You are on page 1of 27

➢ AIR COMPRESSOR COMMISIONING ACTIVITY

• ATLAS COPCO GA90AWP

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------

➢ Open the Air compressor unit side door.


➢ Cleaning inside parts of air compressor unit by air.
➢ Removing spacer of air compressor unit.
➢ Check mechanical & electrical joints its found o.k.
➢ Energized power supply to air compressor penal & check the
phase sequence. It’s found o.k.
➢ Check oil level in oil level glass at air receiver. ( oil separator )
➢ Check the PLC & all parameter setting by M/S power
enterprise person.
➢ Check suction filter condition its found o.k.
➢ Check the motor direction its found o.k.
➢ Start the air compressor and gives to air supply to wet air
receiver & instrument air receiver through air dryer.
➢ Check the air dryer but not working properly. (Tower no-1 not
working.)
➢ Air leakage found in air discharge line so attained it.
➢ During operation note down parameter are as below.
1. Oil level – high.
2. Compressor out let – 7.5 bar.
3. Differential pr.oil separator— 0.2 bar
4. Element temperature—72 C deg.
5. Ambiant air temp. —31 C deg.
6. Loading ampere – R-167 Y-166 B- 167.
7. Unloading ampere - R-58 Y-53 B- 55

[Type text]
AIR COMPRESSOR COMMISIONING ACTIVITY

• ATLAS COPCO GA 132 AWP

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------

➢ Open the Air compressor unit side door.


➢ Cleaning inside parts of air compressor unit by air.
➢ Removing spacer of air compressor unit.
➢ Check mechanical & electrical joints its found o.k.
➢ Energized power supply to air compressor penal & check the
phase sequence. It’s found o.k.
➢ Charge the oil (Roto inject) 65 liters in air receiver (oil
separator).
➢ 10 liters oil charged in compressor for screw lubrication.
➢ Check oil level in oil level glass at air receiver. ( oil separator )
➢ Check the PLC & all parameter setting by M/S power
enterprise engineer.
➢ Check suction filter condition its found o.k.
➢ Check the motor direction its found o.k.
➢ Air leakage found in air discharge line valve gasket so attained
it.
➢ Air compressor air out line pressure transmitter shown error up
to 0.8 bars at zero discharge.
➢ Air compressor air out line pressure transmitter replaced by
M/S power enterprise engineer.
➢ Start the air compressor and gives to air supply to wet air
receiver & instrument air receiver.
➢ During operation note down parameter are as below.
1. Oil level – high.
2. Compressor out let – 8.5 bar.
3. Differential pr.oil separator— 0.16 bar
4. Differential pr .air filter - -0.06 bar

[Type text]
5. Oil injection element temperature -5.8 bar
6. Compressor outlet temp. – 31 C deg

7. Element outlet temperature — 78 C deg.


8. Cooling medium - 31 C deg
9. Oil separator temp. – 64.3 C deg.
10.Compressor full load ampere.
a. Loading ampere – R-262 Y-264 B- 263.
1. Unloading ampere - R-113 Y-113 B-109
2. Oil cooler fan ampere. R-5.33 Y-5.29 B-5.39
3. Air cooler fan ampere. R-5.5 Y-5.6 B-5.5

PSA NITROGEN PLANT COMMISSIONIG ACTIVITY

• Given the air supply from wet air receiver 6 kg/cm2.


• Clean the DDX & PDX air filter.
• Air flush out from carbon filter.
• Given the power supply to N2 plant panel.
• Check SOV function by air but SOV no 2&3 not operate. so
check air supply but air supply not found.
• Air supply line found chock. So De-chock it.
• ‘ON’ the panel &start the psa N2 plant.
• Observed the parameters.
➢ AIR INLET -6.3 Kg/cm2
➢ Column(tower) no 1- 6.2 Kg/cm2
➢ Column(tower) no 2- 0.0 Kg/cm2
➢ Oxygen % - 0.5 to 0.2
➢ Nitrogen flow - 150 Nm3/hr

SOV Function:- 1---4---6.

2---3---7.

SOV NO 5 & 8 is for equalization.

[Type text]
➢ AFTER 2 HOURS :-
➢ Open the air dryer &PSA tower for checked tower
condition.
➢ PSA tower level found. CMS is low. So make up the level
with charging 3kg. (approx in both plant)
➢ Check the AOD tower condition.
➢ In AOD tower activate alumina level found o.k. but PSA
N2 plant no 1 AOD tower no 1 activate alumina level is
approx 1Ft.down in tower.
➢ PSA N2 plants no 2- after charging the CMS BED &
COCONUT MESS taken the parameters & Take online.
➢ PSA N2 plant no 1 is under commissioning work
pending due to ACTIVATE ALUMINA &COCONUTMESS.
➢ PSA N2 Plant no 1 in tower no1 adds the coconut mess
and refitted same. And taken the trial approx 1 hour.
but it plant throw out the white powder from silencer.
➢ So open the PSA N2 Plant no 1 in tower no1 and remove
all the coconut mess &activate alumina.
➢ Remove the powder from activate alumina & coconut
mess.
➢ Recharge the activate alumina that time found level
very down so temporary charge the coconut mess.
➢ PARAMETERS OF PSA N2 PLANT NO2:
➢ Wet air receiver pr. – 6.5 Kg/cm2
➢ Cms tower inlet pr. – 5.0 Kg/cm2
➢ Surge vessel pr. – 4.3 Kg/cm2
➢ N2 flow -- 165 Nm3/hr
➢ Oxygen % -- between 0.5 to 0.2 ppm
➢ N2 receiver pr. -- 3.8 Kg/cm2

[Type text]
TRANE COMPRESSOR COMMISSIONING ACTIVITY

➢ Check the chiller and condenser water circulation.


➢ Check the electrical and mechanical connection. It found
tight.
➢ Remove the compressor base spacer.
➢ Main supply ‘ON’ and check the phase sequence It found
forward. (L1L2L3)
➢ Main supply ‘OFF’ and given the temporary 2 phase power
for oil heater.
➢ Done the 24 hrs. Oil heating.
➢ After oil heating removed the 2 phase connection and given
the main power supply for PLC.
➢ Check the all parameters from electrical side in PLC by party
person.
➢ Set the chiller and condenser water flow as per requirement.
➢ CHILLER SIDE :- 73.24 M3/Hr.
➢ CONDENSOR SIDE :-76.50 M3/Hr.
• Start the compressor and taken the parameters of
EG-464
• Condenser Inlet Pres.-1.8 Kg/cm2
• Outlet Pres.-0.8 Kg/cm2
• Condenser Inlet Temp.-82 F*
• Outlet Temp.-87*F
• Chiller inlet pres.-1.7 Kg/cm2
• Outlet pres.-0.7Kg/cm2
• Chiller inlet Temp.-81*F
• Outlet Temp.-74*F
• Suction press.-37 psig
• Discharge press.-104 psig
• Oil press.(compressor).-99.8 psig
• Approach Temp.-3.3 *F
[Type text]
• Expansion valve position steps.- 3182
• Expansion valve open percentage.-75%
• Evaporator refrigerant liquid level.- 0.01 inch.
• Ampere.-R -- 147, Y – 149, B – 148.6

TRANE COMPRESSOR COMMISSIONING ACTIVITY

➢ Check the chiller and condenser water circulation.


➢ The electrical and mechanical connection. It found tight.
➢ Remove the compressor base spacer.
➢ Main supply ‘ON’ and check the phase sequence It found
forward. (L1L2L3)
➢ Main supply ‘OFF’ and given the temporary 2 phase power
for oil heater.
➢ Done the 24 hrs. Oil heating.
➢ After oil heating removed the 2 phase connection and given
the main power supply for PLC.
➢ Check the all parameters from electrical side in PLC by party
person.
➢ Set the chiller and condenser water flow as per requirement.
➢ CHILLER SIDE :- 73.24 M3/Hr.
➢ CONDENSOR SIDE :-76.50 M3/Hr.
• Start the compressor and taken the parameters of EG
-465
• Condenser Inlet Pres.-1.8 Kg/cm2
• Outlet Pres.-0.8 Kg/cm2
• Condenser Inlet Temp.-78 F*
• Outlet Temp.-84*F
• Chiller inlet pres.-1.3 K m2g/cm2
• Outlet pres.-0.7Kg/cm2
• Chiller inlet Temp.-74.7*F
• Outlet Temp.-65.9*F
• Suction press.-33 psig
[Type text]
• Discharge press.-102 psig
• Oil press.(compressor).-92 psig
• Approach Temp.-3.3 *F
• Expansion valve position steps.- 2110
• Expansion valve open percentage.-62%
• Evaporator refrigerant liquid level.- 0.01 inch.
• Ampere.-R -- 129, Y – 132, B – 130

TRANE COMPRESSOR RECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITY


➢ COMPREESOR NO: - EG 463
➢ Evaporator bottom side (gas pump) copper line damage at
the time of compressor package shifting work.
➢ Copper line leakage attend by brazing work( new 1/4”
copper elbow & connector replaced)
➢ Charge the nitrogen gas in refrigerant system side up to 150
psig.
➢ Taken the leakage testing of the whole system it found o.k.
➢ Hold up the N2 pr. 24 hours found o.k. then release the N2
pr. from the system.
➢ Done the vacuumissing the system up to 1000 micron. it
hold up 12 hours.
➢ Check the chiller and condenser water circulation
➢ The electrical and mechanical connection. It found tight.
➢ Remove the compressor base spacer.
➢ Main supply ‘ON’ and check the phase sequence It found
forward. (L1L2L3)
➢ Main supply ‘OFF’ and given the temporary 2 phase power
for oil heater.
➢ Done the 12 hrs. Oil heating.
➢ After oil heating removed the 2 phase connection and given
the main power supply for PLC.
➢ Charge the R-134a refrigerant gas in system approx 182 kg.
➢ Check the all parameters from electrical side in PLC by party
person.

[Type text]
➢ Set the chiller and condenser water flow as per requirement.
➢ CHILLER SIDE :- 73.24 M3/Hr.
➢ CONDENSOR SIDE :-76.50 M3/Hr.
• Start the compressor and taken the parameters of EG
-463
• Condenser Inlet Pres.-1. 5Kg/cm2
• Outlet Pres.-0.8 Kg/cm2
• Condenser Inlet Temp.-78 F*
• Outlet Temp.-84*F
• Chiller inlet pres.-1.35 Kg/cm2
• Outlet pres.-0.75Kg/cm2
• Chiller inlet Temp.-65*F
• Outlet Temp.-58*F
• Suction press.-30 psig
• Discharge press.-99 psig
• Oil press.(compressor).-87 psig
• Approach Temp.-2.6 *F
• Expansion valve position steps.- 1710
• Expansion valve open percentage.-55%
• Evaporator refrigerant liquid level.- 0.01 inch.
• Ampere.-R -- 120, Y – 121, B – 120

UTILITY COOLING TOWER RECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITY

 Cleaning both the sump.


 Cleaning the top side of cooling tower and fill-up the fresh water inside.
 Fitted the s.s.mess strainer in cooling tower inlet/outlet line of all the
chiller plant.
 Check the pump suction strainer (clean).
 Check the oil level of cooling tower fan(o.k.)
 Check the pump rotation manually. It's found jammed. So, make it
free.
 Pump no:- 472-B is heavily jammed. So, dismantle the pump &
cleaning all the internal parts & refitted the same.
 Fitted the send filter top cover.

[Type text]
 start the electrical supply 'ON'. Check the pump direction. It's found
o.k.
 Start the pumps and water circulation in all the chiller plant's
condenser and oil cooler.
TAKEN THE PARAMRTES OF PUMPS

➢ Pump no:- 472-A


Discharge press.:- 2.0 Kg/cm2
Ampere :- R-47, Y-48, B-47.8

➢ Pump no :-472-B
Discharge press.:- 2.2 Kg/cm2
Ampere :- R-48, Y-49, B-51

➢ Pump no:-472-C
Discharge press.:- 2.2 Kg/cm2
Ampere :- R-49, Y-48, B-48.7

➢ Pump no:-472-D
Discharge press.:- 2.1 Kg/cm2
Ampere: - R-52, Y-51, B-50

• 24 Hrs. of pump no 472-B-C-D. Noise coming from motor fan drive end.
So, pump and motor de-couple for check it and take it under
maintenance
(12) Given the water sup(11) Running approx ply to send filter but at
2.5 Kg/cm2 sand filter top cover gasket leakage. So, attend it.
(13) Check the fan gear box oil level it's found o.k.
Start the fan and check the direction.
Check the Ampere of both the fans:- R- 19/18.2, Y-18/19.2, B-19.8/18.8

UTILITY COOLING TOWER CHEMICAL TREATMENT

➢ Fresh water circulation up to 2 Hrs.


➢ Chemical charging - VOD-10 -- 2 Kg. and circulation in header for 24
Hrs.
➢ Given the blow-down of C.T. water up to 25%
➢ Charge BIONIL-4020 -- 2 Kg. & circulatation water 2 to 3 Hrs.
➢ After circulation charge the BIONIL-D-610 --7.2 Kg. and circulation for
24 Hrs.
➢ Heavy blow-down of C.T. water up to 25% to 30%
➢ Charge the VASU-1001 --2 Kg. and SCASIL-70 -- 20 Kg. and circulate
water 2 to 3 Hrs.

[Type text]
➢ Charge the H2SO4 -- 80 Kg. and Ph maintain 6. Then water circulation
up to 24 Hrs.
➢ Given the Heavy blow-down up to 40% to 45% and Ph maintain 7 (add
new fresh water)
➢ after maintain Ph 7 -- Passivation dosing start on 24-02-2010 to 27-02-
2010
1. SCACIL -D-2012-- 4.0 Kg. ( Both the sump) and
2. SCACIL-D-16--2.4 Kg. (Both the sump).

REGULAR DOSING OF CHEMICAL AS PER BELOW

➢ Scasil-D-2012 --1.36 Kg/day


➢ Scasil-D-16--0.8 Kg/day
➢ Bionil-D-4020--0.4 Kg/week
➢ Bionil-D-610--7.6 Kg/week
➢ Bionil-50-- 7.6 Kg/week
➢ Chemical no- 4 and no-5 are using on alternate basis.
➢ During the chemical treatment given the cooling tower blow-down and
use the send filter. Given a backwash once in a day for approx 15
minutes.

Chiller Refrigeration Tons


A chiller refrigeration ton is defined as:
1 refrigeration ton = 12,000 Btu/h = 3,025.9 k Calories/h
A ton is the amount of heat removed by an air conditioning system that would melt 1 ton of ice in 24 hours.

Cooling Tower Tons


A cooling tower ton is defined as:
1 cooling tower ton = 15,000 Btu/h = 3,782 k Calories/h

Heat Load and Water Flow


A water systems heat load in Btu/h can be simplified to:
h = cp ρ q dt
= (1 Btu/lbm oF) (8.33 lbm/gal) q (60 min/h) dt
= 500 q dt (1)
where
h = heat load (Btu/h)
cp = 1 (Btu/lbm oF) for water
ρ = 8.33 (lbm/gal) for water
q = water volume flow rate (gal/min)
dt = temperature difference (oF)

Example - Water Chiller Cooling


Water flows with 1 gal/min and 10oF temperature difference. The ton of cooling load can be calculated as:

[Type text]
Cooling load = 500 (1 gal/min) (10 oF) / 12,000
= 0.42 ton

• Converting between heat and energy units


• Converting kW/tonn to COP or EER

Conversion factors
Instructions
Multiplying or dividing by a conversion factor is equivalent to multiplying by 1. For
additional conversion factors and units, see pp pages 1-4 to 1-19 in Perry's Chemical
Engineers' Handbook (7th Edition), section 1 of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
(84th ed), or an internet site. Units are always singular. That is, for example, an elapsed time
of 5 minutes is written as 5 min, not 5 mins. A distance of 5 meters is written 5 m, not 5 ms
(that would be millisecond).

Mass
(2.20462 lbm/kg)
(1000 g/kg)
(1000 kg/metric_ton)
(tonne/1000 kg)
(35.27392 oz/kg)
(16 oz/lbm)
(2000 lbm/ton)
(453.593 g/lbm)
(32.1740 lbm/slug)
(14.5939 kg/slug)
(32.174 lbm ft / lbf s2) (This is often given the symbol gc)
(1 kg m / N s2) (Basically the definition of N, i.e. the force required to accelerate 1 kg by
1m/s2.)
(2240 lb / long ton)

definitions of symbols
lbm -- pound of mass
lbf -- pound of force (used in English Engineering System; force required to accelerate 1
lbm by 32.174 ft/s2; approximately the weight of 1 lbm)
kg -- kilogram (1000 g)
metric ton -- 1000 kg (also called tonne)
oz -- ounce
slug -- mass unit in English Gravitational System (defined as the mass accelerated to 1
ft/s2 by a force of 1 lbf)
ton -- 2000 lbm (also called “short ton”)
long ton -- 2240 lb (also called “gross ton,” “weight ton” and “imperial ton”)
g -- gram
N -- Newton

[Type text]
Length
(100 cm/m)
(1000 mm/m)
(1E6 micron/m)
(1E10 Å /m)
(2.54 cm/inch)
(39.37 in/m)
(3.2808 ft/m)
(1.0936 yd/m)
(0.0006214 mile/m)
(30.48 cm/ft)
(0.3048 m/ft)
(3 ft/yd)
(12 in/ft)
(5280 ft/mile)

definitions of symbols
cm -- centimeter (0.01 m)
in -- inch
mm -- millimeter (0.001 m)
micron -- micrometer (10-6 m) (also often written µ m)
Å -- Angstrom unit (10-10m)
m -- meter
ft -- foot
yd -- yard

Volume
(1000 liter/m3)
(1E6 cm3/m3)
(1E6 ml/m3)
(35.3145 ft3/m3)
(220.83 imperial_gal/m3)
(264.17 gal/m3)
(1056.68 qt/m3)
(1728 in3/ft3)
(7.4805 gal/ft3)
(0.028317 m3/ft3)
(28.317 L/ft3)
(1000 L/m3)
(28317 cm3/ft3)

Definitions of symbols
ml -- milliliter
gal -- U.S. gallon
L -- liter
qt -- quart

[Type text]
Time
(60 s/min)
(60 min/h)
(24 h/day)
(365.25 day/year)
(3600 s/h)

Force
(1E5 dyne/N)
(1E5 g cm/(N s2))
(0.22481 lb_f/N)
(4.4482 N/lbf)
(4.4482E5 dyne/lbf)
(0.0310810 lbf/poundal)
(0.1382250 N/poundal)
(lbm ft/(poundal s2))
(slug ft/(lbf s2))
(32.174 lbm ft/(lbf s2)) (This is often given the symbol gc)
(1 kg m / N s2)

Definitions of units
N -- Newton
lbf -- pound of force in English Engineering System (force required to accelerate 1 lbm by
32.174 ft/s2; approximately the weight of 1 lbm)
lbm -- pound of mass
poundal -- unit of force in Absolute English System (defined as the force that accelerates
1 lbm by 1 ft/s2)
slug -- unit of mass in English Gravitational System (defined as the mass accelerated to 1
ft/s2 by a force of 1 lbf)

Pressure and stress


(1.01325E5 (N/m2)/atm)
((N/m2)/Pa)
(1E6 Pa/MPa)
(101.325 kPa/atm)
(1.01325 bar/atm)
(100 kPa / bar)
(1.01325E6 (dyne/cm2)/atm)
(760 Torr/atm)
(14.696 (lbf/in2)/atm)
(psi/(lbf/in2))

Definitions of units
guage pressure = absolute pressure - 1 atm (e.g., psig and barg)
N -- Newton
Pa -- Pascal (N/m2)
MPa -- megaPascal (106Pa)
kPa -- kiloPascal (103Pa)

[Type text]
atm -- atmosphere
bar -- bar
lbf -- pound force
Torr -- formerly mm of mercury, renamed after Torricelli
psi -- pound force per square inch
psia -- pound force per square inch absolute
psig -- pound force per square inch guage (psig = psia - 14.696)

Energy
(N m/J)
(1E7 erg/J)
(dyne cm/erg)
(2.778E-7 kW h/J)
(0.23901 cal/J)
(1000 J/kJ)
(0.7376 ft lbf/J)
(9.486E-4 Btu/J)
(100,000 Btu/therm)
(105.5 MJ/therm)
(J / W s)
(kJ / kW s)

Definitions of units
N -- Newton
J -- Joule
MJ -- megajoule (106 J)
W -- Watt
kW -- kilowatt (1000 w)
cal -- calorie (heat to raise 1 g of water by 1oC)
Btu -- British thermal unit (heat to raise 1 lbm of water by 1oF).
therm -- 100,000 Btu. Commonly used to price natural gas (see units for
measuring natural gas).

Power
((J/s)/W)
((0.23901 cal/s)/W)
((0.7376 ft lbf/s)/W)
((9.486E-4 Btu/s)/W)
(1.341E-3 hp/W)
(1000 W/kW)
(W/V/A)
(W/A2/Ω )
(ton refrig/3.517 kW)

Definitions of units
J -- Joule

[Type text]
W -- watt
V -- volt
A -- ampere (1 coulomb/s)
Ω -- ohm (resistance)
cal -- calorie
lbf -- pound force
Btu -- British thermal unit
hp -- horsepower
ton refrig -- ton of refrigeration -- that required to form 1 ton of ice per day (12,000
Btu/h)

Viscosity
((0.01 g/(cm s))/cp)
cp -- centipoise

Temperature
TK =TC +273.15
TR =TF +459.67
TR =1.8 TK
TF =1.8 TC +32
TC =( TF -32)/1.8
(1.8 ∆ TC /∆ TF)
(1.8 ∆ TK /∆ TR)
(∆ TK /∆ TC)
(∆ TR /∆ TF])

TK is absolute temperature in kelvin (not degrees Kelvin)


TR is absolute temperature in degrees Rankine.
TF is temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
TC is temperature in degrees Celsius (formerly Centrigrade)
∆ TK is the change in temperature in Kelvin
∆ TR is the change in temperature in degrees Rankine.
∆ TF is the change in temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
∆ TC is the change in temperature in degrees Celsius

Ideal gas constant


R =8.314 m3 Pa/mol/K;
R =0.08314 liter bar/mol/K;
R =0.08206 liter atm/mol/K;
R =62.36 liter torr/mol/K;
R =0.7302 ft3 atm/lb_mol/deg_R;
R =10.73 ft3 psia/lb_mol/deg_R;
R =8.314 J/mol/K;
R =1.987 cal/mol/K;
R =1.987 Btu/lb_mol/R;

mol -- gram mole (mass in g divided by molecular weight)


lb_mol -- pound mole (mass in lbm divided by molecular weight)

[Type text]
psia -- pound force per square inch absolute
atm -- atmosphere
K -- Kelvin
deg_R -- degrees Rankine
cal -- calorie
Btu -- British thermal unit

Electrical
(W/V/A)
(W/A2/Ω )
(1000 W/kW)
(V/A/Ω )
(s/F/Ω )
(C/A/s)
(Hz s)
(S V/A)

Definitions of units
J -- Joule
W -- watt
V -- volt
A -- ampere (1 coulomb/s)
C -- coulomb (unit of charge)
Ω -- ohm (resistance)
S -- siemens (conductance = 1/resistance)
F -- Farad (capacitance)
Hz - Hertz (frequency)

Last revised July 13, 2009. Please send comments and suggestions to W.R. Wilcox

SUBJECT : Calculating the total system head in USCS units 7-1:


USCS stands for "United States Customary System Units" as opposed to the SI (Le
Syst`eme International d`Units) or metric units that have been adopted by the
International standards Organization (ISO).
It turn out that "head" is a very convenient term in the pumping business. Capacity is
measured in gallons per minute, and each gallon of liquid has weight, so we can easily
calculate the pounds per minute being pumped. Head or height is measured in feet, so
if we multiply these two together we get foot- pounds per minute which converts
directly to work at the rate of 33,000 foot pounds per minute equals one horsepower.

[Type text]
Pressure is not as convenient a term because the amount of pressure that the pump
will deliver depends upon the weight (specific gravity) of the liquid being pumped
and the specific gravity changes with temperature, type of fluid, and fluid
concentration.

If you will refer to FIG 1, you should get a clear picture of what is meant by static
head. Note that we always measure from the center line of the pump to the highest
liquid level
To calculate head accurately we must calculate the total head on both the suction and
discharge sides of the pump. In addition to the static head we will learn that there is a
head caused by resistance in the piping, fittings and valves called friction head, and a
head caused by any pressure that might be acting on the liquid in the tanks including
atmospheric pressure, called " surface pressure head".
Once we know these heads, we will then subtract the suction head from the discharge
head and the amount remaining will be the amount of head that the pump must be able
to generate at the rated flow. Here is how it looks in a formula:
System head = total discharge head - total suction head
H = hd - hs
The total discharge head is made from three separate heads:
hd = hsd + hpd + hfd
• hd = total discharge head
• hsd = discharge static head
• hpd = discharge surface pressure head
• hfd = discharge friction head
The total suction head also consists of three separate heads

[Type text]
hs = hss + hps - hfs
• hs = total suction head
• hss = suction static head
• hps = suction surface pressure head
• hfs = suction friction head
As we make these calculations, you must sure that all calculations are made in either
"feet of liquid gauge" or "feet of liquid absolute". In case you have forgotten "absolute
means that you have added atmospheric pressure (head) to the gauge reading.
Now we will make some actual calculations:
Figure #2 demonstrates that the discharge head is still measured to the liquid level, but
you will note that it is below the maximum height of the piping.
Although the pump must deliver enough head to get up to this maximum piping
height, it will not have to continue to deliver this head when the pump is running
because of the "siphon effect". There is of course a maximum siphon effect. It is
derived from: 14.7 psi (atmospheric pressure) x 2.31 feet / psi = 33.4 feet maximum
siphon effect.

We will begin with the total suction head calculation


1. The suction head is negative because the liquid level in the suction tank is below
the centerline of the pump:
hss = - 6 feet

2. The suction tank is open, so the suction surface pressure equals atmospheric
pressure :
hps = 0 feet gauge

[Type text]
3. You will not have to calculate the suction friction head, I will tell you it is:
hfs = 4 feet at rated flow

4. The total suction head is a gauge value because atmosphere was given as 0,
hs = hss + hps - hfs = -6 + 0 - 4 = -10 feet of liquid gauge at rated
flow

The total discharge head calculation


1. The static discharge head is:
hsd = 125 feet

2. The discharge tank is also open to atmospheric pressure, thus:


hpd = 0 feet, gauge

3. I will give you the discharge friction head as:


hfd = 25 feet at rated flow

4. The total discharge head is:


hd = hsd + hpd + hfd = 125 + 0 + 25 = 150 feet of liquid gauge at rated flow
The total system head calculation:
H = hd - hs = 150 - (-10)= 160 feet of liquid at rated flow

Note: did you notice that when we subtracted a minus number (-10) from a positive
number (150) we ended up with a positive 160 because whenever you subtract minus
numbers it is the same as adding them? If you have trouble with this concept you can
learn more about it from a mathematics book.
Our next example involves a few more calculations, but you should be able to handle
them. In this example we are going to learn how to handle a vacuum application. Pipe
friction numbers are taken from the Hydraulic Institute Engineering Data Book. You
can get a copy of this publication from your library if you want to see the actual
charts. I have some of this information in the chart section of this web site.

[Type text]
Specifications:
1. Transferring 1000 gpm. weak acid from the vacuum receiver to the storage tank
2. Specific Gravity - 0.98
3. Viscosity - equal to water
4. Piping - All 6" Schedule 40 steel pipe
5. Discharge piping rises 40 feet vertically above the pump centerline and then runs
400 feet horizontally. There is one 90° flanged elbow in this line
6. Suction piping has a square edge inlet, four feet of pipe, one gate valve, and one
90° flanged elbow all of which are 6" in diameter.
7. The minimum level in the vacuum receiver is 5 feet above the pump centerline.
8. The pressure on top of the liquid in the vacuum receiver is 20 inches of mercury,
vacuum.
To calculate suction surface pressure use one of the following formulas:
• inches of mercury x 1.133/ specific gravity = feet of liquid
• pounds per square inch x 2.31/specific gravity = feet of liquid
• Millimeters of mercury / (22.4 x specific gravity) = feet of liquid
Now that you have all of the necessary information we will begin by dividing the
system into two different sections, using the pump as the dividing line.
Total suction head calculation

[Type text]
1. The suction side of the system shows a minimum static head of 5 feet above suction
centerline. Therefore, the static suction head is:
hss = 5 feet

2. Using the first conversion formula, the suction surface pressure is:
hps = -20 Hg x 1.133/ 0.98 = -23.12 feet gauge

3. The suction friction head, hfs, equals the sum of all the friction losses in the suction
line. Friction loss in 6" pipe at 1000 gpm from table 15 of the Hydraulic Institute
Engineering Data Book, is 6.17 feet per 100 feet of pipe.
in 4 feet of pipe friction loss = 4/100 x 6.17 = 0.3 feet

Friction loss coefficients (K factors) for the inlet, elbow and valve can be added
together and multiplied by the velocity head:
FROM
FITTING K
TABLE

6" Square edge inlet 0.50 32 (a)

6" 90 flanged elbow 0.29 32 (a)


6" Gate valve 0.11 32 (b)
Total coefficient, K = 0.90
Total friction loss on the suction side is:
hfs = 0.3 + 1.7 = 2.0 feet at 1000 gpm.

4. The total suction head then becomes:


hs = hss + hps - hfs = 5 + (-23.12) - 2.0 = -20.12 feet, gauge at
1000 gpm.

Total discharge head calculation


1. Static discharge head = hsd = 40 feet
2. Discharge surface pressure = hpd = 0 feet gauge
3. Discharge friction head = hfd = sum of the following losses :
Friction loss in 6" pipe at 1000 gpm. from table 15, is 6.17 feet per
hundred feet of pipe.

In 440 feet of pipe the friction loss = 440/100 x 6.17 = 27.2 feet

[Type text]
Friction loss in 6" elbow:
from table 32 (a), K = 0,29
from table 15, V2/2g = 1.92 at 1000 gpm.
Friction loss = K V2/2g = 0.29 x 1.92 = 0.6 feet
The friction loss in the sudden enlargement at the end of the discharge line is called
the exit loss. In systems of this type where the area of the discharge tank is very large
in comparison to the area of the discharge pipe, the loss equals V2/2g, as shown in
table 32 (b).
Friction loss at exit = V2/2g = 1.9 feet
The discharge friction head is the sum of the above losses, that is:
hfd = 27.2 + 0.6 + 1.9 = 29.7 feet at 1000 gpm.

4. The total discharge head then becomes:


hd = hsd + hpd + hfd = 40 + 0 + 29.7 = 69.7 feet, gauge at 1000
gpm.

c. Total system head calculation:


H = hd - hs = 69.7 - (-20.2) = 89.9 feet at 1000 gpm.

Our next example will be the same as the one we just finished except. that there is an
additional 10 feet of pipe and another 90° flanged elbow in the vertical leg. The total
suction head will be the same as in the previous example. Take a look at figure # 4

[Type text]
Nothing has changed on the suction side of the pump so the total suction head will
remain the same:
hs = -20.12 feet, gauge at 100 gpm.
Total discharge head calculation
1. The static discharge head "hsd" will change from 40 feet to 30 feet, since the
highest liquid surface in the discharge is now only 30 feet above the pump centerline.
(This value is based on the assumption that the vertical leg in the discharge tank is full
of liquid and that as this liquid falls it will tend to pull the liquid up and over the loop
in the pipe line. This arrangement is called a siphon leg).
2. The discharge surface pressure is unchanged:
hpd = 0 feet
3. The friction loss in the discharge pipe will be increased by the additional 10 feet of
pipe and the additional elbow.
In 10 feet of pipe the friction loss = 10/100 x 6.17 = 0.6 feet
The friction loss in the additional elbow = 0.6 feet
The friction head will then increase as follows:
hfd = 29.7 + 0.6 + 0.6 = 30.9 feet at 1000 gpm.
The total discharge head becomes:
hd = hsd + hpd + hfd
= 30 + 0 + 30.9
= 60.9 feet, gauge at 1000 gpm.
5. Total system head calculation
H = hd - hs = 60.9 - (-20.12) = 81 feet at 1000 gpm.
For our last example we will look at gauges. Take a look at FIG 5:

[Type text]
Specifications:
• Capacity - 300 gpm.
• Specific gravity - 1.3
• Viscosity - Similar to water
• Piping - 3 inch suction, 2 inch discharge
• Atmospheric pressure - 14.7 psi.
Divide the heads into two sections again:
The discharge gauge head corrected to the centerline of the pump, in feet of liquid
absolute is found by adding the atmospheric pressure to the gauge reading to get
absolute pressure, and then converting to absolute head:
hgd = (130 + 14.7) x 2.31 / (1.3 Specific Gravity) + 4 = 261.1 feet,
absolute

Note the 4 foot head correction to the pump centerline.


The discharge velocity head at 300 gpm. is found in table 9 of the Hydraulic Institute
Engineering Data Book
hvd = 12.8 feet at 300 gpm.

The suction gauge reading is in absolute terms so it needs only to be converted to feet
of liquid, absolute.
hgs = 40 x 2.3 / 1.3 +2 = 73.08 feet absolute
Note the 2 foot head correction to the pump centerline.
The suction velocity head at 300 gpm. is found in table 11 of the Pipe Friction
Manual:
hvs = 2.63 feet at 300 gpm.
The total system head developed by the pump =:
H = (hgd + hvd ) - ( hgs + hvs ) = (261.1 + 12.8) - (73.08 + 2.6)=
198.22 feet absolute at 300 gpm.

Temperature
134a Pressure(Psig)
(°F)

[Type text]
-60.0 21.6*

Visit
Refrigerant Geno's
R134a Garage
Temperature- for Truck
accessori
Pressure Table es.

-50.0 18.5*

-45.0 16.7*

-40.0 14.6*

-35.0 12.3*

-30.0 9.7*

-25.0 6.7*

-20.0 3.5*

-15.0 0.1

-10.0 2.0

-5.0 4.2

0 6.5

5.0 9.2

10.0 12.0

15.0 15.1

20.0 18.5

25.0 22.2

30.0 26.1

35.0 30.4

40.0 35.1

45.0 40.1

[Type text]
50.0 45.5

55.0 51.2

60.0 57.4

65.0 64.1

70.0 71.1

75.0 78.7

80.0 86.7

85.0 95.3

90.0 104.3

95.0 114.0

100.0 124.2

105.0 135.0

110.0 146.4

115.0 158.4

120.0 171.2

125.0 184.6

130.0 198.7

135.0 213.6

140.0 229.2

145.0 245.5

150.0 262.9

155.0 281.1

160.0 300.0

[Type text]
[Type text]