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∗ Communication:
Communication is the ability to share information with people and to
understand what information others want to convey.
Communication skills can be of many forms, including:
• Gestures
• Facial expressions
• Signs
• Speech
• Written communication
• Vocalization

∗ Definitions of Communication:

 Burleson and Steiner:

The transmission of information ideas, emotions, skills etc by the use
of symbols, words, speeches, figures, graphs etc are called communication.

 Miller:
Communication means that information which is passed from one
place to another.

 Edward R.Murrow:
The newest computer can nearly compound at a speed the oldest
problem in relation between human beings and in the end the
communicator will be confronted with the old problem of what to say and
how to say.

 Weaver:
Communication is all of procedures from one place to another.

∗ Purpose and objectives of communication:

Purpose of communication depends on what your objective is for
There are different methods of communication.
 Effective communication in following situations:

i. Life long process:

Communication is the process which starts from birth to death that is
why it is called life long process.

ii. Multifaceted process:

The communication is an interactive process between sender and

iii. Problem solving and decision making:

Communication takes place for solving real life problems and it may
also be done for decision making.

∗ Importance of communication (life blood of


a. Communication is very important to for any organization because the

operations of the organization cannot be done without sharing the ideas
and information.
b. Communication starts from birth to death in an organization, it
continuously flows from the bosses to the workers and from workers to
c. Effective communication is the life blood of every organization and a key
to success in our business careers and our personal life.
d. The effective communication is vital inside the company because
employees can better be motivated and more efficient bite.
e. Outside the company, a communication to customers, prospective
customers, inquirers, suppliers and public and have far reaching effect on
the business and goodwill of the company.
f. A properly organized and arranged letter, telephone call or personal
conversation can went back any disgruntled and dissatisfied customer
and create goodwill for the company. Therefore the communication has
far reaching effect on business and the goodwill of the company.

∗ Communication Skills:
When a person communicates, he must have the following essential
communication skills.

i. He/she must be able to communicate effectively with all levels of

ii. He/she must have substantial experience, training in oral and written
communication and demonstrate good writing skills.
iii. He/she should be able to prepare special analysis, research reports
and proposals.
iv. He/she needs ability to compose effective correspondence.
v. He must have ability to communicate and sell ideas, firm and
vi. He/she must be able to cultivate and maintain good customer
vii. He/she needs skills in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data and
writing analytical reports.

∗ Formal and informal communication:

 Formal communication:
The formal communication is used when we are dealing with
serious business affairs or the language which is used while
communicating in business.
The following are the common situations in which formal
communication is required.
a. Job applications
b. Letters to public and utility companies
c. Business letters
d. Business reports and memos
e. Public discussions of serious issues
f. Formal reports
g. Oral and written reports
h. Class discussions
i. Discussion in conferences, seminars, assemblies and courts.
In formal communication, the usage of slang and informal
words and sentences are avoided.

 Informal communication:
Informal communication is used in private conversations and
personal letters or peer to peer communication. The informal
communication is avoided in the business, because it can effect the
reputation of the communicator for business.

The following is the list of formal and informal words.

-Manager, Director, Supervisor, -Boss

-A kind person, a helpful friend. -A great guy.
-Friend -Buddy, Pal
-Family -Folks
-Children -Kids
-Police officer -Cop
-Advertisement -Ads

∗ Factors, Elements and Process of


 Factors of Communication:
i. Sender
ii. Message
iii. Medium
iv. Receiver

 Process of Communication:

Thought Encoding Transmitter Noise and Barriers Receiver

Idea Received Decoding

i. Thought:
Any idea, information or material that the sender has thought
of to be shared with the receiver is called thought.

ii. Encoding:
The form of the information is called encoding, such as an idea,
advice, opinion, request, question, answer etc.

iii. Transmitter:
The medium of communication, such as letters, reports, sms,
facts, emails, charts, pictures or any other mechanical device is called

iv. Noise and Barriers:

The blockage in the flow of communication is called noise and

v. Receiver:
The person for whom the information is transmitted is called

vi. Decoding:
The way in which the receiver understands the information is
called decoding.

vii. Idea Received:

The information that has been learned by the receiver through
the message is called idea received.


∗ Planning steps for communication:

There are six planning steps before we transmit our message.

i. Know the purpose of the message.

This is the first step in the planning for communication in
which the communicator decides on what should be the purpose of the
message he is communicating.

ii. Visualize your render or listener.

This is the second planning step of communication in which the
communicator conceders his readers or audience and collects the
information about his audience likes and dislikes etc.

iii. Choose the ideas to transmit.

In this step of planning, the communicator considers the basic
idea which should be conveyed through the message.

iv. Get all the facts to backup these ideas.

In this part, the communicator collects all the facts and figures
relating to his message and what should be included in the message so
that the idea is effectively communicated.

v. Organize your ideas in the most effective order.

Once the ideas have been collected, they need to be organized
and arranged in such a manner that the communication becomes
almost perfect.

vi. Revise and proof read.

In this step, the communicator revises his message and facts.
And at the end, he proof reads it so that there is little margin of error.

∗ Business writing principals:

 9C’s of communication:
1. Correctness:
For correct communication, following points must be kept in
a. Use of correct level of language.
b. Include only accurate facts, words and figures.
c. Maintain acceptable writing mechanism.

2. Conciseness:
The communication must not be too long or lengthy. It should
be concise and accurate so that the reader may find it easy to
To achieve conciseness, following points may help.
a. Avoid hackneyed expressions and klatches.
b. Avoid unnecessary repetition and wordy expressions.
c. Include only relevant facts with courtesy.
d. Organize message logically and effectively.

3. Clarity:
Clarity demands that the business message should be correct,
concise, complete, concrete and with consideration.
To accomplish these objectives the following points can help.
a. Choose pithy, short, familiar and conversational words.
b. Prepare punctuations and make the writing clear.
c. Insert pictures, charts, graphs etc.
d. Make the message readable and understandable.

4. Completeness:
The message should be complete to bring the desirable results.
The following are the guidelines for completeness.
a. The message should answer all the questions in order they
were asked.
b. Give some additional information. Ensure to answer 5 W’s
(Who, When, What, Where, Why).
5. Concreteness:
The business writing should be specific, definite, unambiguous
and vivid rather than vague and general.
The following guidelines can accomplish concreteness.
a. Use of specific facts and figures.
b. Use action verbs.
c. The message should have vivid and image building words.

6. Consideration:
Consideration refers to your attitude, empathy, human touch
and understanding of human nature.
Consideration means the message with receiver in mind. It
means visualizing reader’s interest, desire, emotions, circumstances
and possible reactions.
The consideration can be achieved through the following.
a. Emphasize ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘We’.
b. Your message should convey the truth.
c. Stress the positive pleasant aspects of facts.
d. Offer a service of value to the reader.

7. Courtesy:
“Everyone gains where courtesy reigns” is a good old age
slogan for written and oral communication. Courtesy is more
important and advantageous in business writing than it is in the face
to face communication or conversation.
Courteous messages strengthen pleasant relations and make
new friends. It’s also a goodwill builder.
Courtesy may be achieved by the following.
a. Be truly tactful, thoughtful and appreciative.
b. Omit expressions that annoy distress or disparage.
c. Answer all your mail timely.
d. Grant and apologize kindly.

8. Confidence:
When the communicator communicates his information, he
must be confident in his message and also be confident for the positive
response from the receiver.
Following are the undesirable conditions that may occur if a
message lacks in confidence.
a. You may find yourself unable to write or speak.
b. You may not represent your case strongly.
c. You may throw a bad impression on others and as a back lash
it will damage the goodwill of the firm.

9. Conversational tone:
Your letter should read as if you were talking to the reader.
The tone should be comfortable, natural, conversational and
To accomplish conversational tone, following points will help.
a. Vary your words.
b. Use proper syntax.
c. Be straight forward.
d. Keep paragraph small.
e. Avoid vague writing.

∗ Seven principals to develop writing skills:

i. Learn grammar.
Knowledge of grammar is essential for writing, speaking,
understanding and listening. A business man therefore must have
good knowledge of grammar.

ii. Increase your word power.

If a businessman has greater vocabulary, than he is capable of
writing effective business communication.

iii. Develop reading habit.

Reading helps you in expanding your understanding and
knowledge, therefore it is considered as a very essential tool of

iv. You must have standard dictionary.

A businessman finds a modern mobile phone a very helpful
tool to increase his vocabulary.

v. Develop writing habit.

Regularly write diaries, notes, short stories, articles or
memorandums or constructive several sentences using a simple and
difficult word.

vi. Develop your imagination.

Without imagination, one cannot write, no matter how great
vocabulary he has.

vii. Improve your knowledge of subject:

If one lacks the knowledge of the subject, than you are unable
to write even a single line.


∗ Nature and kinds of communication:

 Internal communication:
Internal communication is done within an organization. It has
three types.
i. Horizontal or crosswise communication:
It is the communication that flows between personal in one
department and personal of equal lower status in other departments.

ii. Downward communication:

When communication flows from superiors to subordinates, it
is called downward communication.

iii. Upward communication:

When communication flows from subordinates to superiors, it
is referred to as upward communication.

 External communication:
The inter company communication is referred to as external
communication. This type of communication can be done for various
reasons, such as; with other companies, for one company’s product
marketing by the other company and the inter company joint venture.

 Basic organization plans:

Business letters, memos and reports can be arranged by the
direct or indirect approach. Letters and memos can be arranged in
following four basic organization plans.
Good news ----------------- Deductive
Direct request ------------- Deductive
Bad news ------------------- Inductive
Persuasive request ------- Inductive

i. Direct (deductive) approach:

Direct method is used when the message is favorable or
neutral. The goodness plans and direct request plans are achieved
through deductive method.

ii. Indirect (inductive) approach:

Indirect approach is used when the message is unfavorable
(negative) or when a persuasive request is made.

 Opening and closing:

The opening and closing are most important parts of the body
of a letter or any other message. They are discussed in detail below.

i. Opening:
Since first impression is the last impression, therefore the
opening of a business letter may determine weather the reader
continues reading or puts the message aside or discard it.
The paragraph should preferably:
a. Reader centered.
b. Make a favorable impression.
c. Orient the reader to the subject and purpose of the message.

ii. Closing:
The closing plays an important role in motivating reader to act
as desired provided it is appropriately written. We remember best
what we read last.
In closing, we want to bring the desired action, last impression
is pasting impression.


∗ Business letters:
A ------------- Attention
I ------------- Interest
D ------------- Desire
A ------------- Action

 Parts of business letters:

i. The heading:
It’s the name and address of the firm, sending the letter.

ii. Inside address:

Inside address mentions the name and address or designation
of the person, the letter is being sent to.
iii. Salutation:
Salutation is the start of the letter.

iv. Body:
The body includes the message you want to send.

v. Complimentary close:
It means the closing words that the writer of the letter uses for
the reader.

vi. Signature:
Signature is the part of business letter in which the writer of
the letter writes his name and his signature.

vii. Reference section:

Reference section includes the initials of the dictator of the
message and the typist it appears. Flash with the left margin or one or
two lines below the last line of the signature.

 Punctuation styles:
i. Open punctuation:
No punctuation is used after every line of the heading, inside,
address, salutation and complimentary close. This style is used with
full block and AMS simplified format. It may also be used in modified
block, hanging paragraph and personalized format e.g. Gentleman,
dear Mr. Imran, yours sincerely. Etc.

ii. Mixed punctuation:

A colon follows the salutation and a comma follows the
complementary close. Mixed punctuation is used in modified block
style e.g. dear Mr. Raja:, yours truly, etc.

 Kinds of letter format:

i. Block or full block format:
Here the date, inside address, salutation, paragraphs and
complementary close begin with flush with the left margin. In other
words no line will have any indentation.

ii. Modified block or semi block format:

This format has two versions.
a. Paragraph begins at the left margin without any indentation.
Date and complementary close appears at the centre or at the
right of the letter. Mixed punctuation is used but o[en
punctuation may also be used.
b. Paragraphs are indented; other things will remain same as

iii. AMS simplified format:

Administrative Management Society of US has suggested this
style. All lines begin with flush with the left margin. Here you limit
salutation and complementary close and it is modern and time saving
format. It uses a subject line in place of salutation. Name should be
used in the first line of first paragraph.

iv. Personal format:

It is a combination of block and AMS format.

v. Memo and memorandum:

These are used within the organization. A memo resembles
with AMS simplified format in that it doesn’t use salutation and
complementary close. It is the rapid and convenient mean of

vi. Hanging paragraph:

This format is only used in sales and advertising letters. All
lines of the letter body are indented except the first line of each

vii. Official letter format:

Public and government officials as well as business persons use
this style. It may be blocked or modified blocked. The inside address
appears some line block the last line of signature. This is main feature
of this format.

 Difference between letter and memo:

Letter Memo
1. It is formal communication in 1. It is informal communication in
writing writing
2. It must have heading with name 2. It may or may not include name
and address of company and address of the company as
3. It must have inside address heading
4. It includes salutation 3. Inside address is ignored
5. The body text of the letter starts 4. Salutation is not needed
with a formal sentence 5. The memo does not carry any
6. the body ends with a formal formal sentences as an opening. It
closing experience starts right away with the main
7. Complementary close is an idea
important part of the letter 6. No formal closing sentence is
8. Compound with the memo it required. It stops right at the
takes more time to write. completion of the idea
7. Complementary close is not
8. It is a time saving device

 Kinds of letters:
i. Announcement letters (sales, sales promotions, circulars):
These letters are written to make some announcements which
may be good or bad. These letters may be written to an individual or
for a group. These letters are also called circulars.
The contents of announcements may be; increase in salaries,
sales and events, procedures, policies, responsibilities, promotion,
shifting, prizes, honors, activities of people, ambition or retirement,
obituary, celebration etc.

ii. Transmittal letters:

These are the letters with which something is transmitted like a
cheque, document, form, passbook, booklet, map or report to a
customer or a business.

iii. Adjustment letters:

An adjustment letter is prepared to reply a complaint, request
or claim letter.
Adjustments may be in the following forms or situations.
a. Granting claims
b. Seller is at fault
c. The buyer is at fault
d. When the fault is not yet determined and will be adjusted
e. Granting request such as approved credit’
f. Refusing request
iv. Job letters:
A job letter is a sort of sales letter or sales promotion letter
where the candidate or applicant is like a product. It is used by a
candidate to offer his services to the prospective employer. A job
letter may be solicited (invited) or unsolicited (uninvited)
a. Solicited:
It is a job letter which is written in response to an
advertisement or call from employer.

b. Unsolicited:
This job letter is written without any invitation or
advertisement by the employer or offering services.

v. Direct requests:
a. Claim or complaint:
When the goods or services received are not according to
the contract of sales or when the payment is not received in time,
complaint or the part of aggrieved party arises.

b. Enquiry letters:
Those letters which are written to enquire some
information about the firm, person, goods or services. The inquiry
letters may be divided into three categories.
i. Inquiry above the product
ii. Inquiry above the candidates
iii. Status inquiry

∗ Job Letters:
 Definition:
A job letter is a kind of sales letter or sales promotion letter in
which the seller (applicant) offers him self as a product (candidate).

 Sources of careers and jobs:

Following are the important sources for careers and jobs
available for candidates.
i. Business in the field of your choice
ii. Chambers of commerce
iii. Persons in the employee of firms
iv. Business schools and universities and their placement
v. General and professional colleges
vi. Employment agencies such as internet websites
vii. Foreign employment offices and agencies
viii. Friends and relatives
ix. Personal departments of companies
x. Professors and instructors
xi. Company notice boards
xii. Advertisements

 Self audit and product analysis:

Before you apply for a job for a job, it’s necessary that you
conduct an analysis of yourself. Auditing refers to better
understanding yourself and rating your abilities, weaknesses, strands,
wants and aspirations. Self audit helps you review your own
Evaluation of your qualities in three categories:
a. Physical traits
b. Intelligence traits
c. Personality traits

 The job audit:

You not only require knowing yourself but also you need to
know the requirements and suitability of the job. The job audit can be
conducted by evaluating job description and job specification. This
job analysis includes the location of the job, its duties, the equipment
used, working conditions, pay, opportunities for promotion and a
training offer.

 Quality and traits of candidates:

1) Prepare attitude toward employment:
The attitude of the candidate should show willingness to work
and learn interest in the choice interest in the company and
reasonable attitude towards the salary.

2) Willingness to work and learn:

The candidate should be willing to perform routine and non
routine type of work.

3) Interest in the field:

People like to work only in the field of their interest such as it’s
you who decide the type of work you are best fitted for.

4) Intersession the company:

You should perform your duties as you are carrying your own

5) Reasonable attitude toward the salary:

You should emphasize a challenging opportunity rather than a
large begging salary.
6) Integrity and sincerity:
The qualities of integrity and sincerity are vital for employers
who cannot accept deceptive person.

7) Self confidence and determination:

You must show self confidence and be determinative while
performing your duties.

8) Appearance:
The appearance of candidate is shown by the dress, grooming

9) Manner:
Manner includes poise, self confidence and exclusive stature.

10) Voice and expressions:

Quality of the voice and expressions impress the interviewer.

11) Organization:
That comprises ability to present the case logically and get to
the point quickly.
12) Experience:
Experience includes Attitude, kind of work, skill, interest,
ability, leadership and accomplishment.

13) Response and reactions:

Interviewer judges those qualities by your alertness and
quickness of response.

14) Forces and drives:

It is the ability to stimulate others and includes self assurance.

15) Intelligence:
The interviewer determines weather you have reasoning and
problems solving abilities, smartness, kindness and ability to

16) Sensitivity:
It refers to social analysis and good with people attitude.

17) Balance:
Balance makes you versatile, flexible, and well-rounded and a
man with verity of experience and interest.

18) Communication skills:

You should be articulate, persuasive and able to establish
report with others.

19) Initiative:
You should self started high achiever and be able to motivate

 Characteristics of job letters:

Following are the characteristics of a good job application in
addition to 9c’s of communication. a job letter should have the
i. Present the message concisely, clearly, honestly and with
ii. Give specific and pertinent information relative to the
position sought
iii. Be yourself and don’t use copied messages
iv. Use an appropriate business like approach
v. Triple check for accuracy of mechanics, grammar, sentences,
punctuation, paragraph, structure, organization and spelling
vi. Make appearance of the letter attractive
vii. Personalize your presentation. You should tailor the message
or resume for specific job
viii. Use good judgment in mailing the message

 Checklist for application letter:

a. Attention:
i. Business like opening, it can be accomplished by the following.
• Summary- of two or three outstanding qualifications
• Name of an individual or office, the reader is familiar
• Question for reader benefit
• Use item related to employer
• Other relevant reader oriented statement

ii. Mention of specific job or field of interest.

b. Interest, desire, conviction:

i. Discussion of your qualification from a reader benefit or
reader interest, view point. Include your,
• Education and training
• Work experience
• Significant personal attitude, interest, qualities etc.

ii. Reference to resume

c. Action:
i. Request for interview

ii. Easy action, it can be accomplished by the following.

• Phone number
• Hours you can be contracted
• Reply envelop or card enclosed

 Resume/CV:
It refers to the bio data of the candidate. Modern business
correspondence have only a few and most important information
inserted in the job letter and the detailed information above experience,
education, references, achievements and other personal data are written
in a separate sheet of paper bearing the heading resume, bio data or
curriculum vitae. This sheet of bio data is attached to the job letter. It
has become a vital add to the reader for understanding and quick grasp
of your bio data.

o Checklist of a resume:
i. Personal information:
• Name, address, phone number, age, domicile, date of
birth, height, weight, identification sign, marital
status, hobbies.

ii. Objective:
• Main purpose for working in the applied organization

iii. Education:
• School leaving certificate; division/grade, year, place
• Higher secondary education; division/grade, year,
• Graduation; division, year, place
• Post graduate; division/grade, year, place
• Diploma; year, place, institute
• Major courses; place, institute

iv. Work experience:

• Previous employer; address, business, duration,
designation, job description
• Present employer; duties, title, position hold
• Work specialization; research tutoring and
v. Achievements:
• Prizes won, honors achieved, scholarships earned,
outstanding position held, publications made, teams
led, fields performed, social work undertaking etc

vi. Languages:
• Speak, read, learn

vii. Reference:
• Name and address of first reference
• Name and address of second reference