c given as x and y. The quadrilateral is to be
constructed.
Construction : Let us take BC = a from any line BE. CBF at the point B and
BCG at the piont C equal to x and y respectively are drawn.
Let us take BA = b from BF and CD = c from CG. A, D are joined.
Then, ABCD is the required quadrilateral.
Proof : According to construction, AB = b, BC = a, CD = c, ABC = x and
DCB = y,
Hence, ABCD is the required quadrilateral.
Problem 19
The length of a side of any square is given. The square is to be constructed.
243
244
Problem 21
The lengths of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram and the included angle
between these two sides are given. The parallelogram is to be constructed.
Let, two adjacent sides of the parallelogram be a and b and the included angle
between them be x. The parallelogram is to be constructed.
Construction : Let us take BC = a from the line BE. EBF = x at the point B is
drawn. Let us take BA = b from BF. Taking radius equal to a, b respectively and
with the centres at the points A and C respectively, two arcs are drawn within
ABC. They intersect each other at the point D. A, D and C, D are joined.
Then, ABCD is the required parallelogram.
Proof: Let us join A and C.
245
Problem 22
To draw a parallelogram of which one angle is equal to a given angle and the
region bounded by it is equal to the given triangular region (area).
246
Problem 23
To draw a triangle so that the region bounded by it is equal to a definite
quadrilateral region ( area).
247
EXERCISE 4
1. Construct quadrilateral from the following given data :
a) The lengths of four sides are 3 cm., 35 cm., 28 cm., 3 cm. and one
angle is 45.
b) The lengths of four sides are 4 cm., 3 cm., 35 cm., 38 cm. and one
angle is 60
c)
The lengths of four sides are 32 cm., 35 cm., 25 cm. 28 cm. and
one diagonal is 5 cm.
d) The lengths of four sides are 32 cm., 3 cm., 35 cm., 28cm., and one diagonal
is 5 cm.
e)
The lengths of three sides are 3 cm., 35 cm., 25 cm and its two angles are
60 and 45.
f)
The lengths of three sides are 3 cm., 4 cm., 45 cm. and diagonals are 5 cm.
and 6 cm.
2.
3.
N.M.G. 33
248
4.
The length of a side is 35cm and one angle is 75. Construct the
rhombus.
5.
The length of the adjacent sides are 3cm. and 4cm. Construct
the rectangle.
6.
7.
The lengths of two adjacent sides are given. Construct the rectangle.
8.
The length of the diagonal and a side are given. Construct the rectangle.
9.
The length of one side and two diagonals are given. Construct the
parallelogram.
10. The length of one side and a diagonal are given. Construct the rhombus.
11. The length of two diagonals are given. Construct the rhombus.
Multiple Choice Questions [Mark () on the correct answer]
1.
2.
3.
249
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
C
O
O
O
250
CREATIVE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 4cm and 3cm respectively and
their included angle is 60.
(a) Express the above informations in a figure.
(b) Draw the parallelogram with the description of drawing.
(c) Draw a square with a diagonal equal to the largest diagonal of
the parallelogram mentioned above. Give the description of
drawing.
The length of four sides of a quadrilateral are 4 cm, 5 cm, 3.5 cm,
3.8 cm and one angle is 75.
(a) Express the given informations in figure.
(b) Draw the quadrilateral giving description of drawings.
(c) Draw a triangle of area equal to the area of the above
quadrilateral and verify it logically.
Answer
Arithmetic
EXERCISE  1
1 (i) 0.5
(ii) 0.75
(ii) 1.6
(vi) 2.35 (vii) 2.28125
3
1
1
2. (i) 10
(ii) 4
(iii) 1 4
27
1
1
(vi) 2 40 (vii) 3 40 (viii) 10 200
3. (i) 5.94
(ii) 12.443 (iii) 25.8
(vi) 60.6347 (vii) 7.9667
4. (i) 3.212 (ii) 1.7799 (iii) 3.0845
(vi) 7.8514
5. (i) 14.2129
(ii) 0.0147
6. (i) 25.92 (ii) 81
(iii) 8010
(vi) 148
(vii) 40.544 (viii) 0.416
(xi) 0.735012
(xii) 0.125
(xv) 0.00016
7. (i) 2.45
(ii) 17.3
(iii) 10.8
(vi) 0.002 (vii) 0.12 (viii) 6.4
8. (i) 30.132 (ii) 3.0901 (iii) 0.015
.
.
.
9. (a) 0.16
(b) 0. 6
(c) 0. 1
.
.
.
(f) 1.83
(g) 3. 2
(h) 4.916
.
..
(k) 0.94
(l) 0.3267
2
35
152
10 (a) 9
(b) 99
(c) 333
893
16
241
(g) 2 990 (h) 8 999 (i) 4 495
(iv) 1.1875
(viii) 0.95
47
(iv) 3 100
451
(ix) 12 2000
(iv) 505.51
(v) 0.7
(ix) 3.87
1
(v) 2 8
(iv) 5.321517
(v) 0.000365
(iii) 6.543
(iv) 0.64
(ix) 0.00015
(xiii) 1.920919
(iv) 1.9473
(v) 4.16
(x) 435.52
(xiv) 0.00004
(iv) 1.22
(ix) 2250
(iv) 40.7
.
(d) 0. 5
.
(i) 0.06
(v) 0.044843
2
(d) 15
1151
(j) 6 4995
(v) 4.212101
..
(e) 0. 63
.
(j) 3.53
19
(e) 1 45
71
(f) 3 90
611
(k) 4 900
252
..
..
..
..
.
.
11. (a) 1. 33, 3. 32
(b) 2.333, 5.235
(c) 7.266, 4.237
.
.
.
.
.
.
(d) 5. 777777, 8. 343434, 6. 245245
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
(e) 3.23333333 , 9.23484848, 1.25765765 (f) 12.3200, 2.1999, 4.3256
.
.
.
.
.
12. (a) 0. 5
(b) 1. 6
(c) 0.365 (d) 0.589
(e) 17.583
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(f) 17.1179
(g) 8.48588679
(h) 0.94937300 (i) 8.30120484
.
. .
.
.
.
.
..
13. (a) 1.31 (b) 1.6 6 5 (c) 8. 759668
(d) 3.678 85976
(e) 2.654
. .
. .
. .
. .
..
(g) 6.11062
(h) 1.92631
(i) 4.84163
(j) 3. 3892
(f) 3.1334
.
.
(k) 3.88830739
.
.
.
14. (a) 0.2
(b) 3.02
(c) 2
(d) 28.96
(e) 0.06
. .
. .
..
(f) 1.25 (g) 0.2074 (h) 12.18 5 (i) 0.112
.
.
.
15. (a) 0. 6 (b) 0.5
(c) 55
(d) 0.2
(e) 5. 21951
..
.
.
.
.
(f) 26. 36 (g) 0.28
(h) 0. 4
(i) 5. 7
(j) 7. 3
..
.
(k) 0. 12
(l) 4. 8
16. (a) 3.4641, 3.464
(d) Irrational
(e) Rational
(h) Rational
(i) Rational
(l) Rational
18. (a) 9
(b) 71.96
(c) 5
(d) 8
253
EXERCISE  2.1
1. (a)37.5%
(b) 70 % (c) 224%
(d) 468.75%
.
(f) 258. 3 %
(g) 228.125% (h) 6%
(j) 467%
(k) 854.9%
(l) 0.03%
(n) 950%
(r) 52%
1
5
2. (a) 4
(b) 4
5
1
(g) 16
(f) 6
3. (a) 0.12 (b) 0.37
(f) 1.15625
4. (a) 31
(b) 60
(f) 240 (g) 12 pieces
(k) 8 km
5. (a) 20%
(b) 50%
(b) 320
(i) 56.7%
(m) 704.5%
.
(q) 58. 3 %
(o) 346%
(s) 78.125%
743
(c) 600
3
(h) 8
(c) 0.125
(g) 0.22625
(c) 10
(h) Tk.37.50
(p) 90%
(t) 52%
77
(d) 300
2
(i) 3
(d) 0.0825
(h) 0.1409375
(d) 67
(i) 2 kg 250 g
(e) 1.23125
(i) 0.421875
(e) 66
(j) 480 person
2
(c) 66 3 %
2
(d) 166 3 %
1
(e) 13 3 %
2
1
2
(f) 41 3 % (g) 62 2 % (h) 16 3 %
6. (a) 50
.
(e) 83. 3 %
(c) 120
297
(e) 3 700
(i) 4%
(d) 240
(e) Taka 125
1
(f) 80 km (g) 240 kg (h) Taka 233 3
(i) 300 kg
7. (a) 1 t 4 (b) 8 t 25
(c) 12 t 25 (d) 3 t 5
(e) 5 t 4
(f) 7 t 2
8. Taka 14400
9. 2000 person
10. 70%
11. Taka 102
1
12. 75%
13. Tk. 482 14. 12 2 % 15. 20%
16. Taka 4000
17. 20000 person
18. Taka 1200000 19. 200 person
20. 400 female students and at present 480 male students. 21. Taka 1500
22. 100000 person
23. 10,00,000 person
1
24. Present cost Tk. 60 and previous cost Tk. 75 25. Tk. 30
26. 9 11 %
254
1
27. 33 3 %
1. Tk. 273
6. Tk. 750
11. 40%
16. 4 years
21. 4%
2. Tk. 119
7. Tk. 730
12. Tk. 475
17. 3 years
22. 6 years
3. Tk. 30
8. Tk. 9000
13. 30%
18. Tk. 775
23. Tk. 225
4. Tk. 2502
5. Tk. 1270.50
9. 14%
10. 6%
14. 6 years
15. 10 years
19. Tk. 500
20. Tk. 1600
24. 10 years
25. Tk. 365000
1
1
26. Capital Tk. 400 and rate of interest 7 2 % 27. 8 years
28. Tk. 533 3
29. 40 years 30. Tk 1200 and 7%
31. 6 years
32. Tk. 1230
3
3
33. 4%
34. 20 portion
35. 6 4 %
EXERCISE  2.3
1. Tk. 25 Loss
5. 25 Pieces
9. Tk. 40
13. 50% Profit
17. 12 Pieces
21. 25% Loss
25. Tk. 225
pant Tk. 350
3. Tk. 10 Profit
7. Tk. 20 Loss
11. 20% Loss
15. 5% Profit
19. Tk. 792
23. 50% Profit
4. Tk. 10 Profit
8. Tk. 25 Profit
12. 8% Profit
16. 25% Profit
20. Tk. 10
24. Tk. 396
255
EXERCISE  3
1. 53650 Person
4. Tk. 80
6. 420 pieces
5. Tk. 2.50
3. 132 pieces
24. 25 metre
34. 2717.44 gm
37. 450 kg
32. 24 metre
5. 23.31
.
7. Tk. 42.36 hundred 8. Tk. 2230.63
EXERCISE 4.2
256
8. Mean 11.44 years, Median 11.97 years and Mode 12.2 years.
9. Mean marks 65.125, Median 64 and the marks obtained by the highest number
of students is 64.
10. Mean Tk. 66.65, Median Tk. 65 and the daily wages of the maximum number
of labourers is Tk. 63.
11. Mean 22.25 years, Median 17.92 years and Mode 5 years.
12. Population growth rate 22%, Annual population growth rate 2.2%, Growth rate
of male population 21.8%, Growth rate of female population 22.2%, Mean of
population 96717478.5, Mean of male population 49823770.5 and Mean of female
population 46893708.
ALGEBRA
EXRCISE  1.1
1. (i) 25a2+70ab+49b2
(ii) 49x2126xy+81y2
(iii) 16a2b2+40ab2c+25b2c2
(vi) x46x2+9
(vii) x6+2x4y+x2y2
(x) x2+2xy+y2
(xi) a22ab+b2
(xii) 2y2z2+2abcxyz+a2b2c2
(xiii) a4x62a2b2x3y4+b4y8
(xiv) a2+b2+c22ab+2ac2bc
(xv) x4+y4+z42x2y22x2z2+2y2z2
(xvi) x4y2z22x3y3z2+y4z2x2
(xvii) x2y2+y2z2+z2x2+2xy2z2x2yz2xyz2
(xx) 356409
(xxi) 998001
(xviii) 90601
(xxii) 1004004
(xxiii) 25a2+36b2+49c260ab70ac+84bc
(xxiv) 49a4+64b4+25c4+112a2b270a2c280b2c2
(xxv) a2+b2+c2+d22ab2ac2ad+2bc+ 2bd+2cd
2. (i) 9a2
(vi) 16
(ii) 36x4
(iii) 324
(iv) 64b2
(v) 4z4
6. 11
7. 194
13. 29
14. 178, 40
(vii) 10,00,00,000
3. 576
4. 196
5. 18225
10. 4,34
(xix) 367236
257
15. 482, 240 16. (i) x2y2 (ii) 25x249y2 (iii) 49a2121 (iv) a2b2+2bcc2
(v) 25a2+4b2+20ab9c2
(viii) x24x140
(ix) 9a245a+50
(x) 36x2+24x221
(xi)a2x2+2abxy+b2y2+8ax+8by+15
17.(i) (6a+4b)2(a+2b)2
(ii) (5x)2(13)2
(iii) (5x)2(2x5y)2
(iv) (8ba)2(b+7a)2
EXERCISE  1.2
1. (i) 27x3+108x2y+144xy2+64y3
(ii) x9+3x6y2+3x3y4+y6
(iii) a6b3+3a4b2c2d+3a2bc4d2+c6d3
(iv) a3b3+3a2b3c+3ab3c2+b3c3
(v) 512x6+2112x4y3+2904x2y6+1331y9
(x) p63p4q2+3p2q4q6
(xi) 1331a34356a2b+4752ab21728b3
(xii) x9+6x6+12x3+8
(xiii) x1824x12+192x6512
(xiv) 8x327y3z336x2y+54xy212x2z27y2z+6xz29yz2+36xyz
(xv) x6y6+z63x4y2+x2y4+3x4z2+3y4z2+3x2z43y2z46x2y2z2
(xvi) a6b33a4b5c+3a2b7c2b9c3
(xvii) x3y36x2y3z+12xy3z28y3z3
(xviii) a6b63a4b4c2d2+3a2b2c4d4c6d6
(xix) x96x6y3+12x3y68y9
(xx) 343x61323x4y2+1701x2y4729y6
2. (i) 216a3
(ii) 64y3
3. 370
4. 793
5. 1900
10. 722
11. 125
9. 1
6
16. (i) a +b
(ii) x +8
(vi) 512x327y3
6. 33614
8. 0
12. 512
3
(vi) 8x3
15. 140
3
(v) 64a327b3
(x) 64a61
(xi) 15625a6729b6
17. (i) (a+2) (a22a+4)
(ii) 8(x+3y) (x23xy+9y2) (iii) (2x+7) (4x214x+49)
(iv) b3(3a+4c) (9a212ac+16c2)
(v) a (2a+3b) (4a26ab+9b2)
258
1. (2x+y) (2xy)
2. (x+12y) (x12y)
3. 3x(1+5x) (15x)
4. a(x2+4x+8) (x24x+8)
5. (2a2+6a+9) (2a26a+9)
6. (x+y1) (xy+1)
7. (x2+2x1) (x22x1)
8. (x2+x+1) (x2x+1)
9. (a1) (a2b+1)
46. 5a2b2c2
47. 18a2c2
48. 6
49. 8x2y2z3
50. x+y
53. xy
54. x+2
55. 2 (x+y)
56. ab(a2+ab+b2)
51. x3
60. 60x4y4z2
67. a2b2(a6b6)
52. x2
57. x(x+2)
259
EXERCISE  2.1
3y
1. (i) 4x2z2
7c4
(ii) 6ab2
2(a+b)
(ab)
(vi) 3a(ab) (vii) (a+b)2
5a3
(iii) 4b3x2
11q2r3
(iv) 16
x
(v) y2
(a3)
(viii) (a+3)
(x1)
(ix) (x+9)
(2x+3)
(x) (3x+4)
(abc)
(2ab)
(2x21)
(xi) (3x2+1) (xii) (a+bc) (xiii) (a21)
21b3
15c3
35a3
2. (i) 420abc , 420abc , 420abc
a2(a+b) ab(ab) c(ab)
(iii) a(a2b2) , a(a2b2) , a(a2b2)
(a+b) (a3+b3)
(ab)3
a(a b) (a2 ab + b2)
(v) (ab)2 (a3+b3) , (ab)2 (a3+b3) ,
(ab)2 (a3+b3)
(vi)
a(a2+ab+b2) b(ab)
c
,
3 3
3 3 ,
3 3
(a b )
(a b ) (a b )
2(x+3)2
3(x+1) (x+3)
4(x2) (x+1)
(vii) (x2) (x+1) (x+3)2, (x2) (x+1) (x+3)2, (x2) (x+1) (x+3)2
(ab)2(ca)
(bc)2(ab)
(bc) (ca)2
(viii) (ab) (bc) (ca), (ab) (bc) (ca), (ab) (bc) (ca)
x2+y2+z2
a2+2abb2
2(4x2+9y2)
x2+y2
(ii) xyz
(iii) a2b2
(iv) 4x29y2
3. (i) xy
3a2+b2
3
2x41
(v) (ab) (a+b)3
(vi) (x1) (x3)
(vii) x61
3(x1)
(viii) (x2) (x3) (x+2)
2b
ab
6xy
6x
4x
(iv) x29y2 (v) (x38)
4. (i) x216 (ii) a(a2b2) (iii) a3+b3
2x
(vi) (x4+x2+1)
3a2b3bc2+a2cac2+ab2b2c
2c
2(ac)
(ii)
(iii)
5. (i) ac
(a+b) (b+c) (c+a)
(bc) (ca)
2ab
(iv) a2b2
(v) 0
16x3y
(vi) (x416y4)
6ab2
(vii) (a2b2) (4a2b2)
260
2x
12a4
(viii) (x41) (ix) (a664)
(x) 0
(a2b)
(xiii) (a2+b2c22ab)
12y
(xiv) 4x29y2
64x4
(xi) (x8256)
2
(xii) (cb)
EXERCISE  2.2
4 3
5 3
2a b
1. 45c2d4
8y z
2. 9x2
(1b)
6. x
7. 1
3. 1
x
4. (x+3)
(a+b) (a2+b2)
5. (a3b3) (a2ab+b2)
8. 1
9. a+b
(1b)
10. (x+y)
a(a2ab+b2)
11. (ab)2
(b2+ac) (bd+ac)
12.
abcd
x
15. (1+x) (1x3)
6x2
16. x2y2
1
13. x2
2x
14. (x+y+z)
EXERCISE  2.3
32a3c
1. 27b3
x7
6. x5
10. 1
a(2a3b)
2ab
3a
20. 2b
15.
5ac3
2. 9b
x2y2z2
3. 9a2b2c2
3b
5. 2a
7. (ab)2
x28x+12
8. x210x+21
25a
4. a+b
x
11. x1
12. 1
1
13. a2+b2
14. a+b
16. x2y2
1
17. a
18. x3
19. 1
(x+5) (x2+x56)
9. (x+12) (x236)
21. 2a(a+b)2
1.  4
2.  8
5
6. 55 7
4
7. 2 19
EXERCISE  3.1
1
3. 2
4. 3 5
79
11
8. 18
9. 26
5.  20
1
10.  2 24
261
24
11. 55
16.  25
242
12. 71
2
17. 5
21. a + b + c
22. a + b + c
11
25. 7
5
26. 3
295
13. 96
23
18.  31
23.
1
27. 5
14. 73
a+b
15. 2
19. 15
20. ab + ac + bc
ab+bc+ca
3
7
28. 2
3
24. 2
5
29. 6
EXERCISE  3.2
1. (2, 1)
2. (3, 2)
6. (6, 5)
7. (3, 2)
2
(b +ac) (abc)
11.{ (a2+ab) , (a2+ab) }
1
15. (3, 0)
16. ( 2 , 3)
3. (2, 2)
8. (3, 10)
4. (2, 3)
9. (2, 3)
5.(2, 3)
10. (1, 2)
12. (2, 3)
13. (5, 2)
14. (2, 1)
17. (3, 2)
18. (7, 4)
19.(8, 12)
22. (2, 6)
23. (6,2)
ab ab
24. ( a+b , a+b )
262
EXERCISE  4.2
1. 45,35
2. 60,15 3. 7,9
4. 50 years and 20 years
3
3
5. 45 year and 25 year 6. 5
7. 8
8. 53
9.63
10. 62 and 34 mangoes respectively; Total number of mangoes 96.
11. 50 and 20 metre. 12. 6 km and 3km 13. Men by 12 days or boys by 24 days.
14. Male by 15 days or boys by 60 days.
15. The price of cow is Tk. 4500 and the price of goat is Tk. 1500.
16. Speed of rowing is 4 km. and the speed of current is 3 km.
17. By 1st tube in 10 minutes and by 2nd tube in 15 minutes.
EXERCISE  5.1
1. 1st Quadrant, 2nd Quadrant, xaxis to the right, 3rd Quadrant, 4th Quadrant,
y axis above, Origin, yaxis below, xaxis to the left, 1st Quadrant and yaxis
above.
6. (0,1)
7. (1,1)
EXERCISE  5.2
2. (i). (4,1)
(vi). (3,2)
3. (i) 2
(vi) 2
(ii). (3,2)
(vii). (4,3)
(ii) 2
(vii) 1
(iii). (2,1)
(viii). (2,0)
(iii) 2
(viii) 12
(iv). (2,3)
(ix). (1,1)
(iv) 1
THE END
(v). (2,0)
(v) 0