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A model of a Serbian energy efficient house for decentralized electricity production

Goran Jovanovic, Dragoljub Zivkovic, Marko Mancic, Vladana Stankovic, Danica Stankovic, Velimir Stefanovi,
and Petar Mitkovic
Citation: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 5, 041810 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4812997
View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4812997
View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/4?ver=pdfcov
Published by the AIP Publishing

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JOURNAL OF RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 5, 041810 (2013)

A model of a Serbian energy efficient house


for decentralized electricity production
Goran Jovanovic,1 Dragoljub Zivkovic,2 Marko Mancic,2 Vladana Stankovic,1
Danica Stankovic,1 Velimir Stefanovic,2 and Petar Mitkovic1
1

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis,


Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis, Serbia
2
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Nis, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14,
18000 Nis, Serbia
(Received 31 January 2013; accepted 10 May 2013; published online 8 July 2013)

This paper presents architectural project and simulation of energy consumption and
production of a model of Energy Efficient House for Decentralized Energy (DE).
The house model is designed for the area of Serbia, based on the needs of an
average Serbian family. The model is designed to investigate opportunities for DE
of typical house geometry with advantages of passive solar architecture combined
with active solar systems and heat pump. Simulation of the model was performed
for the climate conditions for the city of Nis. Thermal load for designed net-zero
energy efficient home for a period of one year was simulated by means of TRNSYS
software. With respect to renewable energy sources in Serbia, production of
electrical, heating, and cooling energy by solar photovoltaic/thermal collectors,
heat pump, and heat storage is considered. The balance of simulated annual
electricity production and consumption show that the house model can produce
51% of its energy demands. Simulation results are used to determine pathways for
model modification towards more effective solar harvesting for electricity
C 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4812997]
production. V

I. INTRODUCTION

With the liberalized electricity market in Serbia and rising energy prices, decentralized
electricity production (DE) and renewable power generation are gaining interest.1 Evaluation of
advantages and disadvantages of mitigation to decentralized electricity production against the
general sustainability criteria indicates that DE can contribute to CO2 emission reduction and
lower consumption of primary energy carriers.2 Models and approaches for decentralized
energy planning can differ worldwide, since development strategies are area-based, shaped to
meet energy needs, and develop renewable energy potentials with least cost to the economy
and environment.3 Labels promoting higher energy performance standards in housing have been
promoted in many European countries as market mechanisms, while for less advanced countries
this can be an opportunity to learn and develop such labels to suit market demand and implementation of European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive recast.4 Application for
membership in European Union imposes the issue of compliance with European objectives in
the terms of energy efficiency, renewable energy and reduced CO2 emissions. About 70% of
population in Serbia lives in houses which participate with more than 50% in total electrical
energy consumption5 and 32% in consumption of final energy.6 This paper addresses these
issues by presenting a model of an energy efficient home and investigating possibilities of onsite electricity production using renewable energy sources in Serbian conditions. The share of
energy consumption of housing in Serbia is discussed in the paper, and some remarks regarding
available renewable energy sources (RES) for household applications are made.
The house model is planned and designed for typical needs of a Serbian family. The geometry of the model is typical and simple. The property of flexible space organization of the
design is new and innovative compared to conventional Serbian building structures. With the
1941-7012/2013/5(4)/041810/14/$30.00

5, 041810-1

C 2013 AIP Publishing LLC


V

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problems of poverty expressed, housing construction takes place in a very limited financial
framework often excluding application of advanced technologies.7 Care about energy efficiency
of the building is not a common practice during the design phase.8
The majority of building green house gas (GHG) emissions comes from fossil fuel energy
in several stages of the life cycle (LC). The embodied or embedded GHG emissions come from
processing of raw materials, manufacturing of products, transportation of materials and products
in the supply chain, and distribution system until it arrives at the jobsite.9 The impact of various
internal partitions on energy savings analyzed for a typical house in Serbia over a building LC,
including masonry, syporex, and glass wool partitions was analyzed in Ref. 10, but the wood
based construction was not considered in the study. Operating energy is the largest part of
energy demand of a building, and it is affected mostly by the number of occupants of the
dwelling and floor area.11 Throughout its LC, a solar house demands two times less operating
energy than a conventional one, but double amount of embodied energy than a building
designed using green materials, and the passive house raises embodied energy slightly compared to solar house but reduces operating energy three times compared to a conventional
house.12 The house model analyzed in the paper combines passive and active solar architecture
and proposes prefabricated wood-panel construction of the building envelope. The house design
adopts use of prefabricated wood construction elements aimed to lower the embedded construction energy and GHG emissions. Modular properties of the design frame make it suitable for
mass construction of residential energy efficient houses in Serbia offering the heritage of energy
saving criteria embedded in the model design.
For energy demands of the house model, mini hybrid trigeneration system was designed.
Photovoltaic (PV) technologies are recognized as one of the most suitable for decentralized
electricity production in urban areas.13,14 Adequate technical approach implies economical PV
production for maximum electricity generation by mounting the panels only on the south roof
surface of the house.14 Nevertheless, in this paper potential of electricity production using photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is estimated for panels mounted in South and East vertical
facades in addition to the South facing roof, to determine the potential DE of the given model.
Houses equipped with heat pumps as main source for heating are considered to have the lowest
energy consumption and the lowest energy intensity.15 Availability of acquired heating energy
is increased by a low temperature thermal storage tank, which is heated by a water-water heat
pump.
The aim of the paper is to research the potential for decentralized electricity production of
the flexible archetype house model using RES, determine the difference between energy
demand and energy production, and identify pathways for design modification towards zero
energy building design.5,1618 In order to explore the performance of the building design, a oneyear balance of locally produced and consumed energy is performed using TRNSYS software.
Solar and low temperature geothermal energies are chosen based on their availability and estimated potential. Possible electrical and heating energy production using RES is estimated with
respect to climate conditions data for the City of Nis.19
II. HOUSING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN SERBIA

There is a tendency of increased energy consumption in Serbia, while total dependency on


imported energy, mostly petroleum and its products, is around 40%.20 Housing industrys share
in energy consumption amounts to 48% of total consumption, 65% of which refers to energy
consumption in residential buildings ranging from 150 to 250 kWh/m2 on average. New Law on
Energy Efficiency is expected to be adopted in Serbia, while a Rulebook on Building Energy
Efficiency21 has already been adopted. According to the Rulebook, maximum allowed annual
energy consumption for heating a new one-apartment building is 65 kWh/m2 and 60 kWh/m2
for multiple-apartment buildings, which set high goals for applied energy efficiency in new
building design.
Data on heating residential areas in Serbia22 shows that 50% of energy for heating is
obtained from combustion of solid fuels, mainly forest biomass in local furnaces, i.e., in

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traditionally non-efficient way.20 District heating systems supply heat in 45 cities in Serbia,23
but this form of heating is used for only 14% of residential building stock. On the other side,
electrical energy, produced 72% in thermal power plants by coal combustion and 28% in hydro
power plants, participates in consumption of energy for heating with 14%.22 In the structure of
electricity consumption in an average Serbian household22 space heating together with sanitary
hot water heating accounts for more than 40%, indicating significant opportunities for energy
savings. Electrical energy consumption for heating in Serbian houses is larger than electrical
energy consumption for transportation, and in the last decade it has proved to be even larger
than the consumption in industry.22
In the case of residential construction2426 multiple-apartment buildings are prevailing.
There is a slight decrease in construction of new square meters which is the consequence of
reduced economic activity in the country. Apart from care and attention in designing new
energy efficient buildings, equal or even greater attention should be paid to reconstruction and
refurbishment of existing building stock for increasing their energy efficiency.
Structure of energy consumption for residential heating in Serbia presented here could be a
motivator and an opportunity for DE based on renewable energy resources. Estimated potentials
of RES are not negligible,22,23 but their use, despite the increase since 2004, is still at a low
level.20 Ministry of Natural Resources, Mining and Spatial Planning of the Republic of Serbia
has adopted an Energy Development Strategy for the period until 2015, which defines a program for the use of new renewable energy sources as third priority program, whereas the first
three priority programs represent the basic precondition for stable economic, energy efficient,
and environmentally friendly development of Serbia in the future.23
While renewable energy market in Serbia is still developing, it faces many non technical
barriers.27 Biomass has the highest estimated potential, compared to other renewable energy
sources, with its share of over 50% in total potential. For housing applications, biomass, geothermal energy, and solar energy may be widely applied, while the use of wind energy is justified only at specific locations.20 Although average solar radiation in Serbia is above European
average values28 and there are mature technologies for its conversion into electrical and heating
energy, the application of solar energy is at significantly low level.29 The probable cause of this
is the price of the investment, long project payback period and profitability.30 Geothermal
energy is mostly used for balneology, although geothermal flow is above European average
throughout the territory and electricity production is feasible on several locations.30,31
Temperatures of geothermal water can range between 40 and 60  C which is enough for direct
heating but are usually below 30  C implying the use of a heat pump.30
These indicators of energy consumption in housing industry in Serbia suggest great potential for saving energy through proper design of residential buildings. Implementation of DE
concepts should be based on RES utilization aimed to reduce energy consumption, consequently
leading to reduction of CO2 emission.
III. MODEL OF SERBIAN NET-ZERO ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME
A. Urban and architectural approach to building design

Architectural approach to building design is based on principles of energy efficient building


design.32 Accordingly, the form of the building is compact while its architecture is of simple
geometry. House has flexible organization, and it can satisfy the requirements of different family structures. A possibility for a family of several generations to live here was also considered;
for example, a family with two children and their grandparents or a family with four children.33
The space is developed in two levels, whereas living-room has the two-floor height. Thus, one
room is connected at all levels by rearrangement using light sliding partitions where necessary,
which enhances natural ventilation and cooling the house in summer period.34
House base dimensions are 8.20  8.20 m developed through four squares of dimensions
3.60  3.60 m. Fixed elements in the house are staircases and domestic facilities as well as the
canal for all necessary installations. House entrance is located in the same area. Other areas can
be arranged according to the owners requirements. Apart from communication-installation

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FIG. 1. The ground floor and the first floor of the base model.

area, two bedrooms are planned at the level of the attic. Operational infrastructure is placed in
the basement of the building (Fig. 1). The basement can be beneath the entire or a part of the
building. Based on this concept, alternative solution may be that ground floor has the floor area
of 51.0 m2 and attic of 33.18 m2.34 Form factor for freestanding building is 0.78(m1), for semidetached house it amounts 0.66(m1), and for terraced house 0.54(m1). Therefore, a good
form factor is obtained since this is a two-floor compact house, which is better than a singlestory house since its exterior building envelope is smaller per unit size of floor space.35
Large windows in the living-room allow penetration of daylight deep into interior building
space which enables passive solar gain. Sun protection in summer period is provided by external rolling brise soleils. Free surfaces on sunlit facades are planned for installation of solar PV/
T collectors. The roof is gabled, which enables for the entire southern roof surface to be used
for PV/T collector installation. Skylights are of the same dimensions as the panels so that they
can fit into collector grid. Regular arrangement of skylights enables maximum use of daylight
as well as transverse ventilation of the building (Fig. 2).
Form of the building enables different modalities of urban disposition, depending on the
requirements of location or the owner. This house can be freestanding, and with slight changes
it can become semi-detached or terraced house (Fig. 3).
B. Building structure

Thermal mass plays an important role in the design of energy efficient houses. The mass
allows for more heat to be captured, and the heat distribution is modulated allowing for less
temperature swings in the house. The optimal amount of thermal mass that is required will
depend on the amount of glazing that is used. A typical wood-framed house already has a certain amount of thermal mass associated with the construction materials, particularly, gypsum
board and ceramic tiles.35 Therefore, the first model house designed in masonry system with

FIG. 2. The North and the South facade and the West and the East facade of the base model.

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FIG. 3. The North-West side of the model object and the South-East side of the model object.

modular blocks and thermal isolation at least 20 cm of thickness for walls and 40 cm for the
roof34 altered in favour of timber structure made of prefabricated wood panels with the following characteristics:
Exterior walls consist external cover layer 0.7 cm thick (1) with a layer of stone wool as
thermal insulation 30 cm of thickness (2) and glued laminated timber 9.4 cm thick (3).36
Gabled roof with the following layers: Roof covering (1), back ventilated air layer vertical
4 cm (2), wind proofing 0.05 cm (3), insulation between webs 38 cm (4), air tight layer 0.01 cm
(5), and panel made of glued laminated timber d 14 cm (6).36 Ground floor cement screed
5 cm (1), PE soft foam seal joints 1 cm (2), EPS 22 cm (3), Bitumen-aluminium layer 0.4 cm
(4), reinforced concrete 25 cm (5), construction paper (6), drainage layer 15 cm (7), filter fabric
(8), and soil (9).36
Building energy gain can be obtained in several ways through regular arrangement of architectural elements. Primarily, this can be achieved through size and regular arrangement of skylights
which enable passive solar gain, greater amount of daylight, as well as transverse ventilation.35
Largest glass openings are orientated towards south, while small window is located on the north
side. Regular arrangement of facade and roof openings enables natural ventilation of the building.
Aluminium-wood windows with a thermal brake are planned, as there is no joint strain which
can occur due to expansion and shrinking, thus allowing air circulation without condensation corrosion. Window glazing is of low emissivity, three-layer glass with inter-sheet space filled with argon. Selected windows perform their function entirely in natural lighting, visual contact with the
environment, interior ventilation, thermal, sound, and weather protection.

IV. SIMULATION OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF THE HOUSE MODEL

Analysis of hourly annual thermal behaviour of the building model has been simulated
using TRNSYS 17 software. Building envelope was modelled as a massive layer, and the envelope
layers corresponded to the layers of presented constructions. The building was divided into
three zones: non-heated attic space, non-heated basement, and residential area. Energy balance
of heating and cooling loads was performed for the residential area, with defined interior temperature of 20  C.
Annual energy load simulation for the building was performed with time step of 1 h using
Energy Plus weather data19 for Nis, Serbia. Change of thermal loads of the model in heating
and cooling regime is presented in Fig. 4 where maximum heating load of 4.37 kW is two times
higher than maximum cooling load of 2.12 kW.
Electricity demand profile of a building depends on characteristics of its envelope, quality
of joinery, behaviour and habits of its residents, and also weather conditions throughout a
year.19 By using energy efficient household electric appliances and applying demand side management, annual electricity consumption in a household can be reduced by 50%.37 Larson
et al. developed an econometric model for estimating electricity consumption and found it bet D model,38 but the model is survey based. A model of household
ter than the engineering ERA
electricity consumption based on statistical data for a Serbian household has been developed by
Vojinovic et al.39 for use with multi-agent based simulator, but the model integration with the

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FIG. 4. Annual hourly thermal load change of the house model for the weather conditions in Nis: heating (blue) and cooling
(red) [kW].

chosen software was found impracticable. Interpretation of electricity use for a typical day of a
typical household using electrical consumption monitoring charts can be summed for all appliances determining daily consumption;37 however, the trend of change of consumption during
the year is neglected in this model.
In this paper, Jukka and Lund mathematical model40 was used to create hourly electricity
household load profile. The model results with a time dependant electricity load profile, as a
sum of the consumption cycle values of electricity loads of the given household appliance in
stand-by and in operating regime over a given time step. According to this model, parameters
of active and stand-by consumption of an appliance are linked to the annual consumption model
according to the following equation:40
Eyearly

nX
cycle
s _
E standby f
3600  24
E_ cycle;n tcycle
day
n1

365 daykWh
;
3:6  106 Ws

(1)

where Eyearly is the mean consumption (kWh), E_ standby is the electric load of an appliance in
stand-by, E_ cycle;n is electric load during a mean consumption cycle (W), t cycle is time step n duration of a mean consumption cycle (s), and ncycle is number of time steps of the mean consumption cycle. The difference in behaviour profile-electrical load on typical working day and
at weekend was considered negligible. Basic energy efficient rated appliances were included in
by the model: Television, electrical stove, Compact Disc player, personal computer, refrigerator
with freezer, microwave oven, washing machine, and dishwasher. Thermal gain from use of
these appliances was included in thermal balance of the building. Trend of change in daily electricity consumption due to climate changes throughout the year was synchronized with data
from41 by multiplying the time step value of electrical load by a monthly weight factor of the
corresponding time interval. Results of annual hourly electric load presented in Fig. 5(a) are
based on daily load profile change given in Fig. 5(b) and illustrate the stepwise trend of
change of the given electricity consumption model with respect to weather conditions, starting
from minimum loads in summer, to the maximum loads in winter. This reflects on monthly balance of total annual electricity consumption of home appliances of 1316.80 kWh, presented in
Fig. 6 which follows the same trend.
The results of simulation of electric load are lower than the results found in
literature3739,41 which is expected, since the proposed model considers use of energy efficient
household appliances and does not account for electricity used for space heating and sanitary
hot water heating.
V. SYNTHESIS AND SIMULATION OF TRIGENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE MODEL
ENERGY DEMANDS

Trigeneration system produces heating, electrical, and cooling energy for which nowadays
various technologies are available. Synthesis of the trigeneration system for the house model
was performed with respect to available RES, possibilities to exploit them, performance of specific components and possible energy flows in the system. Solar and geothermal energy are
selected as most adequate for the model.

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FIG. 5. (a) Annual change in electrical load profile for a time step of 1 h. (b) Daily changes of the electricity load profile
for the time step of 1 h.

Solar energy can be utilized by use of solar collectors for production of heating and electricity.
Obtained thermal energy can be used directly for heating water or cooling by heat powered cooling
systems, or for accumulating the energy by thermal storage.28,42,43 In this paper, the effect of trigeneration is achieved as follows: electrical and thermal energy are obtained by application of
hybrid solar PV/T collectors,44 and the water-water heat pump is used for additional heating and
cooling. Presented PV/T collectors are water cooled PV panels mounted on the absorber of a flat
plate solar collector. For utilization of low temperature energy sources, heat pumps which change
the temperature level of available heating energy by heat source and adsorption of vapour or gas
sorption can be used.41,42 Application of trigeneration systems based on use of PV/T collectors has
already been analyzed,45 in combination with absorption heat pump and supplementary water

FIG. 6. Monthly balance of electricity consumption for the household appliances.

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heater and concentrating PV/T collectors.46 The performance of PV/T solar collectors is further analyzed in Refs. 4548. Water temperature at hybrid PV/T collector outlet is usually not sufficient to
directly power the sorption chillers, thus imposing the need for additional heating. Higher price of
sorption cooling devices and the low cooling energy demand of the model give advantage to the
use of water-water heat pump.28 The proposed system concept reduces the local GHG emissions,
enables decentralized electricity production, and offers possible surplus electricity export to grid
and quiet operation while maintaining thermal conditions in the residential area of the building.
The model uses radiant floor heating and radiant ceiling panel cooling and heat pump. The
heat pump works at regime 40/30 C for heating, and 16/8 C for cooling, and uses underground
water with temperature of 14 C as a heating source. Thermal storage is 2.5 m high with the
volume of 1 m3, and it is modelled as a stratified storage tank with 10 nodal points and fixed
inlets and outlets. Simplified system scheme is presented in Fig. 7.
Solar PV/T collectors are integrated with the building thermal envelope and grouped into
three panels. Panels at southern and eastern vertical plane are 13.4 m2 in surface, while the total
dimensions of roof panels are 24.3 m2 with the slope of 45 . Simulated hourly electricity production presented in Fig. 8 illustrates a significant difference in obtained electrical power on
south roof collectors and facade vertical collectors during the year.

FIG. 7. Simplified scheme of the solar trigeneration plant designed to meet energy demands of the energy efficient house
model for decentralized electricity production.

FIG. 8. Electricity production by PV/T collectors [kW]: S_0_45, solar collectors facing South, collector slope 45 ; S_0_90,
solar collectors facing South, collector slope 90 ; E_270_90, solar collectors facing East, collector slope 90 .

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Total annual electricity production is 6143 kWh, where 4088.16 kWh is produced by the
roof collectors, 1367.43 kWh by the south facade collectors, and just 684.94 kWh by the east facade collectors. A monthly balance of electrical energy produced by selected surfaces of PV/T
collectors presented in Fig. 9 better illustrates annual electricity production, which is highest in
august.
Power of heat pump for heating and cooling is 8.3 kW and nominal electrical power
1.67 kW. The system is set to ensure the interior temperature of 20  C in heating season, and
maximum temperature in cooling season of 26  C. Simulated temperature in residential area
throughout a year is presented in Fig. 10 which shows that the designed system was able to
keep the temperature in the residential area in the given temperature range. Engaged power of
heat pump presented in Fig. 11(a) shows continual operation below nominal power of the heat
pump in heating and cooling season, with frequent change between these regimes during spring
and autumn transition periods. This heat pump operation regime change, which is a consequence of the assumed temperature control strategy of the simulation model, prevails in May
and September as presented in Fig. 11(b). The system operates using 3 supply pumps, with
350w of power each, and the greatest consumer is the heating/cooling system feed pump (P3)
as shown in Fig. 12.
As the temperature of hot water obtained from PV/T collectors is not sufficient for sanitary
hot water requirements throughout a year, their thermal performance is enhanced by typical flat
solar thermal collectors, with total surface of 4.8 m2, and by heat pump. The outlet temperature
of the PV/T collectors has a significant temperature drop in the winter, implying the use of ethylene glycol as a heat transport medium, and the simulated temperatures in the summertime
indicate a possibility of using the PV/T outlet as a heat source for the heat pump. Temperature
at the outlet of sanitary hot water tank illustrated in Fig. 13 is higher when heated by the solar
system than by heat supplied by additional heat source due to different control strategies of the
simulation model. Additional thermal energy necessary for heating sanitary hot water to the
given temperature is presented in Fig. 14 which indicates that the timeframe of additional heating corresponds to the heating season.

FIG. 9. Electricity production by month [kWh]: S_0_45, solar collectors facing South, collector slope 45 ; S_0_90, solar
collectors turned facing South, collector slope 90 ; E_270_90, solar collectors facing East, collector slope 90 .

FIG. 10. The temperature in the leaving area thermal zone, with the heat pump set for heating/cooling.

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FIG. 11. (a) Electric power of the heat pump in heating and cooling mode. (b) Monthly balance of electricity consumed by
the heat pump.

FIG. 12. Monthly electricity consumption of the supply pump groups.

FIG. 13. The temperature at the outlet of the sanitary hot water tank.

System of sanitary water is modelled to mix hot water with water from water supply network. The temperature of consumed water is set to 50  C and assumed average daily hot water
consumption is 200 l. Additional water heating using heat pump is regulated by a differential
controller with hysteresis set at 10  C, whereas upper temperature limit for solar heating is not
determined by the model as shown in Fig. 14.

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FIG. 14. Additional heating rate required by the sanitary hot water (SHW) tank.

Annual balance performed based on simulation data shows if the total produced electrical
energy is sufficient for meeting simulated demands of the household. Final annual balance of
electrical energy is presented in Fig. 15.
Fig. 15 shows that the largest electrical consumer of the analyzed model is the heat pump.
Total annual electricity production of the proposed model is 6143 kWh, 66.55% of which is
produced by roof panels, 22.26% is produced by the southern facade panels, and 11.15% by the
eastern facade panels. Average annual electricity production per square meter of PV/T collector
is 146.02 kWh for the roof panels, 102.17 kWh of the south facade panels, and 51.14 kWh for
the east facade panels. Total annual electricity consume of the model is estimated to
12077.05 kWh, where the heat pump consumes 6617.99 kWh for heating and 3837.90 kWh for
cooling. Hence, the house model produces around 51% of the energy it consumes.
The deficit of electricity consumed over the electricity produced by PV/T collectors implies
that the model should be modified, to increase electricity production. Increased electricity production using solar collectors can be achieved in two ways: by increasing the surface of installed collectors and by changing the slope of vertical collectors. Based on literature5 and simulation data, change of the slope angle of vertical collectors on the southern side is more
economical, while the installation of collectors on the eastern side is questioned due to their
low effectiveness with given slope and orientation and high investment costs.
Change of slope angle of PV/T collectors on the southern facade can be performed in two
ways: by changing the slope of the facade wall or by installing a structure to enable more
favourable slope of collectors on the southern sideor by combination of the two.
Furthermore, without considering solar tracking systems, change of house base geometry should

FIG. 15. Annual balance of electricity generated by solar collector planes and electricity consumed by consumer groups:
total E_270_90, electricity generated by the solar collectors turned to the east; total S_0_45, electricity generated by the
solar collectors placed on roof; total S_0_90, electricity generated by the solar collectors turned to the south; total pumps,
total electricity consumed by the trigeneration plant supply pump groups; total heat pump, electricity consumed by heat
pump; household electricity, total electricity consumption of the household appliances.

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also be considered, i.e., designing larger facade and roof surface orientated towards south for
installing solar collectors by defined principle and increasing south oriented roof area. Instead
of instalment of non-effective solar collector field on the vertical eastern facade, instalment of
PV collectors above parking space, or garage is suggested.
If we consider the purchase price of electrical energy produced by application of solar system in Serbia of e0.23 (Ref. 49) per delivered kWh, and low price of electrical energy per
kWh supplied by the national power company of 0.045-0.055 e/kWh on average, it is clear that
financial balance operative costs of suggested model is positive and provides possibility for
profit from the sale of produced electrical energy. However, detailed analysis of investment
costs5,35 and profitability of investment may alter this conclusion.
VI. CONCLUSION

Contemporary possibilities for utilization of RES enable great energy savings in construction while providing optimal conditions for healthy housing without greenhouse gas emission.
The changes in the RES market are very slow in Serbia. Rulebook for Building Energy
Efficiency and Procedures and Conditions for Determining Building Energy codes21 in Serbia
was adopted in September 2012, but it does not directly promote on-site energy production and
DE. Having in mind perennial economic crisis in the country, problem of saving and utilization
of RES is very serious, primarily due to the lack of funds for investments49 into systems that
would help solve this problem. Poorly designed and poorly constructed buildings can, along
with exploitation costs, surpass initial investment value.
Electricity consumption and potential energy production of an average building, as well as the
needs of an average Serbian family were considered in the paper. The chosen model achieves low
energy footprint by combining green construction, passive and active solar design principles.
The modular form of the proposed design offers energy saving principles and low embodied energy
for mass construction of new house stock. The modular form offers heritage of the energy efficiency principles embedded in the models design phase for use in mass construction.
Heating and cooling demand was met using the designed trigeneration system, but it meets
only 51% of the simulated electricity demand using the chosen PV/T collector fields. A square meter of a south oriented roof collector is three times more effective than that of an east facade collector and 50% more effective than that of south facade collector. Since the thermal loads are easily
met, the model should be modified to increase on-site electricity production. For the chosen model,
this is achieved by more effective solar energy harvesting, which represents an architectural design
challenge. The geometry of the house model should be shaped to increase south oriented roof area,
increased south facade area, and slope adjustment of the south facade solar collectors. Further
research and elaboration of the modified design are to prove these theories. Although the proposed
model may offer positive operative cost balance with the current feed-in tariff in Serbia, further
analysis of the initial investment is needed to prove profitability of the design.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This paper was performed within the research framework of research projects: TR 33015
Research and development of the first Serbian zero energy efficient house and III42006 Research
and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on
renewable energy resources; financed and supported by the Republic of Serbia Ministry for
Education, Science and Technological Development. We would like to thank the Ministry of
Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia for the financial support
for conducting the research.
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