Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

PIERRE FEGHALI

NORTH AMERICAN
SUBSTATION SERVICES

TRANSFORMER LIFE
EXTENSION METHODOLOGY
THRU LTC REPLACEMENT

WHY are we here?

Why do we use LTCs?


Transformer Efficient 99%+,No moving
parts
LTC Maintenance is very costly
LTC is only accessory with moving parts
More than 20% of transformer failures
are due to LTC failures

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Operation
TRANSFORMER FAILURE CAUSE 1955 - 1988
60%
DATA FROM ANSI/IEEE C37.91, TABLE 1
50%
50%

40%

% OF TOTAL
30%

21%
20%

11%

10%

10%
6%
2%
0%
Winding

Tap Changer

Bushings

Terminal Board

Core

Other

FAILURE CAUSE

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Transformer Design


Voltage Considerations

V/T voltage determines transformer design factors. It


is the LV phase voltage divided by the number of LV
turns.
For a 10% regulation, the LTC Tap winding has 10%
of the LV turns
Volts per step is the voltage that the LTC goes thru
to move from one tap position to the next.
The above determines the LTC criteria.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Design Example


Voltage Considerations

50 MVA 115KV to 12.47KV +/-10% LTC in LV Neutral

V/T = 12,470/1.732/160 = 45
LV has 160 turns therefore the LTC tap winding has
16 turns and 1247 volts.
16 turns divided by 8 taps yield 2 turns per step or
90 Volts per step.
There are two Types of LTCs:

Reactive in the past the arcing in oil LTCs were used like the
FPE TC25, McGraw 550 A&B, Allis Chamers TLH 20&21,
Westinghouse UTTA&B etc Todays designers have very
few choices but the Reinhausen RMV has over 90% of the
Reactive LTC market.
Resistive the choices are UZD, UZE or UZF.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Design Example


Voltage Considerations
50 MVA 115KV to 12.47KV +/-10% LTC in LV Neutral

The RMV is good for up to 69KV. Volts per step of


2000 Volts. It can handle this transformer design
from a voltage stand point.
The resistive LTCs can handle the voltage as they are
good for 34KV. Volts per step of 500 Volts
Now the current consideration.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Design Example


Current Considerations

50 MVA 115KV to 12.47KV +/-10% LTC in LV Neutral

LV Current = 50 x 10^6/12470/1.732 = 2315


Amps
Reactive LTC RMV is rated up to 2500 Amps

Guarantees 500,000 operations at 2500 Amps and


step voltage of 2000 Volts
Guarantees 100,000 operations prior to any
maintenance

Resistive LTCs are rated up to 600 Amps. A


series transformer must be used to reduce
the current that the LTC is switching.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Transformer Regulation
Configurations

LTC in Auto transformers

In Neutral To Regulate LV variable flux


In Common Winding to Regulate LV
In Common Winding to Regulate HV

LTC application in Power transformers

Delta Winding
WYE Winding

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Auto-Transformer Configurations

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Transformer Regulation
Delta Winding

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Transformer Regulation
WYE winding

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Reactive LTC Switching


Operation Coarse Fine

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Reactive LTC Switching


Operation Reversing Switch

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Resistive Switching LTC

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Switching Comparison

Resistive & Old Reactive Arcing in oil

Arcing Selector Tap Switch


Arc interacts with surrounding medium
Switching characteristics depend on the surrounding
medium.
The arc voltage drop is 25-30 Volts
High contact wear and contamination of oil
Oil contamination - Particles & combustible gasses
are produced (See table for Typical gas levels)
Maintenance Cycle of 2-5 years

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Switching Comparison

Reactive LTC Vacuum interrupter

Switching happens in Vacuum


By pass switch & Selector Tap Switch
Arc is isolated from surrounding medium
Switching characteristics do not depend on the
surrounding medium.
The arc voltage drop is 5-10 Volts
Very low contact wear (more than 10 times less
wear) and no contamination of oil
Extended maintenance cycle based on condition and
not time interval.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Comparison
LTC TYPICAL GAS LEVELS
LTC Type

Acetylene

Methane

Ethane

Ethylene

Vacuum

150

50

250

Reactive Selector
Compartment

25

250

100

500

Reactive Diverter
Compartment

7000

650

500

1400

Resistive

5000

300

250

500

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Replacement
is the answer
Prevent the problems from re-occurring.
Fix the problem at its root. Replace the arcing in oil LTC.
Extend the life of the transformer.

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Replacement
Process Steps
Base line testing - TTR, Resistance, Doble PF, Megger and
oil sample (Day 1)
Drain LTC compartment Dispose of oil (Day 2)
Drain Main tank oil into storage tank (Day 2)
Internally disconnect all LTC leads and Blank LTC off with
Fire Blankets (Day 2)
Remove old tap changer off transformer main tank (Day 3)
Weld LTC tank transition piece (Day 4)
Weld new RMV LTC on transition piece (Day 4)
Pressure Leak Test (Overnight day 4)
Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Replacement
Process Steps
Crimp lead extensions on all LTC leads (Day 5)
Rework/Replace reactor if applicable (Day 5)
Crimp extension leads to reactor leads as required (Day
6)
Make all internal connections to the LTC back board (Day
7 & Day 8)
Test (TTR, Resistance & Make before break) to verify
new connections (Day 9)
Pressurize tank with dry air (Day 9)
Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Replacement
Process Steps
Take a Dew Point to determine dryness of transformer (Day
10)
Rewire Controls New Control Cabinet if necessary (Days 6
thru 12)
Perform field dry-out if necessary (Day 10 & 11)
Apply vacuum and hot oil fill transformer (Day 12)
Perform final testing (Day 13 & 14)
Provide as built control, outline and nameplate drawings

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Field Replacement Pictures


(Before)

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Field Replacement Picture


(After)

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Economic Evaluation
for 50 MVA
(Based on a 10 year cycle)

New Transformer
Replacement

Repair of LTC
failure at repair
facility

LTC
Replacement in
field

LTC
maintenance Contact
Replacement
etc

Material

82%

34%

10%

15%

Installation labor
(Contractor and/or
Customer)

10%

14%

10%

12%

Transportation

8%

12%

0%

0%

Total

100%

59%

20%

27%

Outage Length

3 weeks

12 weeks

3 weeks

1 week x 3

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

What happens after 10 years?

Deferred Capital Expenditure by 10 years


The upgraded RMV LTC is portable and can be used
somewhere else.
RMV LTC has paid for itself by the reduction of
operation and maintenance costs Cost Avoidance
The arcing in oil LTC has been upgraded 3 times but
is still an arcing in oil LTC
No catastrophic failure ever recorded with an RMV

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

LTC Replacement Benefits

Long Term Uninterrupted availability of the transformer

Extension of the maintenance interval


Reduction of Maintenance outages by 90%

Life Extension as the Vacuum LTC will reduce the likelihood of


LTC failure or LTC winding failure.
RMV has a very Low Failure Rate
Reduction of the transformer operating costs
Short Outage only 2-3 weeks
Regasket, Dry out and Degasification of transformer
Economical Solution

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Conclusion

Extends Life of transformer


Reasonable economics compared to failure
cost or new replacement cost.
NASS has experience in replacing:

FPE TC 25, TC525 and TC546


Allis Chamers TLH 20 and 21
McGraw 550
Westinghouse UTT & URT
Ferranti Packard

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused

Q&A

QUESTIONS

Independent Experienced Safety Quality Customer Focused, Not Numbers Focused