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Caracter geografico-administrativo de los lugares

Places exist in geographical or place-scales (country, region, city, commune)

herefore it might be useful to examine place branding taking place-scales
under consideration. (Ashworth, Kavaratzis. 2009, p.7)
however, nation brands and region/city brands have different characteristics
and are affected by different factors that influence their evaluation. Countries
have more stable and enduring brand images, whereas cities are more
dependent on the trends of the market, and fulfil more self-expression needs
compared to countries. (Ashworth, Kavaratzis. 2009, p.7)
() place branding has transcended into a composite construct that not only








prospects. (Hanna y Rowley, 2007. p.64)

() have relative position and direction in terms of geography or other spatial
distributions. (Lucarelli, 2011. p.20)
The second perspective argues that what is branded or marketed is cities,
regions, and territories, in other words, administrative, governed, inhabited
territories of certain significance. (Lucarelli, 2011. p.20)

A major stream of publications has dealt with the issue of destination branding:
treating places as brands for their benefits to tourism development. (Ashworth,
Kavaratzis. 2009, p.2)
Decorously, the form of geographical entity does not limit the scope of
destination branding provided a direct association with tourism is established
(Hanna y Rowley, 2007. p.64)
The content analysis of paper titles and abstracts affirmed that the term
Destination is used predominantly in the tourism literature (). (Hanna y
Rowley, 2007. p.69)

A destination brand is probably best described as the essence of the

destination from the perspective of potential visitors. But it should also be
recognisable to residents. (Buncle, s.f. p.44)
it is the destinations brand essence that endows it with a unique identity which
differentiates it from everywhere else and thereby enables it to stand out from
its competitors in competing for the attention of potential visitors. (Buncle, s.f.

Place is a nation-state, a geopolitical physical space; a region or state; a
cultural, historical or ethic bounded location; a central city and its surrounding
populations; a market with various definable attributes; an industrys home
base and a clustering of like-industries and their supplier; a psychological
attribute of relations between people (Kotler et al, 2002. p.4).
marketing may assist in all aspects of urban development increasing the
places attractiveness not only for visitors but many more target groups and
place audiences, starting with its own residents. (Kavaratzis, 2008. p.162)
The fact is, however, that cities are not only tourism destinations, and focusing
the marketing effort on attracting visitors is not only dangerously limiting the
effectiveness of marketing but also the places character itself. By focusing
exclusively on marketing, the place for tourism, the form and, more
importantly, its spirit, acquire a meaning which is not necessarily the
aspirations of residents. (Kavaratzis, 2008. p.162)
Everything is done in the name of the inhabitants and it is their resources that
finance any place marketing programme. Local entrepreneurs and small
businesses should also be a vital concern, as in many cases they are the
economic engines of the place. (Kavaratzis, 2008. p.162)

Lugar como comunidad

The third urban perspective addresses the specific quintessential features or
qualities of cities as communities, be it the general social or cultural conditions
characterizing city life (socially and culturally), the particular characteristics of
metropolitan cities (in terms of diversity, connectedness, etc.) or categories of
cities with particular characteristics (such as creative cities, entrepreneurial
cities, design cities, etc.). (Lucarelli, 2011. p.21);
they can be imagined as articulated moments in networks of social relations
and understandments (Massey, 1993, p.66)
Cultural mapping - This way of thinking is partly about letting go of traditional
roles in order to utilize everyones collective knowledge about place. (Bianchini
y Ghilardi, 2007, p.282)
However, there is an increasing interest in exploring also the intangible, the
culture and the experience that a place can offer. (Hernndez y Lpez, 2011,
Traditional cultural forms provide the unique selling proposition for the
marketing of the city and these are frequently exploited. (Ooi y Strber, 2008,

the practice of place marketing has developed through discrete phases over
time; phases that differ in the general approach towards marketing as well as
their level of refinement.(Kavaratzis y Ashworth, 2008. p.154)
These can be grouped into three broadly delimited stages which have not
followed a strict timeline, nor have involved geographical distinctiveness. The
progress from one stage to the next was more a result of growing

understanding and experience of the application of marketing. (Kavaratzis y

Ashworth, 2008. p.154)
1. Place boosterism () reaction to the growing competition between
places occasioned by the nationalisation and globalisation of markets.

(Kavaratzis y Ashworth, 2008. p.5) There are four notable cases:

The necessity for agricultural colonisation in newly settled lands
the selling of the tourist resort, with the development of the first mass-

leisure societies
residential suburb which had to be invented and then sustained by the

selling the industrial place

2. Urban planning and management in the interwar period





4. Changes in the priorities and preoccupations of planning that made place
marketing seem desirable










entrepreneurial modes of urban governance, and place marketing has been a

defining feature of such urban entrepreneurialism. (Kavaratzis y Ashworth,
2008. p.157)
Place marketing started in the USA when immigrants were encouraged to move
from the East Coast and Europe to the West Coast by the promise of land.
British and French beach resorts were strongly advertized at the beginning of
the 1990s to attract tourists. Before sales marketing, place selling was the
prevailing way of promotion. Motives for place selling have been a lack of
workforce and capital, as well as industrial activities. (Rainistro, 2009. p.4)
()the marketing approach, i.e. the process or technique of promoting, selling,
distributing the city or parts of the city as products services (Kotler et al.,
1993). This

includes the practice of place marketing (Young et al., 2006), destination

(Saarinen, 2004), promoting cities (Wu, 2000), and urban marketing (Hubbard,
1996). (Lucarelli, 2011. p.21)
Place marketing means designing a place to satisfy the needs of its target
markets. It
succeeds when citizens and businesses are pleased with their community, and
expectations of visitors and investors are met (Kotler et al. 2002. p.183).
Indeed, place marketing in general can be thought of as a form of relation
between local authorities and local or wider audiences. (Ashworth y Kavaratzis,
2009. p.3.)
potential target markets, developing concrete strategies aiming at the
satisfaction of the potential target markets that desire to attract, and, finally,
presenting a specific methodology to measure the effectiveness of promotion
policies (Metaxas, 2010. p.230)
Rutas del marketing al branding
Country of origin
It concerns the usage of the place of origin in branding a product. Using the
qualities, images and, in most cases, stereotypes of the place and the people
living in that place to brand a product that is produced in that place is
considered an effective strategy. (Kavaratzis, 2004. p.332)
refers to the image of the country (or place) with which a product is associated
by sellers and/or buyers. (Papadopoulos, 2004. p.37)
The point of intersection between the traditional notion of PCI and the new area
of systematic place marketing can be expressed as follows: the latter depends

heavily on the images of places, which is the subject of study in the former;
and both are interested in how place images can be used in marketing the
places themselves and/or the products that are associated with them.
(Papadopoulos, 2004. p.37)
Place marketing as place management
not only recognises the existence of competition; it responds by discovering or
creating uniqueness in order to improve the competitive position of the place
marketed. (Kavaratzis y Ashworth, 2009. p.154)
place brands are most usefully viewed as metaphorical entities that are largely
mental representations which may be positively or negatively valenced. (Pryor
y Grossbart, 2007. p.4)
A brand is an impression perceived in a clients mind of a product or a service.
It is the sum of all tangible and intangible elements, which makes the selection
unique. (Rainistro, 2009. p.6)
Place branding is defined as 'the practice of applying brand strategy and other
marketing techniques and disciplines to the economic, political and cultural







journals.com/pb). (Ashworth, Kavaratzis. 2009, p.2)

A useful way to look at branding in general is to conceptualise it as managing
consumers' expectations. City branding in particular should be understood as a
process of generating expectations in actual and potential city users' minds
and ensuring that these expectations are met in the way people experience the
city. (Ashworth, Kavaratzis. 2009, p.9)
Branding deals specifically with such mental images. Place branding centres on
peoples perceptions and images and puts them at the heart of orchestrated

activities, designed to shape the place and its future. (Kavaratzis y Ashworth,
2005. p.507)
Of particular relevance to place branding in this vain is the conceptualisation of
the brand as something that consumers can have a relationship with.
(Ashworth, Kavaratzis. 2009, p.3)
() three different sorts of place branding () The first is geographical
nomenclature, the second product-place co-branding and the third branding as
place management. (Kavaratzis, 2005, p.334)
Place branding is the management of place image through strategic innovation
coordinated economic, commercial, social, cultural, and government policy.
Competitive identity (CI) is the term to describe the synthesis of brand
with public diplomacy and with trade, investments, tourism and export
(Simon Anholt, Competitive Identity, 2007 citado en Rainistro, 2009. p.7)

Tendencias en place branding

Place of Origin Branding
does not constitute a place branding strategy, in the sense that it cannot be
considered a place management strategy. (Kavaratzis, 2005, p.332)
Culture/Entertainment Branding
Examination of the effects of cultural and entertainment branding on the
physical, economic and (sometimes) social environment of cities. ()owes its










entertainment industries within the contemporary economy, as much for

tourists and other visitors, as for the local population. (Kavaratzis, 2005, p.233)

Both continue to advocate production of a core brand identity, strategically

managed by the firm. (Pyror y Grossbart, 2007. p.296)
with focus on the reception, use and consumption of the brand, as well as on
the interpretation and utilization of the branding process (Lucarelli y Berg,
2011. p.18)
The result is that places that seek to differentiate themselves end up creatying
a kind of serial replication of homogeneity (Harvey, 1993, p.8)
Brand building is primarily achieved through product development and
marketing, and has relatively little to do with branding (Anholt, 2010, p.10)
if a country is serious about enhancing its international image, it should
concentrate on the national equivalents of product development (Anholt,
2010, p.10)
Management in place marketing means effective use and coordination of place
marketing resources of a place to achieve the defined targets. (Rainistro, 2003.
Marca grfica
logo is referred to as the graphic design that, for instance, a destination uses,
with or without a destination name attached to it, to identify itself as a
producer of quality products or services. (Hem e Iversen, 2004, p. 87).

Logos contribute to identifying what the destination has to offer as a vacation

product but also to differentiate the destination from competitors. (Hem e
Iversen, 2004, p. 84).


Cultura popular
Two previously dominant but antagonistic ways of thinking about popular
culture. The first tradition viewed popular cultura as a culture imposed by the
capitalist culture industries (). This is popular culture as structure. The
second tradition saw popular culture as a culture spontaneously emerging from
below; an authentic folk, working-class or subculture (). This is popular
culture as agency. From the perspective of the cultural studies appropriation
() [is] a compromise equilibrium between the two; a contradictory mix of
forces. (Storey, 2003. p.4)
un accionar esttico vinculado a la cotidianidad. Lo anterior lo denominamos
manifestaciones informales del arte. (Silva, 1985, p.124)
() el arte informal urbano, al que estoy refirindome, tendra de especfico el
no ser mercanca ()ni tampoco est sujeta a algn propsito distinto al de ser
manifiesta presencia: sus expresiones estn ah, se realizan porque as tiene
que ser. Otra cosa es que al estudiarse e intentar sistematizarlas en alguna
direccin, se les pueda concebir
una coherencia y una sistematicidad () (Silva, 1985, p.126)
En las ciudades tercermundistas, quiz por sus "revolturas", por la
improvisacin diaria, por la ausencia de cdigos precisos y severos en la
organizacin de sus espacios y actividades, quiz por todo ello, creemos que se
pueda vivir ms cerca de la experiencia creativa en el quehacer cotidiano.
(Silva, 1985, p.140)
En nuestra reflexin lo esttico est vinculado a la manifestacin de mitologas
colectivas, una direccin utpica en la que, ciertamente, lo popular ha cobrado
gran presencia y que el preguntarnos las razones para tal evidencia creemos,

casi que elementalmente, que se deba al amplio espacio que domina en

nuestras ciudades el definido sector popular. (Silva, 1985, p.142)
() entiendo por imaginarios urbanos a la expresin de sentimientos colectivos
que producen asombro social en su percepcin desde una dimensin esttica
y, por tanto, percibir bajo un estado imaginario no es slo un ejercicio de la
cognicin sino de los sentires y los deseos (Silva, 2008, p.235)
In the absence of more personal contact (e.g., talking or touching), it is by
looking at people and places that people categorise them and thereby organise
their perceptions of the city (Wells, 2007, p.137)
Parte del concepto de s mismo del individuo deriva de su conocimiento sobre
su pertenencia a grupos sociales, y del valor del significado emocional que
acompaa esta pertenencia. (Tajfel, 1981 citado en David, 2009)
"La identidad depende de las dos fuentes: necesita tener algn tipo de
almacenamiento de experiencias y pensamientos habituales en la memoria (de
la persona), y necesita actualizarse en comportamientos y actividades sociales
(en la interaccin)." (Cte, 2006, p.9)
Social identity constitutes a foundation for a variety of social effects, from
humans ability to feel, act, and think as members of a social group to
intergroup behaviors
such as discrimination, confrontation, and cooperation (David, 2009, p. 355)
Concepto holstico que articula el ethos corporativo , las metas y los valores y
presenta un sentido de individualidad que puede ayudar a diferenciar la
organizacin dentro de su ambiente competitivo. (van Riel, Balmer. 1997)

Conjunto de atributos asumidos como propios. Lo que se es, lo que se quiere

que los dems crean que se es, lo que se debera ser, lo que se quiere que los
dems crean que se debera ser. (Chaves, 2005)
La identidad es el principal activo de las empresas y de las ciudades, ya que
reflejada en una marca, es el gran elemento diferenciador frente a los
competidores. (Tinto Arandes, 2008, p.100)
Place related
Identity, image and reputation, though often used interchangeably, are, in fact,
different constructs. (). A nations identity refers to the essentially irrational
psychological bond that binds fellow nationals together (Fan, 2010, p.100)
Image building is one step closer, but there still remains a critical missing link:
the brand identity. (Hem e Iversen, 2004, p.86)
What has been found is that, in general, cities are marketed as locations with
multiple attributes rather than as places with a fixed identity. (Erickson, 1997,
Identity is an elusive concept. It can be defined as the qualities which make an
individual, or place, capable of being specified or singled out, which make it
unique and separate. ()can also refer to perfect sameness between
individuals, to the state of being identical. (Erickson, 1997, p.2)

Local People was used as a factor not only to justify consumption,

but it was also used to differentiate positively and negatively distinct
offers in the market. (Freire, 2008, p.433)