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# Unit Concept or Theme: Matrices

Length of unit: 2 weeks
Stage 1 Desired Results
Meaning
Enduring Understandings/Generalizations:

Essential Questions:

## Matrices provide an organizational structure in

which to represent and solve complex problems.
The commutative property applies to matrix addition
but does not extend to matrix multiplication.
A zero matrix behaves in addition, subtraction, and
multiplication much like 0 in the real number
system.
An identity matrix behaves much like the number 1 in
the real number system.
The determinant of a matrix is nonzero if and only if
the matrix has an inverse.
2 X 2 matrices can be written as transformations of
the plane and can be interpreted as absolute value
of the determinant in terms of area.
Solving systems of linear equations can be
extended to matrices and the methods we use can
be justified.

## How can we represent data in matrix form?

How do we add and subtract matrices and when are
these operations defined?
How do we perform scalar multiplication on matrices?
How do we multiply matrices and when is this
operation defined?
How do the commutative, associative, and distributive
properties apply to matrices?
What is a zero matrix and how does it behave?
What is an identity matrix and how does it behave?
How do we find the determinant of a matrix and when
is it nonzero?
How do we find the inverse of a matrix and when does
a matrix not have an inverse defined?
How do we solve systems of equations using inverse
matrices?

## Knowledge & Skills Acquisition

Learning Goals: (e.g., Iowa/Common Core Standards.)
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM.C.6 Use matrices to represent and manipulate data.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM.C.7 Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM.C.8 Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM.C.9 Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a
commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSN-VM.C.10 Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar
to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative
inverse.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSA-REI.C.8 Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.
CCSS.Math.Content.HSA-REI.C.9 Find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations (using technology
for matrices of dimension 3 3 or greater).

## Students will know

Key Literary Concepts:

Determinant
Dimensions or Order of a Matrix
Identity Matrix
Inverse Matrices
Matrix
Scalar
Square Matrix
Zero Matrix
Row Matrix
Column Matrix
Principal Diagonal

## Identify dimensions of matrices and their respective behaviors.

Indicate element locations within a matrix.
Organize numerical data into matrix form.
Add, subtract and multiply matrices including 0 matrices.
Solve single and double variable matrix equations.
Find determinants of matrices.
Find inverses of matrices.
Solve system of equations using inverses.
Indicate how to use properties in matrices.
Represent data in matrix form.

Resources/Materials:

Smart board
Worksheets
Notes
Graphing calculators
Computer Lab
Textbook (Algebra2)

Print Materials:

Primary textbook used for resources for this unit is Prentice Hall Algebra 2.

Internet Resources(worksheets):

http://www.ixl.com/standards/common-core/math/high-school http://edhelper.com/Matrices7.htm
http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=19849 http://edhelper.com/Matrices6.htm
http://edhelper.com/Matrices1.htm http://edhelper.com/Matrices2.htm
Stage 2 Evidence of Learning (Assessment)
Types of assessment: Selected-Response (tests, quizzes); Personal Communication (interview, oral exam, discussion);
Written Response (short constructed response questions, entrance/exit slips, essays); Performance Assessment (role-play,
Simulation, labs, dramatization)
Pre-assessment:
Task: Determining matrix dimensions and indices of matrix locations: Have the students fill out an anticipation guide as an intro to matrices
involving these topics. For example, the determinant of
= 14. True or false. If False justify your answer. This will assess their
knowledge thus far and provide a starting point for instruction. Class discussion and notes will be given post anticipations to address the
upcoming unit.
One quiz will be given on week 1 day 5 to monitor student progress and adjust instruction accordingly.
Formative Assessment:
Throughout the unit there will be many opportunities for informal and formative assessment. Students typically have homework each night,
but at the end of class they are given time to work on their assignment so I can check to make sure they are understanding the concepts and

ideas of the days lesson before they are expected to go home and do the work themselves. The homework is graded for completion and then
the answers are reviewed so the students get the chance to ask about any concepts they are struggling with. Also, Two worksheets and a
group/individual activity where the students will explore a real world math problem that deals with matrices will be given. This will also be a
great way to assess their new knowledge.
Task: Adding and Subtracting Matrices: Lesson instruction on adding and subtracting matrices will be given. Students will then work together in
groups according to their level of learning to complete a worksheet as well as bookwork.
Task: Ye Olde-Fashioned Ice Cream Shoppe activity: At the start of class the students will be introduced as math consultants for an ice cream
shop that would like to determine where to buy the ingredients needed to make the products they prepare and sell in order to minimize
costs. We will go through a similar problem on the board together in order to help them establish the steps and process. They will then be
asked to explore the proper matrix set up according to the information given and input the corresponding values. Once the majority of
students have reached this point there will be a class discussion about their findings to ensure everyone is on the same page. This helps the
students who are struggling. Again they will be asked to explore the proper method of matrix operation and to solve for the best option for
minimizing cost. Some scalar multiplication will be necessary in order to complete the Activity. There will be an accommodation worksheet
for those who need extra assistance in setting up the matrices. After the activity is completed, we will discuss the findings and then complete
the activity together a second time using only matrix multiplication instead. Students will have the opportunity to make changes to the
assignment once it is handed back.
Task: Finding the determinant of matrices as well as the inverse of matrices: A research and explore matrix determinants lesson that engages the
students using the Paired Reading technique. As a class, we will then discuss matrix determinants and explain what they are used for and how
they can be used to find the inverse of a matrix. We will then use matrix determinants to solve for the inverse of matrices and finally solve for
matrix equations using the inverse of a matrix.
Summative Assessment:
Test over chapter 12 at the end of the unit. The students will have a self-reflection survey to fill out after the test. This test results as well as
the survey will give me an idea of where the students stand in their knowledge of the covered materials and what methods of teaching worked
best for each student. It will also tell me if there is anything I need to reteach or not.