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Institute for Steel Structures and

Shell Structures

Valorisation Project: SEMI-COMP+


n RFS2-CT-2010-00023
"Valorisation Action of Plastic Member Capacity of
Semi-Compact Steel Sections
a more Economic Design"

Lessingstr. 25/3
A-8010 Graz
tel: +43-316/873-6200 (or 6206)
fax: +43-316/873-6707
r.greiner@TUGraz.at
lechner@TUGraz.at
home: www.stahlbau.TUGraz.at

BACKGROUND INFORMATION - EXTRACT


9th October 2011

WORKED EXAMPLES
TABULATED M3,Rd-VALUES

SEMI-COMP+

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

2.

ANNEX A Worked Examples .......................................................................................................... 3


1.1.

Example 1: HEAA 300 under biaxial bending and compression .............................................. 3

1.2.

Example 2: IPE 500 under bending and compression ........................................................... 12

1.3.

Example 3: Welded section under pure bending .................................................................. 21

1.4.

Example 4: RHS 250x150x6 under biaxial bending and compression ................................... 27

1.5.

Example 5: SHS 200x6.3 under bending and compression.................................................... 36

1.6.

Example 6: SHS 200x6.3 under pure bending ........................................................................ 43

1.7.

Example 7: IPE 500 under N+My+Mz including class for member design .............................. 48

ANNEX B - Tabulated Values FOR W3,y and W3,z ............................................................................ 52

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

1. ANNEX A WORKED EXAMPLES

1.1. Example 1: HEAA 300 under biaxial bending and compression


1.1.1.

Loading

The first worked example detailed herein deals with an HEAA 300 in S355 steel. It is assumed as
simply supported beam-column (L = 5 m), and is subjected to the following combined axial force and
biaxial bending moments:

N Ed = 946.8 kN
M y , Ed = 87 kNm
M z , Ed = 34 kNm

1.1.2.

1.2. Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
f y = 355
= 35.5 2
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.1.3.

Geometry and section properties

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied cross-section HEAA 300 are:

h = 283mm
b = 300mm

tf
r

tw = 7.5mm

t f = 10.5mm

tw

r = 27mm

A = 88.91cm2

I t = 49.35cm 4

I y = 13800cm4

I w = 877.2 103 cm6

Wel , y = 976cm3

i y = 12.46cm

Wpl , y = 1065cm3

iz = 7.3cm

I z = 4734cm 4
Wel , z = 315.6cm3
b

Wpl , z = 482.3cm3

SEMI-COMP+

W
Worked Example 1

The plastic and elastic resistances of a HEAA 300 are obtained as follows:

N pl , Rd = A

fy

= 88.91

M0

M pl , y , Rd = W pl , y
M pl , z , Rd = W pl , z
M el , y , Rd = Wel , y
M el , z , Rd = Wel , z

1.1.4.

fy

M0
fy

M0
fy

M0
fy

M0

35.5
= 315
56.3kN
1.0

= 1065

35.5 2
0 = 378.1kNm
10
1.0

= 482.3
= 976

35.5 2
10 = 171.2kNm
1
1.0

35.5 2
10 = 346.5kNm
1.0

= 315.6

35.5 2
0 = 112.0kNm
10
1.0

Internal forces

Both major axis and minor axis bending moment distributions are supposed to be trriangular (linear
with y = z = 0) and applied at thee same end of the member. The following figuree illustrates the
investigated system and the loading case.

5m

My

87 kNm
Mz

34 kNm

SEMI-COMP+

1.1.5.

Worked Example 1

Stress distribution

The following figure shows the elastic and the plastic stress distribution in the most critical section at
the left support (the location of the maximal utilisation).
flange = 0.72

flange = 1.0

-0.62 f y
-0.86 f y

-0.25 f y

-0.48 f y

web = 1.0

web = 0.24
-0.12 f y
+0.26 f y

1.1.6.

PNA

-0.35 f y
+

Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section is Class 3 or better is done with the actual elastic stress
distribution. The following table shows the maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts
to clarify the new limits that determine the class of cross-section.

Maximum ratios

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)

Outstand flanges under


bending and compression

c t

Internal compression parts under


bending and compression
if

10

188
6.53 1
41.5
if 0.5 ; c t

> 0.5 ; c t

if > 1 ; c t

c t 21 k
Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

In this case:

k = 0.57 0.21 + 0.07

38
0.653 + 0.347

if 1 ;
2

c t 62 (1 )

( )

235
235
=
= 0.8136
355
fy

k = 0.57 0.21 0.72 + 0.07 0.722 = 0.455

b tw
300 7.5
r

27
c 2 2
2
2
=
=
= 11.36 < 21 k = 11.53 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
10.5
tf
tf
> 10 = 8.14 ... the flange is Class 3

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

c h 2t f 2r 283 210.5 227


38
=
=
= 27.73 <
= 41.96
tw
tw
7.5
0.653 + 0.347 web
... the web is class 3 or better
>

188
= 34 = 27.66
6.53 1
... the web is Class 3

So the cross-section at the left support is found to be in Class 3.

1.1.7.

Cross-section design check

The cross-section capacity is checked with the design model for H-shaped sections from the SemiComp Design Guidelines.
The decisive cross-section check at the left support reads:
Interpolation:

2, y , f = 10 = 8.14

3, y , f = 14 = 11.39

2, y , w = 83 = 67.53

3, y , w = 124 = 100.89

2, z , f = 10 = 8.14

3, z , f = 16 = 13.02

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c tw 2, y , w )
(11.36 8.14 ) ( 27.73 67.53)
c / tref , y = max
;
; 0 = max
;
; 0 = 0.99
( 3, y , f 2, y , f ) ( 3, y , w 2, y , w )
(11.39 8.14 ) (100.89 67.53)
( c t f 2, z , f ) (11.36 8.14 )
= 0.66
;0 =
c / tref , z = max
8.14
13.02

(
)
(
)
3,
z
,
f
2,
z
,
f

Step 1:

M 3, y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c tref , y = 378.1 ( 378.1 346.5 ) 0.99 = 346.8 kNm

M 3, z , Rd = M pl , z , Rd ( M pl , z , Rd M el , z , Rd )c tref , z = 171.2 (171.2 112.0 ) 0.66 = 132.2 kNm


Step 2:

n=

N Ed
946,8
=
= 0.3
N pl , Rd 3156

M N ,3, y , Rd = M 3, y , Rd (1 n ) = 346.8 (1 0.3) = 242.8 kNm

2
2
M N ,3, z , Rd = M 3, z , Rd (1 n ) = 132.2 (1 0.3 ) = 120.3 kNm
Step 3:

M y , Ed M z , Ed

+
1
M N ,3, y , Rd M N ,3, z , Rd

where = 2 and = 5n 1

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

The cross-section check for the given class-3 section then is:
2

1.5

87
34
242.8 + 120.3

= 0.279 < 1

The utilisation factor 3 can be calculated as follows by increasing the applied loading (N+My+Mz)
proportionally:
2


87 3
34 3

+
2
2
346.8 (1 0.3 3 ) 132.2 (1 0.3 3 )

N Ed ,lim =

N Ed

1/3
u ,3 = 1.69
= 1.0 3 = 0.591

946.8
= 1602kN
0.591

M y , Ed ,lim =

M y , Ed

M z , Ed ,lim =

M z , Ed

3
3

1.5 3

87
= 147.2kNm
0.591

34
= 57.5kNm
0.591

The loading can therefore be increased by 69% to reach a cross-section utilisation of 100%. The value
of =0.591 can be directly compared to the utilisation factor for the pure elastic resistance:

el =

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
946.8
87
34
+
+
=
+
+
= 0.855 < 1
N pl , Rd M el , y , Rd M el , z , Rd 3156 346.5 112.0

u ,el = 1.17

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

SEMI-COMP+

W
Worked Example 1

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

1.1.8.

Member design check

w the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. TThe interaction


The member capacity is checked with
factors are those for compact section
ns and M3,(y,z),Rd are used instead of Mpl,(y,z),Rd. The d
design check for
members will be based on the class of the cross-section with maximum utilisation (i..e. Class 3); this
corresponds to cross-section at the left support.

Lcr , y = Lcr , z = 500 cm

1 =
y =

z =

E
=
fy
N pl
N cr , y
N pl
N cr , z

Lcr , y

1 iy
Lcr , z

1 iz

21000
= 76.4
41
35.5
=

y = 0.34
500
curve
= 0.525

b
76.4112.46
y = 0.873

500
curve
= 0.896

c
76.41 7.3

z = 0.49

z = 0.602

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

So as to calculate the normalized slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling, it is necessary to calculate


the elastic critical moment for LT-buckling considering bending about the major axis.

2 E I z kz I w
2

M cr , y = C1

( kz L )


k w I z

(k L)
+ z

G It

2 E Iz

+ ( C2 z g C3 z j ) ( C2 z g C3 z j )

For this case of study, the previous formula can be simplified as follows:

M cr , y = C1

2 E I z I w

L2 G I t

+ 2
I z E I z

L2

where C1=1.77 according to moment distribution.

M cr , y = 1.77

2 21000 4734 877.2 103

5002

4734

5002 8100 49.35 2


10 = 1177.2kNm
2 21000 4734

Then, the normalized slenderness can be determined as:

LT =

W3, y f y
M cr , y

LT = 0.34
346.8
curve
= 0.543

b
1177.2
LT = 0.942

In order to check the accuracy of the elastic critical moment, an additional calculation of Mcr,y using
the software LTBeam was carried out.

M cr , y , LTBeam = 1199.8 kNm

The discrepancies between the analytical value and the LTBeam value are acceptable for the case of
study.

= 0
kc =

1
1
=
= 0.752
1.33 0.33 1.33 0.33 0

2
2
f = 1 0.5 (1 kc ) 1 2 LT 0.8 = 1 0.5 (1 0.752 ) 1 2 ( 0.543 0.8 ) = 0.892 < 1

0.942

LT ,mod = LT =
LT ,mod = 1.0
0.892
f

Bending moment factors:

C my = C mz = C mLT = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.6 + 0.4 0 = 0.6

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

Next step is to determine the interaction factors for members susceptible to torsional deformations:
plastic interaction factors for Class 3 according to the SEMI-COMP approach

ny =

N Ed
946.8
=
= 0.344
y N pl , Rd 0.873 3156

nz =

N Ed
946.8
=
= 0.498
z N pl , Rd 0.602 3156

N Ed
k yy = Cmy 1 + y 0.2

y N pl , Rd

k yz = 0.6 k zz = 0.6 0.956 = 0.574

k zy = 1

= 0.6 (1 + ( 0.525 0.2 ) 0.344 ) = 0.667

N Ed
0.1 z
0.1 0.896

= 1
0.498 = 0.873
( CmLT 0.25 ) z N pl , Rd
( 0.6 0.25 )

N Ed
k zz = Cmz 1 + 2 z 0.6

z N pl , Rd

= 0.6 (1 + ( 2 0.896 0.6 ) 0.498) = 0.956

For comparison, the elastic interaction factors according to EN 1993-1-1 lead to

k yy = 0.665
k yz = 0.761
k zy = 0.936
k zz = 0.761

Finally, the member check for strong and weak axis results in the following expressions:
Strong axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k yy
+ k yz z , Ed 1
y N pl , Rd
LT M 3, y , Rd
M 3, z , Rd

0.344 + 0.667

87
34
+ 0.574
= 0.659 < 1
1 346.8
132.2

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k zy
+ k zz z , Ed 1
z N pl , Rd
LT M 3, y , Rd
M 3, z , Rd

0.498 + 0.873

87
34
+ 0.956
= 0.963 < 1
1 346.8
132.2

So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given beam-column.

10

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 1

For comparison, the member buckling check according to EN 1993-1-1 is shown:


Strong axis:

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
+ k yy
+ k yz
1
y N pl , Rd
LT M el , y , Rd
M el , z , Rd

0.344 + 0.665

87
34
+ 0.761
= 0.742 < 1
1 346.3
112.0

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
+ k zy
+ k zz
1
z N pl , Rd
LT M el , y , Rd
M el , z , Rd

0.498 + 0.936

87
34
+ 0.761
= 0.965 < 1
1 346.3
112.0

Comment:
Since the overal member class is close to the limit between class 3 and class 4 (c/tref,y = 0.99, c/tref,z =
0.66) the buckling check of the given example 1 according to the SEMI-COMP approach leads to
similar results as the present EN 1993-1-1.

11

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

1.2. Example 2: IPE 500 under bending and compression


1.2.1.

Loading

The second worked example detailed herein deals with an IPE 500 in S355 steel. It is assumed as
simply supported beam-column (L = 10 m) with an intermediate restraint in the middle of the length
(L = 5 m), and is subjected to the following combined axial force and axial bending moments:

N Ed = 700 kN
M y1, Ed = 250 kNm
M y 2, Ed = 75 kNm

1.2.2.

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
= 35.5 2
f y = 355
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.2.3.

Geometry and section properties

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied cross-section IPE 500 are:
tf

h = 500mm
b = 200mm

tw = 10.2mm
t f = 16mm

A = 116cm 2

I t = 89.29cm4

I y = 48200cm 4

I w = 1249 103 cm6

Wel , y = 1928cm3

i y = 20.43cm

Wpl , y = 2194cm3 iz = 4.31cm


I z = 2142cm4

r = 21mm
tw

Wel , z = 214cm3
Wpl , z = 336cm3
b

12

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

The plastic and elastic resistances of the studied cross-section are obtained as follows:

N pl , Rd = A

fy

M0

= 116

M pl , y , Rd = Wpl , y
M el , y , Rd = Wel , y

1.2.4.

fy

M0
fy

M0

35.5
= 4118kN
1.0

= 2194
= 1928

35.5 2
10 = 778.87 kNm
1.0

35.5 2
10 = 684.44kNm
1.0

Internal forces

The major axis bending moment distribution is linear. The maximum value is at the left support of
the studied beam-column. The following figure illustrates the investigated system and the loading
case.
5m

5m

My
-75 kNm

250 kNm

1.2.5.

Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section at the left support (i.e. the location of the maximum crosssection utilisation) is Class 3 or better is done with the actual elastic stress distribution. For this
purpose it is necessary to determine the web parameter that indicates the variation of direct stresses
in the web.

N Ed M y1, Ed
700 250 102

z =

116
48200
A
Iy

web =

2
50
5.01 kN cm
1.6 2.1 =
2
17.08 kN cm2

5.01
= 0.293
17.08

The flange is under pure compression due to NEd+My,Ed. The stress distribution in the fully plastic
state leads to the web being in full compression (i.e. =1.0).

13

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

-17.08 kN/cm

web= -0.29

5.01 kN/cm

= 1.0

As well, the maximum admissible width-to-thickness ratios for the studied load combination is
showed to clarify the new limits that later determine the class of cross-section.

Maximum ratios

Outstand flanges under


compression

Internal compression parts under bending


and compression
if

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)

> 0.5 ; c t

c t 10
if

0.5 ; c t

if > 1 ; c t
Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

c t 14

188
6.53 1
41.5

38
0.653 + 0.347

if 1 ;

c t 62 (1 )

( )

235
235
=
= 0.8136
355
fy

b tw
200 10.2
r

21
c 2 2
2
2
=
=
= 4.62 < 14 = 11.39 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
16
tf
tf
<10 = 8.14 ... the flange is Class 2 or better
<9 = 7.32 ... the flange is Class 1
38
c h 2t f 2r 500 216 221
=
=
= 41.76 <
= 56.08
10.2
0.653 + 0.347 web
tw
tw
... the web is Class 3 or better
>34 = 27.66 ... the web is Class 3

So the cross-section at the left support is found to be in Class 3. Although the flange under
compression can be considered as Class 1, the decisive part -for this case of study- is the web which
is in Class 3.
14

SEMI-COMP+

1.2.6.

Worked Example 2

Cross-section design check

It is worth to remark that in this example there is no bending moment in z-axis, therefore the design
model for cross-section resistance is rather simplified. The capacity of the section is checked using
the design model for H-shaped sections from the Semi-Comp Design Guidelines.
The decisive cross-section check at the left support reads:

Interpolation:

2, y , f = 10 = 8.14

3, y , f = 14 = 11.39

2, y , w = 83 = 67.53

3, y , w = 124 = 100.89

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c tw 2, y , w )
( 4.62 8.14 ) ( 41.76 67.53)
c / tref , y = max
;
;0 = max
;
;0 = 0
11.39
8.14
100.89
67.53

(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)

2, y , f
3, y , w
2, y , w

3, y , f

Step 1:

M 3, y ,Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c tref , y = 778.87 ( 778.87 684.44 ) 0 = 778.87 kNm


Step 2:

n=

N Ed
700
=
= 0.17
N pl , Rd 4118

M N ,3, y , Rd = M 3, y , Rd (1 n ) = 778.87 (1 0.17 ) = 646.46 kNm

With only moment in y-axis being present, the design check simplifies as follows:

M y1, Ed
M N ,3, y , Rd

250
= 0.39 < 1
646.46

The previous value of 0.39 is a ratio that indicates the fraction of the design bending moment My,Ed to
the design resistance moment reduced to the axial force NEd. This ratio shows how much the bending
moment can be increased by keeping a constant axial force (i.e. 1/0.39=2.56). Note that this is not
the utilisation factor of the cross-section. The utilisation factor can be determined as follows:

3 =

M y , Ed
N Ed
700
250
+
=
+
= 0.49 < 1
N pl , Rd M pl , y , Rd 4118 778.87

u ,3 = 2.04

15

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

It can be compared to el:

el =

M y , Ed
N Ed
700
250
+
=
+
= 0.54 < 1
N pl , Rd M el , y , Rd 4118 684.44

u ,el = 1.85

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

16

SEMI-COMP+

1.2.7.

W
Worked Example 2

Member design check

The member capacity is checked with


w the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. TThe interaction
factors are those for compact section
ns and M3,y,Rd are used instead of Mpl,y,Rd:

Lcr , y = 1000cm
Lcr , z = 500cm

1 =
y =
z =

E
=
fy
N pl
N cr , y
N pl
N cr , z

21000
= 76.4
41
35.5

Lcr , y

1 iy
Lcr , z

1 iz

1000
y = 0.21
curve
= 0.641

a
76.41 20.4
43
y = 0.874

500
curve
= 1.518

b
76.41 4.31

z = 0.34

z = 0.336

So as to calculate the normalized slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling, it is necesssary to calculate


the elastic critical moment for LT-bucckling considering bending about the major axis.

2 E I z kz I w
2

M cr , y = C1

( kz L )


kw I z

(k L)
+ z

G It

2 E Iz

+ ( C2 z g C3 z j )

( C2 z g C3 z j )

n member, the following conservative approach caan be used: The


In order to calculate Mcr,y of the given
left part of the structure, which is more
m
loaded, is cut out and treated as a simply su
upported beam.
Consequently, the previous formula can be simplified as follows:

M cr , y = C1

2 E I z I w
2

L2 G I t

+ 2
I z E I z

where C1=1.44 according to momentt distribution.

M crcons
, y = 1.44

2 21000 2142 1249 103


5002

2142

5002 8100 89.29 2


10 = 804.8kkNm
2 21000 2142

17

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

The corresponding critical moment using the LTBeam software with the mentioned approach is:

M crcons
, y , LTBeam = 811.1kNm

To make use of the stiffening effect of the right part of the member, the value of the critical moment
of the whole member is taken from the LTBeam software considering the intermediate lateral
restraints at midspan. Therefore, the critical moment for this more realistic approach is:

M cr , y = M cr , y , LTBeam = 1008.3kNm

Then, the normalized slenderness can be determined as:

LT =

W3, y f y
M cr , y

LT = 0.49
778.87
curve
= 0.879

c
1008.3
LT = 0.714

1 + ( 0.3)
1
1
= 0.35
kc =
=
= 0.823
2
1.33 0.33 1.33 0.33 0.35

2
2
f = 1 0.5 (1 kc ) 1 2 LT 0.8 = 1 0.5 (1 0.823) 1 2 ( 0.879 0.8 ) = 0.913 < 1

0.714
LT ,mod = LT =
= 0.782
f
0.913

Remark: the normalized slenderness according to EN 1993-1-1 would lead to

LT = 0.49
curve
LT = 0.824

c
LT ,mod = 0.821
So as to obtain the values of the moment factors, the following formulae have been used:

= 0.3

(value calculated previously)

Cmy = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.6 + 0.4 ( 0.3) = 0.48

1 + ( 0.3)
= 0.35
2
CmLT = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.6 + 0.4 0.35 = 0.74

Next step is to determine the interaction factors for members susceptible to torsional deformations:
plastic interaction factors for Class 3 according to the SEMI-COMP approach

ny =

N Ed
700
=
= 0.194
y N pl , Rd 0.874 4118

nz =

N Ed
700
=
= 0.506
z N pl , Rd 0.336 4118
18

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

N Ed
k yy = Cmy 1 + y 0.2

y N pl , Rd

k yz = 0.6 k zz = 0

k zy = 1

= 0.48 (1 + ( 0.641 0.2 ) 0.194 ) = 0.521

N Ed
0.1
0.1

= 1
0.506 = 0.896
( CmLT 0.25 ) z N pl , Rd
( 0.74 0.25 )

k zz = 0

For comparison, the elastic interaction factors according to EN 1993-1-1 lead to

k yy = 0.516
k yz = 0
k zy = 0.948
k zz = 0

Finally, the member check for strong and weak axis results in the following expressions:
Strong axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k yy
1
y N pl , Rd
LT ,mod M 3, y , Rd

0.194 + 0.521

250
= 0.408 < 1
0.782 778.87

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k zy
1
z N pl , Rd
LT ,mod M 3, y , Rd

0.506 + 0.896

250
= 0.874 < 1
0.782 778.87

So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given beam-column.

19

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 2

For comparison, the member buckling check according to EN 1993-1-1 is shown:


Strong axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k yy
1
y N pl , Rd
LT ,mod M 3, y , Rd

0.194 + 0.516

250
= 0.43 < 1
0.821 684.4

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k zy
1
z N pl , Rd
LT ,mod M 3, y , Rd

0.506 + 0.948

250
= 0.93 < 1
0.821 684.4

Comment:
The difference between the buckling check of the given example 2 according to the SEMI-COMP
approach and the present EN 1993-1-1 is approximately 6 %.
The SEMI-COMP approach leads to more economic results.

20

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 3

1.3. Example 3: Welded section under pure bending


1.3.1.

Loading

The third worked example detailed herein deals with a welded section in S355 steel. It is assumed as
simply supported beam (L = 25 m) with an intermediate restraint at midspan, and is subjected to the
following axial bending moment:

M y , Ed = 1450 kNm

1.3.2.

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
f y = 355
= 35.5 2
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.3.3.

Geometry and section properties

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied welded cross-section are:
tf

h = 1060mm
b = 350mm
t w = 12mm
t f = 30mm
h
tw

A = 330cm 2

I t = 655.31cm 4

I y = 657130cm 4

I w = 5686 10 4 cm 6

Wel , y = 12398.7cm3

i y = 44.62cm

W pl , y = 13815cm3

iz = 8.06cm

I z = 21451.9cm 4
Wel , z = 1225.82cm3
W pl , z = 1873.5cm3

21

SEMI-COMP+

W
Worked Example 3

The plastic and elastic resistances of the studied cross-section are obtained as follows::

N pl , Rd = A

fy

M0

= 330

M pl , y , Rd = Wpl , y
M el , y , Rd = Wel , y

1.3.4.

fy

M0
fy

M0

35.5
= 117155kN
1.0

= 13815

35.5 2
10 = 4904.3kNm
1
1.0

= 12398.7

35.55 2
10 = 4401.5kNm
1.0

Internal forces

m, so = 1. The
The major axis bending moment disttribution is constant along the length of the beam
following figure illustrates the investtigated system and the loading case.

My

1.3.5.

n
Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section is Class 3 or better is done with the actuaal elastic stress
distribution. The maximum admissib
ble width-to-thickness ratios for the studied load case are showed
in the following table.

Maximum ratios

Outstand flanges under


O
compression

Internal compression parrts subject to


bending

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)

c t 10

c t 83

Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

c t 14

c t 124

235
235
=
= 0.8136
fy
355

22

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 3

b t w 350 12

c 2 2
2 = 5.63 < 14 = 11.39 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
=
= 2
30
tf
tf
<10 = 8.14 ... the flange is Class 2 or better
<9 = 7.32 ... the flange is Class 1
c h 2t f 1060 230
=
=
= 83.33 < 124 = 100.89 ... the web is Class 3 or better
12
tw
tw
>83 = 67.53 ... the web is Class 3

So the cross-section in compression is found to be in Class 3. Although the flange under compression
can be considered as Class 1, the decisive part -for this case of study- is the web which is in Class 3.

1.3.6.

Cross-section design check

It is worth to remark that in this example there is no axial compression nor bending moment in z-axis,
therefore the design model for cross-section resistance is rather simplified. The capacity of the
section is checked using the design model for H-shaped sections from the Semi-Comp Design
Guidelines.
Interpolation:

2, y , f = 10 = 8.14

3, y , f = 14 = 11.39

2, y , w = 83 = 67.53

3, y , w = 124 = 100.89

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c tw 2, y , w )
( 5.63 8.14 ) ( 83.33 67.53)
c / tref , y = max
;
;0 = max
;
;0 = 0.47
(11.39 8.14 ) (100.89 67.53)
( 3, y , f 2, y , f ) ( 3, y , w 2, y , w )
Step 1:

M 3, y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c t ref , y = 4904.3 ( 4904.3 4401.5 ) 0.47 = 4666.1 kNm

With only moment in y-axis being present, the design check simplifies as follows:

3 =

M y , Ed
M 3, y , Rd

1450
= 0.31 < 1
4666.1

u ,3 = 3.22
The previous value of 0.31 is a ratio that indicates the fraction of the design bending moment My,Ed to
the design resistance moment. Note that this is the utilisation factor of the cross-section for this
specific case.
23

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 3

It can be compared to el:

el =

M y , Ed
M el , y , Rd

1450
= 0.33 < 1
4401.5

u ,el = 3.04

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

24

SEMI-COMP+

1.3.7.

W
Worked Example 3

Member design check

The member capacity is checked with


w the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. TThe interaction
factors are those for compact section
ns and M3,y,Rd are used instead of Mpl,y,Rd:

Lcr = 1250cm
So as to calculate the normalized slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling, it is necesssary to calculate
the elastic critical moment for LT-bucckling considering bending about the major axis.

2 E I z kz I w
2

M cr , y = C1

( kz L )


kw I z

(k L)
+ z

G It

2 E Iz

+ ( C2 z g C3 z j ) ( C2 z g C3 z j )

ormula can be simplified as follows:


For this case of study, the previous fo

2 E I z I w

L2 G I t

2
L2
I z E I z
where C1=1.0 according to moment distribution.
d
M cr , y = C1

M cr , y = 1.0

2 21000 21451.9 5686 104 12502 8100 655.31 2

+ 2
10 = 19112.2kNm
12502
21451.9 21000 21451.9

Then, the normalized slenderness can be determined as:

LT =

W3, y f y
M cr , y

LT = 0.76
4666.1
curve
= 1.56

6
d
1912.2
LT = 0.320

In order to check the accuracy of th


he elastic critical moment, an additional calculatio
on of Mcr,y using
the software LTBeam was carried out.

M cr , y , LTBeam = 1912.1kNm

25

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 3

There are almost no discrepancies between the analytical value and the LTBeam value, so the result
is valid.

= 1
kc =

1
1
=
=1
1.33 0.33 1.33 0.33 1

2
2
f = 1 0.5 (1 kc ) 1 2 LT 0.8 = 1 0.5 (1 1) 1 2 (1.56 0.8 ) = 1

0.320
= 0.320
LT ,mod = LT =
f
1

Remark: the normalized slenderness according to EN 1993-1-1 would lead to

LT = 0.76
curve
LT = 1.517

d
LT ,mod = 0.333
So as to obtain the values of the moment factors, the following formulae have been used:

=1
CmLT = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.6 + 0.4 1 = 1

In this example, since there is only bending moment about y-axis, there are no interaction factors.
Finally, the member check results in the following expression:

M y , Ed

LT ,mod M 3, y , Rd

1450
= 0.97 < 1
0.320 4666.1
So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given beam.

For comparison, the member buckling check according to EN 1993-1-1 is shown:

M y , Ed

LT ,mod M el , y , Rd

1450
= 0.99 < 1
0.333 4401.5
Comment:
The difference between the buckling check of the given example 3 according to the SEMI-COMP
approach and the present EN 1993-1-1 is approximately 2 %.
The SEMI-COMP approach leads to more economic results.

26

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

1.4. Example 4: RHS 250x150x6 under biaxial bending and compression


1.4.1.

Loading

The next worked example detailed herein deals with an RHS 250x150x6 cold formed in S275 steel. It
is assumed as simply supported beam-column (L = 4 m), and is subjected to the following combined
axial force and biaxial bending moments:

N Ed = 376.5 kN
M y , Ed = 32 kNm
M z , Ed = 21 kNm

1.4.2.

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
= 27.5 2
f y = 275
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.4.3.

Geometry and section properties

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied cross-section RHS
250x150x6 cold formed are:

A = 45.63cm2

h = 250mm
b = 150mm

I y = 3886cm 4

t = 6mm

Wel , y = 310.9cm3
h

Wpl , y = 378.2cm3
I z = 1768cm 4

Wel , z = 236cm3
Wpl , z = 266.2cm3
b

i y = 9.23cm
iz = 6.23cm
27

SEMI-COMP+

W
Worked Example 4

The plastic and elastic resistances of a RHS 250x150x6 are obtained as follows:

N pl , Rd = A

fy

= 45.63

M0

M pl , y , Rd = W pl , y
M pl , z , Rd = W pl , z
M el , y , Rd = Wel , y
M el , z , Rd = Wel , z

1.4.4.

fy

M0
fy

M0
fy

M0
fy

M0

27.5
= 125
55kN
1.0

= 378.2
= 266.2
= 310.9
= 236

27.5 2
110 = 104.0kNm
1.0

27.5 2
10 = 73.2kNm
1
1.0

27.5 2
10 = 85.5kNm
1.0

27.5 2
10 = 64.9kNm
1.0

Internal forces

Both major axis and minor axis bending moment distributions are supposed to be trriangular (linear
with y = z = 0) and applied at thee same end of the member. The following figuree illustrates the
investigated system and the loading case.

4m

My

32 kNm
Mz

21 kNm

28

SEMI-COMP+

1.4.5.

Worked Example 4

Stress distribution

The following figure shows the elastic stress distribution in the most critical section, the location of
the maximal utilisation and the Plastic Neutral Axis (PNA).
flange = 0.41
-0.96 f y

-0.39 f y

= 1.0

-0.97 f y
= 1.0

web = 0.29
PNA
-0.28 f y
+0.40 f y

1.4.6.

Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section is Class 3 or better is done with the actual elastic stress
distribution. As well, the maximum width-to-thickness ratios for parts subjected to bending and
compression are showed in the following table to clarify the new limits that later determine the class
of cross-section. Notice that the flanges are also internal compression parts, since there are no
outstand parts in this case of study.

Maximum ratios for parts subjected to

Internal compression parts

bending and compression


if

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)

188
6.53 1
41.5
if 0.5 ; c t

> 0.5 ; c t

if > 1 ; c t
Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

38
0.653 + 0.347

if 1 ; c t 62 (1 )

( )

235
235
=
= 0.9244
fy
275

c b 3 t 150 3 6
38
=
=
= 22 <
= 44.17 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
tf
t
6
0.653 + 0.347 flange
188
= 31.43 ... the flange is Class 2 or better
6.53 1
126
= 25.88 ... the flange is Class 1
<
5.5 1
<

29

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

c h 3 t 250 3 6
38
=
=
= 38.67 <
= 46.61 ... the web is Class 3 or better
tw
t
6
0.653 + 0.347 web
>

188
= 31.43 ... the web is Class 3
6.53 1

So the cross-section in compression is found to be in Class 3 for the given loading.

1.4.7.

Cross-section design check

The cross-section capacity is checked with the design model for tubular (hollow) sections from the
Semi-Comp Design Guidelines.
Interpolation:

2, y , f = 34 = 31.43

3, y , f = 38 = 35.13

2, y , w = 83 = 76.73

3, y , w = 124 = 114.63

2, z , w = 34 = 31.43

3, z , w = 38 = 35.13

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c tw 2, y , w )
( 22 31.43) ( 38.67 76.73)
c / tref , y = max
;
;0 = max
;
;0 = 0
( 35.13 31.43) (114.63 76.73)
( 3, y , f 2, y , f ) ( 3, y , w 2, y , w )

( c tw 2, z , w ) ( 38.67 31.43)
c / tref , z = max
;0 =
= 1.96
c / tref , z = 1.0
( 3, z , w 2, z , w ) ( 35.13 31.43)

c / tref , z 1.0

Step 1:

M 3, y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c tref , y = 104.0 (104.0 85.5 ) 0 = 104.0 kNm

M 3, z , Rd = M pl , z , Rd ( M pl , z , Rd M el , z , Rd )c tref , z = 73.2 ( 73.2 64.9 ) 1.0 = 64.9 kNm


Step 2:

n=

N Ed
376.5
=
= 0.3
N pl , Rd 1255

M N ,3, y , Rd = M 3, y , Rd (1 n ) = 104.0 (1 0.3) = 72.8 kNm

M N ,3, z , Rd = M 3, z , Rd (1 n ) = 64.9 (1 0.3) = 45.4 kNm


Step 3:

M y , Ed M z , Ed

+
1
M N ,3, y , Rd M N ,3, z , Rd

30

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

where = =

1.66
1.66
=
= 1.848 6
2
1 1.13 n 1 1.13 0.32

The cross-section check for the given class-3 section then is:
1.848

32
72.8

1.848

21
+
45.4

= 0.459 < 1

The utilisation factor 3 can be calculated as follows by increasing the applied loading (N+My+Mz)
proportionally:

32 3

104.0 (1 0.3 3 )

1.66

( 0.3 3 )
1
1.13

21 3
+

64.9 (1 0.3 3 )

1.66

( 0.3 3 )
1
1.13

= 1.0

1/ 3
3 = 0.744

u ,3 = 1.34

N Ed ,lim =

N Ed

376.5
= 506.1kN
0.744

M y , Ed ,lim =

M y , Ed

M z , Ed ,lim =

M z , Ed

3
3

32
= 43.0kNm
0.744

21
= 28.2kNm
0.744

The value of 3=0.744 can be directly compared to the utilisation factor for the pure elastic
resistance:

el =

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
376.5 32
21
+
+
=
+
+
= 0.998 < 1
N pl , Rd M el , y , Rd M el , z , Rd 1255 85.5 64.9

u ,el = 1.0

31

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

32

SEMI-COMP+

1.4.8.

Worked Example 4

Member design check

The member capacity is checked with the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. The interaction
factors are those for compact sections and M3,(y,z),Rd are used instead of Mpl,(y,z),Rd. The design check for
members will be based on the class of the cross-section with maximum utilisation; this corresponds
to cross-section at the left support in this example.

Lcr , y = Lcr , z = 400 cm

E
=
fy

1 =
y =

z =

N pl
N cr , y
N pl
N cr , z

Lcr , y

1 iy
Lcr , z

1 iz

21000
= 86.81
27.5
=

y = 0.49
400
curve
= 0.500

c
86.81 9.23
y = 0.843

400
curve
= 0.740

c
86.81 6.23

z = 0.49

z = 0.700

Then, the moment constants are:

=0
Cmy = Cmz = 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.6 + 0.4 0 = 0.6

Next step is to determine the interaction factors for members susceptible to torsional deformations:
plastic interaction factors for Class 3 according to the SEMI-COMP approach

ny =

N Ed
376.5
=
= 0.356
y N pl , Rd 0.843 1255

nz =

N Ed
376.5
=
= 0.429
z N pl , Rd 0.700 1255

33

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

N Ed
k yy = Cmy 1 + y 0.2

y N pl , Rd

k yz = 0.6 k zz = 0.6 0.741 = 0.444

= 0.6 (1 + ( 0.500 0.2 ) 0.356 ) = 0.664

k zy = 0.6 k yy = 0.6 0.664 = 0.398

N Ed
k zz = Cmz 1 + z 0.2

z N pl , Rd

= 0.6 (1 + ( 0.746 0.2 ) 0.429 ) = 0.741

For comparison, the elastic interaction factors according to EN 1993-1-1 lead to

k yy = 0.664
k yz = 0.714
k zy = 0.531
k zz = 0.714

Finally, the member check for strong and weak axis results in the following expressions:
Strong axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k yy
+ k yz z , Ed 1
y N pl , Rd
M 3, y , Rd
M 3, z , Rd

0.356 + 0.664

32
21
+ 0.444
= 0.704 < 1
104.0
64.9

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k zy
+ k zz z , Ed 1
z N pl , Rd
M 3, y , Rd
M 3, z , Rd

0.429 + 0.398

32
21
+ 0.741
= 0.791 < 1
104.0
64.9

So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given tubular beam-column.

34

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 4

For comparison, the member buckling check according to EN 1993-1-1 is shown:


Strong axis:

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
+ k yy
+ k yz
1
y N pl , Rd
M el , y , Rd
M el , z , Rd

0.356 + 0.664

32
21
+ 0.714
= 0.836 < 1
85.5
64.9

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
M z , Ed
N Ed
+ k zy
+ k zz
1
z N pl , Rd
M el , y , Rd
M el , z , Rd

0.429 + 0.531

32
21
+ 0.714
= 0.859 < 1
85.5
64.9

Comment:
The difference between the buckling check of the given example 4 according to the SEMI-COMP
approach and the present EN 1993-1-1 is approximately 9 %.
The SEMI-COMP approach leads to more economic results.

35

SEMI-COMP+

W
Worked Example 5

1.5. Example 5: SHS 200x6.3 unde


er bending and compression
1.5.1.

Loading

h
deals with an SHS 200x6.3 cold formed in S355 steel. It is
The next worked example detailed herein
assumed as simply supported beam--column (L = 5 m), and is subjected to the followingg loads:

N Ed = 674.5 kN
qEd = 8.9

1.5.2.

kN
m

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the materrial properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
f y = 355
= 35.5 2
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.5.3.

perties
Geometry and section prop

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied cross-sectio


on SHS 200x6.3
cold formed are:

A = 47.5cm 2

h = 200mm
b = 200mm

I y = I z = 2922cm 4

t = 6.3mm

c 3
Wel , y = Wel , z = 292cm
h

W pl , y = W pl , z = 341..11cm3
i y = iz = 7.85cm

36

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

The plastic and elastic resistances of a SHS 200x6.3 cold formed are obtained as follows:

N pl , Rd = A

fy

M0

= 47.5

M pl , y , Rd = Wpl , y
M el , y , Rd

1.5.4.

fy

35.5
= 1686.25kN
1.0

= 341.11

35.5 2
10 = 121.09kNm
1.0

M0
f
35.5 2
= Wel , y y = 292
10 = 103.66kNm
M0
1.0

Internal forces

The diagram of bending moments of this example follows a parable with a maximum moment in the
middle of the length (L=2.5 m). The following figure illustrates the investigated system and the loading
case.

5m
My

27.81 kNm

M y , Ed = M max =

1.5.5.

qEd L2 8.9 52
=
= 27.81kNm
8
8

Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section is Class 3 or better is done with the actual elastic stress
distribution. The most critical section is in the midspan of the beam column.
As well, the maximum width-to-thickness ratios for parts subjected to bending and compression are
showed in the following table to clarify the new limits that later determine the class of cross-section.

235
235
=
= 0.8136
fy
355

37

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

Maximum ratios for parts subjected to

Internal compression parts

bending and compression


if

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)

188
6.53 1
41.5
if 0.5 ; c t

> 0.5 ; c t

if > 1 ; c t
Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

38
0.653 + 0.347

if 1 ; c t 62 (1 )

( )

The combined loading leads to a stress ratio of = 1.0 in the relevant flange.

c b 3 t 200 3 6.3
38
=
=
= 28.75 <
= 30.92 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
tf
t
6.3
0.653 + 0.347
>

188
= 27.66 ... the flange is Class 3
6.53 1

So the cross-section is found to be in Class 3 for the given load case.

1.5.6.

Cross-section design check

The cross-section capacity is checked with the design model for tubular (hollow) sections from the
Semi-Comp design guidelines.

Interpolation:

2, y , f = 34 = 27.66

3, y , f = 38 = 30.92

2, y , w = 83 = 67.53

3, y , w = 124 = 100.89

2, z , w = 34 = 27.66

3, z , w = 38 = 30.92

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c t w 2, y , w )
( 28.75 27.66 ) ( 28.75 67.53 )
;
;0 = max
;
;0 = 0.33
c / tref , y = max
30.92
27.66
100.89
67.53

(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)

2, y , f
3, y , w
2, y , w

3, y , f

( c tw 2, z , w ) ( 28.75 27.66 )
; 0 =
= 0.33
c / tref , z = max
30.
92

27.66

(
)
(
)
2, z , w
3, z , w

Step 1:

M 3, y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c tref , y =121.09 (121.09 103.66 ) 0.33 = 115.26 kNm


38

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

Step 2:

n=

N Ed
674.5
=
= 0.4
N pl , Rd 1686.25

M N ,3, y , Rd = M 3, y , Rd (1 n ) = 115.26 (1 0.4 ) = 69.16 kNm

With only moment in y-axis being present, the design check simplifies as follows:

M y , Ed
M N ,3, y , Rd

27.81
= 0.40 < 1
69.16

The previous value of 0.40 is a ratio that indicates the fraction of the design bending moment My,Ed to
the design plastic moment resistance reduced to the axial force NEd. This ratio shows how much the
bending moment can be increased by keeping a constant axial force (i.e. 1/0.40=2.50). Note that this
is not the utilisation factor of the cross-section. The utilisation factor can be determined as follows:

3 =

M
N Ed
674.5
27.81
+ y , Ed =
+
= 0.64 < 1
N pl , Rd M 3, y , Rd 1686.25 115.26

u ,3 = 1.56

It can be compared to el:

el =

M y , Ed
N Ed
674.5
27.81
+
=
+
= 0.67 < 1
N pl , Rd M el , y , Rd 1686.25 103.66

u ,el = 1.50

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

39

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

Comment:
Due to the new c/t-limit ratios for internal plate elements the SEMI-COMP approach leads to Class 3,
but according to EN 1993-1-1 the cross-section with the highest utilisation factor is still in Class 2.

1.5.7.

Member design check

The member capacity is checked with the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. The interaction
factors are those for compact sections and M3,(y,z),Rd are used instead of Mpl,(y,z),Rd. The design check for
members will be based on the class of the cross-section with maximum utilisation; this corresponds
to the section at midspan in this example.

5m

1 =

21000
LE
cr , y = Lcr , z = 500 cm
=
= 76.41
fy
35.5

y = z =

N pl
N cr , y

Lcr , y

1 iy

y = 0.49
500
curve
= 0.834

c
76.41 7.85
y = z = 0.641

Then, the moment constant is:

C my = 0.95 + 0.05 h = 0.95 + 0.05 0 = 0.95

40

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

Next step is to determine the interaction factors for members susceptible to torsional deformations:
plastic interaction factors for Class 3 according to the SEMI-COMP approach

ny =

N Ed
674.5
=
= 0.62
y N pl , Rd 0.6411686.25

nz =

N Ed
674.5
=
= 0.62
z N pl , Rd 0.6411686.25

k y = 1 + y 0.2 ny = 1 + ( 0.83 0.2 ) 0.62 = 1.39

(k

yy

= Cmy k y = 0.95 1.395 = 1.326 )

For comparison, the plastic interaction factors according to EN 1993-1-1 lead to the same values

k yy = 1.326
k yz = 0.0
k zy = 0.796
k zz = 0

Finally, the member check for strong and weak axis results in the following expressions:
Strong axis:

Cmy M y , Ed
N Ed
+ ky
1
y N pl , Rd
M 3, y , Rd

0.62 + 1.39

0.95 27.81
= 0.94 < 1
115.26

Weak axis:

Cmy M y , Ed
N Ed
+ 0.6 k y
1
z N pl , Rd
M 3, y , Rd

0.62 + 0.6 1.39

0.95 27.81
= 0.81 < 1
115.26

So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given tubular beam-column. The weak axis
is not decisive for this SHS, since there is no weak axis bending moment present.

41

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 5

For comparison, the member buckling check according to EN 1993-1-1 (Class 2!) is shown:
Strong axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k yy
1
y N pl , Rd
M pl , y , Rd

0.625 + 1.326

27.81
= 0.93 < 1
121.1

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
N Ed
+ k zy
1
z N pl , Rd
M pl , y , Rd

0.625 + 0.796

27.81
= 0.81 < 1
121.1

Comment:
The difference between the buckling check of the given example 5 according to the SEMI-COMP
approach and the present EN 1993-1-1 is approximately -1 %.
The SEMI-COMP approach leads to the right results, since the new c/t-limits for internal plate
elements are applied.

42

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 6

1.6. Example 6: SHS 200x6.3 under pure bending


1.6.1.

Loading

The next worked example detailed herein deals with an SHS 200x6.3 cold formed in S355 steel. It is
assumed as simply supported beam (L = 5 m), and is subjected to the following loads:

qEd = 8.9

1.6.2.

kN
m

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
f y = 355
= 35.5 2
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.6.3.

Geometry and section properties

The geometrical dimensions as well as relevant properties of the studied cross-section SHS 200x6.3
cold formed are:

A = 47.5cm 2

h = 200mm
b = 200mm

I y = I z = 2922cm 4

t = 6.3mm

Wel , y = Wel , z = 292cm3

h
t

W pl , y = W pl , z = 341.11cm3
i y = iz = 7.85cm

43

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 6

The plastic and elastic resistances of a RHS 250x150x6 are obtained as follows:

N pl , Rd = A

fy

M0

= 47.5

M pl , y , Rd = Wpl , y
M el , y , Rd = Wel , y

1.6.4.

fy

M0
fy

M0

35.5
= 1686.25kN
1.0

= 341.11
= 292

35.5 2
10 = 121.09kNm
1.0

35.5 2
10 = 103.66kNm
1.0

Internal forces

The diagram of bending moments of this example follows a parable with a maximum moment in the
middle of the length (L=2.5 m). The following figure illustrates the investigated system and the
loading case.

5m
My

27.81 kNm

M y , Ed = M max =

1.6.5.

qEd L2 8.9 52
=
= 27.81kNm
8
8

Cross-section classification

The check whether the cross-section is Class 3 or better is done with the actual elastic stress
distribution. The most critical section is in the midspan of the beam.
As well, the maximum width-to-thickness ratios for parts subjected to bending and compression are
showed in the following table to clarify the new limits that later determine the class of cross-section.

235
235
=
= 0.8136
355
fy

44

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 6

Maximum ratios for parts subjected to

Internal compression parts

bending and compression


if

> 0.5 ; c t

Plastic limit (Class 2-3)


if

188
6.53 1

0.5 ; c t

if > 1 ; c t
Elastic limit (Class 3-4)

41.5

38
0.653 + 0.347

if 1 ; c t 62 (1 )

( )

The combined loading leads to a stress ratio of = 1.0 in the relevant flange.

c b 3 t 200 3 6.3
38
=
=
= 28.75 <
= 30.92 ... the flange is Class 3 or better
6.3
0.653 + 0.347
tf
t
>

188
= 27.66 ... the flange is Class 3
6.53 1

So the cross-section is found to be in Class 3 for the given loading.

1.6.6.

Cross-section design check

It is worth to remark that in this example there is no axial compression nor bending moment in z-axis,
therefore the design model for cross-section resistance is rather simplified. The cross-section
capacity is checked with the design model for tubular (hollow) sections from the Semi-Comp Design
Guidelines.

Interpolation:

2, y , f = 34 = 27.66

3, y , f = 38 = 30.92

2, y , w = 83 = 67.53

3, y , w = 124 = 100.89

( c t f 2, y , f ) ( c t w 2, y , w )
( 28.75 27.66 ) ( 28.75 67.53 )
;
;0 = max
;
;0 = 0.33
c / tref , y = max
( 30.92 27.66 ) (100.89 67.53)
( 3, y , f 2, y , f ) ( 3, y , w 2, y , w )
Step 1:

M 3, y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd ( M pl , y , Rd M el , y , Rd )c tref , y =121.09 (121.09 103.66 ) 0.33 = 115.26 kNm

With only moment in y-axis being present, the design check simplifies as follows:
45

SEMI-COMP+

3 =

M y , Ed
M 3, y , Rd

Worked Example 6

27.81
= 0.24 < 1
115.26

u ,3 = 4.14

The previous value of 0.24 is a ratio that indicates the fraction of the design bending moment My,Ed
to the design plastic moment resistance. Note that this is the utilisation factor of the cross-section for
this specific case.

It can be compared to el:

el =

M y , Ed
M el , y , Rd

27.81
= 0.27 < 1
103.66

u ,el = 3.73

Utilisation factor along the member length according to SEMI-COMP proposal:

46

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 6

Utilisation factor along the member length according to EN 1993-1-1:

Comment:
Due to the new c/t-limit ratios for internal plate elements the SEMI-COMP approach leads to Class 3
(UF = 0.241), but according to EN 1993-1-1 the cross-section with the highest utilisation factor 0.23 is
still in Class 2.

1.6.7.

Member design check

Since there is no axial compression that implies flexural buckling and, considering that beams with
square hollow sections are not susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling; this case of study has no
stability problems. Consequently, the member design check for the given uniform member in
bending (based on EN 1993-1-1, clause 6.3.2) reads as follows:

M y , Ed
M 3, y , Rd

27.81
= 0.24 < 1
115.26

So the criteria for member resistance are fulfilled for the given tubular beam.

47

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 7

1.7. Example 7: IPE 500 under N+My+Mz including classification for member design
1.7.1.

System and loading

MyIIEd

NEd

N [kN]

qy,Ed

My [kNm]

350

250

350

247,5

350

240

350

227,5

350

210

350

187,5

350

350

350

10

350

11

350

Position

L = 2x5 = 10 m

qz,Ed

Mz [kNm]
0,0
-6,2
-7,9
-5,1
2,3
14,0

160

2,3

127,5
90

-5,1
-7,9

47,5

-6,2

0,0

NEd

N Ed = 350kN
qz , Ed = 5.0kN / m
II
M y , Ed = 250kNm q y , Ed = 4.5kN / m

1.7.2.

Material

According to EN 1993-1-1, the material properties of the mentioned S355 steel are:

N
mm 2
N
G = 81000
mm 2
N
kN
= 23.5 2
f y = 235
2
mm
cm
M 0 = 1.0
E = 210000

1.7.3.

Geometry and section properties

A = 115.5 cm 2
Wel , y = 1928 cm

3
W pl , y = 2194 cm

4
I y = 48200 cm
3

Wel , z = 214 cm

3
W pl , z = 336 cm

4
I z = 2142 cm
3

h = 500mm

b = 200mm

tw = 10.2mm
t = 1.6mm
f
r = 21mm

48

SEMI-COMP+

1.7.4.

Worked Example 7

Relevant class for member design

The following figure illustrates the cross-section classes along the member based on the individual
resultant stress distributions (N + My + Mz) as well as the corresponding utilisation factors UF.
The location of the maximum UF along the member gives the decisive cross-section class for the
member check. Therefore, the member check has to be performed based on class 3 formulae.

UF (decisive class of Profile)


1

0,51

0,52

0,52

0,59

0,54

Position

Position

Class

0,56

0,44

0,38

UF
UF-EP
UF-EE

0,32

10

0,23

11

0,13
0,0

0,2

10

11
0,4

0,6

0,8

member buckling
check acc. class 3
(class at location
with highest
utilisation factor)
4

1,0

Thereby,

the classes were determined on basis of c/t (fy)


the full line illustrates the utilisation according to the SEMI-COMP approach (line UF)
the left dashed line illustrates the utilisation for class 2 (full plastic, line UF-EP)
the right hand dashed line illustrates the elastic utilisation (line UF-EE)

1.7.5.

Member check

The member capacity is checked with the existing Eurocode method 2 formulae. The interaction
factors are those for compact sections and M3,(y,z),Rd are used instead of Mpl,(y,z),Rd. The design check for
members will be based on class 3 formulae.

Lcr , y = 1000cm
Lcr , z = 500cm

49

SEMI-COMP+

1 =

E
=
fy
N pl

y =

N cr , y
N pl

z =

Worked Example 7

N cr , z

Lcr , y

1 iy
Lcr , z

1 iz

21000
= 93.9
23.5
=

y = 0.21
1000
curve
= 0.522

a
93.9 20.4
y = 0.917

500
curve
= 1.243

b
93.9 4.31

z = 0.34

z = 0.455

The calculation of the elastic critical moment Mcr,y from the software LTBeam gives:

M cr , y , LTBeam = 1199.8 kNm


So the normalized slenderness can be determined as:

LT =

W3, y f y
M cr , y

LT = 0.49
515.6
curve
= 0.846

c
721.1
LT = 0.735

187.5
= 0.75
250

kc = 0.97
M
250
=
= 16.6
M 0 15.1

2
2
f = 1 0.5 (1 kc ) 1 2 LT 0.8 = 1 0.5 (1 0.97 ) 1 2 ( 0.846 0.8) = 0.989 < 1

0.735
LT ,mod = LT =
LT ,mod = 0.743
f
0.989

187.5
= 0.75
Cmy = 0.2 + 0.8 s = 0.2 + 0.8 0.75 = 0.8
250
7.0
s =
= 0.50 Cmz = 0.1 0.8 s = 0.1 + 0.8 0.50 = 0.5
14.0
233.8
= 0.94
CmLT = 0.2 + 0.8 s = 0.2 + 0.8 0.94 = 0.95
s =
250

s =

Next step is to determine the interaction factors for members susceptible to torsional deformations
(EN 1993-1-1; Annex B):

ny =

N Ed
350
=
= 0.14
y N pl , Rd 0.917 2714.3

nz =

N Ed
350
=
= 0.28
z N pl , Rd 0.455 2714.3

50

SEMI-COMP+

Worked Example 7

N Ed
k yy = Cmy 1 + y 0.2

y N pl , Rd

k yz = 0.6 k zz = 0.6 0.70 = 0.42

k zy = 1

= 0.8 (1 + ( 0.522 0.2 ) 0.14 ) = 0.84

N Ed
0.1
0.1

= 1
0.28 = 0.96
( CmLT 0.25) z N pl ,Rd
( 0.95 0.25)

N Ed
k zz = Cmz 1 + 1.4

z N pl , Rd

= 0.5 (1 + 1.4 0.28 ) = 0.70

Finally, the member check for strong and weak axis results in the following expressions:
Strong axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k yy
+ k yz z , Ed 1
M 3, z , Rd
y N pl , Rd
LT M 3, y , Rd

0.14 + 0.84

250
14
+ 0.42
= 0.14 + 0.55 + 0.07 = 0.76 < 1
0.743 515.6
78.96

Weak axis:

M y , Ed
M
N Ed
+ k zy
+ k zz z , Ed 1
M 3, z , Rd
z N pl , Rd
LT M 3, y , Rd

0.28 + 0.96

250
14
+ 0.70
= 0.28 + 0.63 + 0.12 = 1.03 > 1
0.743 515.6
78.96

So the criteria for member resistance are slightly exceeded by +3 % for the given beam-column.

Comment:
Due to the new c/t-limit ratios for internal plate elements the SEMI-COMP approach leads to Class 3,
according to EN 1993-1-1 the overall member class would be in Class 2. However, the corresponding
member buckling check leads exactly to the same results, since M3,y,Rd is coincident with Mpl,y,Rd.

51

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

270

300

330

360

400

450

500

550

600

IPE 100

IPE 120

IPE 140

IPE 160

IPE 180

IPE 200

IPE 220

IPE 240

IPE 270

IPE 300

IPE 330

IPE 360

IPE 400

IPE 450

IPE 500

IPE 550

IPE 600

220

210

200

190

180

170

160

150

135

120

110

100

91

82

73

64

55

46

mm

mm

IPE 80

IPE 80 - 600

European
wide flange beams

tw

12,0

11,1

10,2

9,4

8,6

8,0

7,5

7,1

6,6

6,2

5,9

5,6

5,3

5,0

4,7

4,4

4,1

3,8

mm

tf

19,0

17,2

16,0

14,6

13,5

12,7

11,5

10,7

10,2

9,8

9,2

8,5

8,0

7,4

6,9

6,3

5,7

5,2

mm

24

24

21

21

21

18

18

15

15

15

12

12

mm

156,0

134,4

115,5

98,82

84,46

72,73

62,61

53,81

45,95

39,12

33,37

28,48

23,95

20,09

16,43

13,21

10,32

3069

2441

1928

1500

1156

904

713

557

429

324

252

194

146

109

77,3

53,0

34,2

20,0

cm3

7,64

Wel.y

cm2

3512

2787

2194

1702

1307

1019

804

628

484

367

285

221

166

124

88,3

60,7

39,4

23,2

cm3

Wpl.y

308

254

214

176

146

123

98,5

80,5

62,2

47,3

37,3

28,5

22,2

16,7

12,3

8,65

5,79

3,69

cm3

Wel.z

486

401

336

276

229

191

154

125

97,0

73,9

58,1

44,6

34,6

26,1

19,3

13,6

9,2

5,8

cm3

Wpl.z
Pure
compression

compression

Pure

new limits

235 355 460 235 355 460 235 355 460

bending

Pure

Classification

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

3512

2787

2194

1702

1307

1019

804

628

235

3512

2787

2194

1702

1307

1019

804

628

484

367

285

221

355

cm

W3,y

3512

2787

2194

1702

1307

1019

804

628

484

367

285

221

166

124

460

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,z

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

486

401

336

276

229

191

154

125

235

486

401

336

276

229

191

154

125

97,0

73,9

58,1

44,6

355

cm

W3,z

486

401

336

276

229

191

154

125

97,0

73,9

58,1

44,6

34,6

26,1

460

SEMI-COMP+
Tabulated M3,Rd-Values

2. ANNEX B - TABULATED VALUES FOR W3,Y AND W3,Z

52

91

109

128

148

167

186

205

224

244

264

283

301

320

339

378

425

472

522

571

620

670

770

870

970

HEAA 100

HEAA 120

HEAA 140

HEAA 160

HEAA 180

HEAA 200

HEAA 220

HEAA 240

HEAA 260

HEAA 280

HEAA 300

HEAA 320

HEAA 340

HEAA 360

HEAA 400

HEAA 450

HEAA 500

HEAA 550

HEAA 600

HEAA 650

HEAA 700

HEAA 800

HEAA 900

HEAA 1000

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

mm

mm

HEAA 100 - 1000

European
wide flange beams

tw

16,0

15,0

14,0

13,0

12,5

12,0

11,5

10,5

10,0

9,5

9,0

8,5

8,0

7,5

7,0

6,5

6,5

6,0

5,5

5,0

4,5

4,3

4,2

4,2

mm

tf

21,0

20,0

18,0

17,0

16,0

15,5

15,0

14,0

13,5

13,0

12,0

11,5

11,0

10,5

10,0

9,5

9,0

8,5

8,0

7,5

7,0

6,0

5,5

5,5

mm

30

30

30

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

24

24

21

18

18

15

15

12

12

12

mm

282,2

252,2

218,5

190,9

175,8

164,1

152,8

136,9

127,1

117,7

106,6

100,5

94,58

88,91

78,02

68,97

60,38

51,46

44,13

36,53

30,36

23,02

18,55

8380

6923

5426

4260

3676

3218

2792

2315

1971

1654

1359

1222

1093

976

799,8

654,1

521,0

406,9

316,6

235,6

173,4

112,4

75,85

51,98

cm3

15,60

Wel.y

cm2

9777

7999

6225

4840

4160

3623

3128

2576

2183

1824

1495

1341

1196

1065

873,1

714,5

570,6

445,5

347,1

258,2

190,4

123,8

84,12

58,36

cm3

Wpl.y

633,4

602,8

542,2

511,5

481,4

466,2

451,1

420,9

405,8

390,8

360,7

345,6

330,6

315,6

261,7

214,5

173,1

137,3

106,8

81,1

59,84

39,26

26,47

18,41

cm3

Wel.z

1016

957,7

856,6

799,7

750,7

724,5

698,6

649,3

624,4

599,7

553,0

529,3

505,7

482,3

399,4

327,7

264,4

209,3

163,2

123,6

91,36

59,93

40,62

28,44

cm3

Wpl.z
Pure
compression

compression

Pure

new limits

235 355 460 235 355 460 235 355 460

bending

Pure

Classification

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,08

0,20

0,34

0,31

0,20

0,16

0,12

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,08

0,19

0,29

0,53

0,67

0,82

0,99

0,96

0,82

0,77

0,72

0,54

0,47

0,25

0,36

0,06

355

c/tref,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,05

0,14

0,23

0,44

0,56

0,68

0,95

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

0,96

0,88

0,64

0,76

0,42

460

9777

7999

6225

4840

4160

3623

3128

2576

2183

1331

1175

1035

850,2

702,2

562,7

441,0

235

9777

7999

6225

4840

4160

3623

3128

2554

2144

1774

1422

1261

1111

976,5

803,0

664,8

532,5

417,8

330,5

247,6

186,1

119,7

83,59

355

cm

W3,y

9777

7999

6225

4840

4135

3566

3049

2461

2065

1708

1365

1222

1093

975,6

799,8

654,1

521,0

406,9

317,7

238,3

179,6

115,2

80,65

460

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,05

0,14

0,23

0,21

0,14

0,11

0,08

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,06

0,12

0,20

0,36

0,45

0,55

0,66

0,64

0,55

0,51

0,48

0,36

0,31

0,17

0,24

0,04

355

c/tref,z

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,03

0,09

0,16

0,29

0,37

0,45

0,64

0,74

0,86

0,98

0,96

0,86

0,81

0,77

0,64

0,59

0,42

0,50

0,28

460

1016

957,7

856,6

799,7

750,7

724,5

698,6

649,3

624,4

519,3

481,8

444,6

370,7

312,3

254,7

203,7

235

1016

957,7

856,6

799,7

750,7

724,5

698,6

636,5

597,3

558,6

484,5

446,9

409,5

372,3

311,6

265,6

217,6

174,9

142,7

110,3

86,01

54,97

40,01

355

cm

W3,z

1016

957,7

856,6

799,7

741,3

700,4

660,0

582,0

543,2

504,8

430,7

393,1

355,8

318,7

267,7

230,9

190,1

153,5

126,9

98,64

78,01

49,52

36,67

460

SEMI-COMP+
Tabulated M3,Rd-Values

53

96

114

133

152

171

190

210

230

250

270

290

310

330

350

390

440

490

540

590

640

690

790

890

990

HEA 120

HEA 140

HEA 160

HEA 180

HEA 200

HEA 220

HEA 240

HEA 260

HEA 280

HEA 300

HEA 320

HEA 340

HEA 360

HEA 400

HEA 450

HEA 500

HEA 550

HEA 600

HEA 650

HEA 700

HEA 800

HEA 900

HEA 1000

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

mm

mm

HEA 100

HEA 100 - 1000

European
wide flange beams

tw

16,5

16,0

15,0

14,5

13,5

13,0

12,5

12,0

11,5

11,0

10,0

9,5

9,0

8,5

8,0

7,5

7,5

7,0

6,5

6,0

6,0

5,5

5,0

5,0

mm

tf

31,0

30,0

28,0

27,0

26,0

25,0

24,0

23,0

21,0

19,0

17,5

16,5

15,5

14,0

13,0

12,5

12,0

11,0

10,0

9,5

9,0

8,5

8,0

8,0

mm

30

30

30

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

24

24

21

18

18

15

15

12

12

12

mm

83,01

cm3

Wpl.y

346,8

320,5

285,8

260,5

241,6

226,5

211,8

197,5

178,0

159,0

142,8

133,5

124,4

112,5

97,26

86,82

76,84

64,34

53,83

45,25

38,77

31,42

842,6

811,9

781,6

751,4

721,3

691,1

631,0

570,9

525,8

495,7

465,7

420,6

340,2

282,1

230,7

177,7

133,6

102,7

76,95

55,62

10810 903,2

8699

7032

6136

5350

4622

3949

3216

2562

2088

1850

1628

1383

1112

919,8

744,6

568,5

429,5

324,9

245,1

173,5

38,48

26,76

cm3

Wel.z

11190 12820 933,6

9485

7682

6241

5474

4787

4146

3550

2896

2311

1891

1678

1479

1260

1013

836,4

675,1

515,2

388,6

293,6

220,1

155,4

25,34 106,30 119,5

72,76

cm3

21,24

Wel.y

cm2

1470

1414

1312

1257

1205

1156

1107

1059

965,5

872,9

802,3

755,9

709,7

641,2

518,1

430,2

351,7

270,6

203,8

156,5

117,6

84,85

58,85

41,14

cm3

Wpl.z
Pure
compression

compression

Pure

new limits

235 355 460 235 355 460 235 355 460

bending

Pure

Classification

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,11

0,15

0,01

355

c/tref,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,01

0,17

0,47

0,51

0,36

0,28

0,31

0,25

0,15

460

8699

7032

6136

5350

4622

3949

3216

1370

1097

918,7

355

8699

7032

6136

5350

4622

3949

3216

2562

2088

1849

1602

1326

1061

889,7

725,4

551,8

419,1

320,2

460

12820 12820 12820

10810 10810 10810

8699

7032

6136

5350

4622

235

cm

W3,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,07

0,10

0,01

355

c/tref,z

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,12

0,31

0,34

0,24

0,18

0,21

0,17

0,10

460

1470

1414

1312

1257

1205

1156

1107

235

1470

1414

1312

1257

1205

1156

1107

1059

965,5

625,6

500,6

428,9

355

cm

W3,z

1470

1414

1312

1257

1205

1156

1107

1059

965,5

872,9

802,3

754,7

681,4

572,5

457,2

394,5

329,4

251,1

191,9

151,1

460

SEMI-COMP+
Tabulated M3,Rd-Values

54

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

400

450

HEB 220

HEB 240

HEB 260

HEB 280

HEB 300

HEB 320

HEB 340

HEB 360

HEB 400

HEB 450

650

700

800

900

1000

HEB 650

HEB 700

HEB 800

HEB 900

HEB 1000

600

200

HEB 200

HEB 600

180

HEB 180

500

160

HEB 160

550

140

HEB 140

HEB 500

120

HEB 550

100

HEB 120

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

mm

mm

HEB 100

HEB 100 - 1000

European
wide flange beams

tw

19,0

18,5

17,5

17,0

16,0

15,5

15,0

14,5

14,0

13,5

12,5

12,0

11,5

11,0

10,5

10,0

10,0

9,5

9,0

8,5

8,0

7,0

6,5

6,0

mm

tf

36,0

35,0

33,0

32,0

31,0

30,0

29,0

28,0

26,0

24,0

22,5

21,5

20,5

19,0

18,0

17,5

17,0

16,0

15,0

14,0

13,0

12,0

11,0

10,0

mm

30

30

30

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

24

24

21

18

18

15

15

12

12

12

mm

400,0

371,3

334,2

306,4

286,3

270,0

254,1

238,6

218,0

197,8

180,6

170,9

161,3

149,1

131,4

118,4

106,0

91,04

78,08

65,25

54,25

42,96

34,01

962,7

932,3

902,0

871,8

841,6

781,4

721,3

676,1

646,0

615,9

570,9

471,0

395,0

326,9

258,5

200,3

151,4

111,2

78,52

52,92

33,45

cm3

Wel.z

12890 14860

1085

1054

10230 993,6

8327

7320

6425

5591

4815

3982

3232

2683

2408

2149

1869

1534

1283

1053

827,0

642,5

481,4

354,0

245,4

165,2

104,2

cm3

Wpl.y

10980 12580

8977

7340

6480

5701

4971

4287

3551

2884

2400

2156

1926

1678

1376

1148

938,3

735,5

569,6

425,7

311,5

215,6

144,1

89,91

cm3

26,04

Wel.y

cm2

1716

1658

1553

1495

1441

1391

1341

1292

1198

1104

1032

985,7

939,1

870,1

717,6

602,2

498,4

393,9

305,8

231,0

170,0

119,8

80,97

51,42

cm3

Wpl.z
Pure
compression

compression

Pure

new limits

235 355 460 235 355 460 235 355 460

bending

Pure

Classification

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

8327

7320

6425

5591

355

8327

7320

6425

5591

4815

3982

460

14860 14860 14860

12580 12580 12580

10230 10230 10230

8327

235

cm

W3,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,z

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

1716

1658

1553

1495

235

1716

1658

1553

1495

1441

1391

1341

355

cm

W3,z

1716

1658

1553

1495

1441

1391

1341

1292

1198

460

SEMI-COMP+
Tabulated M3,Rd-Values

55

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

270

290

310

340

359

377

395

432

478

524

572

620

668

716

814

910

1008

HEM 120

HEM 140

HEM 160

HEM 180

HEM 200

HEM 220

HEM 240

HEM 260

HEM 280

HEM 300

HEM 320

HEM 340

HEM 360

HEM 400

HEM 450

HEM 500

HEM 550

HEM 600

HEM 650

HEM 700

HEM 800

HEM 900

HEM 1000

302

302

303

304

305

305

306

306

307

307

308

309

309

310

288

268

248

226

206

186

166

146

126

106

mm

mm

HEM 100

HEM 100 - 1000

European
wide flange beams

tw

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

21,0

18,5

18,0

18,0

15,5

15,0

14,5

14,0

13,0

12,5

12,0

mm

tf

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

40,0

39,0

33,0

32,5

32,0

26,0

25,0

24,0

23,0

22,0

21,0

20,0

mm

30

30

30

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

24

24

21

18

18

15

15

12

12

12

mm

444,2

423,6

404,3

383,0

373,7

363,7

354,4

344,3

335,4

325,8

318,8

315,8

312,0

303,1

240,2

219,6

199,6

149,4

131,3

113,3

97,05

80,56

66,41

75,31

cm3

Wel.z

116,3

cm3

Wpl.z

10540

9657

8772

7933

7094

6331

5571

4989

4718

4435

4078

2966

2524

2117

1419

1135

883,4

674,6

14330 16570

12540 14440
1222

1222

1230

1237

1245

1244

1252

1252

1260

1260

1268

1276

1276

1252

914,1

779,7

657,5

443,5

354,5

277,4

211,9

1940

1929

1930

1929

1936

1930

1937

1932

1939

1934

1942

1953

1951

1913

1397

1192

1006

678,6

543,2

425,2

325,5

493,8 156,80 240,5

350,6 111,60 171,6

235,8

cm3

Wpl.y

10870 12490

9198

8433

7660

6923

6180

5501

4820

4297

4052

3796

3482

2551

2159

1799

1217

967,4

748,3

566,5

411,4

288,2

190,4

cm3

53,24

Wel.y

cm2

Pure
compression

compression

Pure

new limits

235 355 460 235 355 460 235 355 460

bending

Pure

Classification

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,y

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

9657

460

12490 12490

10540 10540

355

16570 16570 16570

14440 14440 14440

235

cm

W3,y

0,00

0,00

235

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

355

c/tref,z

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

460

1940

1929

235

1940

1929

1930

1929

355

cm

W3,z

1940

1929

1930

1929

1936

460

SEMI-COMP+
Tabulated M3,Rd-Values

56