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ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

Page A-01

ENGI 2422 Engineering Mathematics 2


Possibilities for your Formula Sheets
You may select items from this document for placement on your formula sheets.
However, designing your own formula sheet can be a valuable revision exercise in itself.
1.
Fundamentals
Equation of a plane, through point P , (where a = position vector of P), with non-zero
normal vector n A, B, C :
r n a n or Ax By Cz D 0
Equation of a line, through point P (xo, yo, zo), (where a = position vector of P), parallel
to non-zero vector v v1, v2 , v3 :
x xo
y yo
z zo

v1
v2
v3
If v1 = 0, then separate out the equation x = xo.
If v2 = 0, then separate out the equation y = yo.
If v3 = 0, then separate out the equation z = zo.
r a t v or

The unit tangent, unit principal normal and binormal vectors at any point on a curve
given by r = r(t) are
T

dr dr
,

dt
dt

dT dT

dt
dt

and

B T N

The arc length s along the curve can be found from


2

ds
dx
dy
dz

dt
dt
dt
dt
The curvature is

dr
dt

r r
dT
dT
dr

3
ds
dt
dt
r

Conic Sections

x2
y2

1 : ellipse, major axis = 2a, minor axis = 2b, b a 1 e2 , 0 < e < 1,


2
2
a
b
foci at (ae, 0).
(b = a is a circle)
2
2
x
y
2 1 : hyperbola, vertices at (2a, 0), asymptotes y = bx / a , e > 1,
2
a
b
foci at (ae, 0).
y2 = 4ax :
parabola, vertex at (0, 0), focus at (a, 0), e = 1.
x2
y2

0 is a point at (0, 0);


a2
b2

x2
y2

0 is the line pair y = bx / a.


a2
b2

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

Page A-02

Quadric Surfaces

x2
a2
x2
a2
x2

y2
b2
y2
b2
y2

z2
c2
z2
c2
z2

1 : ellipsoid (special cases are spheroid and sphere)


1 : hyperboloid of one sheet, aligned along z axis

1 : hyperboloid of two sheets, aligned along x axis


a 2 b2 c2
z x2 y 2
:
elliptic paraboloid

c a 2 b2
z x2 y 2
:
hyperbolic paraboloid

c a 2 b2
x2 y2 z 2

0:
a 2 b2 c 2
x2 y2 z 2

0:
a 2 b2 c2

x2 y 2 z 2

1 : Nothing
a 2 b2 c2

A single point at the origin.

Elliptic cone, aligned along the z axis;


[asymptote to both types of hyperboloid].

x
y
2 1:
2
a
b
2
x
y2

1:
a 2 b2
y x2

:
b a2
x2 y 2

0:
a 2 b2
x2 y 2

0:
a 2 b2
x2
0:
a2

Elliptic cylinder, aligned along the z axis.


Hyperbolic cylinder, aligned along the z axis.
Parabolic cylinder, vertex line on the z axis.

x2 y 2

1 : Nothing
a 2 b2

Line (the z axis)


Plane pair (intersecting along the z axis)
Single Plane (the y-z coordinate plane)

x2
1 : Parallel Plane Pair
a2
x2
1 : Nothing
a2

Surfaces of Revolution
y = f (x) rotated around y = c.
Equation of surface generated is

y c

Area of curved surface is A 2

b
a

z2

f x c

f x c
1 f x
2

dx .

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

Page A-03

Trigonometric identities

Hyperbolic fn identities

e j cos j sin

e x cosh x sinh x

e jx e jx
cos x
cosh jx
2
e jx e jx
sin x
j sinh jx
2j
tan x = sin x / cos x
sec x = 1 / cos x
csc x = 1 / sin x
cot x = 1 / tan x
cos (x) = + cos x
sin (x) = sin x
tan (x) = tan x

e x ex
cosh x
cos jx
2
e x ex
sinh x
j sin jx
2
tanh x = sinh x / cosh x
sech x = 1 / cosh x
csch x = 1 / sinh x
coth x = 1 / tanh x
cosh (x) = + cosh x
sinh (x) = sinh x
tanh (x) = tanh x

cos2x + sin2x = 1
sec2x = 1 + tan2x
csc2x = 1 + cot2x
d
cos x sin x
dx
d
sin x cos x
dx
d
tan x sec 2 x
dx
d
sec x sec x tan x
dx
d
csc x csc x cot x
dx
d
cot x csc 2 x
dx

cosh2x sinh2x = 1
sech2x = 1 tanh2x
csch2x = coth2x 1
d
cosh x sinh x
dx
d
sinh x cosh x
dx
d
tanh x sech 2 x
dx
d
sech x sech x tanh x
dx
d
csch x csch x coth x
dx
d
coth x csch 2 x
dx

cos (A+B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B


cos 2x = cos2x sin2x
= 2 cos2x 1 = 1 2 sin2x
sin (A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

cosh (A+B) = cosh A cosh B + sinh A sinh B


cosh 2x = cosh2x + sinh2x
= 2 cosh2x 1 = 1 + 2 sinh2x
sinh (A+B) = sinh A cosh B + cosh A sinh B
sinh 2x = 2 sinh x cosh x

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

Page A-04

Trigonometric identities (contd)

Some Integrals

tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B
2 tan x
tan 2 x
1 tan 2 x
1 cos 2 x
cos 2 x
2
1

cos
2x
sin 2 x
2
sin A cos B = (sin(A+B) + sin(AB)) / 2
cos A sin B = (sin(A+B) sin(AB)) / 2
cos A cos B = (cos(A+B) + cos(AB)) / 2
sin A sin B = (cos(AB) cos(A+B)) / 2
PQ
PQ
sin P sin Q 2 sin
cos
2
2
PQ
P Q
sin P sin Q 2 cos
sin
2
2
PQ
PQ
cos P cos Q 2 cos
cos
2
2
PQ
PQ
cos P cos Q 2 sin
sin
2
2
Let t = tan (x / 2) , then
1 t 2
2t
cos
x

,
,
sin x
1 t2
1 t2
2t
tan x
1 t 2

u n 1
C n 1

n 1
n
u du
ln u C n 1

au
u
a
du

C a 1, a 0

ln a

tan A B

a 2 u 2 du

du e u C

f x

f x dx ln f x C
tan u du ln sec u C
cot u du ln sin u C
sec u du ln sec u tan u
csc u du ln csc u cot u

du
a u
du
2

a2 u2

C
C

u
sin 1 C
a
u
sinh 1 C
a

ln u a 2 u 2 C 2
du
1
u
tan 1 C
2
a
u
a
du
1
1 u
a 2 u 2 a tanh a C
1
ua

ln
C2
2a
ua

u
a2
u
a2
u
a2 u2
sinh 1 C
a2 u2
ln u a 2 u 2 C 2
2
2
a
2
2

u
a2
u
2
2
a u du
a u
sin 1 C
2
2
a
2

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Integration by parts :

Formul
dv

u dx dx

u v

Page A-05
du

dx v dx

[or tabular format]


Some forms that can be obtained from integration by parts:

ln u du

u ln u 1 C

eau
a sin bu b cos bu C
a 2 b2
eau
au
e
cos
bu
du

a cos bu b sin bu C

a 2 b2
1
m
n
m 1
n 1
m2
n
sin u cos u du m n sin u cos u m 1 sin u cos u du
m, n 1 Any
1

sin m1 u cos n 1 u n 1 sin m u cos n 2 u du


mn
other anti-derivatives that are required in a question but that cannot be obtained from the
identities above will be supplied either directly or by means of a hint in the question.
au
e sin bu du

Leibnitz diffn of an integral:


d yg ( x)
H ( x, y ) dy
dx y f ( x )

dg
df

H ( x, g ( x))
H ( x, f ( x))
dx
dx

H ( x, y ) dy

y f ( x) x

yg ( x)

ENGI 2422 Appendix A


2.

Formul

Page A-06

Partial Differentiation

Chain rule:
If y = f (x1, x2, ..., xn) and xi = gi(t1, t2, ..., tm) then
n
y
y xi
y x1
y x2
y xn

t j
x1 t j
x2 t j
xn t j
i 1 xi t j
and
n
y
y
y
y
dy
dxi
dx1
dx2
dxn
x1
x2
xn
i 1 xi
Gradient:

f f f
, i
j
k
and f
,
,
x
y
z
x y z
Rate of change of f in the direction of a at point P is the directional derivative
Da f P f a P
In

Jacobian (implicit method):


Conversion from { x1, x2, ..., xn } to { u1, u2, ..., un } defined implicitly by n equations
fi ( x1, x2, ..., xn, u1, u2, ..., un) = 0.
Find all n differentials dfi , then construct the matrix equation
dx1
du1
dx
du
det B
A 2 B 2 .
The Jacobian is
.


det A

dx n
du n
Jacobian (explicit method):

Jacobian

x1 , x 2 , , x n
u1 , u 2 , , u n

ABS det

x1
u
1
x2
u1

x
n
u1

x1
u2
x2
u2

xn
u2

x1

un

x2

un


xn

u n

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

Max-Min:
Check all points:
- on the domain boundary;
- where f is undefined;
- where f is undefined;
- where f = 0 .
Second derivative test (at points where f = 0):
f xx f xy
D
f yx f yy
D > 0 and fxx > 0 local minimum
D > 0 and fxx < 0 local maximum
D < 0 saddle point
D = 0 : test fails.
Lagrange Multipliers:
Identify function f (x1, x2, ... , xn) to be maximized or minimized.
Identify constraint(s) g(x1, x2, ... , xn) = k .
Solve the system of equations
f = g and g = k .
Solution with smallest (largest) value of f is the minimum (maximum).

Page A-07

ENGI 2422 Appendix A


3.

Formul

Page A-08

First Order ODEs


M(x, y) dx + N(x, y) dy = 0

Separable if

M x, y f x g y and N x, y ux v y

Linear:
dy
Px y Rx ; solution y e h
dx

e R dx
h

C , where h P dx

Bernoulli: [not in this semester]


dy
y 1u
Px y Rx y u ; reduce to linear dw 1 u Px w Rx using w
dx
dx
1 u
Exact if

M
N

; solution u x, y c where u M dx N dy
y
x

Integrating Factor:
Use I(x) to try to make Px, y dx Qx, y dy 0 exact:

ln I x

1 P

Q y x dx

(invalid if the integrand is dependent on y).

or
Use I(y) to try to make Px, y dx Qx, y dy 0 exact:

ln I y

1 Q

P x y dy

(invalid if the integrand is dependent on x).

Reduction of order (missing y term):


d2y
dy
To solve
P x
R x ,
2
dx
dx

dy
d2y
by p and replace
dx
dx 2
Reduction of order (missing x term):
d2y
dy
To solve
P
Qy R,
2
dx
dx
Replace

Replace

dy
dx

by

d2y
p and replace
dx 2

by

dp
dx

by

dp
dy

ENGI 2422 Appendix A


4.

Formul

Page A-09

Second Order Linear ODEs

d2y
dy
P x
Q x y R x
2
dx
dx
[P and Q both constant]:
Auxiliary equation:
Solve 2 P Q 0

1, 2

Complementary function:
Real distinct roots (over-damped):
x

yc Ae 1 B e 2
Real repeated roots (critically damped):
yc A Bx e x

Complex conjugate pair of roots ( = a bj) (under-damped):

yc ea x Ae jbx B e jbx

ax

C cos bx D sin bx

Particular solution by undetermined coefficients:


kx
kx
If R(x) = e , then try yP = c e
If R(x) = (a polynomial of degree n),
then try yP = (a polynomial of degree n), with all (n + 1) coefficients to be determined.
If R(x) = (a multiple of cos kx and/or sin kx),
then try yP = c cos kx + d sin kx
But: if part (or all) of yP is included in the C.F., then multiply yP by x.
Particular solution by variation of parameters:
Let
yc = A y1 + B y2 then find
y1 y 2
0 y2
W
, W1
y 2 R , W2
y1 y 2
R y 2

W1
W
u , v 2
W
W
u y1 v y 2

yP

v , then

General solution:
y = yc + yP
Initial (or boundary) conditions complete solution.
or use Laplace transforms.

y1
y1

0
R

y1 R ,

ENGI 2422 Appendix A


5.

Formul

Page A-10

Some Inverse Laplace Transforms

F (s)

f (t)

e st f (t ) dt

F (s)

f (t)

s s

t n 1
n 1 !

(n )

sn

1 cos t

t sin t
3

1
s

1
sa

eat

s a n

t n 1 e at
(n 1)!

(n )

eas

f (t)

s a

at

s a
s a 2 b2

t cos t

2 2

sin t

e at sin t

s a b
s a
s a 2 2
2

2 2

Triangular wave,
period 2a ,
amplitude a

as
tanh

s2
2

t sin t
2

b
2

2 3

H (t a)

Square wave,
period 2a ,
amplitude 1

1
s

sin t t cos t

2 2

1
as
tanh
s
2

as

s2 2

(t a)

e sinh bt
b
eat cos t
eat cosh bt

as 2

s eas 1

Sawtooth wave,
period a ,
amplitude b

{ sn F (s) sn1 f (0)


sn2 f (0) sn3 f (0)
...
s f (n2) (0) f (n1) (0) }

1
F ( s)
s
dF
ds

dn f
dt n
t

f ( ) d

t f (t)

ENGI 2422 Appendix A

Formul

with

First shift theorem:

F s L f t

F (s b)

The inverse Laplace transform of

Page A-11

is ebt f (t) .

Second shift theorem:


The inverse Laplace transform of eas F (s)

is f (ta) H (ta).

Scaling property (an extension of the first shift theorem):


bt

F (as b)

The inverse Laplace transform of

is

t
f .
a

1 a
e
a

Periodic function:
If f (t) is a periodic function of fundamental period T , then
the Laplace transform of f (t) is

1
1 e

sT

e st f (t ) dt .

Sifting property of the Dirac delta function:

d
c

f (t ) (t a) dt

cad
f (a)

a c or a d
0

Convolution:
If the Laplace transforms of functions f (t) and g (t) are F (s) and G (s) respectively, then
the inverse Laplace transform of H (s) = F (s) G (s) is the convolution
h (t) = (f
= (g

*
*

g)(t) =

f ( ) g (t ) d

f (t ) g ( ) d

f )(t)

Also:
s
0 F d

1 e f t(t ) dt
s t

0 F s ds

f (t )
dt
t

ENGI 2422 Appendix A


6.

Formul

Page A-12

Multiple Integration

If the surface density is = f (x, y), then the mass is


b h x
d q y

m
f x, y dy dx
f x, y dx dy ,

x a y g x
y c x p y

where the inner integral must be evaluated first.


Polar coordinates: (x, y) = (r cos , r sin )

and dA = dx dy = r dr d.

Centre of mass is at x , y , where mx M y

dA ,

Mx

y dA

and M y

and my M x ,

x dA .

Cylindrical polar coordinates:


(x, y, z) = (r cos , r sin , z)

and dV = dx dy dz = r dr d dz.

Spherical polar coordinates:


(x, y, z) = (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos )
and
dV = dx dy dz = r2sin dr d d .
Mass m

dV .
V

Additional Formulae for Polar Coordinates (if needed)


(x, y) = (r cos , r sin ) r 2 x 2 y 2 ,

tan

y
x

dy
dr
sin r cos
dy
d d
dx
dr
dx
cos r sin
d
d

Arc length L

dr
r2
d
d
1 2
r d
2
v r r r

Area swept out by r = f ( ): A


r r

1 d 2
and a r r 2 r 2r r r r 2 r
r
r dt

END OF APPENDIX A