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Al-Azhar University

Faculty of languages & Translation


English Department
Islamic studies Division

Irshâd Al-Hayârâ Fî Rad` Man Mârâ Fî Adillat


At-Tawhîd Wâ Radd An-Nasârâ
(Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring Those Who
Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and
Answering back the Christians)
Written by
Abd El-Aziz Ibn Ahmed Ibn Sa`id Ad-Dumiri, follower of
Shaf``i school, and known as Ad-Derini (born in 612 and died in
694 A.H. (1215 – 1295)

Verification, Translation and Analytical Study

[A Thesis Presented to the English Department in fulfillment of the


Requirements for M.A. Degree in Islamic Studies in English]

Submitted by
Emad Mohammad Abd El-Hamid Fadel

Supervised by
Prof. Dr. Muhammad M. Abu-Laylah `Prof. Dr. Sa`id `Ateyyah `Ali Mutaw
Professor of Islamic studies in English
Professor of the Hebrew Language
Faculty of Languages & translation
Faculty of Languages & translation
Al-Azhar University -Cairo
Al-Azhar University -Cairo
Contents of the Thesis

Topic Page Num.


Introduction 4
- Reasons for Choosing this Topic 4
- Statement of the problem 5
- Objectives of the study 5
- Research hypotheses 6
- Research Methodology 6
- Literature Review 6
Contents of the thesis
Chapter One: Author's Biography & Methodology 9
of Authentication
AD-DIRÎNÎ: AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY 10
- His family and birth 10
- His early years 11
Historical Bachground: 11
Political Status 13
Social and Economic Status 13
Scientific and Religious Status 14
- His sheikhs 16
- His students 24
The Scientific Status of AD-DIRÎNÎ 25
The Writings of AD-DIRÎNÎ 27
His mysticism and supernatural deeds 34
The Humility of AD-DIRÎNÎ 40
His death 42
Methodology of Authentication 43
Authenticating the Title of the Manuscript 44
Study of the Manuscripts 45
The subject of the Book and the Relevant Books 53
Importance of studying and verifying the manuscript 55
Chapter Two: AD-DIRÎNÎ position toward the 57
science of Kalâm & AD-DIRÎNÎ
methodology of Kalâm
Definition of Kalâm 58
The subject of Kalâm 58
The benefits of Kalâm 58
History of naming this science Kalâm 59
The relationship between doctrine and Kalâm 59
The problem of the verdict of practicing Kalâm 61
The elements of the emergence of the science of Kalâm 61
63
Topic Page Num.
The issues that the Muslim scholars dealt with in their
polemic writings against Christianity 64
The new Kalâm 64
The Basics of the new Kalâm 65
AD-DIRÎNÎ position toward the science of Kalâm 68
AD-DIRÎNÎ methodology of Kalâm 80
Definition of Christian Theology 86
DIVISIONS OF THEOLOGY 87
THE METHOD OF THEOLOGY 87
Dogmatic development 88
Chapter Three: The Analytical Study 92
The Issues of the Book 93
Trinity According to Christians 95
The Christian sects different from the majority of 96
Christians concerning the trinity
The Eastern Christian sects 99
The analysis of the text of the manuscript 103
Reporting on the Doctrines of the Christians 103
Knowledge of how the Christians differ from Muslims 105
Christians believe in three hypostases in one substance 109
Christian Doctrine of the Union of the human and the 113
divine and the doctrine of Crucifixion 117
Analysis of the Chapters of the Book 118
Chapter Four : 147
The Text of the Manuscript in Arabic 148
The Text of the Manuscript in English 165
Conclusion 185
Bibliography 187
Copies of the Manuscripts of the Book 196
Acknowledgements

I am extremely grateful to my supervisor, Prof./ Muhammed Muhammed


Abu Laylah, Professor of Islamic studies in English, Faculty of
Languages & translation, and the previous head of English department.
He honored me by supervising my thesis. I would like to thank him for
his continual support and advice throughout this work. His wisdom,
excellent manners and kindness never ceased to impress and educate me.

I would also like to thank Prof. Sa`id Ateyyah Mutaw`, Professor of the
Hebrew Language, and the vice-deen of the faculy. Being my co-
supervisor, he has been providing me with very useful comments. Thanks
to him for his extensive academic help, encouragement throughout the
course of this work.

I would like to thank Prof. Mary Knight for revising my thesis


linguistically.

I would like to extend my appreciation to Prof. Bakr Zakî `Awd, Prof. of


Comparative Religions and the deen of the Faculty of Usûl Ad-Din
(Theology), Al-Azhar University –Cairo and Prof. Muhammad `Abdullah
Ash-Sharqarwi, Prof. of Islamic Philosophy and Comparative Religions
and the head of Islamic Philosophy Department, Faculty of Dar Al-
`Ulûm, Cairo University. I thank them both for accepting to examine me
and discuss my thesis. This is really a great honor for me and my thesis.

Finally I would like express my love and appreciation to my family for


supporting all my endevours. To my grandfather and grandmother, my
father and my mother, my wife and my son, and my brother and my
sister.

Whatever was right in this thesis Allah made me write it. And If there is a
mistake or omission or forgetfulness, it is from me or from the Satan.
May Allah grant me success.
Abstract

Preface:
Almighty Allah created people and sent prophets and messengers to them in
order to teach them the religion and inform them about what Allah sent down of
revelation to them to follow. Allah decreed that scholars will be inheritors of the
prophets; they inherit their knowledge and call to Allah after their death. The prophet
Muhammad, peace be upon him, said: “Scholars are the inheritors of the prophets.
However, the prophets did not leave behind a dinar or dirham rather they left
knowledge to be inherited. So, whoever inherits this knowledge then he inherited a
very valuable thing.” 1 This is the why it is so important follow scholars and write
down whatever they dictate of knowledge they are versed in as well as spreading this
knowledge among people to achieve the maximum benefit. This thesis is meant to
study, verify, and translate the manuscript entitled “Guiding the Bewildered in
Deterring those who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and responding to the
Christians”, which was authored by sheikh Ad-Dirînî.

Available Copies of the Manuscript

The researcher obtained four copies of manuscripts of this book; two of them
from the Egyptian Book House, one from Al-Azhar Library, and one from the Central
Library of the Ministry of Endowments.
The importance of this manuscript lies on the following two aspects: First, The
importance of its author who was a good writer in many branches of knowledge, the
second is the importance of the subject of the manuscript which appears at the first
glance when one reads the title “Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring those who
Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and responding to the Christians”. In brief, the
manuscript is nothing but a live application of the ayah that reads: “Say: O People of
the Book, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we worship none
but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we take not, from among
ourselves, lords and patrons other than Allah. If then they turn away, then say, “Bear
witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].” “ 2

Reasons for Choosing this Topic


There is no doubt that studying and publishing the Islamic heritage constitute a
task that should be assumed and undertaken perfectly, as it adds to the Islamic library
what enriches it, including books and studies from which readers and those interested
1
It was narrated by Ibn Hibân in his book “Sahîh”, Vol. 1: 289, number 88, Published
by Dâr An-Nashr – Muasasat Ar-Risâlah, Beirut, Lebanon, second edition year 1993,
edited by Shu`ayb Al-Arna’ud. It was also narrated by At-Tirmizî in his book
“Sunan”, chapter on “Knowledge”, Vol. 5: 48, number 2686, published by Dâr Ihyâ’
At-Turâth Al-`Arabî, Lebanon, edited by Ahmad Mohammad Shâkr and others.
2
Surah Al `Imrân: 64
in researches can benefit. This manuscript which I shall work towards examining,
translating, and studying derives its significance from the fact that it is concerned with
important creed issues; such issues are dealt with by the author in a distinguished
manner while depending on argument and reason. As the author’s argument is directed
to certain people who might not acknowledge a lot of the established facts of the
Islamic Sharî`ah, it should be carefully studied and pondered on in order to reach the
desired objectives. Addressing those who deny the truth and do not listen to it, Allah,
Exalted be He, says, {Say (to them O Muhammad): "I exhort you on one (thing) only:
that you stand up for Allâh's sake in pairs and singly, and reflect (within yourselves
the life history of the Prophet): there is no madness in your companion (Muhammad),
he is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment}3. Thus, there should be serious
study in order to realize the truth. The manuscript was written by a scholar widely
known for his abundance of knowledge in more than one field of study in the Islamic
Sharî`ah; he, Sheikh Ad-Dirînî was an exegete of the Qur’ân, jurist, thinker, historian,
preacher, and a man of letters.4 He also Kalâm according to school of Ashâ`rih. 5

Statement of the Problem

This study shall deal with the chapters of the manuscript in details and with a lot
of explanation. The author of the manuscript focuses on discussing the claims of
Christians that they believe in monotheism while holding the belief in Trinity at the
same time. He also discusses other topics such as the deification of Jesus Christ, and
the issue of the Crucifixion. Such topics are evident from the manuscript title,
“Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring those who Argue as to the Proofs of
Monotheism and responding to the Christians”. Sheikh Ad-Dirînî ends the manuscript
by establishing the obligation of believing in the Prophethood of the Last of
Messengers, Muhammad (PBUH), and establishing as well the argument against Jews
and Christians.

Objectives of the Study

This study is meant to verify, translate and study the manuscript entitled Irshâd
Al-Hayârâ Fî Rad` Man Mârâ Fî Adillat At-Tawhîd Wâ Radd An-Nasârâ (“Guiding
the Bewildered in Deterring Those Who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and
Responding to the Christians”).

Research Hypotheses

3
Surah Saba’: 46
4
Kahâlah: Mu`jam Al-Mu’llifîn, published by Dâr Ihya’ At-Turâth Al-`Arabî, Beirut,
Lebanon, Vol.5: 421.
5
As-Subkî: Tabaqât Ash-Shâfi`iyyah Al-Kubrâ, edited by `Abd Al-Fatâh Mohammad
Al-Hilw and Mahmoud Mohammad At-Tanâhî, published by Dâr Ihyâ’ Al-Kutub Al-
`Arabiyah, Vol. 8: 199-208, number 1182.
1- It impossible to believe in trinity and monotheism at the
same time.
2- Believing in the Message of the Prophet Muhammad is one
the essentials of believing in the Message of Jesus.
3- The Christian belief has adopted some beliefs of polytheism.
4- Pure monotheism exists only in Islam.
Research Methodology

This study shall follow the analytical and comparative approach when dealing
with the chapters of this manuscript. It shall also attribute the claims of Christians to
those who believe in them from the Christian sects; besides, it shall verify the
responses to such claims from the Islamic perspective. The study shall also mention
what have been written by Muslim scholars or by the Christians about the chapters
dealt with in this study.

Literature Review

This manuscript has not been given due care and attention as it was published
two times as will be shown later, but not verified or edited according to the scientific
way. These two old published copies were therefore full of mistakes and contain no
introduction about the author or the subject of the book. This is what motivated the
researcher to verify, study and translate this book depending on four different
manuscripts of the same book.
The most related study to the present study is the one that Pro.
Muhammad Muhammad Hasanîn offered when he edited the book “ar-
rad `ala ansara” by Abû al-Baqâ’ Salih Ibn al-Hussein al-Ja`farî who died
in the seventh century after hijrah. This book “ar-rad `ala ansara” is a
summary of another book for the same author which called “takhjîl man
haraf al-Injîl”. The study of Prof. Muhammad dealt with the manuscripts
of the book, the author, the Islamic Christian debate and its
methodologies and finally offered the verified text of the book.
It is noted that the author of this book lived in the seventh century and he
was living in Egypt. Although we do not know much about him, but this
makes him a contemporary of sheikh `Abd al-`Azîz Ad-Dirînî.
One of the studies that the researcher reviewed is “Early Muslim polemic
against Christianity” Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq’s “Against the Incarnation”,
edited and translated by David Thomas. In this study, the editor wrote an
introduction that dealt with the following:
1- Christians and Muslims in the early Islamic society.
2- Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq and the study of religions.
3- The doctrine of Incarnation in the time of Abû `Isâ
4- Abû `Isâ’s refutation of the Incarnation.
Then he offered the text both in Arabic and English.
There was also another book called “Anti-Christian polemic in early
Islam” Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq’s “Against the Trinity” edited and
translated by David Thomas. In this book the editor wrote an
introduction that handled the following:
1- Early Islamic theological investigations.
2- Abû `Isâ’s life and thought.
3- Early Islamic refutations of Christianity.
4- The structure and contents of Abû `Isâ’s Radd `alâ al-
Nasârâ.
Furthermore, the researcher reviewed the book “Ma`a al-Jahiz fî
risâlitihî fî ar-Rad `alâ an-Nasârâ, commentaries on the treatise of al-Jahiz
that responds to the christians” by Prof. Ibrahîm `Awadh.
This study reviews the false allegations of Christians that was presented
and refuted by al-Jâhez in his treatise “ ar-Rad `ala an-Nasârâ “. It
discusses such allegations in detail while showing it history along ages as
well as refuting them through depending on the sayings of the Jews and
Christians themselves.
Also, there were some other studies that are not closely related to
the subject of this study but they are somehow deal with the
methodologies of the Muslim polemics against Christianity. One of these
is the book entitled “Uslûb al-Imâmîn al-Qutrubî wa al-Qarâfî fî da`wat
an-Nasârâ ela al-Islam, The methodologies of both Imâm al-Qurtubî and
Imâm al-Qarâfî in calling the Christians to Islam” a doctorate dissertation
submitted to the college al-Da`wah & Media, Islamic Unversity of Imâm
Muhammad Ibn Su`ûd, by Bayân Sâlih Hassan.
This study consists of seven chapters. The first chapter showed the
universality of the call of Islam and the duties of the callers to Islam. It
also reviews the Christian sects, the biographies of both Imâm al-Qurtubî
and Imâm al-Qarâfî as well as the sources of the study.
The second chapter deals with the political, social, and religious
environment as well as the religious combat between the Muslims and
Christians at the time of al-Qurtubî. It also shows the positive and
negative effects of such environment on the methodology of al-Qurtubî
in calling Christians.
The third chapter deals with the issue of using the textual and reasonable
proofs as well as the value of using different patterns of emotional
discourse used by al-Qurtubî in calling Christians to Islam.
The fourth chapter dealt with the political, social, and religious
environment as well as the religious combat between the Muslims and
Christians at the time of al-Qarâfî. It also shows the positive and negative
effects of such environment on the methodology of al-Qarâfî in calling
Christians.
The fifth chapter deals with the issue of using the textual and reasonable
proofs as well as the value of using different patterns of emotional
discourse used by al-Qarâfî in calling Christians to Islam.
The sixth chapter is a comparison between the characteristics of both the
methodologies of al-Qurtubî and al-Qarâfî in calling Christians to Islam.
The seventh chapter is an evaluation of both methodologies of al-Qurtubî
and al-Qarâfî.
Another study is “Juhûd `Ulamâ Al-Muslimîn Fî Ar-Rad `ala An-
Nasârâ khilâl Al-Qurûn Al-Sittah Al-Hijriyah Al-Ulâ, the efforts of the
Muslim scholars in responding to the Christians through the first six hijri
centuries” a doctorate dissertation submitted to the college of Da`wah and
Theology, University of Umm Al-Qurâ, by Badr Ibn Muhammad Tarâd
Al-Mi`îql.
This study consists of three chapters. the first chapter deals with the
efforts of Muslim scholars in responding to Christian creeds in the field
divine matters. It namely dealt with refuting trinity as well as the
Christian creeds that deal with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
The second chapter deals with the efforts of Muslim scholars in
responding to Christian creeds in the field of prophethood. In detail, it
deals with stating the Christian creed of Jesus and responding to it as well
as that of crucifixion and atonement and responding to them. It also states
the position of the Christians towards the prophethood of Muhammad and
responding to them in this respect as well as responding to the allegation
that Islam was widespread by swords and stating their creed about
paradise and its bless.
The third chapter shows the efforts of the Muslim scholars in critizing the
texts of the holy csriptures of the Christians.
It is worthy mentioning that there a doctorate dissertation - in faculty of
Usûl Ad-Dîn, Assuit, Al-Azhar University - by prof. `Ali Ramadân `Abd
Al-Majîd in which he verifed and studied part of the book of sheikh Ad-
Dirînî “At-Taysîr Fî `Ilm At-Tafsîr”, namely this part starts from the
interpretation of surah As-Sâfât till surah At-Tahrîm. Also there are five
dissertations submitted to the department of Tafsîr [Qura’ân
Interpretation] in the Islamic University in Medina studing and verifiying
“Al-Kifâyah Fî Tafsîr Al-Qur’ân by Imam Ad-Dirînî”.